Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 29
Filter
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742489

ABSTRACT

The pandemic emergency determined by the spreading worldwide of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has focused the scientific and economic efforts of the pharmaceutical industry and governments on the possibility to fight the virus by genetic immunization. The genetic material must be delivered inside the cells by means of vectors. Due to the risk of adverse or immunogenic reaction or replication connected with the more efficient viral vectors, non-viral vectors are in many cases considered as a preferred strategy for gene delivery into eukaryotic cells. This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the gene delivery ability of new synthesized gemini bis-pyridinium surfactants with six methylene spacers, both hydrogenated and fluorinated, in comparison with compounds with spacers of different lengths, previously studied. Results from MTT proliferation assay, electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA), transient transfection assay tests and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging confirm that pyridinium gemini surfactants could be a valuable tool for gene delivery purposes, but their performance is highly dependent on the spacer length and strictly related to their structure in solution. All the fluorinated compounds are unable to transfect RD-4 cells, if used alone, but they are all able to deliver a plasmid carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression cassette, when co-formulated with 1,2-dioleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) in a 1:2 ratio. The fluorinated compounds with spacers formed by six (FGP6) and eight carbon atoms (FGP8) give rise to a very interesting gene delivery activity, greater to that of the commercial reagent, when formulated with DOPE. The hydrogenated compound GP16_6 is unable to sufficiently compact the DNA, as shown by AFM images.


Subject(s)
DNA/genetics , Gene Transfer Techniques , Methane/chemistry , Pyridinium Compounds/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Transfection/methods , A549 Cells , Cell Survival , DNA/chemistry , DNA/metabolism , Genetic Therapy/methods , Halogenation , Humans , Hydrogenation , Methane/metabolism , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Molecular Structure , Plasmids/chemistry , Plasmids/genetics , Plasmids/metabolism , Pyridinium Compounds/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Surface-Active Agents/metabolism
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112743, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703121

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are a common cause of morbidity worldwide. The emergence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to more attention to viral infections and finding novel therapeutics. The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been recently proposed as a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of viral diseases. Here, we review the research progress in the use of CRISPR-Cas technology for treating viral infections, as well as the strategies for improving the delivery of this gene-editing tool in vivo. Key challenges that hinder the widespread clinical application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology are also discussed, and several possible directions for future research are proposed.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing/methods , Genetic Therapy/methods , Virus Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Genome, Viral , HIV Infections/therapy , Hepatitis B/therapy , Herpesviridae Infections/therapy , Humans , Papillomavirus Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648333

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is currently the most serious challenge to global public health. Its emergence has severely disrupted the functioning of health services and the economic and social situation worldwide. Therefore, new diagnostic and therapeutic tools are urgently needed to allow for the early detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and appropriate treatment, which is crucial for the effective control of the COVID-19 disease. The ideal solution seems to be the use of aptamers-short fragments of nucleic acids, DNA or RNA-that can bind selected proteins with high specificity and affinity. They can be used in methods that base the reading of the test result on fluorescence phenomena, chemiluminescence, and electrochemical changes. Exploiting the properties of aptamers will enable the introduction of rapid, sensitive, specific, and low-cost tests for the routine diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. Aptamers are excellent candidates for the development of point-of-care diagnostic devices and are potential therapeutic tools for the treatment of COVID-19. They can effectively block coronavirus activity in multiple fields by binding viral proteins and acting as carriers of therapeutic substances. In this review, we present recent developments in the design of various types of aptasensors to detect and treat the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Aptamers, Nucleotide/pharmacology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/economics , Genetic Therapy/methods , Genetic Therapy/trends , Humans , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580694

ABSTRACT

Telomeres are localized at the end of chromosomes to provide genome stability; however, the telomere length tends to be shortened with each cell division inducing a progressive telomere shortening (TS). In addition to age, other factors, such as exposure to pollutants, diet, stress, and disruptions in the shelterin protein complex or genes associated with telomerase induce TS. This phenomenon favors cellular senescence and genotoxic stress, which increases the risk of the development and progression of lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and lung cancer. In an infectious environment, immune cells that exhibit TS are associated with severe lymphopenia and death, whereas in a noninfectious context, naïve T cells that exhibit TS are related to cancer progression and enhanced inflammatory processes. In this review, we discuss how TS modifies the function of the immune system cells, making them inefficient in maintaining homeostasis in the lung. Finally, we discuss the advances in drug and gene therapy for lung diseases where TS could be used as a target for future treatments.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases/genetics , Lung Diseases/immunology , Telomere Shortening/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Genetic Therapy/methods , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Diseases/drug therapy
5.
Int Immunol ; 33(10): 521-527, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575141

