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1.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471002

ABSTRACT

West Java Health Laboratory (WJHL) is one of the many institutions in Indonesia that have sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genome. Although having submitted a large number of sequences since September 2020, however, these submitted data lack advanced analyses. Therefore, in this study, we analyze the variant distribution, hotspot mutation, and its impact on protein structure and function of SARS-CoV-2 from the collected samples from WJHL. As many as one hundred sixty-three SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences submitted by West Java Health Laboratory (WJHL), with collection dates between September 2020 and June 2021, were retrieved from GISAID. Subsequently, the frequency and distribution of non-synonymous mutations across different cities and regencies from these samples were analyzed. The effect of the most prevalent mutations from dominant variants on the stability of their corresponding proteins was examined. The samples mostly consisted of people of working-age, and were distributed between female and male equally. All of the sample sequences showed varying levels of diversity, especially samples from West Bandung which carried the highest diversity. Dominant variants are the VOC B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant, B.1.466.2 variant, and B.1.470 variant. The genomic regions with the highest number of mutations are the spike, NSP3, nucleocapsid, NSP12, and ORF3a protein. Mutation analysis showed that mutations in structural protein might increase the stability of the protein. Oppositely, mutations in non-structural protein might lead to a decrease in protein stability. However, further research to study the impact of mutations on the function of SARS-CoV-2 proteins are required.


Subject(s)
Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Disease Hotspot , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mutation/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Protein Stability , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
2.
Cell Rep ; 36(13): 109754, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401298

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro) is a target for antiviral drug development. It is essential for processing viral polyproteins for replication and functions in host immune evasion by cleaving ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like protein (Ubl) conjugates. While highly conserved, SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV PLpro have contrasting Ub/Ubl substrate preferences. Using a combination of structural analyses and functional assays, we identify a molecular sensor within the S1 Ub-binding site of PLpro that serves as a key determinant of substrate specificity. Variations within the S1 sensor specifically alter cleavage of Ub substrates but not of the Ubl interferon-stimulated gene 15 protein (ISG15). Significantly, a variant of concern associated with immune evasion carries a mutation in the S1 sensor that enhances PLpro activity on Ub substrates. Collectively, our data identify the S1 sensor region as a potential hotspot of variability that could alter host antiviral immune responses to newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 lineages.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Papain/chemistry , Papain/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protein Binding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Substrate Specificity/genetics , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5350-5357, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384240

ABSTRACT

PARP14 and PARP9 play a key role in macrophage immune regulation. SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging viral disease that triggers hyper-inflammation known as a cytokine storm. In this study, using in silico tools, we hypothesize about the immunological phenomena of molecular mimicry between SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3 and the human PARP14 and PARP9. The results showed an epitope of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3 protein that contains consensus sequences for both human PARP14 and PARP9 that are antigens for MHC Classes 1 and 2, which can potentially induce an immune response against human PARP14 and PARP9; while its depletion causes a hyper-inflammatory state in SARS-CoV-2 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Neoplasm Proteins/chemistry , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Consensus Sequence , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Gene Expression , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/chemistry , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/chemistry , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Mimicry , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/immunology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/genetics , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/immunology , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Thermodynamics
4.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform ; 18(4): 1262-1270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349900

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 encodes the Mac1 domain within the large nonstructural protein 3 (Nsp3), which has an ADP-ribosylhydrolase activity conserved in other coronaviruses. The enzymatic activity of Mac1 makes it an essential virulence factor for the pathogenicity of coronavirus (CoV). They have a regulatory role in counteracting host-mediated antiviral ADP-ribosylation, which is unique part of host response towards viral infections. Mac1 shows highly conserved residues in the binding pocket for the mono and poly ADP-ribose. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 Mac1 enzyme is considered as an ideal drug target and inhibitors developed against them can possess a broad antiviral activity against CoV. ADP-ribose-1 phosphate bound closed form of Mac1 domain is considered for screening with large database of ZINC. XP docking and QPLD provides strong potential lead compounds, that perfectly fits inside the binding pocket. Quantum mechanical studies expose that, substrate and leads have similar electron donor ability in the head regions, that allocates tight binding inside the substrate-binding pocket. Molecular dynamics study confirms the substrate and new lead molecules presence of electron donor and acceptor makes the interactions tight inside the binding pocket. Overall binding phenomenon shows both substrate and lead molecules are well-adopt to bind with similar binding mode inside the closed form of Mac1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Domains , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , User-Computer Interface
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 188: 137-146, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345340

