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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878887

ABSTRACT

In this study, the antioxidant property changes in fermented Ziziphi Spinosae Semen(FZSS) with Poria cocos were analyzed by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods. Then the content determination of active ingredients and ~1H nuclear magnetic resonance(~1H-NMR) spectroscopy were also used to investigate the mechanism of FZSS with P. cocos in enhancing the antioxidant activity. The results showed that the content of active ingredients such as total phenols, total saponins and total polysaccharides were significantly increased during the fermentation time. The results of ~1H-NMR metabonomics showed that the contents of amino acids such as leucine, lysine, valine and alanine, nitrogen compounds such as creatine, creatinine, and betaine, and secondary metabolites, for instance, jujuboside A and spinosin were higher after fermentation, and above components showed positive correlation with antioxidant capacity in Pearson correlation analysis. Therefore, it was inferred that the enhancement of antioxidant activity of FZSS may be the result of the joint action of various chemical components. This study preliminarily clarified the mechanism of FZSS in enhancing the antioxidant activity, and provided new research ideas for the product development and utilization of FZSS.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Poria , Semen , Wolfiporia , Ziziphus
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773136

ABSTRACT

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen is one of the Chinese herbal medicine being susceptible to aflatoxins contamination. To investigate the sources of aflatoxins contamination and toxigenic fungi species on Ziziphi Spinosae Semen,32 samples were collected from multiple steps during the post-harvest processing in this study. Aflatoxins in these samples were determined by immunoaffinity column and HPLC coupled with post-column photochemical derivatization. The dilution-plate method was applied to the fungi isolation. The isolated fungi strains were identified by morphological characterization and molecular approaches. The results showed that aflatoxins were detected in 28 samples from every step during the processing of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. Three samples were detected with aflatoxin B_1 and 2 samples with both aflatoxin B_1 and total aflatoxin exceeding the limit of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Especially the samples from the washing step,with the highest detected amounts of AFB_1 and AFs were reached 94. 79,121. 43 μg·kg~(-1),respectively. All 32 samples were contaminated by fungi. The fungal counts on the newly harvested samples were 2. 20 × 10~2 CFU·g~(-1). Moreover,it increased as tphreocessing progresses,and achieved 1. 16×10~6 CFU·g~(-1) after washing. A total of 321 isolates were identified to 17 genera. Aspergillus flavus was the main source of aflatoxins during the processing and storage of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. One isolate of A. flavus was confirmed producing AFB_1 and AFB_2. The fungal count was significantly increased by composting,and Aspergillus was the predominant genus after shell breaking. The contamination level of aflatoxins was increased by composting and washing.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins , Aspergillus , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fungi , Seeds , Chemistry , Microbiology , Ziziphus , Chemistry
3.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 38(4): 275-282, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975978

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study was done to investigate the synergistic impacts hydro extract of jujube fruit in combination with Mesalazine (orally) and Asacol (intra-colonic) administration in ameliorating animal model of ulcerative colitis (UC). After the induction of UC and with the development of signs, the treatment groups daily received the hydro extract of jujube fruit (200 mg/kg, orally, enema), Mesalazine (30 mg/kg, orally) and Asacol (10 mg/kg, enema). After 10 days, rats were euthanized and were studied. Findings indicated a significant increase in Myeloperoxidase (161.66 ± 10.40), Nitric oxide (216.01 ± 17.55), IL-6 (138.54 ± 7.02), and TNF-α (123.87 ± 9.80) colon tissue levels and pathological damage of positive control group compared with the negative control group. Hydro extract of jujube fruit in combination with Mesalazine (orally) and Asacol (intra-colonic) group represented a higher capability in significantly decreasing Myeloperoxidase (73.33 ± 9.07), Nitric oxide (81.66 ± 10.50), IL-6 (51.69 ± 5.19), TNF-α (30.59 ± 5.50) levels and pathological damage in compared with the other treatment groups. Considering accessibility and affordability of jujube fruit and the side effects of routine drugs, taking a combination of jujube fruit with low doses of routine pharmaceutical drugs can improve and cure ulcerative colitis disease.