ABSTRACT

There is currently an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. Individuals with COVID-19 have symptoms that are usually asymptomatic or mild in most initial cases. However, in some cases, moderate and severe symptoms have been observed with pneumonia. Many companies are developing COVID-19 vaccine candidates using different technologies that are classified into four groups (intact target viruses, proteins, viral vectors and nucleic acids). For rapid development, RNA vaccines and adenovirus vector vaccines have been urgently approved, and their injection has already started across the world. These types of vaccine technologies have been developed over more than 20 years using translational research for use against cancer or diseases caused by genetic disorders but the COVID-19 vaccines are the first licensed drugs to prevent infectious diseases using RNA vaccine technology. Although these vaccines are highly effective in preventing COVID-19 for a short period, safety and efficiency evaluations should be continuously monitored over a long time period. As the time of writing, more than 10 projects are now in phase 3 to evaluate the prevention of infection in double-blind studies. Hopefully, several projects may be approved to ensure high-efficiency and safe vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Animals , Double-Blind Method , Genetic Therapy/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Technology/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112385, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565522

ABSTRACT

Chemically modified mRNA represents a unique, efficient, and straightforward approach to produce a class of biopharmaceutical agents. It has been already approved as a vaccination-based method for targeting SARS-CoV-2 virus. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the prospect of synthetic modified mRNA to efficiently and safely combat various diseases. Recently, various optimization advances have been adopted to overcome the limitations associated with conventional gene therapeutics leading to wide-ranging applications in different disease conditions. This review sheds light on emerging directions of chemically modified mRNAs to prevent and treat widespread chronic diseases, including metabolic disorders, cancer vaccination and immunotherapy, musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory conditions, cardiovascular diseases, and liver diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/therapy , Genetic Therapy/methods , Immunotherapy/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic , Biological Availability , Drug Carriers , Forecasting , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Genetic Vectors/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunotherapy, Active , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology
7.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 43(1): 105-112, 2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559691

ABSTRACT

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) is a novel molecular tool. In recent days, it has been highlighted a lot, as the Nobel prize was awarded for this sector in 2020, and also for its recent use in Covid-19 related diagnostics. Otherwise, it is an eminent gene-editing technique applied in diverse medical zones of therapeutics in genetic diseases, hematological diseases, infectious diseases, etc., research related to molecular biology, cancer, hereditary diseases, immune and inflammatory diseases, etc., diagnostics related to infectious diseases like viral hemorrhagic fevers, Covid-19, etc. In this review, its discovery, working mechanisms, challenges while handling the technique, recent advancements, applications, alternatives have been discussed. It is a cheaper, faster technique revolutionizing the medicinal field right now. However, their off-target effects and difficulties in delivery into the desired cells make CRISPR, not easily utilizable. We conclude that further robust research in this field may promise many interesting, useful results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Genetic Therapy/methods , Humans , Molecular Biology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 144: 107994, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499650

ABSTRACT

Gene therapies are revolutionizing medicine by providing a way to cure hitherto incurable diseases. The scientific and technological advances have enabled the first gene therapies to become clinically approved. In addition, with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we are witnessing record speeds in the development and distribution of gene-based vaccines. For gene therapy to take effect, the therapeutic nucleic acids (RNA or DNA) need to overcome several barriers before they can execute their function of producing a protein or silencing a defective or overexpressing gene. This includes the barriers of the interstitium, the cell membrane, the cytoplasmic barriers and (in case of DNA) the nuclear envelope. Gene electrotransfer (GET), i.e., transfection by means of pulsed electric fields, is a non-viral technique that can overcome these barriers in a safe and effective manner. GET has reached the clinical stage of investigations where it is currently being evaluated for its therapeutic benefits across a wide variety of indications. In this review, we formalize our current understanding of GET from a biophysical perspective and critically discuss the mechanisms by which electric field can aid in overcoming the barriers. We also identify the gaps in knowledge that are hindering optimization of GET in vivo.