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which has led to more than 4 million deaths worldwide. As a result, there is a worldwide effort to develop specific drugs for targeting COVID-19. Papain-like protease (PLpro) is an attractive drug target because it has multiple essential functions involved in processing viral proteins, including viral genome replication and removal of post-translational ubiquitination modifications. Here, we established two assays for screening PLpro inhibitors according to protease and anti-ISGylation activities, respectively. Application of the two screening techniques to the library of clinically approved drugs led to the discovery of tanshinone IIA sulfonate sodium and chloroxine with their IC50 values of lower than 10 µM. These two compounds were found to directly interact with PLpro and their molecular mechanisms of binding were illustrated by docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The results highlight the usefulness of the two developed screening techniques for locating PLpro inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Chloroquinolinols/chemistry , Chloroquinolinols/pharmacology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phenanthrenes/chemistry , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
6.
Biochem J ; 478(13): 2517-2531, 2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290988

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as the biggest life-threatening disease of this century. Whilst vaccination should provide a long-term solution, this is pitted against the constant threat of mutations in the virus rendering the current vaccines less effective. Consequently, small molecule antiviral agents would be extremely useful to complement the vaccination program. The causative agent of COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which encodes at least nine enzymatic activities that all have drug targeting potential. The papain-like protease (PLpro) contained in the nsp3 protein generates viral non-structural proteins from a polyprotein precursor, and cleaves ubiquitin and ISG protein conjugates. Here we describe the expression and purification of PLpro. We developed a protease assay that was used to screen a custom compound library from which we identified dihydrotanshinone I and Ro 08-2750 as compounds that inhibit PLpro in protease and isopeptidase assays and also inhibit viral replication in cell culture-based assays.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Aniline Compounds/pharmacology , Animals , Benzamides/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Drug Synergism , Enzyme Assays , Flavins/pharmacology , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Furans/pharmacology , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Quinones/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288958

ABSTRACT

Spanish flu, polio epidemics, and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic are the most profound examples of severe widespread diseases caused by RNA viruses. The coronavirus pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) demands affordable and reliable assays for testing antivirals. To test inhibitors of viral proteases, we have developed an inexpensive high-throughput assay based on fluorescent energy transfer (FRET). We assayed an array of inhibitors for papain-like protease from SARS-CoV-2 and validated it on protease from the tick-borne encephalitis virus to emphasize its versatility. The reaction progress is monitored as loss of FRET signal of the substrate. This robust and reproducible assay can be used for testing the inhibitors in 96- or 384-well plates.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , RNA Viruses/enzymology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne/enzymology , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Humans , RNA Helicases/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA Helicases/chemistry , RNA Helicases/genetics , RNA Helicases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
8.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 20: 100120, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284342

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses have become an increasing threat to global health; three highly pathogenic strains have emerged since the early 2000s, including most recently SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of coronavirus pathogenesis is needed, including how these highly virulent strains differ from those that cause milder, common-cold-like disease. While significant progress has been made in understanding how SARS-CoV-2 proteins interact with the host cell, nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) has largely been omitted from the analyses. Nsp3 is a viral protease with important roles in viral protein biogenesis, replication complex formation, and modulation of host ubiquitinylation and ISGylation. Herein, we use affinity purification-mass spectrometry to study the host-viral protein-protein interactome of nsp3 from five coronavirus strains: pathogenic strains SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV; and endemic common-cold strains hCoV-229E and hCoV-OC43. We divide each nsp3 into three fragments and use tandem mass tag technology to directly compare the interactors across the five strains for each fragment. We find that few interactors are common across all variants for a particular fragment, but we identify shared patterns between select variants, such as ribosomal proteins enriched in the N-terminal fragment (nsp3.1) data set for SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. We also identify unique biological processes enriched for individual homologs, for instance, nuclear protein import for the middle fragment of hCoV-229E, as well as ribosome biogenesis of the MERS nsp3.2 homolog. Lastly, we further investigate the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 nsp3 N-terminal fragment with ATF6, a regulator of the unfolded protein response. We show that SARS-CoV-2 nsp3.1 directly binds to ATF6 and can suppress the ATF6 stress response. Characterizing the host interactions of nsp3 widens our understanding of how coronaviruses co-opt cellular pathways and presents new avenues for host-targeted antiviral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factor 6/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus 229E, Human/pathogenicity , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Protein Interaction Maps , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Unfolded Protein Response , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(23): 5608-5615, 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263456