RESUMO Este estudo foi realizado para investigar os impactos sinérgicos do extrato aquoso do fruto da jujuba em combinação com a administração de Mesalazina (por via oral) e Asacol (intracolônico) na melhora do modelo animal de colite ulcerativa. Após a indução da colite ulcerativa e com o desenvolvimento de sinais, os grupos de tratamento receberam diariamente o extrato aquoso do fruto da jujuba (200 mg/kg, via oral, enema), Mesalazina (30 mg/kg, via oral) e Asacol (10 mg/kg, enema). Após 10 dias, os ratos foram eutanasiados e estudados. Os achados indicaram um aumento significativo dos níveis de mieloperoxidase (161,66 ± 10,40), óxido nítrico (216,01 ± 17,55), IL-6 (138,54 ± 7,02) e TNF-α (123,87 ± 9,80) no tecido do cólon e dano patológico do grupo controle positivo comparado com o grupo controle negativo. O extrato aquoso da fruta de jujuba em combinação com Mesalazina (oral) e Asacol (intracolônico) representou maior capacidade de redução significativa dos níveis de mieloperoxidase (73,33 ± 9,07), óxido nítrico (81,66 ± 10,50), IL-6 (51,69 ± 5,19), TNF-α (30,59 ± 5,50) e dano patológico em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. Considerando a acessibilidade e disponibilidade do fruto da jujuba e dos efeitos colaterais dos medicamentos de rotina, tomar uma combinação de jujuba com baixas doses de medicamentos farmacêuticos de rotina pode melhorar e curar a colite ulcerativa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Colitis, Ulcerative , Mesalamine , Ziziphus , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Peroxidase , Nitric Oxide
4.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(2): 390-400, mar./apr. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966191

ABSTRACT

Invasion by the exotic species Prosopis juliflora has become a major threat to native plants in Saudi Arabia as the species continues its spread into different regions of the country. Ziziphus spina-christi is a native tree that is common in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to determine how both species would benefit from the availability of sufficient resources without competition. To gain a better understanding of growth under such conditions, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in which seedlings of both species were grown under favorable conditions for 6 months. During this period, growth performance was evaluated three times at intervals of 30, 90, and 180 days. Growth performance varied between the two species during one or more of the studied periods. Significant differences between the species were observed for root mass fraction, number of root tips, root to shoot ratio, height, stem diameter, stem dry weight, stem mass fraction, leaf area, leaf mass fraction, and chlorophyll a and b contents. The relative growth rate (RGR) and relative height growth rate were higher in P. juliflora at 30­90 days, whereas leaf area ratio and net assimilation rate were higher for Z. spina-christi at 90­180 days. Remarkably, the RGR for diameter in P. juliflora was almost double that in Z. spina-christi at 30­90 days and 90­180 days. The results obtained reflect a strategic difference in the biomass allocation to different plant components by the two species, whereby P. juliflora allocates higher biomass to the stems and Z. spina-christi allocates higher biomass to the roots.