Subject(s)
Electroporation , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Therapy , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Electroporation/instrumentation , Electroporation/methods , Equipment Design , Gene Transfer Techniques/instrumentation , Genetic Therapy/methods , Humans , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , /genetics , /therapeutic use
9.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 179: 113998, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465980

ABSTRACT

Gene therapy has been widely investigated for the treatment of genetic, acquired, and infectious diseases. Pioneering work utilized viral vectors; however, these are suspected of causing serious adverse events, resulting in the termination of several clinical trials. Non-viral vectors, such as lipid nanoparticles, have attracted significant interest, mainly due to their successful use in vaccines in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Although they allow safe delivery, they come with the disadvantage of off-target delivery. The application of ultrasound to ultrasound-sensitive particles allows for a direct, site-specific transfer of genetic materials into the organ/site of interest. This process, termed ultrasound-targeted gene delivery (UTGD), also increases cell membrane permeability and enhances gene uptake. This review focuses on the advances in ultrasound and the development of ultrasonic particles for UTGD across a range of diseases. Furthermore, we discuss the limitations and future perspectives of UTGD.


Subject(s)
Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Therapy/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Ultrasonics , Animals , COVID-19 , Humans , Liposomes , Nanoparticles
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112247, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446461

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pneumonia-like disease with highly transmittable and pathogenic properties caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which infects both animals and humans. Although many efforts are currently underway to test possible therapies, there is no specific FDA approved drug against SARS-CoV-2 yet. miRNA-directed gene regulation controls the majority of biological processes. In addition, the development and progression of several human diseases are associated with dysregulation of miRNAs. In this regard, it has been shown that changes in miRNAs are linked to severity of COVID-19 especially in patients with respiratory diseases, diabetes, heart failure or kidney problems. Therefore, targeting these small noncoding-RNAs could potentially alleviate complications from COVID-19. Here, we will review the roles and importance of host and RNA virus encoded miRNAs in COVID-19 pathogenicity and immune response. Then, we focus on potential miRNA therapeutics in the patients who are at increased risk for severe disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Genetic Therapy/methods , MicroRNAs/administration & dosage , Animals , Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/immunology
12.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 448, 2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388825

ABSTRACT

Gene therapy is being investigated for a range of serious lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and emphysema. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is a well-established, safe, viral vector for gene delivery with multiple naturally occurring and artificial serotypes available displaying alternate cell, tissue, and species-specific tropisms. Efficient AAV serotypes for the transduction of the conducting airways have been identified for several species; however, efficient serotypes for human lung parenchyma have not yet been identified. Here, we screened the ability of multiple AAV serotypes to transduce lung bud organoids (LBOs)-a model of human lung parenchyma generated from human embryonic stem cells. Microinjection of LBOs allowed us to model transduction from the luminal surface, similar to dosing via vector inhalation. We identified the naturally occurring rAAV2 and rAAV6 serotypes, along with synthetic rAAV6 variants, as having tropism for the human lung parenchyma. Positive staining of LBOs for surfactant proteins B and C confirmed distal lung identity and suggested the suitability of these vectors for the transduction of alveolar type II cells. Our findings establish LBOs as a new model for pulmonary gene therapy and stress the relevance of LBOs as a viral infection model of the lung parenchyma as relevant in SARS-CoV-2 research.


Subject(s)
Dependovirus/genetics , Genetic Therapy/methods , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Organoids/cytology , Cell Line , Dependovirus/immunology , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Models, Biological , Parenchymal Tissue/cytology
13.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376988

ABSTRACT

The human adenovirus phylogenetic tree is split across seven species (A-G). Species D adenoviruses offer potential advantages for gene therapy applications, with low rates of pre-existing immunity detected across screened populations. However, many aspects of the basic virology of species D-such as their cellular tropism, receptor usage, and in vivo biodistribution profile-remain unknown. Here, we have characterized human adenovirus type 49 (HAdV-D49)-a relatively understudied species D member. We report that HAdV-D49 does not appear to use a single pathway to gain cell entry, but appears able to interact with various surface molecules for entry. As such, HAdV-D49 can transduce a broad range of cell types in vitro, with variable engagement of blood coagulation FX. Interestingly, when comparing in vivo biodistribution to adenovirus type 5, HAdV-D49 vectors show reduced liver targeting, whilst maintaining transduction of lung and spleen. Overall, this presents HAdV-D49 as a robust viral vector platform for ex vivo manipulation of human cells, and for in vivo applications where the therapeutic goal is to target the lung or gain access to immune cells in the spleen, whilst avoiding liver interactions, such as intravascular vaccine applications.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Genetic Therapy/methods , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/classification , Adenoviruses, Human/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line , Genes, Reporter , Genetic Therapy/instrumentation , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Humans , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , Mice , Phylogeny , Spleen/virology , Transduction, Genetic
14.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 20(8): 629-651, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341001