ABSTRACT

Papain-like protease (PLpro) from SARS-CoV-2 plays essential roles in the replication cycle of the virus. In particular, it preferentially interacts with and cleaves human interferon-stimulated gene 15 (hISG15) to suppress the innate immune response of the host. We used small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering combined with computational techniques to study the mechanism of interaction of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro with hISG15. We showed that hISG15 undergoes a transition from an extended to a compact state after binding to PLpro, a conformation that has not been previously observed in complexes of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro with ISG15 from other species. Furthermore, computational analysis showed significant conformational flexibility in the ISG15 N-terminal domain, suggesting that it is weakly bound to PLpro and supports a binding mechanism that is dominated by the C-terminal ISG15 domain. This study fundamentally improves our understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 deISGylation complex that will help guide development of COVID-19 therapeutics targeting this complex.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Cytokines/chemistry , Cytokines/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Ubiquitins/chemistry , Ubiquitins/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Humans , Neutron Diffraction , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Scattering, Small Angle , Ubiquitins/genetics , X-Ray Diffraction
10.
Biophys Chem ; 276: 106610, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252522

ABSTRACT

In the new millennium, the outbreak of new coronavirus has happened three times: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. Unfortunately, we still have no pharmaceutical weapons against the diseases caused by these viruses. The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 reminds us the urgency to search new drugs with totally different mechanism that may target the weaknesses specific to coronaviruses. Herein, we disclose a computational evaluation of targeted oxidation strategy (TOS) for potential inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by disulfiram, a 70-year-old anti-alcoholism drug, and predict a multiple-target mechanism. A preliminary list of promising TOS drug candidates targeting the two thiol proteases of SARS-CoV-2 are proposed upon virtual screening of 32,143 disulfides.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Deterrents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Disulfiram/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Alcohol Deterrents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Disulfiram/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Gene Expression , Humans , Kinetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oxidation-Reduction , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Secondary , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Substrate Specificity , Thermodynamics
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2406-2419, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227754

ABSTRACT

The analyses of 2325 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomes revealed 107, 162, and 65 nucleotide substitutions in the coding region of SARS-CoV-2 from the three continents America, Europe, and Asia, respectively. Of these nucleotide substitutions 58, 94, and 37 were nonsynonymous types mostly present in the Nsp2, Nsp3, Spike, and ORF9. A continent-specific phylogram analyses clustered the SARS-CoV-2 in the different group based on the frequency of nucleotide substitutions. Detailed analyses about the continent-specific amino acid changes and their effectiveness by SNAP2 software was investigated. We found 11 common nonsynonymous mutations; among them, two novel effective mutations were identified in ORF9 (S194L and S202N). Intriguingly, ORF9 encodes nucleocapsid phosphoprotein possessing many effective mutations across continents and could be a potential candidate after the spike protein for studying the role of mutation in viral assembly and pathogenesis. Among the two forms of certain frequent mutation, one form is more prevalent in Europe continents (Nsp12:L314, Nsp13:P504, Nsp13:Y541, Spike:G614, and ORF8:L84) while other forms are more prevalent in American (Nsp12:P314, Nsp13:L504, Nsp13:C541, Spike:D614, and ORF8:L84) and Asian continents (Spike:D614), indicating the spatial and temporal dynamics of SARS-CoV-2. We identified highly conserved 38 regions and among these regions, 11 siRNAs were predicted on stringent criteria that can be used to suppress the expression of viral genes and the corresponding reduction of human viral infections. The present investigation provides information on different mutations and will pave the way for differentiating strains based on virulence and their use in the development of better antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Europe/epidemiology , Gene Silencing , Genes, Viral , Genome, Viral , Humans , Open Reading Frames , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phylogeny , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5350-5357, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206838

ABSTRACT

PARP14 and PARP9 play a key role in macrophage immune regulation. SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging viral disease that triggers hyper-inflammation known as a cytokine storm. In this study, using in silico tools, we hypothesize about the immunological phenomena of molecular mimicry between SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3 and the human PARP14 and PARP9. The results showed an epitope of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3 protein that contains consensus sequences for both human PARP14 and PARP9 that are antigens for MHC Classes 1 and 2, which can potentially induce an immune response against human PARP14 and PARP9; while its depletion causes a hyper-inflammatory state in SARS-CoV-2 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Neoplasm Proteins/chemistry , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Consensus Sequence , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Gene Expression , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/chemistry , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/chemistry , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Mimicry , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/immunology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/genetics , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/immunology , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Thermodynamics
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 2722-2734, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196526

ABSTRACT

The 21st century has witnessed three outbreaks of coronavirus (CoVs) infections caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, spreads rapidly and since the discovery of the first COVID-19 infection in December 2019, has caused 1.2 million deaths worldwide and 226,777 deaths in the United States alone. The high amino acid similarity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins supports testing therapeutic molecules that were designed to treat SARS infections during the 2003 epidemic. In this review, we provide information on possible COVID-19 treatment strategies that act via inhibition of the two essential proteins of the virus, 3C-like protease (3CLpro ) or papain-like protease (PLpro ).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Viral Proteases/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/drug effects , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1722-1731, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196497

ABSTRACT

During the first few months of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) evolution in a new host, contrasting hypotheses have been proposed about the way the virus has evolved and diversified worldwide. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive evolutionary analysis to describe the human outbreak and the evolutionary rate of different genomic regions of SARS-CoV-2. The molecular evolution in nine genomic regions of SARS-CoV-2 was analyzed using three different approaches: phylogenetic signal assessment, emergence of amino acid substitutions, and Bayesian evolutionary rate estimation in eight successive fortnights since the virus emergence. All observed phylogenetic signals were very low and tree topologies were in agreement with those signals. However, after 4 months of evolution, it was possible to identify regions revealing an incipient viral lineage formation, despite the low phylogenetic signal since fortnight 3. Finally, the SARS-CoV-2 evolutionary rate for regions nsp3 and S, the ones presenting greater variability, was estimated as 1.37 × 10-3 and 2.19 × 10-3 substitution/site/year, respectively. In conclusion, results from this study about the variable diversity of crucial viral regions and determination of the evolutionary rate are consequently decisive to understand essential features of viral emergence. In turn, findings may allow the first-time characterization of the evolutionary rate of S protein, crucial for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Chiroptera/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Phylogeny
15.
Protein Cell ; 12(11): 877-888, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188202

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the etiologic agent for the COVID-19 outbreak. Currently, effective treatment options remain very limited for this disease; therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new anti-COVID-19 agents. In this study, we screened over 6,000 compounds that included approved drugs, drug candidates in clinical trials, and pharmacologically active compounds to identify leads that target the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro). Together with main protease (Mpro), PLpro is responsible for processing the viral replicase polyprotein into functional units. Therefore, it is an attractive target for antiviral drug development. Here we discovered four compounds, YM155, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and GRL0617 that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 PLpro with IC50 values ranging from 1.39 to 5.63 µmol/L. These compounds also exhibit strong antiviral activities in cell-based assays. YM155, an anticancer drug candidate in clinical trials, has the most potent antiviral activity with an EC50 value of 170 nmol/L. In addition, we have determined the crystal structures of this enzyme and its complex with YM155, revealing a unique binding mode. YM155 simultaneously targets three "hot" spots on PLpro, including the substrate-binding pocket, the interferon stimulating gene product 15 (ISG15) binding site and zinc finger motif. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of this screening and repurposing strategy, which has led to the discovery of new drug leads with clinical potential for COVID-19 treatments.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Imidazoles/chemistry , Imidazoles/metabolism , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Naphthoquinones/chemistry , Naphthoquinones/metabolism , Naphthoquinones/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Virus Genes ; 57(3): 245-249, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121392

ABSTRACT

In view of the rapidly progressing COVID-19 pandemic, our aim was to isolate and characterize SARS-CoV-2 from Indian patients. SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs collected from the two members of a family without any history of (H/O) travel abroad. Both the virus isolates (8003 and 8004) showed CPE on day 3 post-inoculation, viral antigens by immunofluorescence assay and produced distinct, clear and uniform plaques. Infectious virus titers were 5 × 106 and 4 × 106 Pfu/ml by plaque assay and 107.5 and 107 by CPE-based TCID50/ml, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis grouped our isolates with the Italian strains. On comparison with Wuhan strain, 3 unique mutations were identified in nsp3 (A1812D), exonuclease (P1821S) of Orf1ab and spike protein (Q677H) regions, respectively. Both the viruses grouped with Italian strains of SARS-CoV-2 suggesting possible source being the virus imported from Italy. These fully characterized virus isolates will be useful in developing neutralization/virological assays for the evaluation of vaccines/antivirals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Exonucleases/genetics , Genome, Viral , Humans , India , Mutation , Nasopharynx/virology , Phylogeny , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Travel , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Plaque Assay , Whole Genome Sequencing
17.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 40: 101980, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Marseille, France, the COVID-19 incidence evolved unusually with several successive epidemic phases. The second outbreak started in July, was associated with North Africa, and involved travelers and an outbreak on passenger ships. This suggested the involvement of a new viral variant. METHODS: We sequenced the genomes from 916 SARS-CoV-2 strains from COVID-19 patients in our institute. The patients' demographic and clinical features were compared according to the infecting viral variant. RESULTS: From June 26th to August 14th, we identified a new viral variant (Marseille-1). Based on genome sequences (n = 89) or specific qPCR (n = 53), 142 patients infected with this variant were detected. It is characterized by a combination of 10 mutations located in the nsp2, nsp3, nsp12, S, ORF3a, ORF8 and N/ORF14 genes. We identified Senegal and Gambia, where the virus had been transferred from China and Europe in February-April as the sources of the Marseille-1 variant, which then most likely reached Marseille through Maghreb when French borders reopened. In France, this variant apparently remained almost limited to Marseille. In addition, it was significantly associated with a milder disease compared to clade 20A ancestor strains, in univariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 can genetically diversify rapidly, its variants can diffuse internationally and cause successive outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Aged , Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Female , France/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phylogeny , Travel , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(1): 59-66, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064447

