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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 680-690, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788964

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A new strain of Thermomyces lanuginosus was isolated from the Atlantic Forest biome, and its β-xylosidases optimization in response to agro-industrial residues was performed. Using statistical approach as a strategy for optimization, the induction of β-xylosidases activity was evaluated in residual corn straw, and improved so that the optimum condition achieved high β-xylosidases activities 1003 U/mL. According our known, this study is the first to show so high levels of β-xylosidases activities induction. In addition, the application of an experimental design with this microorganism to induce β-xylosidases has not been reported until the present work. The optimal conditions for the crude enzyme extract were pH 5.5 and 60 °C showing better thermostability at 55 °C. The saccharification ability of β-xylosidase in the presence of hemicellulose obtained from corn straw raw and xylan from beechwood substrates showed a xylo-oligosaccharide to xylose conversion yield of 80 and 50%, respectively, at 50 °C. Our data strongly indicated that the β-xylosidases activities was not subjected to the effects of potential enzyme inhibitors often produced during fermentation process. These data suggest the application of this enzyme studied for saccharification of hemicellulose, an abundant residue in the American continents, thus providing an interesting alternative for future tests for energy production.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/enzymology , Xylosidases/metabolism , Fermentation , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Substrate Specificity , Temperature , Xylose/metabolism , Biomass , Zea mays/chemistry , Enzyme Activation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 815-823, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755801

ABSTRACT

Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene. Isolates comprised 7 genera, with Aureobasidium pullulans as the most predominant pectinolytic species, followed by Rhodotorula dairenensis and Cryptococcus saitoi. No pectinolytic activity was detected among ascomycetous yeasts isolated on grapes and during fermentation, suggesting a low occurrence of pectinolytic yeast species in wine fermentation ecosystem. This is the first study reporting R. dairenensis and Cr. saitoi species with pectinolytic activity. R. dairenensis GM-15 produced pectinases that proved to be highly active at grape pH, at 12 °C, and under ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinifications (pectinase activity around 1.1 U/mL). This strain also produced cellulase activity at 12 °C and pH 3.5, but did not produce β-glucosidase activity under these conditions. The strain showed encouraging enological properties for its potential use in low-temperature winemaking.

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Subject(s)
Ascomycota/enzymology , Cryptococcus/enzymology , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Rhodotorula/enzymology , Vitis/microbiology , Wine/microbiology , Argentina , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Fermentation/physiology , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Typing , Mycological Typing Techniques , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pectins/metabolism , RNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Rhodotorula/isolation & purification
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(2): 285-288, Apr./June/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679429

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to optimize protease production from the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) and evaluate its larvicidal activity and biological stability. An isolate of the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) was used to produce the enzyme. The Plackett-Burman design was used in order to scan which components of the culture medium could have a significant influence on protease production by the fungus NF34a. An in vitro assay was also performed to evaluate the larvicidal activity of NF34a. It was observed that only one component of the culture medium (yeast extract), at the levels studied, had any significant effect (p < 0.05) on protease production. There was a reduction (p < 0.01) in the mean number of larvae recovered from the treated groups, compared with the control groups. The results confirm previous reports on the efficiency of nematophagous fungi for controlling nematode larvae that are potentially zoonotic. Thus, given the importance of biological control, we suggest that further studies should be conducted on the protease produced by the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi otimizar a produção de proteases do fungo nematófago Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a), avaliar sua atividade larvicida e sua estabilidade biológica. Foi utilizado um isolado do fungo nematófago Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34a) para a produção de enzima. O delineamento Plackett-Burman foi utilizado com o objetivo de se escanear quais componentes do meio de cultura, poderiam ter influência significava na produção de protease pelo fungo NF34a. Foi realizado um ensaio in vitro para avaliar a atividade larvicida de NF34a. Observou-se que apenas um dos componentes do meio de cultura (extrato de levedura), nos níveis avaliados, apresentou um efeito significativo (p < 0,05) sobre a produção de protease. Houve reducão (p < 0,01) entre as médias de larvas recuperadas dos grupos tratados em relação ás dos grupos controle. Os resultados confirmam trabalhos anteriores da eficiência de fungos nematófagos no controle de larvas de nematóides potencialmente zoonóticos. Assim, devido á importãncia do controle biológico, os autores sugerem estudos mais aprofundados sobre a protease produzida pelo fungo Monacrosporium thaumasium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Angiostrongylus , Ascomycota/enzymology , Peptide Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Larva
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 41(1): 253-263, Jan.-Mar. 2010. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-531759

ABSTRACT

Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.) is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial) stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x10(5) /g mycelia and 2.8x10(5) /g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. Fusion of protoplasts from strains A and R was carried out in fusion media containing PEG 4000 30 percent (w/v) with 0.2mM CaCl2. Four fusants F1, F2, F3 and F4 were recovered. Morphological, physiological and pathogenic characters of fusants were compared with parent strains on carrots, beans and tomato.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/enzymology , Basidiomycota/genetics , Enzyme Stability , Gene Fusion , Protoplasts/enzymology , Food Samples , Methods , Methods , Virulence
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 12(1): 7-8, Jan. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-538041

ABSTRACT

The plant hormone abscisic acid has huge economic potential and can be applied in agriculture and forestry for it is considered to be involved in plant resistance to stresses such as cold, heat, salinity, drought, pathogens and wounding. Now overproducing strains of Botrytis cinerea are used for biotechnological production of abscisic acid. An LTR retrotransposon, Boty-aba, and a solo LTR were identified by in silico genomic sequence analysis, and both were detected within the abscisic acid gene cluster in B. cinerea B05.10, but not in B. cinerea SAS56. Boty-aba contains a pair of LTRs and two internal genes. The LTRs and the first gene have features characteristic of Ty3/gypsy LTR retrotransposons. The second gene is a novel gene, named brtn, which encodes for a protein (named BRTN) without putative conserved domains. The impressive divergence in structure of the abscisic acid gene clusters putatively gives new clues to investigate the divergence in the abscisic acid production yields of different B. cinerea strains.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid/genetics , Abscisic Acid , Abscisic Acid/therapeutic use , Botrytis/enzymology , Botrytis/metabolism , Ascomycota/enzymology , Petunia/genetics , Retroelements/genetics , Terminal Repeat Sequences
6.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2008 Dec; 45(6): 404-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-26547

ABSTRACT

The improvement of xylanase production by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum S2 using a liquid fermentation culture was investigated. The optimized process was divided into three basic steps: (i) evaluating xylanase inducers using different agricultural residues such as wheat bran, oat bran, orange peel and barley bran at 1% final concentration, and also filter paper. Among these, wheat bran showed the maximum activity (2.5 U/ml) at 12 days post-inoculation; (ii) for optimization, we determined the optimal concentration of inducer, the effect of phosphate anion (K2HPO4/KH2PO4) and culture aeration using a rotary shaker at 100 and 180 rpm. The optimal conditions for these three factors were determined in an experimental panel using factorial data, in which a mathematical model (Minitab software) was fitted; (iii) The optimized culture medium containing a high level of wheat bran (3%) without KH2PO4-K2HPO4 and submitted to a high agitation (180 rpm/min) increased the xylanase production from 2.5 U/ml to 4 U/ml (1.6-fold).


Subject(s)
Anions/metabolism , Ascomycota/enzymology , Bioreactors , Culture Media , Dietary Fiber/metabolism , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/isolation & purification , Extracellular Space/metabolism , Fermentation , Hordeum/enzymology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Phosphates/metabolism , Statistics as Topic
7.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 10(2): 260-270, Apr. 15, 2007. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-499175

ABSTRACT

This study reports the purification and characterization of beta-glucosidase from a newly isolated thermophilic fungus, Melanocarpus sp. Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC) 3922. The molecular weight of beta-glucosidase was determined to be ~ 92 and 102 kDa with SDS PAGE and gel filtration, respectively, and pI of ~ 4.1. It was optimally active at 60 C and pH 6.0, though was stable at 50 C and pH 5.0 - 6.0. The presence of DTT, mercaptoethanol and metal ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+and Zn2+ positively influenced the activity of beta-glucosidase but the activity was inhibited in the presence of CuSO4. beta-Glucosidase recognized pNP- beta-glucopyranoside (pNPG) as the preferred substrate, and showed very low affinity for pNP- beta-D-cellobioside. Km and Vmax for the hydrolysis of pNPG by beta-glucosidase was calculated as 3.3 mM and 43.68 ‘molmin-1mg protein-1, respectively and k cat was quantified as 4 x 10³ min-1. beta-Glucosidase activity was enhanced appreciably in the presence of alcohols (methanol and ethanol) moreover, purified beta-glucosidase showed putative transglycosylation activity that was positively catalyzed in presence of methanol as an acceptor molecule