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic targeting of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), represents an attractive approach for the treatment of cancers, as well as many other diseases. Over the past decade, substantial effort has been made towards the clinical application of RNA-based therapeutics, employing mostly antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs, with several gaining FDA approval. However, trial results have so far been ambivalent, with some studies reporting potent effects whereas others demonstrated limited efficacy or toxicity. Alternative entities such as antimiRNAs are undergoing clinical testing, and lncRNA-based therapeutics are gaining interest. In this Perspective, we discuss key challenges facing ncRNA therapeutics - including issues associated with specificity, delivery and tolerability - and focus on promising emerging approaches that aim to boost their success.


Subject(s)
Genetic Therapy/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms/therapy , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Animals , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics
15.
Mol Ther ; 29(10): 3042-3058, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331299

ABSTRACT

Reprogramming non-cardiomyocytes (non-CMs) into cardiomyocyte (CM)-like cells is a promising strategy for cardiac regeneration in conditions such as ischemic heart disease. Here, we used a modified mRNA (modRNA) gene delivery platform to deliver a cocktail, termed 7G-modRNA, of four cardiac-reprogramming genes-Gata4 (G), Mef2c (M), Tbx5 (T), and Hand2 (H)-together with three reprogramming-helper genes-dominant-negative (DN)-TGFß, DN-Wnt8a, and acid ceramidase (AC)-to induce CM-like cells. We showed that 7G-modRNA reprogrammed 57% of CM-like cells in vitro. Through a lineage-tracing model, we determined that delivering the 7G-modRNA cocktail at the time of myocardial infarction reprogrammed ∼25% of CM-like cells in the scar area and significantly improved cardiac function, scar size, long-term survival, and capillary density. Mechanistically, we determined that while 7G-modRNA cannot create de novo beating CMs in vitro or in vivo, it can significantly upregulate pro-angiogenic mesenchymal stromal cells markers and transcription factors. We also demonstrated that our 7G-modRNA cocktail leads to neovascularization in ischemic-limb injury, indicating CM-like cells importance in other organs besides the heart. modRNA is currently being used around the globe for vaccination against COVID-19, and this study proves this is a safe, highly efficient gene delivery approach with therapeutic potential to treat ischemic diseases.


Subject(s)
Cellular Reprogramming/genetics , Genetic Therapy/methods , Ischemia/therapy , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Neovascularization, Physiologic/genetics , Regeneration/genetics , Transfection/methods , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cells, Cultured , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout, ApoE , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics
16.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 10(11): 1491-1499, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321718

ABSTRACT

Experimental cell models are indispensable for clarifying the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and for developing therapeutic agents. To recapitulate the symptoms and drug response of COVID-19 patients in vitro, SARS-CoV-2 studies using physiologically relevant human embryonic stem (ES)/induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived somatic cells and organoids are ongoing. These cells and organoids have been used to show that SARS-CoV-2 can infect and damage various organs including the lung, heart, brain, intestinal tract, kidney, and pancreas. They are also being used to develop COVID-19 therapeutic agents, including evaluation of their antiviral efficacy and safety. The relationship between COVID-19 aggravation and human genetic backgrounds has been investigated using genetically modified ES/iPS cells and patient-derived iPS cells. This review summarizes the latest results and issues of SARS-CoV-2 research using human ES/iPS cell-derived somatic cells and organoids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/physiology , Organoids/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biomedical Research/methods , Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Genetic Therapy/methods , Genetic Therapy/trends , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/transplantation , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/physiology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/transplantation , Organoids/cytology , Organoids/transplantation
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323263

