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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(8)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758461

ABSTRACT

Viral causes of pneumonia pose constant threats to global public health, but there are no specific treatments currently available for the condition. Antivirals are ineffective when administered late after the onset of symptoms. Pneumonia is caused by an exaggerated inflammatory cytokine response to infection, but tissue necrosis and damage caused by virus also contribute to lung pathology. We hypothesized that viral pneumonia can be treated effectively if both virus and inflammation are simultaneously targeted. Combined treatment with the antiviral drug cidofovir and etanercept, which targets tumor necrosis factor (TNF), down-regulated nuclear factor kappa B-signaling and effectively reduced morbidity and mortality during respiratory ectromelia virus (ECTV) infection in mice even when treatment was initiated after onset of clinical signs. Treatment with cidofovir alone reduced viral load, but animals died from severe lung pathology. Treatment with etanercept had no effect on viral load but diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including TNF, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-12p40, TGF-ß, and CCL5 and dampened activation of the STAT3 cytokine-signaling pathway, which transduces signals from multiple cytokines implicated in lung pathology. Consequently, combined treatment with a STAT3 inhibitor and cidofovir was effective in improving clinical disease and lung pathology in ECTV-infected mice. Thus, the simultaneous targeting of virus and a specific inflammatory cytokine or cytokine-signaling pathway is effective in the treatment of pneumonia. This approach might be applicable to pneumonia caused by emerging and re-emerging viruses, like seasonal and pandemic influenza A virus strains and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cidofovir/therapeutic use , Etanercept/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cidofovir/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Therapy, Combination , Ectromelia virus/drug effects , Female , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Load/drug effects
3.
Anesthesiology ; 135(6): 1076-1090, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients remains high. Although randomized controlled trials must continue to definitively evaluate treatments, further hypothesis-generating efforts to identify candidate treatments are required. This study's hypothesis was that certain treatments are associated with lower COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: This was a 1-yr retrospective cohort study involving all COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units in six hospitals affiliated with Yale New Haven Health System from February 13, 2020, to March 4, 2021. The exposures were any COVID-19-related pharmacologic and organ support treatments. The outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: This study analyzed 2,070 patients after excluding 23 patients who died within 24 h after intensive care unit admission and 3 patients who remained hospitalized on the last day of data censoring. The in-hospital mortality was 29% (593 of 2,070). Of 23 treatments analyzed, apixaban (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.363 to 0.48; corrected CI, 0.336 to 0.52) and aspirin (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.87; corrected CI, 0.54 to 0.96) were associated with lower mortality based on the multivariable analysis with multiple testing correction. Propensity score-matching analysis showed an association between apixaban treatment and lower mortality (with vs. without apixaban, 27% [96 of 360] vs. 37% [133 of 360]; hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.337 to 0.69) and an association between aspirin treatment and lower mortality (with vs. without aspirin, 26% [121 of 473] vs. 30% [140 of 473]; hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.78). Enoxaparin showed similar associations based on the multivariable analysis (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.97; corrected CI, 0.61 to 1.05) and propensity score-matching analysis (with vs. without enoxaparin, 25% [87 of 347] vs. 34% [117 of 347]; hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.367 to 0.77). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with the known hypercoagulability in severe COVID-19, the use of apixaban, enoxaparin, or aspirin was independently associated with lower mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247782, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456064

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of aspirin dose on the incidence of all gestational age preeclampsia and preterm preeclampsia. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases (Cochrane, PubMed, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Web of Science) were searched for articles published between January 1985 and March 2019 with no language restrictions. METHODS: We followed the PRIMSA guidelines and utilized Covidence software. Articles were screened by 2 independent reviewers, with discrepancies settled by an independent 3rd party. Study selection criteria were randomized trials comparing aspirin for prevention of all gestational age and preterm preeclampsia to placebo or no antiplatelet treatment in women aged 15-55 years with moderate or high-risk factors according to the list of risk factors from American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines. The quality of trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The data were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis comparing aspirin at doses of <81, 81, 100, and 150 mg. Pre-specified outcomes were all gestational age and preterm preeclampsia. RESULTS: Of 1,609 articles screened, 23 randomized trials, which included 32,370 women, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In preterm preeclampsia, women assigned at random to 150 mg experienced a significant 62% reduction in risk of preterm preeclampsia (RR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.20-0.72; P = 0.011). Aspirin doses <150 mg produced no significant reductions. The number needed to treat with 150 mg of aspirin was 39 (95% CI: 23-100). There was a maximum 30% reduction in risk of all gestational age preeclampsia at all aspirin doses. CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, based on indirect comparisons, aspirin at a dose greater than the current, recommended 81 mg was associated with the highest reduction in preterm preeclampsia. Our meta-analysis is limited due to the deficiency of homogeneous high evidence data available in the literature to date; however, it may be prudent for clinicians to consider that the optimal aspirin dose may be higher than the current guidelines advise. Future research to compare the efficacy aspirin doses greater than 81 mg is recommended. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42019127951 (University of York, UK; http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pre-Eclampsia/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Young Adult
5.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 61(12): 1521-1533, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414955

ABSTRACT

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were thought to increase the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus entrance into cells. Hence, it was suggested in the media that NSAIDs could lead to a higher risk of infection and/or disease severity. To determine the existence or absence of this association, we aimed to systematically evaluate the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality and the risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated with previous exposure to NSAIDs. MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and EMBASE were searched in February 2021 for controlled studies. The results were calculated through random-effect meta-analyses and reported in terms of odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed with I2 test. Eleven studies were included, comprising a total of 683 715 patients. NSAID exposure did not increase the risk of having a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR, 0.97; 95%CI, 0.85-1.11, I2 = 24%; 5 studies). The exposure to NSAIDs did not increase the risk of severe/critical COVID-19 disease (OR, 0.92; 95%CI, 0.80-1.05; I2 = 0%; 5 studies) nor all-cause mortality among patients with COVID-19 (OR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.75-0.99; I2 = 14%, 4 studies). Our data did not suggest that exposure to NSAIDs increases the risk of having SARS-CoV-2 infection or increases the severity of COVID-19 disease. Also, the fragility of the studies included precludes definite conclusions and highlights the need for further robust data.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Drug Saf ; 44(9): 929-938, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been discouraged for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, fearing that they could increase the risk of infection or the severity of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Original studies providing information on exposure to NSAIDs and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes were retrieved and were included in a descriptive analysis and a meta-analysis with Cochrane Revue Manager (REVMAN 5.4), using inverse variance odds ratio (OR) with random- or fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Of 92,853 papers mentioning COVID-19, 266 mentioned NSAIDs and 61 mentioned ibuprofen; 19 papers had analysable data. Three papers described NSAID exposure and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 positivity, five papers described the risk of hospital admission in positive patients, 10 papers described death, and six papers described severe composite outcomes. Five papers studied exposure to ibuprofen and death. Using random-effects models, there was no excess risk of SARS-CoV-2 positivity (OR 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-1.05). In SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, exposure to NSAIDs was not associated with excess risk of hospital admission (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.80-1.17), death (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98), or severe outcomes (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.90-1.44). With ibuprofen, there was no increased risk of death (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.78-1.13). Using a fixed-effect model did not modify the results, nor did the sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: The theoretical risks of NSAIDs or ibuprofen in SARS-CoV-2 infection are not confirmed by observational data.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 9(1): e00691, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384293

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses represent global health threat. In this century, they have already caused two epidemics and one serious pandemic. Although, at present, there are no approved drugs and therapies for the treatment and prevention of human coronaviruses, several agents, FDA-approved, and preclinical, have shown in vitro and/or in vivo antiviral activity. An in-depth analysis of the current situation leads to the identification of several potential drugs that could have an impact on the fight against coronaviruses infections. In this review, we discuss the virology of human coronaviruses highlighting the main biological targets and summarize the current state-of-the-art of possible therapeutic options to inhibit coronaviruses infections. We mostly focus on FDA-approved and preclinical drugs targeting viral conserved elements.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus/metabolism , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Azoles/administration & dosage , Azoles/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Humans , Isoindoles , Naphthoquinones/administration & dosage , Naphthoquinones/metabolism , Organoselenium Compounds/administration & dosage , Organoselenium Compounds/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy
8.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 268, 2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Curcumin, a derivative of the spice turmeric, has been adopted by Eastern medicine for centuries as an adjunct to treat several medical conditions (e.g., anorexia and arthritis) because of its well-established anti-inflammatory properties. Studies have shown that the use of curcumin in mice models has led to reduction in several inflammatory markers as well as key inflammatory pathway enzymes. As a result, studies in Western medicine have developed to determine if this recognized benefit can be utilized for patients with inflammatory lung diseases, such as asthma. This study will seek to better understand if curcumin can be used as an adjunctive therapy for improving asthma control of patients with moderate to severe asthma; a finding we hope will allow for a more affordable treatment. METHODS: This study will utilize a randomized, placebo controlled, double blinded pilot superiority phase 2 trial at an outpatient pulmonary clinic in Southern California, USA. Subjects will be receiving Curcumin 1500 mg or matching placebo by mouth twice daily for the study period of 12 weeks. Subjects will be randomized to either a placebo or intervention Curcumin. Subjects will have 6 clinic visits: screening visit, a baseline visit, monthly clinic visits (weeks 4, 8, and 12), at weeks 4, 8, and a follow-up clinic visit or phone-call (week 16). Changes in asthma control test scores, number of days missed from school/work, FEV1 (% predicted), FEV1/FVC ratio, FVC (% predicted), blood eosinophil count, blood total IgE, and FeNO levels will be compared by group over time. DISCUSSION: The therapeutic effects of curcumin have been studied on a limited basis in asthmatics and has shown mixed results thus far. Our study hopes to further establish the benefits of curcumin, however, there are potential issues that may arise from our study design that we will address within this paper. Moreover, the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in safety concerns that have delayed initiation of our study. This study will contribute to existing literature on curcumin's role in reducing lung inflammation as it presents in asthmatics as well as patients suffering from COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Board at Loma Linda University Health, (NCT04353310). IND# 145101 Registered April 20th, 2020. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04353310 .


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Curcumin , Eosinophils , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Administration, Oral , Adult , Ambulatory Care/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Asthma/blood , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Curcumin/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count/methods , Male , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Drug Saf ; 44(9): 929-938, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been discouraged for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, fearing that they could increase the risk of infection or the severity of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Original studies providing information on exposure to NSAIDs and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes were retrieved and were included in a descriptive analysis and a meta-analysis with Cochrane Revue Manager (REVMAN 5.4), using inverse variance odds ratio (OR) with random- or fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Of 92,853 papers mentioning COVID-19, 266 mentioned NSAIDs and 61 mentioned ibuprofen; 19 papers had analysable data. Three papers described NSAID exposure and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 positivity, five papers described the risk of hospital admission in positive patients, 10 papers described death, and six papers described severe composite outcomes. Five papers studied exposure to ibuprofen and death. Using random-effects models, there was no excess risk of SARS-CoV-2 positivity (OR 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-1.05). In SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, exposure to NSAIDs was not associated with excess risk of hospital admission (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.80-1.17), death (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98), or severe outcomes (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.90-1.44). With ibuprofen, there was no increased risk of death (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.78-1.13). Using a fixed-effect model did not modify the results, nor did the sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: The theoretical risks of NSAIDs or ibuprofen in SARS-CoV-2 infection are not confirmed by observational data.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(11): 4156-4162, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281021

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Approximately 30% of patients with confirmed COVID-19 report persistent smell or taste disorders as long-term sequalae of infection. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with inflammatory changes to the olfactory bulb, and treatments with anti-inflammatory properties are hypothesized to attenuate viral injury and promote recovery of olfaction after infection. Our study investigated the efficacy of a supplement with Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and Luteolin to support recovery of olfaction in COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a randomized-controlled pilot study in outpatients with history of confirmed COVID-19 with post-infection olfactory impairment that persisted ≥ 90 days after SARS-CoV-2 negative testing. Patients were randomized to two times a day olfactory rehabilitation alone or weekly olfactory rehabilitation plus daily oral supplement with PEA and Luteolin. Subjects with preexisting olfactory disorders were excluded. Sniffin' Sticks assessments were performed at baseline and 30 days after treatment.  Data on gender, age, and time since infection were collected. Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test was used to compare variances of Sniff scores between groups over time, and Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to assess for correlations between Sniff Score and gender or duration of infection. RESULTS: Among 12 patients enrolled (n=7, supplement; n=5, controls), patients receiving supplement had greater improvement in olfactory threshold, discrimination, and identification score versus controls (p=0.01). Time since infection was negatively correlated with Sniff Score, and there was no correlation between gender. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment combining olfactory rehabilitation with oral supplementation with PEA and Luteolin was associated with improved recovery of olfactory function, most marked in those patients with longstanding olfactory dysfunction. Further studies are necessary to replicate these findings and to determine whether early intervention including olfactory rehabilitation and PEA+Luteolin oral supplement might prevent SARS-CoV-2 associated olfactory impairment.


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ethanolamines/administration & dosage , Luteolin/administration & dosage , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Palmitic Acids/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pilot Projects , Single-Blind Method , Smell/drug effects , Smell/physiology
12.
Vasc Med ; 26(6): 626-632, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234444

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is an ongoing viral pandemic marked by increased risk of thrombotic events. However, the role of platelets in the elevated observed thrombotic risk in COVID-19 and utility of antiplatelet agents in attenuating thrombosis is unknown. We aimed to determine if the antiplatelet effect of aspirin may mitigate risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, and venous thromboembolism in COVID-19. We evaluated 22,072 symptomatic patients tested for COVID-19. Propensity-matched analyses were performed to determine if treatment with aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) affected thrombotic outcomes in COVID-19. Neither aspirin nor NSAIDs affected mortality in COVID-19. Thus, aspirin does not appear to prevent thrombosis and death in COVID-19. The mechanisms of thrombosis in COVID-19, therefore, appear distinct and the role of platelets as direct mediators of SARS-CoV-2-mediated thrombosis warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Inpatients , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Aspirin/adverse effects , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/virology
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 427, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219337

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hyperinflammation in severe COVID-19 infection increases the risk of respiratory failure and one of the cogent reasons of mortality associated with COVID-19. Baricitinib, a janus kinases inhibitor, can potentially suppress inflammatory cascades in severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of high dose of baricitinib with its usual dose in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. This prospective cohort study was conducted on 238 adult patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Eight milligram and 4 mg of baricitinib was given orally to 122 patients in the high dose (HD) group and 116 patients the usual dose (UD) group, respectively daily for 14 days, and clinical outcomes were compared among the groups. RESULTS: Blood oxygen saturation level was stabilized (≥94% on room air) earlier in the HD group compared to the UD group [5 (IQR: 4-5)/8 (IQR: 6-9), P < 0.05]. Patients in the HD group required intensive care unit (ICU) and intubation supports more in the UD group than that in patients of the HD group [17.2%/9%, P < 0.05; 11.2%/4.1%, P > 0.05; N = 116/122, respectively]. The 30-day mortality and 60-day rehospitalization rate were higher in the UD group than the HD group [6%/3.3%, P < 0.01; 11.9%/7.6%, P > 0.05; N = 116/122, respectively]. CONCLUSION: The daily high dose of baricitinib in severe COVID-19 results in early stabilization of the respiratory functions, declined requirements of critical care supports, reduced rehospitalization with mortality rate compared to its daily usual dose.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Azetidines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Purines/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Bangladesh , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Readmission , Prospective Studies , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
14.
Fam Med Community Health ; 9(2)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195851

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To review the pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease, potential aspirin targets on this pathogenesis and the potential role of aspirin in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Narrative review. SETTING: The online databases PubMed, OVID Medline and Cochrane Library were searched using relevant headlines from 1 January 2016 to 1 January 2021. International guidelines from relevant societies, journals and forums were also assessed for relevance. PARTICIPANTS: Not applicable. RESULTS: A review of the selected literature revealed that clinical deterioration in COVID-19 is attributed to the interplay between endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy and dysregulated inflammation. Aspirin has anti-inflammatory effects, antiplatelet aggregation, anticoagulant properties as well as pleiotropic effects on endothelial function. During the COVID-19 pandemic, low-dose aspirin is used effectively in secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee replacement, prevention of pre-eclampsia and postdischarge treatment for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Prehospital low-dose aspirin therapy may reduce the risk of intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, whereas aspirin association with mortality is still debatable. CONCLUSION: The authors recommend a low-dose aspirin regimen for primary prevention of arterial thromboembolism in patients aged 40-70 years who are at high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, or an intermediate risk with a risk-enhancer and have a low risk of bleeding. Aspirin's protective roles in COVID-19 associated with acute lung injury, vascular thrombosis without previous cardiovascular disease and mortality need further randomised controlled trials to establish causal conclusions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Aspirin , COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Aspirin/adverse effects , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Inflammation , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115110

ABSTRACT

A previously healthy 53-year-old man was hospitalised for 12 days due to COVID-19 with shortness of breath. A few days after discharge from hospital, the patient developed fever and severe pain in several joints in the lower extremities. The pain was so severe that the patient was unable to stand on his feet. Synovial fluid from the right-side knee contained a high number of polynuclear cells and a few mononuclear cells. Microscopy, culture and PCR tests for bacterial infection were all negative. Furthermore, the patient tested negative for rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27. Thus, the condition was compatible with reactive arthritis. The condition improved markedly after a few days' treatment with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and prednisolone.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Arthritis, Reactive , Arthritis , COVID-19 , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Synovial Fluid , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Arthralgia/diagnosis , Arthralgia/etiology , Arthritis/drug therapy , Arthritis/etiology , Arthritis/physiopathology , Arthritis, Reactive/diagnosis , Arthritis, Reactive/drug therapy , Arthritis, Reactive/physiopathology , Arthritis, Reactive/virology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnosis , Autoantibodies/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Knee Joint/diagnostic imaging , Lower Extremity/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography/methods , Synovial Fluid/cytology , Synovial Fluid/immunology , Treatment Outcome
16.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 20, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054829

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite its recognized efficacy and tolerability profile, during the last decade a rise of adverse events following ibuprofen administration in children has been reported, including a possible role in worsening the clinical course of infections. Our aim was to critically evaluate the safety of ibuprofen during the course of pediatric infectious disease in order to promote its appropriate use in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Ibuprofen is associated with severe necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) during chickenpox course. Pre-hospital use of ibuprofen seems to increase the risk of complicated pneumonia in children. Conflicting data have been published in septic children, while ibuprofen in the setting of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) exacerbations is safe and efficacious. No data is yet available for ibuprofen use during COVID-19 course. Ibuprofen should not be recommended for chickenpox management. Due to possible higher risks of complicated pneumonia, we suggest caution on its use in children with respiratory symptoms. While it remains unclear whether ibuprofen may have harmful effects during systemic bacterial infection, its administration is recommended in CF course. Despite the lack of data, it is seems cautious to prefer the use of paracetamol during COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome in children.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Ibuprofen/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Ibuprofen/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Therapie ; 75(4): 335-342, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014832

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has become a major public health problem. To date, there is no evidence of a higher incidence of COVID in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases and we support the approach of maintaining chronic rheumatological treatments. However, once infected there is a small but significant increased risk of mortality. Among the different treatments, NSAIDs are associated with higher rates of complications, but data for other drugs are conflicting or incomplete. The use of certain drugs for autoimmune inflammatory rheumatisms appears to be a potentially interesting options for the treatment. The rationale for their use is based on the immune system runaway and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il1, IL6, TNFα) in severe forms of the disease. Notably, patients on chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for their autoimmune rheumatic disease are not protected from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy
18.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(6): e13961, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010808

ABSTRACT

Immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory treatments are critical for the management of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions such as psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis. Similar to those illnesses, the lung injury and acute respiratory distress shown in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are the result of a disruption in the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This hyperinflammatory response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), associated with the severity of the coronavirus disease, is called the cytokine storm. There is a growing concern regarding how patients on immunosuppressant biologic therapies might be at higher risk of being infected and whether they need to discontinue their treatment preemptively. Clinical data on COVID-19-infected patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis are still scarce. Here, we presented seven cases of these type of patients. The patient infected with COVID-19 on apremilast and the one on apremilast with infected spouse showed the best safety profile and mildest symptoms. One of the secukinumab patients also presented a relatively good outcome. Infliximab patients and the one with serious comorbidities showed the worst outcome. Even though more clinical data are yet needed to draw strong conclusions, apremilast could be a safer alternative for dermatology and rheumatology patients in case of clinically important active infection.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Thalidomide/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Infliximab/administration & dosage , Infliximab/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Spain , Thalidomide/administration & dosage , Thalidomide/adverse effects
19.
Therapie ; 75(4): 355-362, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005987

ABSTRACT

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have an optional prescription status that has resulted in frequent use, in particular for the symptomatic treatment of fever and non-rheumatic pain. In 2019, a multi-source analysis of complementary pharmacological data showed that using NSAIDs in these indications (potentially indicative of an underlying infection) increases the risk of a severe bacterial complication, in particular in the case of lung infections. First, the clinical observations of the French Pharmacovigilance Network showed that severe bacterial infections can occur even after a short NSAID treatment, and even if the NSAID is associated with an antibiotic. Second, pharmacoepidemiological studies, some of which minimized the protopathic bias, all converged and confirmed the risk. Third, experimental in vitro and in vivo animal studies suggest several biological mechanisms, which strengthens a causal link beyond the well-known risk of delaying the care of the infection (immunomodulatory effects, effects on S. pyogenes infections, and reduced antibiotics efficacy). Therefore, in case of infection, symptomatic treatment with NSAIDs for non-severe symptoms (fever, pain, or myalgia) is not to be recommended, given a range of clinical and scientific arguments supporting an increased risk of severe bacterial complication. Besides, the existence of a safer drug alternative, with paracetamol at recommended doses, makes this recommendation of precaution and common sense even more legitimate. In 2020, such recommendation is more topical than ever with the emergence of COVID-19, especially since it results in fever, headaches, muscular pain, and cough, and is further complicated with pneumopathy, and given experimental data suggesting a link between ibuprofen and the level of expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/etiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , France , Humans , Ibuprofen/administration & dosage , Ibuprofen/adverse effects , Ibuprofen/pharmacology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology
20.
Br J Pharmacol ; 177(21): 4899-4920, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991236

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly pathogenic and sometimes fatal respiratory disease responsible for the current 2020 global pandemic. Presently, there remains no effective vaccine or efficient treatment strategies against COVID-19. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are medicines very widely used to alleviate fever, pain, and inflammation (common symptoms of COVID-19 patients) through effectively blocking production of prostaglandins (PGs) via inhibition of cyclooxyganase enzymes. PGs can exert either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects depending on the inflammatory scenario. In this review, we survey the potential roles that NSAIDs and PGs may play during SARS-CoV-2 infection and the development and progression of COVID-19. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed issue on The Pharmacology of COVID-19. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v177.21/issuetoc.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prostaglandins/administration & dosage , Prostaglandins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
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