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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468888

ABSTRACT

The study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Zizyphus oxyphyla leaves methanolic (ZOX-LME), on serum liver, kidney and hematology along with other serum parameters in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rabbits. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, six rabbits in each. These were: group NC (normal control), group, TC (toxic control) and group ST i.e. silymarine administered group at dose rate (50) mg/kg body weight (BW). Group ET1 and group ET2 treated with (ZOX-LME) at dose 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW. CCl4 administration caused significant (P> 0.05) impairment in serum liver enzymes, blood factors and other serum indices. Treatment with (ZOX-LME) significantly (P<0.05) reduced and normalized the levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hematological indices. Also significant (P< 0.05) reduction was observed in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and albumin and glucose concentrations. The altered levels of lipid profile and serum electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K, and P) were significantly (P<0.05) change toward normal levels with (ZOX-LME) feeding. In addition (ZOX-LME) ingestion caused significant improvement in GSH, GST and CAT levels, while reducing the TBARS levels, exhibited antioxidant capacity. Also (ZOX-LME) showed increase inhibition against percent scavenging of 2, 2-diphenile-1-picrylehydrazyle (DPPH) free radical. Significant (P<0.05) normalizing effects were observed with high dose 400 mg/kg BW of (ZOX-LME and were equivalent to silymarine administered groups. The histological study of liver supported the hepatoprotective and renal curative activity of (ZOX-LME).


O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos terapêuticos das folhas metanólicas de Zizyphus oxyphyla (ZOX-LME) no fígado, rim e hematologia séricos, juntamente com outros parâmetros séricos em coelhos intoxicados com tetracloreto de carbono (CCl4). Os animais experimentais foram divididos em cinco grupos, seis coelhos em cada. Estes foram: grupo NC (controle normal), grupo TC (controle tóxico) e grupo ST, isto é, grupo administrado com silimarina na taxa de dose (50) mg / kg de peso corporal (PC). Grupo ET1 e grupo ET2 tratado com (ZOX-LME) na dose de 200 mg / kg de peso corporal e 400 mg / kg de peso corporal. A administração de CCl4 causou prejuízo significativo (P > 0,05) nas enzimas hepáticas séricas, fatores sanguíneos e outros índices séricos. O tratamento com (ZOX-LME) reduziu significativamente (P < 0,05) e normalizou os níveis de alanina transaminase (ALT), aspartato transaminase (AST) e fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e os índices hematológicos. Também foi observada redução significativa (P < 0,05) nas concentrações de creatinina, ureia, ácido úrico, nitrogênio ureico no sangue (BUN), albumina e glicose. Os níveis alterados de perfil lipídico e eletrólitos séricos (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K e P) foram significativamente (P < 0,05) mudando em direção aos níveis normais com a alimentação (ZOX-LME). Além disso, a ingestão de (ZOX-LME) causou melhora significativa nos níveis de GSH, GST e CAT, enquanto reduzia os níveis de TBARS, exibindo capacidade antioxidante. Também (ZOX-LME) mostrou inibição aumentada contra a eliminação percentual do radical livre 2, 2-difenila-1-picrilehidrazila (DPPH). Efeitos de normalização significativos (P < 0,05) foram observados com altas doses de 400 mg / kg de peso corporal de (ZOX-LME) e foram equivalentes aos grupos administrados com silimarina. O estudo histológico do fígado confirmou a atividade hepatoprotetora e curativa renal de (ZOX-LME).


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Biomarkers/blood , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Phytotherapy , Liver/drug effects , Kidney/drug effects , Ziziphus , Rabbits
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4295-4301, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008684

ABSTRACT

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen(ZSS) is an edible TCM derived from the dried ripe seeds of Ziziphus jujube Mill. var. spinosa(Bunge)Hu ex H. F. Chou(Rhamnaceae), which has the effects of nourishing the heart, tonifying the liver, calming the heart, tranquilizing the mind, arresting sweating, and promoting fluid production, and is widely used in the treatment and health care of diseases related to cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems. Jujuboside B(JuB), one of the main active ingredients of ZSS, possesses various pharmacological effects with application values. This paper reviewed the chemical structure and pharmacological effects of JuB. JuB has sedative, hypnotic, antitumor, anti-platelet, anti-inflammatory, and other biological activities, which shows the potential thera-peutic effects on insomnia, tumors, coronary artery disease, airway inflammation, and liver injury. However, there are some limitations to the results of current studies. More comprehensive studies, including basic research and clinical trials, need to be carried out to provide more reliable evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Saponins/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Ziziphus/chemistry
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 966-977, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970568

ABSTRACT

The present study optimized the ethanol extraction process of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus drug pair by network pharmacology and Box-Behnken method. Network pharmacology and molecular docking were used to screen out and verify the potential active components of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus, and the process evaluation indexes were determined in light of the components of the content determination under Ziziphi Spinosae Semen and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). The analytic hierarchy process(AHP) was used to determine the weight coefficient of each component, and the comprehensive score was calculated as the process evaluation index. The ethanol extraction process of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus was optimized by the Box-Behnken method. The core components of the Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus drug pair were screened out as spinosin, jujuboside A, jujuboside B, schisandrin, schisandrol, schisandrin A, and schisandrin B. The optimal extraction conditions obtained by using the Box-Behnken method were listed below: extraction time of 90 min, ethanol volume fraction of 85%, and two times of extraction. Through network pharmacology and molecular docking, the process evaluation indexes were determined, and the optimized process was stable, which could provide an experimental basis for the production of preparations containing Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus.


Subject(s)
Ethanol , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Ziziphus/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Schisandra/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 188-202, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927926

ABSTRACT

This study aims to study the effective substance and mechanism of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen extract in the treatment of insomnia based on serum metabolomics and network pharmacology. The rat insomnia model induced by p-chlorophenylalanine(PCPA) was established. After oral administration of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen extract, the general morphological observation, pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep test, and histopathological evaluation were carried out. The potential biomarkers of the extract in the treatment of insomnia were screened by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(UHPLC-MS) combined with multivariate analysis, and the related metabolic pathways were further analyzed. The "component-target-pathway" network was constructed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-Exactive mass spectrometry(UHPLC-Q-Exactive-MS/MS) combined with network pharmacology to explore the effective substances and mechanism of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen in the treatment of insomnia. The results of pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep test and histopathological evaluation(hematoxylin and eosin staining) showed that Ziziphi Spinosae Semen extract had good theraputic effect on insomnia. A total of 21 endogenous biomarkers of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen extract in the treatment of insomnia were screened out by serum metabolomics, and the metabolic pathways of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, and nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism were obtained. A total of 34 chemical constituents were identified by UHPLC-Q-Exactive-MS/MS, including 24 flavonoids, 2 triterpenoid saponins, 4 alkaloids, 2 triterpenoid acids, and 2 fatty acids. The network pharmacological analysis showed that Ziziphi Spinosae Semen mainly acted on target proteins such as dopamine D2 receptor(DRD2), 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1 A(HTR1 A), and alpha-2 A adrenergic receptor(ADRA2 A) in the treatment of insomnia. It was closely related to neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, serotonergic synapse, and calcium signaling pathway. Magnoflorine, N-nornuciferine, caaverine, oleic acid, palmitic acid, coclaurine, betulinic acid, and ceanothic acid in Ziziphi Spinosae Semen may be potential effective compounds in the treatment of insomnia. This study revealed that Ziziphi Spinosae Semen extract treated insomnia through multiple metabolic pathways and the overall correction of metabolic disorder profile in a multi-component, multi-target, and multi-channel manner. Briefly, this study lays a foundation for further research on the mechanism of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen in treating insomnia and provides support for the development of innovative Chinese drugs for the treatment of insomnia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Metabolomics , Network Pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Ziziphus/chemistry
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 620-629, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878887

ABSTRACT

In this study, the antioxidant property changes in fermented Ziziphi Spinosae Semen(FZSS) with Poria cocos were analyzed by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods. Then the content determination of active ingredients and ~1H nuclear magnetic resonance(~1H-NMR) spectroscopy were also used to investigate the mechanism of FZSS with P. cocos in enhancing the antioxidant activity. The results showed that the content of active ingredients such as total phenols, total saponins and total polysaccharides were significantly increased during the fermentation time. The results of ~1H-NMR metabonomics showed that the contents of amino acids such as leucine, lysine, valine and alanine, nitrogen compounds such as creatine, creatinine, and betaine, and secondary metabolites, for instance, jujuboside A and spinosin were higher after fermentation, and above components showed positive correlation with antioxidant capacity in Pearson correlation analysis. Therefore, it was inferred that the enhancement of antioxidant activity of FZSS may be the result of the joint action of various chemical components. This study preliminarily clarified the mechanism of FZSS in enhancing the antioxidant activity, and provided new research ideas for the product development and utilization of FZSS.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Poria , Semen , Wolfiporia , Ziziphus
6.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 41: e45262, 20190000. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460896

ABSTRACT

A novel green source Ziziphus mauritiana fresh young leaves was opted to synthesize silver nanoparticles and analyze its antibacterial activity. The bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts reduced silver ions to NPs, indicated by change in colorfrom red to dark brown. In this study, we have successfully synthesized nanoparticles using Z.mauritiana aqueous leaf extract as a reducing agent and the reaction process of synthesized nanoparticles was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The UV-Vis absorption peak showed maximum adsorption at 420 nm confirmed the silver nanoparticles synthesis. Further characterization was carried out by FTIR and the results recorded a downward shift of absorption the bands between 400 to 4000 cm-1indicates the formationof silver nanoparticles. Finally, the present research was exploited to study the antibacterial activity of synthesized nanoparticles produced Z.mauritiana was studied using different pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonellasp., Proteus sp., Bacillus sp., Klebsiella pneumonia and E.colifrom the well diffusion results, the synthesized silver nanoparticles displayed the best antibacterial property as compared to the antibiotic has been reported in this paper. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that the Z.mauritiana aqueous extract facilitate the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and also exhibits antibacterial activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Metal Nanoparticles/analysis , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Ziziphus/microbiology , Ziziphus/chemistry
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4116-4120, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008267

ABSTRACT

With digital satellite remote sensing image data of GF-1,in 2018 the object-oriented classification method was used to extract Zizyphus jujuba planting area in Jia county of Shaanxi province. The results showed that the remote sensing classification method based on rule set could extract and reckon Z. jujube planting area in the study area effectively. The planting area of Z. jujube in Jia county was about 5. 34×104 hm2 and the area of consistent accuracy was 97. 92%. The method used in this study could provide a technical reference for the area extraction of the same type of medicinal materials. And it is of great significance to provide decision support for the protection and utilization of Z. jujube resources.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Ziziphus
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5078-5082, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008366

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the residues of aflatoxin B_1( AFB_1) in Ziziphi Spinosae Semen from different producing areas and to assess the health risk of aflatoxin B_1 residue based on the obtained data. A total of 72 samples of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen from different areas were detected by IAC-HPLC-FLD. Based on the data of AFB_1 pollution,a probabilistic assessment model with Monte Carlo simulation was developed. Then,the risk assessment of AFB_1 exposure by Ziziphi Spinosae Semen intake was carried out by MOE( margin of exposure). The results showed that 32 out of 72 of samples( 44. 4%) were found to be contaminated with AFB_1,and the average and maximum concentration of AFB_1 in samples was 5. 42 μg·kg~(-1) and 55. 09 μg·kg~(-1),respectively. After health risk assessment,the average and 97. 5%( 90% confidence interval) exposure level of daily exposure of AFB_1 by Ziziphi Spinosae Semen intake were 0. 008 6( 0. 008 1-0. 009 2) and 0. 057 3( 0. 053 2-0. 061 4) μg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1),respectively. The results showed common use of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen had low level of risk associated with AFB_1. However,the high consumption of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen showed a higher risk than common intake,requiring attention. This study laid a foundation for clinical safe prescription of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxin B1/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Contamination , Plant Preparations/analysis , Risk Assessment , Ziziphus/chemistry
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2009-2014, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773136

ABSTRACT

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen is one of the Chinese herbal medicine being susceptible to aflatoxins contamination. To investigate the sources of aflatoxins contamination and toxigenic fungi species on Ziziphi Spinosae Semen,32 samples were collected from multiple steps during the post-harvest processing in this study. Aflatoxins in these samples were determined by immunoaffinity column and HPLC coupled with post-column photochemical derivatization. The dilution-plate method was applied to the fungi isolation. The isolated fungi strains were identified by morphological characterization and molecular approaches. The results showed that aflatoxins were detected in 28 samples from every step during the processing of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. Three samples were detected with aflatoxin B_1 and 2 samples with both aflatoxin B_1 and total aflatoxin exceeding the limit of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Especially the samples from the washing step,with the highest detected amounts of AFB_1 and AFs were reached 94. 79,121. 43 μg·kg~(-1),respectively. All 32 samples were contaminated by fungi. The fungal counts on the newly harvested samples were 2. 20 × 10~2 CFU·g~(-1). Moreover,it increased as tphreocessing progresses,and achieved 1. 16×10~6 CFU·g~(-1) after washing. A total of 321 isolates were identified to 17 genera. Aspergillus flavus was the main source of aflatoxins during the processing and storage of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. One isolate of A. flavus was confirmed producing AFB_1 and AFB_2. The fungal count was significantly increased by composting,and Aspergillus was the predominant genus after shell breaking. The contamination level of aflatoxins was increased by composting and washing.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins , Aspergillus , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fungi , Seeds , Chemistry , Microbiology , Ziziphus , Chemistry
10.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 38(4): 275-282, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975978

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study was done to investigate the synergistic impacts hydro extract of jujube fruit in combination with Mesalazine (orally) and Asacol (intra-colonic) administration in ameliorating animal model of ulcerative colitis (UC). After the induction of UC and with the development of signs, the treatment groups daily received the hydro extract of jujube fruit (200 mg/kg, orally, enema), Mesalazine (30 mg/kg, orally) and Asacol (10 mg/kg, enema). After 10 days, rats were euthanized and were studied. Findings indicated a significant increase in Myeloperoxidase (161.66 ± 10.40), Nitric oxide (216.01 ± 17.55), IL-6 (138.54 ± 7.02), and TNF-α (123.87 ± 9.80) colon tissue levels and pathological damage of positive control group compared with the negative control group. Hydro extract of jujube fruit in combination with Mesalazine (orally) and Asacol (intra-colonic) group represented a higher capability in significantly decreasing Myeloperoxidase (73.33 ± 9.07), Nitric oxide (81.66 ± 10.50), IL-6 (51.69 ± 5.19), TNF-α (30.59 ± 5.50) levels and pathological damage in compared with the other treatment groups. Considering accessibility and affordability of jujube fruit and the side effects of routine drugs, taking a combination of jujube fruit with low doses of routine pharmaceutical drugs can improve and cure ulcerative colitis disease.


RESUMO Este estudo foi realizado para investigar os impactos sinérgicos do extrato aquoso do fruto da jujuba em combinação com a administração de Mesalazina (por via oral) e Asacol (intracolônico) na melhora do modelo animal de colite ulcerativa. Após a indução da colite ulcerativa e com o desenvolvimento de sinais, os grupos de tratamento receberam diariamente o extrato aquoso do fruto da jujuba (200 mg/kg, via oral, enema), Mesalazina (30 mg/kg, via oral) e Asacol (10 mg/kg, enema). Após 10 dias, os ratos foram eutanasiados e estudados. Os achados indicaram um aumento significativo dos níveis de mieloperoxidase (161,66 ± 10,40), óxido nítrico (216,01 ± 17,55), IL-6 (138,54 ± 7,02) e TNF-α (123,87 ± 9,80) no tecido do cólon e dano patológico do grupo controle positivo comparado com o grupo controle negativo. O extrato aquoso da fruta de jujuba em combinação com Mesalazina (oral) e Asacol (intracolônico) representou maior capacidade de redução significativa dos níveis de mieloperoxidase (73,33 ± 9,07), óxido nítrico (81,66 ± 10,50), IL-6 (51,69 ± 5,19), TNF-α (30,59 ± 5,50) e dano patológico em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. Considerando a acessibilidade e disponibilidade do fruto da jujuba e dos efeitos colaterais dos medicamentos de rotina, tomar uma combinação de jujuba com baixas doses de medicamentos farmacêuticos de rotina pode melhorar e curar a colite ulcerativa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Colitis, Ulcerative , Mesalamine , Ziziphus , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Peroxidase , Nitric Oxide
11.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(2): 390-400, mar./apr. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966191

ABSTRACT

Invasion by the exotic species Prosopis juliflora has become a major threat to native plants in Saudi Arabia as the species continues its spread into different regions of the country. Ziziphus spina-christi is a native tree that is common in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to determine how both species would benefit from the availability of sufficient resources without competition. To gain a better understanding of growth under such conditions, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in which seedlings of both species were grown under favorable conditions for 6 months. During this period, growth performance was evaluated three times at intervals of 30, 90, and 180 days. Growth performance varied between the two species during one or more of the studied periods. Significant differences between the species were observed for root mass fraction, number of root tips, root to shoot ratio, height, stem diameter, stem dry weight, stem mass fraction, leaf area, leaf mass fraction, and chlorophyll a and b contents. The relative growth rate (RGR) and relative height growth rate were higher in P. juliflora at 30­90 days, whereas leaf area ratio and net assimilation rate were higher for Z. spina-christi at 90­180 days. Remarkably, the RGR for diameter in P. juliflora was almost double that in Z. spina-christi at 30­90 days and 90­180 days. The results obtained reflect a strategic difference in the biomass allocation to different plant components by the two species, whereby P. juliflora allocates higher biomass to the stems and Z. spina-christi allocates higher biomass to the roots.


Invasão pela espécie exótica Prosopis juliflora tornou-se uma grande ameaça para plantas nativas na Arábia Saudita à medida que a espécie continua a sua propagação em diferentes regiões do país. A Ziziphus spina-christi é uma árvore nativa que é comum na Arábia Saudita. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar como ambas as espécies se beneficiariam com a disponibilidade de recursos suficientes sem competição. Para se obter uma melhor compreensão do crescimento nestas condições, foi conduzida uma experiência em estufa em que as plântulas de ambas as espécies foram cultivadas em condições favoráveis durante 6 meses. Durante este período, o desempenho de crescimento foi avaliado três vezes em intervalos de 30, 90 e 180 dias. O desempenho do crescimento variou entre as duas espécies durante um ou mais dos períodos estudados. Diferenças significativas entre as espécies foram observadas para a fração de massa da raiz, número de pontas de raiz, razão entre a raiz e a parte aérea, altura, diâmetro do caule, peso seco do caule, fração de massa do caule, área foliar, fração de massa foliar e teor de clorofila a e b. A taxa de crescimento relativo (RGR, relative growth rate) e a taxa relativa de crescimento em altura foram maiores em P. juliflora no período 30-90 dias, enquanto que a razão foliar e a taxa de assimilação líquida foram maiores para Z. spina-christi no período 90-180 dias. Notavelmente, a RGR para o diâmetro em P. juliflora foi quase o dobro da de Z. spina-christi aos 30-90 dias e 90-180 dias. Os resultados obtidos refletem uma diferença estratégica na alocação de biomassa para diferentes componentes das plantas pelas duas espécies, sendo que P. juliflora aloca uma biomassa mais alta para as hastes e Z. spina-christi aloca uma biomassa mais alta para as raízes.


Subject(s)
Saudi Arabia , Biomass , Prosopis , Ziziphus
12.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 258-264, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-41801

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the seeds of Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis commonly used as a remedy in traditional Chinese medicine, in order to determine its various biologically active compounds. Through process 3-pentadecylcatechol, ρ-menth-8-ene, and γ-bisabolene were isolated and identified for the first time which are urushiol, monoterpenoidal, and sesquiterpenoidal compounds, respectively. Also, found were another sesquiterpenoidal compounds, vomifoliol, and four steroidal compounds, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasta-5,23-dien-3β-ol, and stigmast-4-en-3-one. In addition, fourteen triterpenoidal compounds were isolated and identified. These were lupeol, betulinic acid, betulinaldehyde, alphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-ρ-coumaroyl-alphitolic acid, 3-O-trans-ρ-coumaroylalphitolic acid, 2-O-cis-ρ-coumaroyl-alphitolic acid, 2-O-trans-ρ-coumaroyl-alphitolic acid, zizyberanalic acid, ceanothic acid, oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, 3-O-cis-ρ-coumaroyl-maslinic acid, and 3-O-trans-ρ-coumaroylmaslinic acid. The structures were identified by comparing of the spectroscopic experiments, NMR and MS, and then compared that reported data, respectively. Three extracts of water, methanol, and chloroform from the seeds showed a weak anti-proliferative effect, anti-microbial activity, and anti-oxidant effect, respectively.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Chloroform , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methanol , Oleanolic Acid , Stigmasterol , Water , Ziziphus
13.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 36(4): 189-195, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829114

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Ziziphus jujuba on the histopathological, tissue oxidative stress and inflammation plus to antioxidant pathways of colon tissue in rat with induced Ulcerative colitis. Materials and methods: Ulcerative colitis was induced in 80 rats those divided into 8 equal groups. Group 1 and 2 were negative controls receiving 1 mL/day of normal saline in enema and oral; group 3 and 4 as positive control 1 and 2 received 10 mg/kg of intra-colonic asacol and oral mesalazine; groups 5 and 6 received 20% and 40% of hydroalcoholic extract of Z. jujuba trans-rectally; group 7 and 8 received 1500 and 3000 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract of Z. jujuba orally, respectively. After 7 days, animals were evaluated for colon tissue histopathology, levels of malondialdehyde and IL-1ß, and activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and myeloperoxidase in colon tissue. Results: Hydroalcoholic extract of Z. jujuba in both forms of trans-rectal and oral administration especially in the higher doses could result into a more healing effect in damaged colonic tissue, more reduce glutathione peroxidase and IL-1ß; level. Also, these two doses (gel 40% and oral 3000 mg/kg) could more decrease the myeloperoxidase activity and stimulate superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Also, gel 40% in transrectal administration was more potent than administration 3000 mg/kg in oral. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that Z. jujube may be considered as a treatment of choice for Ulcerative colitis especially in gel form and also in dose-dependent pattern.


Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos do extrato hidroalcoólico de Ziziphus jujuba no estresse oxidativo em tecido ao nível histopatológico e na inflamação, juntamente com as vias antioxidantes em tecido de cólon em ratos com colite ulcerativa induzida. Materiais e métodos: Induzimos colite ulcerativa em 80 ratos, divididos em 8 grupos iguais. Os grupos 1 e 2 eram controles negativos que receberam 1 mL/dia de salina normal em enema e por via oral; os grupos 3 e 4 eram controles positivos para 1 e 2 e receberam 10 mg/kg de asacol por via intracolônica e mesalazina oral; os grupos 5 e 6 receberam gel a 20% e 40% de extrato hidroalcoólico de Z. jujuba por via trans-retal; os grupos 7 e 8 receberam 1500 e 3000 mg/kg de extrato hidroalcoólico de Z. jujuba por via oral, respectivamente. Transcorridos 7 dias, os animais foram avaliados para histopatologia de tecido de cólon, níveis de malonildialdeído e IL-1ß, e atividades de superóxido dismutase, glutátion peroxidase e mieloperoxidase no tecido colônico. Resultados: O uso do extrato hidroalcoólico de Z. jujuba, tanto na forma transretal como oral, e em especial nas doses mais altas, resultou em um efeito de cicatrização mais intensa no tecido colônico lesionado, e em maior redução nos níveis de glutátion peroxidase IL-1ß. Além disso, essas duas doses (gel a 40% e 3000 mg/kg por via oral) diminuíram ainda mais a atividade de mieloperoxidase e estimularam as atividades de superóxido dismutase e glutátion peroxidase. Outro achado do estudo foi que o gel a 40% por administração trans-retal se mostrou mais potente do que a administração oral de 3000 mg/kg. Conclusão: Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que Z. jujuba pode ser considerado como tratamento de escolha para colite ulcerativa, sobretudo em forma de gel e também em um padrão proporcional à dose administrada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Hydroalcoholic Solution , Oxidative Stress , Plant Preparations , Ziziphus , Inflammation , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal , Colon , Colon/pathology , Peroxidase , Acetic Acid , Acetic Acid/administration & dosage , Models, Animal , Interleukin-1beta , Animals, Laboratory , Malondialdehyde , Antioxidants
14.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(3): 179-189, mayo 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907483

ABSTRACT

Seven compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of leaves of Ziziphus mauritiana. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated as y-fagarine (1), beta-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3), alfa-amyrin (4), lupeol (5), beta-amyrin (6) and betulin (7) by extensive spectroscopic studies and by co-TLC with authentic samples. This is the first report of isolation of compounds 1-7 from this plant species. The extractives from leaves were investigated for thrombolytic, membrane stabilizing, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal and analgesic potentials along with sleep inducing property on animal model. The thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities were assessed by using human erythrocyte comparing with standard streptokinase and acetylsalicylic acid, respectively. The methanolic extract reduced frequency of diarrheal faeces when compared to the standard loperamide. In castor oil induced diarrhea in mice a dose dependent decrease of gastrointestinal transits were observed. In radiant heat tail-flick method the methanol extract showed moderate antinociceptive activity, compared to standard morphine.


Siete compuestos fueron aislados del extracto metanólico de hojas de Ziziphus mauritiana. Las estructuras de los compuestos aislados fueron identificadas como y-fagarina (1), beta-sitosterol (2), estigmasterol (3), alfa-amirina (4), lupeol (5), beta-amirina (6) y betulina (7 ) por medio de extensivos estudios espectroscópicos y por co-TLC con muestras auténticas. Este es el primer informe de aislamiento de los compuestos 1-7 a partir de esta especie vegetal. Los extractos de las hojas fueron investigados por efectos trombolíticos, estabilizadores de membrana, antimicrobianos, antidiarreicos y potenciales analgésicos junto a la propiedad de inducir sueño en el modelo animal. Las actividades trombolíticos y la estabilización de la membrana se evaluaron mediante el uso de eritrocitos humanos comparando con estreptoquinasa estándar y el ácido acetilsalicílico, respectivamente. El extracto metanólico redujo la frecuencia de las heces diarreicas en comparación con el estándar de loperamida. En la inducción por aceite de ricino de diarrea en ratones, se observó una disminución dosis dependiente de los tránsitos gastrointestinales. En el método del coletazo producido por calor radiante, el extracto metabólico mostró una actividad antinociceptiva moderada, en comparación con la morfina estándar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Ziziphus/chemistry , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Methanol , Triterpenes/isolation & purification
15.
IJEM-Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2015; 16 (5): 329-337
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-159884

ABSTRACT

Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted from adipose tissue that can affect diabetes progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in serum levels of adiponectin in diabetic rats treated with alcoholic and aqueous extracts of three medicinal plants, jujube [Ziziphus jujuba], barberry [Berberis vulgaris] and saffron [Crocus sativus]. In this study, streptozocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with two doses of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the herbs, 25 and 100 mg/kg respectively, for 21 days. After the treatment period, the levels of adiponectin, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were measured and the results were analyzed using one way ANOVA test. In all the diabetic groups receiving extracts, serum levels of fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and VLDL [very low density lipoprotein], showed a significant decrease [P<0.05]. Serum level of HDL [high density lipoprotein] increased significantly only in the group receiving jujube [P<0.05], whereas adiponectin level was significantly increased in all the treated groups. Given the role of adiponectin in regulating lipid metabolism, and the increased level of adiponectin in the treated diabetic groups, it can be said that the extracts regulate glucose and lipid metabolism by changes in adiponectin level. Further studies are recommended to confirm these findings


Subject(s)
Ziziphus , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal , Berberis , Crocus , Lipids/blood , Streptozocin , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Rats , Plant Extracts
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1503-1507, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246069

ABSTRACT

Five flavone C-glycosides were isolated from the methanol extract of the degrease seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa though various column chromatography methods including silica gel, MPLC, and HPLC. The structures were elucidated as 6"-feruloyl- 6'''-vanillylspinosin(1), 6",6'"-diferuloylspinosin(2), spinosin(3), swertisin(4) and isoswertisin(5) based on the NMR and MS spectral data. 1 is a new compound.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavones , Chemistry , Glycosides , Chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Structure , Seeds , Chemistry , Ziziphus , Chemistry
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3293-3297, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304815

ABSTRACT

To study the pharmacokinetic effect of different combined administration with monarch drug Ziziphi Spinosae Semen on its main components in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into Ziziphi Spinosae Semen group, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis group, Ziziphi spinosae Semen-Salviae Miltiorrhize Radix et Rhizoma group and Zaoren Ansheng prescription group. After oral administration, HPLC was eluted with the mobile phase of acetonitrle-0.03% phosphate acid water in a gradient mode. The detection wavelength was 280 nm. The pharmacokinetic parameters of spinosin and ferulic acid were calculated by DAS 2. 0 software. Compared with Ziziphi Spinosae Semen group, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis group, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma group showed a lower maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under curve (AUC(0-t)) for spinosin and ferulic acid but higher clearance speed (CL/F); whereas the Zaoren Ansheng prescription group showed higher maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under curve (AUC(0-t)) for spinosin and ferulic acid but lower clearance speed (CL/F). Compared with Ziziphi Spinosae Semen group, prescription group showed slower metabolism of spinosin and ferulic


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Rats , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Coumaric Acids , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Drug Interactions , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacokinetics , Flavonoids , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ziziphus , Chemistry
18.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 588-594, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812507

ABSTRACT

Drug-drug interactions have become a serious problem in the clinic, since plant-based medicines are extensively used. The present study investigated the effects of Ziziphus jujuba fruit (ZJ) extract on the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin, a typical substrate of a cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP 1A2, in rats. The rats were pretreated with the water extract (1.0 g · kg(-1)) or the ethanolic extract (3.6 g · kg(-1)) of ZJ for 10 days, and the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin was investigated after intravenous administration. In an in vitro assay, acetaminophen formation in the hepatic microsomes of ZJ-treated rats was investigated to assess CYP1A2 activity. Our results demonstrated that the treatment with the water and ethanolic extracts of ZJ decreased the plasma concentration of phenacetin and increased the plasma concentration of acetaminophen, resulting in a 43.2% and 15.5% reduction in the AUC0-120 of phenacetin, respectively, and a 53.2% and 64.9% increase in the AUC0-120 of acetaminophen, respectively after intravenous administration. The water or ethanolic extract of ZJ significantly increased the clearance of phenacetin and acetaminophen formation in hepatic microsomes. In conclusion, ZJ extracts displayed effects on the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin and increased the CYP1A2 activity in rats. Therefore, precaution on drug-drug interactions should be taken when ZJ is co-administered with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, which may result in decreased concentrations of these drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetaminophen , Metabolism , Area Under Curve , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 , Cytochromes , Metabolism , Fruit , Herb-Drug Interactions , Liver , Microsomes, Liver , Phenacetin , Metabolism , Pharmacokinetics , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ziziphus
19.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 345-349, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180156

ABSTRACT

Betulinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from Jujube tree (Zizyphus jujuba Mill), has been known for a wide range of biological and medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antihelmintic, antinociceptive, and anticancer activities. In the study, we investigated the antiviral activity on influenza A/PR/8 virus infected A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line and C57BL/6 mice. Betulinic acid showed the anti-influenza viral activity at a concentration of 50 muM without a significant cytotoxicity in influenza A/PR/8 virus infected A549 cells. Also, betulinic acid significantly attenuated pulmonary pathology including increased necrosis, numbers of inflammatory cells and pulmonary edema induced by influenza A/PR/8 virus infection compared with vehicle- or oseltamivir-treated mice in vivo model. The down-regulation of IFN-gamma level, which is critical for innate and adaptive immunity in viral infection, after treating of betulinic acid in mouse lung. Based on the obtained results, it is suggested that betulinic acid can be the potential therapeutic agent for virus infection via anti-inflammatory activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Adaptive Immunity , Adenocarcinoma , Down-Regulation , Epithelial Cells , Inflammation , Influenza, Human , Lung , Necrosis , Pathology , Pulmonary Edema , Trees , Ziziphus
20.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 156-164, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104379

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with progressive memory loss and neuronal cell death. Although numerous previous studies have been focused on disease progression or reverse pathological symptoms, therapeutic strategies for AD are limited. Alternatively, the identification of traditional herbal medicines or their active compounds has received much attention. The aims of the present study were to characterize the ameliorating effects of spinosin, a C-glucosylflavone isolated from Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa, on memory impairment or the pathological changes induced through amyloid-beta1-42 oligomer (AbetaO) in mice. Memory impairment was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of AbetaO (50 muM) and spinosin (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) was administered for 7 days. In the behavioral tasks, the subchronic administration of spinosin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated AbetaO-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance task or the Y-maze task. To identify the effects of spinosin on the pathological changes induced through AbetaO, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses were performed. Spinosin treatment also reduced the number of activated microglia and astrocytes observed after AbetaO injection. In addition, spinosin rescued the AbetaO-induced decrease in choline acetyltransferase expression levels. These results suggest that spinosin ameliorated memory impairment induced through AbetaO, and these effects were regulated, in part, through neuroprotective activity via the anti-inflammatory effects of spinosin. Therefore, spinosin might be a useful agent against the amyloid b protein-induced cognitive dysfunction observed in AD patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Astrocytes , Blotting, Western , Cell Death , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Disease Progression , Immunohistochemistry , Memory Disorders , Memory , Microglia , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Ziziphus
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