ABSTRACT

Efficient delivery of genetic material into cells is a critical process to translate gene therapy into clinical practice. In this sense, the increased knowledge acquired during past years in the molecular biology and nanotechnology fields has contributed to the development of different kinds of non-viral vector systems as a promising alternative to virus-based gene delivery counterparts. Consequently, the development of non-viral vectors has gained attention, and nowadays, gene delivery mediated by these systems is considered as the cornerstone of modern gene therapy due to relevant advantages such as low toxicity, poor immunogenicity and high packing capacity. However, despite these relevant advantages, non-viral vectors have been poorly translated into clinical success. This review addresses some critical issues that need to be considered for clinical practice application of non-viral vectors in mainstream medicine, such as efficiency, biocompatibility, long-lasting effect, route of administration, design of experimental condition or commercialization process. In addition, potential strategies for overcoming main hurdles are also addressed. Overall, this review aims to raise awareness among the scientific community and help researchers gain knowledge in the design of safe and efficient non-viral gene delivery systems for clinical applications to progress in the gene therapy field.


Subject(s)
Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/therapy , Genetic Therapy/methods , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Animals , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Humans
18.
Muscle Nerve ; 64(4): 487-490, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318732

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: There are currently three medications approved for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), but the use of these medications in combination has not been well described. METHODS: This is a retrospective report of four cases of SMA treated with dual onasemnogene and risdiplam therapy at our institution. RESULTS: Following onasemnogene therapy, all four patients experienced a perceived plateau of therapeutic benefit, at which time daily risdiplam was started. Transient fatigue and weakness was seen in two patients following risdiplam initiation, but this resolved within 1 mo. One patient was hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and post-viral pneumonia, weeks following risdiplam initiation. No other adverse effects related to onasemnogene and risdiplam combination therapy were identified and all patients experienced objective and subjective improvement. DISCUSSION: Combination therapy with onasemnogene and risdiplam in patients with SMA appears to be well-tolerated. Further large prospective trials are needed to determine whether dual therapy is more efficacious than monotherapy, and to identify rare adverse events that may occur with the use of combination therapy.


Subject(s)
Azo Compounds/administration & dosage , Biological Products/administration & dosage , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/administration & dosage , Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood/diagnosis , Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Genetic Therapy/methods , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood/physiopathology
19.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302471

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the CRISPR/Cas9-based gene-editing techniques have been well developed and applied widely in several aspects of research in the biological sciences, in many species, including humans, animals, plants, and even in viruses. Modification of the viral genome is crucial for revealing gene function, virus pathogenesis, gene therapy, genetic engineering, and vaccine development. Herein, we have provided a brief review of the different technologies for the modification of the viral genomes. Particularly, we have focused on the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9-based gene-editing system, detailing its origin, functional principles, and touching on its latest achievements in virology research and applications in vaccine development, especially in large DNA viruses of humans and animals. Future prospects of CRISPR/Cas9-based gene-editing technology in virology research, including the potential shortcomings, are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing , Vaccinology/methods , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viruses/genetics , Animals , Biomedical Research/methods , Genetic Therapy/methods , Humans , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Viruses/immunology
20.
Hum Gene Ther ; 32(11-12): 541-562, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216585

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerging infectious disease (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-coronavirus 2 (CoV-2). To combat the devastating spread of SARS-CoV-2, extraordinary efforts from numerous laboratories have focused on the development of effective and safe vaccines. Traditional live-attenuated or inactivated viral vaccines are not recommended for immunocompromised patients as the attenuated virus can still cause disease via phenotypic or genotypic reversion. Subunit vaccines require repeated dosing and adjuvant use to be effective, and DNA vaccines exhibit lower immune responses. mRNA vaccines can be highly unstable under physiological conditions. On the contrary, naturally antigenic viral vectors with well-characterized structure and safety profile serve as among the most effective gene carriers to provoke immune response via heterologous gene transfer. Viral vector-based vaccines induce both an effective cellular immune response and a humoral immune response owing to their natural adjuvant properties via transduction of immune cells. Consequently, viral vectored vaccines carrying the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein have recently been generated and successfully used to activate cytotoxic T cells and develop a neutralizing antibody response. Recent progress in SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, with an emphasis on gene therapy viral vector-based vaccine development, is discussed in this review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Genetic Vectors , Vaccines, Attenuated/pharmacology , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology , Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry , Adenoviridae/genetics , Genetic Therapy/methods , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Humans , Lentivirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/pharmacology , Viral Structural Proteins/genetics , Viral Structural Proteins/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL