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1.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574265

ABSTRACT

Modulation of the antiviral innate immune response has been proposed as a putative cellular target for the development of novel pan-viral therapeutic strategies. The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway is especially relevant due to its essential role in the regulation of local and systemic inflammation in response to viral infections, being, therefore, a putative therapeutic target. Here, we review the extraordinary diversity of strategies that viruses have evolved to interfere with JAK-STAT signaling, stressing the relevance of this pathway as a putative antiviral target. Moreover, due to the recent remarkable progress on the development of novel JAK inhibitors (JAKi), the current knowledge on its efficacy against distinct viral infections is also discussed. JAKi have a proven efficacy against a broad spectrum of disorders and exhibit safety profiles comparable to biologics, therefore representing good candidates for drug repurposing strategies, including viral infections.


Subject(s)
Janus Kinases/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Viruses/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/drug effects
2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(4): 911-925, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482662

ABSTRACT

Since its discovery, the Janus kinase-signal transduction and activation of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway has become recognized as a central mediator of widespread and varied human physiological processes. The field of JAK-STAT biology, particularly its clinical relevance, continues to be shaped by 2 important advances. First, the increased use of genomic sequencing has led to the discovery of novel clinical syndromes caused by mutations in JAK and STAT genes. This has provided insights regarding the consequences of aberrant JAK-STAT signaling for immunity, lymphoproliferation, and malignancy. In addition, since the approval of ruxolitinib and tofacitinib, the therapeutic use of JAK inhibitors (jakinibs) has expanded to include a large spectrum of diseases. Efficacy and safety data from over a decade of clinical studies have provided additional mechanistic insights while improving the care of patients with inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. This review discusses major advances in the field, focusing on updates in genetic diseases and in studies of clinical jakinibs in human disease.


Subject(s)
Genetic Diseases, Inborn/drug therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/immunology , STAT Transcription Factors/immunology , Animals , Cytokines/immunology , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , Humans , Janus Kinases/genetics , Mutation , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , Signal Transduction
3.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476787

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several risk factors for severe COVID-19 specific for patients with inflammatory rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) have been identified so far. Evidence regarding the influence of different RMD treatments on outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection is still poor. METHODS: Data from the German COVID-19-RMD registry collected between 30 March 2020 and 9 April 2021 were analysed. Ordinal outcome of COVID-19 severity was defined: (1) not hospitalised, (2) hospitalised/not invasively ventilated and (3) invasively ventilated/deceased. Independent associations between demographic and disease features and outcome of COVID-19 were estimated by multivariable ordinal logistic regression using proportional odds model. RESULTS: 2274 patients were included. 83 (3.6%) patients died. Age, male sex, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, chronic lung diseases and chronic kidney disease were independently associated with worse outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Compared with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with psoriatic arthritis showed a better outcome. Disease activity and glucocorticoids were associated with worse outcome. Compared with methotrexate (MTX), TNF inhibitors (TNFi) showed a significant association with better outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR 0.6, 95% CI0.4 to 0.9). Immunosuppressants (mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide and ciclosporin) (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.9), Janus kinase inhibitor (JAKi) (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.7) and rituximab (OR 5.4, 95% CI 3.3 to 8.8) were independently associated with worse outcome. CONCLUSION: General risk factors for severity of COVID-19 play a similar role in patients with RMDs as in the normal population. Influence of disease activity on COVID-19 outcome is of great importance as patients with high disease activity-even without glucocorticoids-have a worse outcome. Patients on TNFi show a better outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection than patients on MTX. Immunosuppressants, rituximab and JAKi are associated with more severe course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Rituximab , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 716084, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430699

ABSTRACT

A binary model for the classification of chronic diseases has formerly been proposed. The model classifies chronic diseases as "high Treg" or "low Treg" diseases according to the extent of regulatory T cells (Treg) activity (frequency or function) observed. The present paper applies this model to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The model correctly predicts the efficacy or inefficacy of several immune-modulating drugs in the treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. It also correctly predicts the class of pathogens mostly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical implications are the following: (a) any search for new immune-modulating drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 should exclude candidates that do not induce "high Treg" immune reaction or those that do not spare CD8+ T cells; (b) immune-modulating drugs, which are effective against SARS-CoV-2, may not be effective against any variant of the virus that does not induce "low Treg" reaction; (c) any immune-modulating drug, which is effective in treating COVID-19, will also alleviate most coinfections; and (d) severe COVID-19 patients should avoid contact with carriers of "low Treg" pathogens.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunomodulation/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Chronic Disease/classification , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sirolimus/therapeutic use
5.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 48: 116389, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427706

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of the third infectious and virulent coronavirus within the past two decades, it has become increasingly important to understand how the virus causes infection. This will inform therapeutic strategies that target vulnerabilities in the vital processes through which the virus enters cells. This review identifies enzymes responsible for SARS-CoV-2 viral entry into cells (ACE2, Furin, TMPRSS2) and discuss compounds proposed to inhibit viral entry with the end goal of treating COVID-19 infection. We argue that TMPRSS2 inhibitors show the most promise in potentially treating COVID-19, in addition to being a pre-existing medication with fewer predicted side-effects.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Drug Combinations , Humans , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Receptors, Angiotensin/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects
6.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(1): 399-407, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor baricitinib may block viral entry into pneumocytes and prevent cytokine storm in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. We aimed to assess whether baricitinib improved pulmonary function in patients treated with high-dose corticosteroids for moderate to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: This observational study enrolled patients with moderate to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia [arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) <200 mmHg] who received lopinavir/ritonavir and HCQ plus either corticosteroids (CS group, n = 50) or corticosteroids and baricitinib (BCT-CS group, n = 62). The primary end point was the change in oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2)/FiO2 from hospitalization to discharge. Secondary end points included the proportion of patients requiring supplemental oxygen at discharge and 1 month later. Statistics were adjusted by the inverse propensity score weighting (IPSW). RESULTS: A greater improvement in SpO2/FiO2 from hospitalization to discharge was observed in the BCT-CS vs CS group (mean differences adjusted for IPSW, 49; 95% CI: 22, 77; P < 0.001). A higher proportion of patients required supplemental oxygen both at discharge (62.0% vs 25.8%; reduction of the risk by 82%, OR adjusted for IPSW, 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.43; P < 0.001) and 1 month later (28.0% vs 12.9%, reduction of the risk by 69%, OR adjusted for IPSW, 0.31; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.86; P = 0.024) in the CS vs BCT-CS group. CONCLUSIONS: . In patients with moderate to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia a combination of baricitinib with corticosteroids was associated with greater improvement in pulmonary function when compared with corticosteroids alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance, ENCEPP (EUPAS34966, http://www.encepp.eu/encepp/viewResource.htm? id = 34967).


Subject(s)
Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hypoxia/therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Endothelium, Vascular , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Male , Middle Aged , Oximetry , Prospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Clin Rheumatol ; 40(11): 4671-4674, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371359

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) represents a global public health nightmare. The "cytokine storm," the most prominent underlying pathophysiologic mechanism of this disease, can theoretically be targeted at several stages. Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors constitute a drug class that could ameliorate the inflammatory response and enhance antibody production. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of JAK inhibitors in patients with COVID-19, performing the most updated relevant meta-analysis. We searched two major databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolling adult patients with documented COVID-19 in the in-hospital setting, assigned either to JAK inhibitor treatment plus standard of care or standard of care alone. We set as primary efficacy outcome the endpoint of COVID-19 death on day 28 and as secondary efficacy composite outcome that of mechanical ventilation or initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We finally pooled data of interest from 4 RCTs in a total of 1338 subjects with documented COVID-19 infection, utilizing the following JAK inhibitors: baricitinib, ruxolitinib, tofacitinib, and nezulcitinib. Treatment with JAK inhibitor compared to control resulted in a significant reduction in the risk for COVID-19 death by 43%, while it also led to a significant decrease in the risk for mechanical ventilation or ECMO initiation by 36%. Herein, we demonstrate a clear benefit with JAK inhibitors added to standard of care in patients with COVID-19 in terms of risk reduction concerning major outcomes. Larger RCTs will elucidate their place in treatment armamentarium against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1263-1277, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365228

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, causing the disease COVID-19, spread from Wuhan throughout China and has infected people over 200 countries. Thus far, more than 3,400,000 cases and 240,000 deaths have occurred worldwide, and the coronavirus pandemic continues to grip the globe. While numbers of cases in China have been steadying, the number of infections outside China is increasing at a worrying pace. We face an urgent need to control the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic, which is currently expanding to a global pandemic. Efforts have focused on testing antiviral drugs and vaccines, but there is currently no treatment specifically approved. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is grounded in empirical observations and the Chinese people use TCM to overcome these sorts of plagues many times in thousands of years of history. Currently, the Chinese National Health Commission recommended a TCM prescription of Qing-Fei-Pai-Du-Tang (QFPDT) in the latest version of the "Diagnosis and Treatment guidelines of COVID-19" which has been reported to provide reliable effects for COVID-19. While doubts about TCM still exist today, this review paper will describe the rationalities that QFPDT is likely to bring a safe and effective treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Drug Combinations , Humans , Indoles/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Leukemia ; 35(10): 2917-2923, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356548

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in elder patients. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening complication of COVID-19 and has been linked with severe hyperinflammation. Dexamethasone has emerged as standard of care for COVID-19 associated respiratory failure. In a non-randomized prospective phase II multi-center study, we asked whether targeted inhibition of Janus kinase-mediated cytokine signaling using ruxolitinib is feasible and efficacious in SARS-CoV-2- induced ARDS with hyperinflammation. Sixteen SARS-CoV-2 infected patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for ARDS were treated with ruxolitinib in addition to standard treatment. Ruxolitinib treatment was well tolerated and 13 patients survived at least the first 28 days on treatment, which was the primary endpoint of the trial. Immediate start of ruxolitinib after deterioration was associated with improved outcome, as was a lymphocyte-to-neutrophils ratio above 0.07. Together, treatment with the janus-kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib is feasible and might be efficacious in COVID-19 induced ARDS patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. The trial has been registered under EudraCT-No.: 2020-001732-10 and NCT04359290.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nitriles , Prognosis , Pyrimidines , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Survival Rate
10.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 27(5): 493-496, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345769

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Janus Kinase (JAK) inhibitors have been successfully utilized in the clinical treatment of several rheumatologic (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis) and inflammatory diseases (e.g. hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis). Based on the growing evidence that moderate and severe COVID-19 infections are associated with a dysregulated inflammatory state, this class of medications has been repurposed as a potential therapy for COVID-19, an infection caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. RECENT FINDINGS: Three JAK inhibitors have been evaluated in human studies of COVID-19: Baricitinib, Tofacitinib, and Ruxolitinib. Most published studies are observational, but three randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trials have been completed: two large trials (N = 2,558 patients) with baricitinb demonstrated significant faster improvement in clinical status and reduction in the recovery time, as well as, significant reduction in the progression to invasive mechanical ventilation and mortality. One smaller randomized trial (N = 289) involving tofacitinib showed significant reduction in the progression to invasive ventilation or death. Notably, these three randomized placebo-controlled trials with close to 3,000 patients did not reveal any safety concerns associated with JAK inhibitors in terms of secondary infections or venous thromboembolism. Based on this high-quality evidence, both the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the National Institutes of Health guidelines recommend using baricitinib as part of the treatment approach for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. SUMMARY: JAK inhibitors are novel treatment agents in the field of infectious diseases. One JAK inhibitor, baricitinib has demonstrated significant clinical and survival benefits in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in phase III randomized placebo-controlled trials. Baricitinib is already recommended for clinical practice by multiple guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 73(9): 1322-1331, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand medication, lifestyle, and clinical care changes of persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during the first months (March 2020 through May 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. METHODS: Data were collected from adults with RA participating in FORWARD, The National Databank for Rheumatic Diseases observational registry, who answered COVID-19 web-based surveys in May 2020 and previously provided baseline characteristics and medication use prior to the US COVID-19 pandemic. We compared medication changes by disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) exposure in logistic models that were adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities including pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, education level, health insurance status, RA disease activity, fatigue, and polysymptomatic distress. RESULTS: Of 734 respondents, 221 (30%) reported medication changes. Among respondents who experienced a medication change, i.e., "medication changers/changers," glucocorticoids (GCs) were more commonly used compared to respondents who did not experience a medication change ("non-changers") (33% versus 18%). Non-hydroxychloroquine conventional DMARDs were less commonly used in changers compared to non-changers pre-COVID-19 (49% versus 62%), and changers reported more economic hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to non-changers (23% versus 15%). While JAK inhibitor use was associated with the likelihood of a medication change, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.0, 3.4), only pre-COVID GC use remained a strong predictor for medication change in multivariable models (OR 3.0 [95% CI 1.9, 4.9]). Change in care was observed to have a significant association with pulmonary disease (OR 2.9 [95% CI 1.3, 6.5]), worse RA disease activity (OR 1.1 [95% CI 1.0, 1.1]), and GC use (OR 1.6 [95% CI 1.0, 2.5]). While the incidence of medication changes was the same before and after the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guidance for the management of rheumatic disease in adult patients during the COVID-19 pandemic were first published in April 2020, self-imposed changes in medication were approximately twice as likely before publication of the guidelines, and physician-guided changes were more likely after publication. CONCLUSION: Persons with RA in the US made substantial medication changes during the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic, and changes among persons with RA after publication of the ACR guidance in April 2020 were made with increased physician guidance.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Drug Substitution/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Risk Reduction Behavior , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnosis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Guideline Adherence/trends , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 99: 108027, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330898

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception to July 12, 2021. RCTs comparing the clinical efficacy and safety of JAK inhibitors with a placebo or standard care in treating COVID-19 patients were included. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality rate at day 28. RESULTS: Three RCTs were included in this meta-analysis. The all-cause mortality rate at day 28 was lower among the patients receiving JAK inhibitors than among the controls (4.1% [28/647] versus 7.0% [48/684], OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.92, I2 = 0). The clinical recovery rate was higher among the patients receiving JAK inhibitors than among the controls (85.1% (579/680) versus 80.0% [547/684], OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09-1.93, I2 = 0). Additionally, the use of JAK inhibitors was associated with a shorter time to recovery than among the controls (MD, -2.84; 95% CI, -5.56 to -0.12; I2 = 50%). The rate of invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) was lower in the patients who used JAK inhibitors than among the controls. Finally, no significant difference was observed between the patients who used JAK inhibitors and the controls in the risk of any adverse events (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.64-1.34; I2 = 33%) and serious adverse events (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.45-1.44; I2 = 46%). CONCLUSIONS: JAK inhibitors can lead to a better clinical outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and they are a safe agent in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Azetidines , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Nitriles , Piperidines , Purines , Pyrazoles , Pyrimidines , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides , Treatment Outcome
15.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 76-83, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300693

ABSTRACT

As of July 9, 2020, there were more than 12 million confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across the globe, with more than 550,000 deaths. Many European countries, including Belgium, the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain, have had the highest numbers of fatalities per capita. This indicates the potential for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus to overwhelm even the most advanced health care systems despite extreme societal interventions. Since its emergence, SARS-CoV-2 has disseminated across the globe, affecting the structure of global societies, infrastructure, and economies. Patients with alopecia are a diverse group who, for various indications, are prescribed a number of antimicrobials and antiandrogen treatments in addition to immunomodulatory therapies such as hydroxychloroquine, oral corticosteroids, and a range of broad immunosuppressants. These drugs are being scrutinized for their capacity to potentially affect SARS-CoV-2 outcomes. We examine these treatments and highlight the critical role that patient registries will play in generating real-world evidence to assess their impact on COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
Alopecia/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Alopecia/classification , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 56-63, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300691

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune connective tissue diseases are a heterogeneous group of clinical entities sharing a common feature-an impairment of structural components like collagen and elastin, arising by autoimmune mechanisms. Because most patients are on a long-term immunosuppressive therapy, which renders them vulnerable to infections, a new challenge appears in front of physicians in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era. Immune mechanisms are substantial for the control and ceasing of viral infections, and their impairment may cause serious complications; however, data from immunosuppressed transplant patients do not reveal a higher frequency or diseases' severity in those infected by COVID-19. Several immunotherapies used to treat autoimmune connective tissue diseases favorably modulate the immune response of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients. The present review highlights the problems of susceptibility, severity, and therapeutic options in patients with autoimmune connective tissue diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. The relationship between autoimmune connective tissue diseases and COVID-19 infection is explained with antiviral protection genes expression, hypercytokinemia, and lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation mechanisms. Recommendations concerning therapy for prevention during the pandemic period or in case of concomitant COVID-19 infection are also presented. Clinical trials are ongoing regarding COVID-19 therapy blocking the cytokine response. © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dermatomyositis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Scleroderma, Systemic , Vasculitis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatomyositis/complications , Dermatomyositis/drug therapy , Dermatomyositis/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , Scleroderma, Systemic/drug therapy , Scleroderma, Systemic/immunology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Vasculitis/drug therapy
18.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(3): 226-228, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282691

ABSTRACT

Although many potent drugs have been used for cytokine storm, mortality is high for patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which is followed up in the intensive care unit. Interferons (IFNs) are the major cytokines of the antiviral defense system released from many cell types. However, IFN-γ plays a key role in both primary and secondary cytokine storms. If the cytokine storm is not treated urgently, it will be fatal; therefore, it should be treated immediately. Anakinra, an interleukin-1 (IL-1) antagonist, tocilizumab, an IL-6 antagonist, and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are successfully used in cytokine storm caused by COVID-19. However, sometimes, despite these treatments, the patient's clinical course does not improve. Emapalumab (Eb) is the human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody and is a potent and noncompetitive antagonist of IFN-γ. Eb can be life saving for cytokine storm caused by COVID-19, which is resistant to anakinra, tocilizumab, and JAK inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antirheumatic Agents/pharmacology , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Disease Progression , Drug Resistance, Viral , Humans , Interferon-gamma/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/pharmacology , Interleukins/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukins/immunology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Recurrence
19.
N Engl J Med ; 385(5): 406-415, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, in patients who are hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pneumonia are unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, hospitalized adults with Covid-19 pneumonia to receive either tofacitinib at a dose of 10 mg or placebo twice daily for up to 14 days or until hospital discharge. The primary outcome was the occurrence of death or respiratory failure through day 28 as assessed with the use of an eight-level ordinal scale (with scores ranging from 1 to 8 and higher scores indicating a worse condition). All-cause mortality and safety were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 289 patients underwent randomization at 15 sites in Brazil. Overall, 89.3% of the patients received glucocorticoids during hospitalization. The cumulative incidence of death or respiratory failure through day 28 was 18.1% in the tofacitinib group and 29.0% in the placebo group (risk ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.97; P = 0.04). Death from any cause through day 28 occurred in 2.8% of the patients in the tofacitinib group and in 5.5% of those in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.15 to 1.63). The proportional odds of having a worse score on the eight-level ordinal scale with tofacitinib, as compared with placebo, was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.36 to 1.00) at day 14 and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.27 to 1.06) at day 28. Serious adverse events occurred in 20 patients (14.1%) in the tofacitinib group and in 17 (12.0%) in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized with Covid-19 pneumonia, tofacitinib led to a lower risk of death or respiratory failure through day 28 than placebo. (Funded by Pfizer; STOP-COVID ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04469114.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Janus Kinase 3/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Piperidines/adverse effects , Pyrimidines/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology
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