Subject(s)
Animals , Ascomycota/enzymology , beta-Glucosidase/isolation & purification , beta-Glucosidase/metabolism , Enzyme Stability , Glycosylation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Kinetics , Molecular Weight , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Temperature
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Feb; 42(2): 217-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61208

ABSTRACT

Enzymes associated with release of iron from internalized ferrated siderophore (ferrisiderophore reductase), with damage to the cell at high iron concentration (superoxide dismutase) and siderophore synthesis (alkaline phosphatase), were examined in 3 test fungi viz., Aspergillus sp. ABp4, Aureobasidium pullulans and Rhizopus sp. Extracellular ferrisiderophore reductase activity was present in all the three fungi, but Aureobasidium pullulans, that showed the highest activity (84.3 microM min(-1)), was the only one to produce intra-cellular ferric reductase (147.9 microM min(-1)). Superoxide dismutase was produced by Aureobasidium pullulans and Rhizopus sp., but not by Aspergillus sp. ABp4, that showed intra-cellular enzyme activity in case of ferric reductase and alkaline phosphatase. Maximum SOD activity was seen in Aureobasidium pullulans both extra-cellularly (93.83 ng ml(-1)) and intra-cellularly (57.14 ng ml(-1)). All the test fungi examined, produced intra-cellular alkaline phosphatase. There was no extracellular alkaline phosphatase. Among the three fungi, Aureobasidium pullulans showed highest alkaline phosphatase activity (129.9 microM min(-1)) and Aspergillus sp. ABp4 the least (76.4 microM min(-1)).


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Ascomycota/enzymology , Aspergillus/enzymology , FMN Reductase/metabolism , Iron/metabolism , NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases , Rhizopus/enzymology , Siderophores/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
9.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2001 Oct; 38(5): 298-302
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-28232

ABSTRACT

Proteinese K (PK) isolated from Tritirachium album Limber was crystallized with HgCl2 in excess, under microgravity conditions. The intensity data were collected at 4 degrees C to 1.8 A resolution and the final R-factor after refinement for all the reflections was 0.164. Mercury has been found at two sites with partial occupancies (0.4 and 0.6) which are at distances of 2.48 A and 2.58 A respectively from Cys-73 Sgamma. The Cys-73 in the enzyme structure is located close to the active site residue, His-69. This region is completely buried and is not accessible to the solvent. It is rather tightly packed. Therefore, the binding of mercury distorts the stereochemistry of the neighbouring residues including those belonging to the catalytic triad. As a result of this, the Ogamma of Ser-224 is displaced by 0.6 A which causes the inactivation of proteinase K by increasing the H-bond distance to 3.7 A between Ser-224 Ogamma and His-69 Nepsilon2.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/chemistry , Ascomycota/enzymology , Binding Sites/drug effects , Crystallization , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cysteine , Endopeptidase K/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Hydrogen Bonding , Mercury/pharmacology , Molecular Conformation , Protein Structure, Tertiary
10.
Hindustan Antibiot Bull ; 1995 Feb-Nov; 37(1-4): 25-36
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-2138

ABSTRACT

Production of beta-galactosidase by Sclerotium rolfsii NCIM 1084 was studied under submerged fermentation conditions. The enzyme was produced extracellularly and constitutively on glucose. The enzyme production was enhanced when galactose, raffinose, cellobiose, sucrose, xylose, maltose, cellulose and pectin were used as carbon sources. Cellulose and diammonium hydrogen phosphate were best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Surfactants such as Sag, Paraffin oil, Tween 20 and Tween 80 increased the enzyme production. Maximum yield of beta-galactosidase obtained was 3.8-4.2 nkat/ml. The optimum pH, optimum temperature and molecular weight of the beta-glactosidase were 2.7, 60 degrees C and 2,21,000 daltons, respectively. The enzyme is an aryl beta-glactosidase and did not hydrolyse lactose. The Km value for o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactoside was 3.7 mM. Galactose and 2-mercaptoethanol inhibited the enzyme.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/enzymology , Carbon/metabolism , Cellobiose/chemistry , Cellulose/chemistry , Fermentation , Galactose/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Lactose/metabolism , Maltose/chemistry , Molecular Weight , Pectins/chemistry , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Raffinose/chemistry , Sucrose/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Temperature , Xylose/chemistry , beta-Galactosidase/analysis
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