Invasão pela espécie exótica Prosopis juliflora tornou-se uma grande ameaça para plantas nativas na Arábia Saudita à medida que a espécie continua a sua propagação em diferentes regiões do país. A Ziziphus spina-christi é uma árvore nativa que é comum na Arábia Saudita. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar como ambas as espécies se beneficiariam com a disponibilidade de recursos suficientes sem competição. Para se obter uma melhor compreensão do crescimento nestas condições, foi conduzida uma experiência em estufa em que as plântulas de ambas as espécies foram cultivadas em condições favoráveis durante 6 meses. Durante este período, o desempenho de crescimento foi avaliado três vezes em intervalos de 30, 90 e 180 dias. O desempenho do crescimento variou entre as duas espécies durante um ou mais dos períodos estudados. Diferenças significativas entre as espécies foram observadas para a fração de massa da raiz, número de pontas de raiz, razão entre a raiz e a parte aérea, altura, diâmetro do caule, peso seco do caule, fração de massa do caule, área foliar, fração de massa foliar e teor de clorofila a e b. A taxa de crescimento relativo (RGR, relative growth rate) e a taxa relativa de crescimento em altura foram maiores em P. juliflora no período 30-90 dias, enquanto que a razão foliar e a taxa de assimilação líquida foram maiores para Z. spina-christi no período 90-180 dias. Notavelmente, a RGR para o diâmetro em P. juliflora foi quase o dobro da de Z. spina-christi aos 30-90 dias e 90-180 dias. Os resultados obtidos refletem uma diferença estratégica na alocação de biomassa para diferentes componentes das plantas pelas duas espécies, sendo que P. juliflora aloca uma biomassa mais alta para as hastes e Z. spina-christi aloca uma biomassa mais alta para as raízes.


Subject(s)
Saudi Arabia , Biomass , Prosopis , Ziziphus
5.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 258-264, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-41801

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the seeds of Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis commonly used as a remedy in traditional Chinese medicine, in order to determine its various biologically active compounds. Through process 3-pentadecylcatechol, ρ-menth-8-ene, and γ-bisabolene were isolated and identified for the first time which are urushiol, monoterpenoidal, and sesquiterpenoidal compounds, respectively. Also, found were another sesquiterpenoidal compounds, vomifoliol, and four steroidal compounds, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasta-5,23-dien-3β-ol, and stigmast-4-en-3-one. In addition, fourteen triterpenoidal compounds were isolated and identified. These were lupeol, betulinic acid, betulinaldehyde, alphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-ρ-coumaroyl-alphitolic acid, 3-O-trans-ρ-coumaroylalphitolic acid, 2-O-cis-ρ-coumaroyl-alphitolic acid, 2-O-trans-ρ-coumaroyl-alphitolic acid, zizyberanalic acid, ceanothic acid, oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, 3-O-cis-ρ-coumaroyl-maslinic acid, and 3-O-trans-ρ-coumaroylmaslinic acid. The structures were identified by comparing of the spectroscopic experiments, NMR and MS, and then compared that reported data, respectively. Three extracts of water, methanol, and chloroform from the seeds showed a weak anti-proliferative effect, anti-microbial activity, and anti-oxidant effect, respectively.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Chloroform , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methanol , Oleanolic Acid , Stigmasterol , Water , Ziziphus
6.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 36(4): 189-195, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829114

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Ziziphus jujuba on the histopathological, tissue oxidative stress and inflammation plus to antioxidant pathways of colon tissue in rat with induced Ulcerative colitis. Materials and methods: Ulcerative colitis was induced in 80 rats those divided into 8 equal groups. Group 1 and 2 were negative controls receiving 1 mL/day of normal saline in enema and oral; group 3 and 4 as positive control 1 and 2 received 10 mg/kg of intra-colonic asacol and oral mesalazine; groups 5 and 6 received 20% and 40% of hydroalcoholic extract of Z. jujuba trans-rectally; group 7 and 8 received 1500 and 3000 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract of Z. jujuba orally, respectively. After 7 days, animals were evaluated for colon tissue histopathology, levels of malondialdehyde and IL-1ß, and activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and myeloperoxidase in colon tissue. Results: Hydroalcoholic extract of Z. jujuba in both forms of trans-rectal and oral administration especially in the higher doses could result into a more healing effect in damaged colonic tissue, more reduce glutathione peroxidase and IL-1ß; level. Also, these two doses (gel 40% and oral 3000 mg/kg) could more decrease the myeloperoxidase activity and stimulate superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Also, gel 40% in transrectal administration was more potent than administration 3000 mg/kg in oral. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that Z. jujube may be considered as a treatment of choice for Ulcerative colitis especially in gel form and also in dose-dependent pattern.


Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos do extrato hidroalcoólico de Ziziphus jujuba no estresse oxidativo em tecido ao nível histopatológico e na inflamação, juntamente com as vias antioxidantes em tecido de cólon em ratos com colite ulcerativa induzida. Materiais e métodos: Induzimos colite ulcerativa em 80 ratos, divididos em 8 grupos iguais. Os grupos 1 e 2 eram controles negativos que receberam 1 mL/dia de salina normal em enema e por via oral; os grupos 3 e 4 eram controles positivos para 1 e 2 e receberam 10 mg/kg de asacol por via intracolônica e mesalazina oral; os grupos 5 e 6 receberam gel a 20% e 40% de extrato hidroalcoólico de Z. jujuba por via trans-retal; os grupos 7 e 8 receberam 1500 e 3000 mg/kg de extrato hidroalcoólico de Z. jujuba por via oral, respectivamente. Transcorridos 7 dias, os animais foram avaliados para histopatologia de tecido de cólon, níveis de malonildialdeído e IL-1ß, e atividades de superóxido dismutase, glutátion peroxidase e mieloperoxidase no tecido colônico. Resultados: O uso do extrato hidroalcoólico de Z. jujuba, tanto na forma transretal como oral, e em especial nas doses mais altas, resultou em um efeito de cicatrização mais intensa no tecido colônico lesionado, e em maior redução nos níveis de glutátion peroxidase IL-1ß. Além disso, essas duas doses (gel a 40% e 3000 mg/kg por via oral) diminuíram ainda mais a atividade de mieloperoxidase e estimularam as atividades de superóxido dismutase e glutátion peroxidase. Outro achado do estudo foi que o gel a 40% por administração trans-retal se mostrou mais potente do que a administração oral de 3000 mg/kg. Conclusão: Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que Z. jujuba pode ser considerado como tratamento de escolha para colite ulcerativa, sobretudo em forma de gel e também em um padrão proporcional à dose administrada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Hydroalcoholic Solution , Oxidative Stress , Plant Preparations , Ziziphus , Inflammation , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal , Colon , Colon/pathology , Peroxidase , Acetic Acid , Acetic Acid/administration & dosage , Models, Animal , Interleukin-1beta , Animals, Laboratory , Malondialdehyde , Antioxidants
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(3): 179-189, mayo 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907483

ABSTRACT

Seven compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of leaves of Ziziphus mauritiana. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated as y-fagarine (1), beta-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3), alfa-amyrin (4), lupeol (5), beta-amyrin (6) and betulin (7) by extensive spectroscopic studies and by co-TLC with authentic samples. This is the first report of isolation of compounds 1-7 from this plant species. The extractives from leaves were investigated for thrombolytic, membrane stabilizing, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal and analgesic potentials along with sleep inducing property on animal model. The thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities were assessed by using human erythrocyte comparing with standard streptokinase and acetylsalicylic acid, respectively. The methanolic extract reduced frequency of diarrheal faeces when compared to the standard loperamide. In castor oil induced diarrhea in mice a dose dependent decrease of gastrointestinal transits were observed. In radiant heat tail-flick method the methanol extract showed moderate antinociceptive activity, compared to standard morphine.


Siete compuestos fueron aislados del extracto metanólico de hojas de Ziziphus mauritiana. Las estructuras de los compuestos aislados fueron identificadas como y-fagarina (1), beta-sitosterol (2), estigmasterol (3), alfa-amirina (4), lupeol (5), beta-amirina (6) y betulina (7 ) por medio de extensivos estudios espectroscópicos y por co-TLC con muestras auténticas. Este es el primer informe de aislamiento de los compuestos 1-7 a partir de esta especie vegetal. Los extractos de las hojas fueron investigados por efectos trombolíticos, estabilizadores de membrana, antimicrobianos, antidiarreicos y potenciales analgésicos junto a la propiedad de inducir sueño en el modelo animal. Las actividades trombolíticos y la estabilización de la membrana se evaluaron mediante el uso de eritrocitos humanos comparando con estreptoquinasa estándar y el ácido acetilsalicílico, respectivamente. El extracto metanólico redujo la frecuencia de las heces diarreicas en comparación con el estándar de loperamida. En la inducción por aceite de ricino de diarrea en ratones, se observó una disminución dosis dependiente de los tránsitos gastrointestinales. En el método del coletazo producido por calor radiante, el extracto metabólico mostró una actividad antinociceptiva moderada, en comparación con la morfina estándar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antidiarrheals/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Ziziphus/chemistry , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Methanol , Triterpenes/isolation & purification
8.
IJEM-Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2015; 16 (5): 329-337
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-159884

ABSTRACT

Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted from adipose tissue that can affect diabetes progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in serum levels of adiponectin in diabetic rats treated with alcoholic and aqueous extracts of three medicinal plants, jujube [Ziziphus jujuba], barberry [Berberis vulgaris] and saffron [Crocus sativus]. In this study, streptozocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with two doses of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the herbs, 25 and 100 mg/kg respectively, for 21 days. After the treatment period, the levels of adiponectin, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were measured and the results were analyzed using one way ANOVA test. In all the diabetic groups receiving extracts, serum levels of fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and VLDL [very low density lipoprotein], showed a significant decrease [P<0.05]. Serum level of HDL [high density lipoprotein] increased significantly only in the group receiving jujube [P<0.05], whereas adiponectin level was significantly increased in all the treated groups. Given the role of adiponectin in regulating lipid metabolism, and the increased level of adiponectin in the treated diabetic groups, it can be said that the extracts regulate glucose and lipid metabolism by changes in adiponectin level. Further studies are recommended to confirm these findings


Subject(s)
Ziziphus , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal , Berberis , Crocus , Lipids/blood , Streptozocin , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Rats , Plant Extracts
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812507

ABSTRACT

Drug-drug interactions have become a serious problem in the clinic, since plant-based medicines are extensively used. The present study investigated the effects of Ziziphus jujuba fruit (ZJ) extract on the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin, a typical substrate of a cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP 1A2, in rats. The rats were pretreated with the water extract (1.0 g · kg(-1)) or the ethanolic extract (3.6 g · kg(-1)) of ZJ for 10 days, and the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin was investigated after intravenous administration. In an in vitro assay, acetaminophen formation in the hepatic microsomes of ZJ-treated rats was investigated to assess CYP1A2 activity. Our results demonstrated that the treatment with the water and ethanolic extracts of ZJ decreased the plasma concentration of phenacetin and increased the plasma concentration of acetaminophen, resulting in a 43.2% and 15.5% reduction in the AUC0-120 of phenacetin, respectively, and a 53.2% and 64.9% increase in the AUC0-120 of acetaminophen, respectively after intravenous administration. The water or ethanolic extract of ZJ significantly increased the clearance of phenacetin and acetaminophen formation in hepatic microsomes. In conclusion, ZJ extracts displayed effects on the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin and increased the CYP1A2 activity in rats. Therefore, precaution on drug-drug interactions should be taken when ZJ is co-administered with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, which may result in decreased concentrations of these drugs.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Metabolism , Animals , Area Under Curve , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 , Cytochromes , Metabolism , Fruit , Herb-Drug Interactions , Liver , Male , Microsomes, Liver , Phenacetin , Metabolism , Pharmacokinetics , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ziziphus
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304815

ABSTRACT

To study the pharmacokinetic effect of different combined administration with monarch drug Ziziphi Spinosae Semen on its main components in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into Ziziphi Spinosae Semen group, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis group, Ziziphi spinosae Semen-Salviae Miltiorrhize Radix et Rhizoma group and Zaoren Ansheng prescription group. After oral administration, HPLC was eluted with the mobile phase of acetonitrle-0.03% phosphate acid water in a gradient mode. The detection wavelength was 280 nm. The pharmacokinetic parameters of spinosin and ferulic acid were calculated by DAS 2. 0 software. Compared with Ziziphi Spinosae Semen group, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis group, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma group showed a lower maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under curve (AUC(0-t)) for spinosin and ferulic acid but higher clearance speed (CL/F); whereas the Zaoren Ansheng prescription group showed higher maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under curve (AUC(0-t)) for spinosin and ferulic acid but lower clearance speed (CL/F). Compared with Ziziphi Spinosae Semen group, prescription group showed slower metabolism of spinosin and ferulic


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Coumaric Acids , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Drug Interactions , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacokinetics , Female , Flavonoids , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Humans , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ziziphus , Chemistry
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246069

ABSTRACT

Five flavone C-glycosides were isolated from the methanol extract of the degrease seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa though various column chromatography methods including silica gel, MPLC, and HPLC. The structures were elucidated as 6"-feruloyl- 6'''-vanillylspinosin(1), 6",6'"-diferuloylspinosin(2), spinosin(3), swertisin(4) and isoswertisin(5) based on the NMR and MS spectral data. 1 is a new compound.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavones , Chemistry , Glycosides , Chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Structure , Seeds , Chemistry , Ziziphus , Chemistry
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180156

ABSTRACT

Betulinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from Jujube tree (Zizyphus jujuba Mill), has been known for a wide range of biological and medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antihelmintic, antinociceptive, and anticancer activities. In the study, we investigated the antiviral activity on influenza A/PR/8 virus infected A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line and C57BL/6 mice. Betulinic acid showed the anti-influenza viral activity at a concentration of 50 muM without a significant cytotoxicity in influenza A/PR/8 virus infected A549 cells. Also, betulinic acid significantly attenuated pulmonary pathology including increased necrosis, numbers of inflammatory cells and pulmonary edema induced by influenza A/PR/8 virus infection compared with vehicle- or oseltamivir-treated mice in vivo model. The down-regulation of IFN-gamma level, which is critical for innate and adaptive immunity in viral infection, after treating of betulinic acid in mouse lung. Based on the obtained results, it is suggested that betulinic acid can be the potential therapeutic agent for virus infection via anti-inflammatory activity.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Adenocarcinoma , Animals , Down-Regulation , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Inflammation , Influenza, Human , Lung , Mice , Necrosis , Pathology , Pulmonary Edema , Trees , Ziziphus
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104379

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with progressive memory loss and neuronal cell death. Although numerous previous studies have been focused on disease progression or reverse pathological symptoms, therapeutic strategies for AD are limited. Alternatively, the identification of traditional herbal medicines or their active compounds has received much attention. The aims of the present study were to characterize the ameliorating effects of spinosin, a C-glucosylflavone isolated from Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa, on memory impairment or the pathological changes induced through amyloid-beta1-42 oligomer (AbetaO) in mice. Memory impairment was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of AbetaO (50 muM) and spinosin (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) was administered for 7 days. In the behavioral tasks, the subchronic administration of spinosin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated AbetaO-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance task or the Y-maze task. To identify the effects of spinosin on the pathological changes induced through AbetaO, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses were performed. Spinosin treatment also reduced the number of activated microglia and astrocytes observed after AbetaO injection. In addition, spinosin rescued the AbetaO-induced decrease in choline acetyltransferase expression levels. These results suggest that spinosin ameliorated memory impairment induced through AbetaO, and these effects were regulated, in part, through neuroprotective activity via the anti-inflammatory effects of spinosin. Therefore, spinosin might be a useful agent against the amyloid b protein-induced cognitive dysfunction observed in AD patients.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Animals , Astrocytes , Blotting, Western , Cell Death , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Memory Disorders , Memory , Mice , Microglia , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Ziziphus
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-312796

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of jujube pretreatment on serum levels of AST and ALT, liver pathology, and the expression of cytochrome P4502e1 (CYP2E1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the liver tissue of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 88 Kunming mice were randomly divided into the control group (n = 28), the model group (n = 32), and the jujube treatment group (n = 28). The animal model was prepared using intragastric alcoholism for mice in the model group and the jujube treatment group, while distilled water was intragastrically given to those in the control group. Extraction of jujube was intragastrically given to mice in the jujube treatment group at week 4, while equal volume of distilled water was intragastrically given to mice in the rest two groups. The therapeutic course lasted for 12 weeks. Serum levels of AST and ALT, liver pathology, and the expression of CYP2E1 and TNF-alpha in the liver tissue of ALD mice were observed after administration of jujube.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the model group, serum levels of AST and ALT decreased, the liver pathology was improved, and the expression of CYP2E1 and TNF-alpha in the liver tissue decreased, showing statistical difference (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Jujube had certain effect in treating ALD.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Liver , Metabolism , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism , Ziziphus , Chemistry
15.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2013; 12 (46): 85-105
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-140342

ABSTRACT

Dashtestan, with 6371 km[2] area, is situated at 85 km in the east of Bushehr city. Influence of some important ecological factores, such as neighboring to the Persian Gulf, passing two rivers of dalaki and shapoor and also presence of southern continuation of Zagros Mountains are leading to high importance of region in plant biodiversity view point. Study on the medicinal plant flora of the region and introducing some information of folk medicine and the most useful medicinal species were objected here. All ancient regions of the Dashtestan were discovered using appropriate geographical maps and then the plant species were gathered from various localities respectively. Vernacular information of collected plants and their usages in the folk medicine were questioned from well experienced people. In final stage the collected plants were identified scientifically after deposition in the herbarium. A total of 85 plant species representing 70 genera and 39 families are identified in the area. The most abundant families of the region are Asteraceae [10 species] and Lamiaceae [8 species] respectively, and the largest genera is Ziziphus [Rhamnaceae] with 6 species. The most folk medicine usage of them is in the remediation of digestive diseases. Traditional usage of medicinal plant is more accepted among the people of area. The most of medicinal herbs are used mainly in remediation of digestive diseases. Considering the culture of society and attention of people to medicinal plants, it may be an attractive object from the farmacological view point


Subject(s)
Medicine, Traditional , Asteraceae , Lamiaceae , Ziziphus , Rhamnaceae , Biodiversity
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318631

ABSTRACT

A simple and sensitive method has been developed to simultaneously determine betunilic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba from different regions by HPLC-MS. This HPLC assay was performed on PAH polymeric C18 bonded stationary phase column with mobile phase contained acetonitrile-water (90: 10) and with negative ESI detection mode. The developed approach was characterized by short time consumption for chromatographic separation, high sensitivity and good reliability so as to meet the requirements for rapid analysis of large-batch fruits of Z. jujuba from different habitats.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Fruit , Chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Polymers , Chemistry , Triterpenes , Ziziphus , Chemistry
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235346

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of compound of gardenia oil and jujube seed oil learning and memory in ovariectomized rats and its mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Animals were randomly divided into six groups: sham group, model group, estrogen group, low dose group, middle dose group and high dose group. The ovariectomized rat models were established by resection of the lateral ovaries. The effect of compound of gardenia oil and jujube seed oil on learning and memory in ovariectomized rats was observed by means of Morris water maze. Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities in rat brain were determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The compound of gardenia oil and jujube seed oil could shorten the incubation period of appearance in castration rats and increase the number passing through Yuan Ping table in ovariectomized rats. As the training time extended, the incubation period of appearance was gradually shortened. The compound of gardenia oil and jujube seed oil could increase NOS activity, and decrease AChE activity in brain of ovariectomized rats.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The compound of jujube seed oil and gardenia oil could promote the learning and memory in ovariectomized rats. This effect may be related with the increase in activities of NOS, AchE in rat brain.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Metabolism , Animals , Brain , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Female , Gardenia , Chemistry , Maze Learning , Memory , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Metabolism , Ovariectomy , Plant Oils , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Seeds , Chemistry , Ziziphus , Chemistry
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59929