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) belongs to the single-stranded positive-sense RNA family. The virus contains a large genome that encodes four structural proteins, small envelope (E), matrix (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), spike (S), and 16 nonstructural proteins (nsp1-16) that together, ensure replication of the virus in the host cell. Among these proteins, the interactions of N and Nsp3 are essential that links the viral genome for processing. The N proteins reside at CoV RNA synthesis sites known as the replication-transcription complexes (RTCs). The N-terminal of N has RNA-binding domain (N-NTD), capturing the RNA genome while the C-terminal domain (N-CTD) anchors the viral Nsp3, a component of RTCs. Although the structural information has been recently released, the residues involved in contacts between N-CTD with Nsp3 are still unknown. To find the residues involved in interactions between two proteins, three-dimensional structures of both proteins were retrieved and docked using HADDOCK. Residues at N-CTD were detected in interaction with L499, R500, K501, V502, P503, T504, D505, N506, Y507, I508, T509, K529, K530K532, S533 of Nsp3 and N-NTD to synthesize SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The interaction between Nsp3 and CTD of N protein may be a potential drug target. The current study provides information for better understanding the interaction between N protein and Nsp3 that could be a possible target for future inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Crystallography, X-Ray , Drug Design , Genome, Viral , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Protein Binding/physiology , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
19.
J Chem Inf Model ; 60(12): 5853-5865, 2020 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065772

ABSTRACT

Tremendous effort has been given to the development of diagnostic tests, preventive vaccines, and therapeutic medicines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Much of this development has been based on the reference genome collected on January 5, 2020. Based on the genotyping of 15 140 genome samples collected up to June 1, 2020, we report that SARS-CoV-2 has undergone 8309 single mutations which can be clustered into six subtypes. We introduce mutation ratio and mutation h-index to characterize the protein conservativeness and unveil that SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein, main protease, and endoribonuclease protein are relatively conservative, while SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein, spike protein, and papain-like protease are relatively nonconservative. In particular, we have identified mutations on 40% of nucleotides in the nucleocapsid gene in the population level, signaling potential impacts on the ongoing development of COVID-19 diagnosis, vaccines, and antibody and small-molecular drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/chemistry , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Geography , Humans , Mutant Proteins/chemistry , Mutant Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Protein Conformation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
20.
FASEB J ; 35(1): e21197, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012122

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 encode four structural and accessory proteins (spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins) and two polyproteins (pp1a and pp1ab). The polyproteins are further cleaved by 3C-like cysteine protease (3CLpro ) and papain-like protease (PLpro ) into 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). PLpro is released from nsp3 through autocleavage, and then it cleaves the sites between nsp1/2, between nsp2/3 and between nsp3/4 with recognition motif of LXGG, and the sites in the C-terminus of ubiquitin and of protein interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) with recognition motif of RLRGG. Alone or together with SARS unique domain (SUD), PLpro can stabilize an E3 ubiquitin ligase, the ring-finger, and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1), through domain interaction, and thus, promote RCHY1 to ubiquitinate its target proteins including p53. However, a dilemma appears in terms of PLpro roles. On the one hand, the ubiquitination of p53 is good for SARS-CoV because the ubiquitinated p53 cannot inhibit SARS-CoV replication. On the other hand, the ubiquitination of NF-κB inhibitor (IκBα), TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs), and stimulator of interferon gene (STING), and the ISGylation of targeted proteins are bad for SARS-CoV because these ubiquitination and ISGylation initiate the innate immune response and antiviral state. This mini-review analyzes the dilemma and provides a snapshot on how the viral PLpro smartly manages its roles to avoid its simultaneously contradictory actions, which could shed lights on possible strategies to deal with SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/physiology , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Genes, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Domains , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Substrate Specificity , Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
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