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (EEZS) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. Male ICR mice were treated with EEZS. The behavioral tests were conducted using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks. EEZS (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in our present behavioral tasks without changes of locomotor activity. The ameliorating effect of EEZS on scopolamine-induced memory impairment was significantly reversed by a sub-effective dose of MK-801 (0.0125 mg/kg, s.c.). In addition, single administration of EEZS in normal naive mouse enhanced latency time in the passive avoidance task. Western blot analysis was employed to confirm the mechanism of memory-ameliorating effect of EEZS. Administration of EEZS (200 mg/kg) increased the level of memory-related signaling molecules, including phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase or cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampal region. Also, the time-dependent expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by the administration of EEZS was markedly increased from 3 to 9 h. These results suggest that EEZS has memory-ameliorating effect on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment, which is mediated by the enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system, in part, via NMDA receptor signaling, and that EEZS would be useful agent against cognitive dysfunction such as Alzheimer's disease.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Blotting, Western , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Dizocilpine Maleate , Ethanol , Humans , Male , Maze Learning , Memory , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Motor Activity , N-Methylaspartate , Neurotransmitter Agents , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Scopolamine , Ziziphus
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic (50%) extract of Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill (Z. oenoplia) root against isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) induced liver damage in animal models.@*METHODS@#Five groups of six rats each were selected for the study. Ethanolic extract at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg as well as silymarin (100 mg/kg) were administered orally once daily for 21 d in INH + RIF treated groups. The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), and bilirubin were estimated along with activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and hepatic melondialdehyde formation. Histopathological analysis was carried out to assess injury to the liver.@*RESULTS@#The considerably elevated serum enzymatic activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin due to INH + RIF treatment were restored towards normal in a dose dependent manner after the treatment with ethanolic extract of Z. oenoplia roots. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were also restored towards normal dose dependently. In addition, ethanolic extract also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic melondialdehyde formation in the liver of INH + RIF intoxicated rats in a dose dependent manner. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results of this study strongly indicate that ethanolic extract of Z. oenoplia has a potent hepatoprotective action against INH + RIF induced hepatic damage in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents , Toxicity , Bilirubin , Metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Enzymes , Metabolism , Ethanol , Pharmacology , Hepatocytes , Isoniazid , Toxicity , Male , Phytotherapy , Methods , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Plant Roots , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Rifampin , Toxicity , Ziziphus
20.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-604988

ABSTRACT

Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos de cascas e folhas de uma notável árvore da Caatinga (semi-árido brasileiro), usado em remédios populares, Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada através do método de captação pelo DPPH, enquanto a atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em ágar seguido pela determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CMI). Os resultados mostraram que ambos os extratos de Z. joazeiro possuem atividade antioxidante com EC50 de 461,88 e 1.743,05mg/mL para as folhas e casca, respectivamente. As amostras foram ativas contra 70% das bactérias testadas. O extrato de folhas mostrou CMI entre 0,25-0,5 mg/mL contra Micrococcus luteus e entre 0,125-0,250 mg/mL contra Mycobacterium smegmatis, enquanto o extrato da casca apresentou CMI entre 0,5-1,0 mg /ml M. smegmatis.


The objectives of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts of the bark and leaves of a notable tree of the caatinga (Brazilian semiarid scrubland) used in many popular remedies, Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. The antioxidant activity was assessed by the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay, while the antimicrobial activity, against a range of Gram positive and negative bacteria and a yeast, was determined by the agar disk diffusion method, followed by an assay of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results showed that both extracts of Z. joazeiro have antioxidant activity, the EC50 of leaf extract being 461.88 and that of bark 1743.05 mg/mL, with respect to DPPH absorbance in a standard assay. Samples were active against 70% of the bacterial species tested. The leaf extract showed MICs of 0.25-0.5 mg/mL against Micrococcus luteus and 0.125-0.250 mg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis, while the bark extract showed a MIC of 0.5-1.0 mg/mL against M. smegmatis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants , Plant Extracts , Plant Structures , Ziziphus
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