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2.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875806

ABSTRACT

The newest type of influenza virus, influenza D virus (IDV), was isolated in 2011. IDV circulates in several animal species worldwide, causing mild respiratory illness in its natural hosts. Importantly, IDV does not cause clinical disease in humans and does not spread easily from person to person. Here, we review what is known about the host-pathogen interactions that may limit IDV illness. We focus on early immune interactions between the virus and infected host cells in our summary of what is known about IDV pathogenesis. This work establishes a foundation for future research into IDV infection and immunity in mammalian hosts.


Subject(s)
Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Orthomyxoviridae , Thogotovirus , Animals , Biology , Humans , Mammals , Respiratory System
3.
Nature ; 607(7919): 578-584, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873525

ABSTRACT

The nervous and immune systems are intricately linked1. Although psychological stress is known to modulate immune function, mechanistic pathways linking stress networks in the brain to peripheral leukocytes remain poorly understood2. Here we show that distinct brain regions shape leukocyte distribution and function throughout the body during acute stress in mice. Using optogenetics and chemogenetics, we demonstrate that motor circuits induce rapid neutrophil mobilization from the bone marrow to peripheral tissues through skeletal-muscle-derived neutrophil-attracting chemokines. Conversely, the paraventricular hypothalamus controls monocyte and lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid organs and blood to the bone marrow through direct, cell-intrinsic glucocorticoid signalling. These stress-induced, counter-directional, population-wide leukocyte shifts are associated with altered disease susceptibility. On the one hand, acute stress changes innate immunity by reprogramming neutrophils and directing their recruitment to sites of injury. On the other hand, corticotropin-releasing hormone neuron-mediated leukocyte shifts protect against the acquisition of autoimmunity, but impair immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and influenza infection. Collectively, these data show that distinct brain regions differentially and rapidly tailor the leukocyte landscape during psychological stress, therefore calibrating the ability of the immune system to respond to physical threats.


Subject(s)
Brain , Fear , Leukocytes , Motor Neurons , Neural Pathways , Stress, Psychological , Animals , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Bone Marrow Cells/immunology , Brain/cytology , Brain/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokines/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Fear/physiology , Glucocorticoids/metabolism , Humans , Leukocytes/cytology , Leukocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/cytology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphoid Tissue/cytology , Lymphoid Tissue/immunology , Mice , Monocytes/cytology , Monocytes/immunology , Motor Neurons/cytology , Motor Neurons/physiology , Neutrophils/cytology , Neutrophils/immunology , Optogenetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Stress, Psychological/immunology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology
4.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834917

ABSTRACT

In recent years, advances in diagnostics and deep sequencing technologies have led to the identification and characterization of novel viruses in cats as protoparviruses and chaphamaparvoviruses, unveiling the diversity of the feline virome in the respiratory tract. Observational, epidemiological and experimental data are necessary to demonstrate firmly if some viruses are able to cause disease, as this information may be confounded by virus- or host-related factors. Also, in recent years, researchers were able to monitor multiple examples of transmission to felids of viruses with high pathogenic potential, such as the influenza virus strains H5N1, H1N1, H7N2, H5N6 and H3N2, and in the late 2019, the human hypervirulent coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. These findings suggest that the study of viral infections always requires a multi-disciplinary approach inspired by the One Health vision. By reviewing the literature, we provide herewith an update on the emerging viruses identified in cats and their potential association with respiratory disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H7N2 Subtype , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(5): e1010471, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833668

ABSTRACT

The ability to treat severe viral infections is limited by our understanding of the mechanisms behind virus-induced immunopathology. While the role of type I interferons (IFNs) in early control of viral replication is clear, less is known about how IFNs can regulate the development of immunopathology and affect disease outcomes. Here, we report that absence of type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) is associated with extensive immunopathology following mucosal viral infection. This pathology occurred independent of viral load or type II immunity but required the presence of macrophages and IL-6. The depletion of macrophages and inhibition of IL-6 signaling significantly abrogated immunopathology. Tissue destruction was mediated by macrophage-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as MMP inhibition by doxycycline and Ro 28-2653 reduced the severity of tissue pathology. Analysis of post-mortem COVID-19 patient lungs also displayed significant upregulation of the expression of MMPs and accumulation of macrophages. Overall, we demonstrate that IFNs inhibit macrophage-mediated MMP production to prevent virus-induced immunopathology and uncover MMPs as a therapeutic target towards viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Proteolysis
6.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266456, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833658

ABSTRACT

The world health organization estimates that more than a quarter of the human population is infected with parasitic worms that are called helminths. Many helminths suppress the immune system of their hosts to prolong their survival. This helminth-induced immunosuppression "spills over" to unrelated antigens and can suppress the immune response to vaccination against other pathogens. Indeed, several human studies have reported a negative correlation between helminth infections and responses to vaccinations. Using mice that are infected with the parasitic nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis as a model for chronic human filarial infections, we reported previously that concurrent helminth infection impaired the vaccination-induced protection against the human pathogenic 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus (2009 pH1N1). Vaccinated, helminth-infected mice produced less neutralizing, influenza-specific antibodies than vaccinated naïve control mice. Consequently helminth-infected and vaccinated mice were not protected against a challenge infection with influenza virus but displayed high virus burden in the lung and a transient weight loss. In the current study we tried to improve the vaccination efficacy using vaccines that are licensed for humans. We either introduced a prime-boost vaccination regimen using the non-adjuvanted anti-influenza vaccine Begripal or employed the adjuvanted influenza vaccine Fluad. Although both strategies elevated the production of influenza-specific antibodies and protected mice from the transient weight loss that is caused by an influenza challenge infection, sterile immunity was not achieved. Helminth-infected vaccinated mice still had high virus burden in the lung while non-helminth-infected vaccinated mice rapidly cleared the virus. In summary we demonstrate that basic improvements of influenza vaccination regimen are not sufficient to confer sterile immunity on the background of helminth-induced immunosuppression, despite amelioration of pathology i.e. weight loss. Our findings highlight the risk of failed vaccinations in helminth-endemic areas, especially in light of the ongoing vaccination campaign to control the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Helminthiasis , Helminths , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mice , Pandemics , Vaccination , Weight Loss
7.
J Immunol ; 208(10): 2319-2330, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810583

ABSTRACT

T follicular helper (Tfh) cells support Ab responses and are a critical component of adaptive immune responses to respiratory viral infections. Tfh cells are regulated by a network of signaling pathways that are controlled, in part, by transcription factors. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is an environment-sensing transcription factor that modulates many aspects of adaptive immunity by binding a range of small molecules. However, the contribution of AHR signaling to Tfh cell differentiation and function is not known. In this article, we report that AHR activation by three different agonists reduced the frequency of Tfh cells during primary infection of C57BL/6 mice with influenza A virus (IAV). Further, using the high-affinity and AHR-specific agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, we show that AHR activation reduced Tfh cell differentiation and T cell-dependent B cell responses. Using conditional AHR knockout mice, we demonstrated that alterations of Tfh cells and T cell-dependent B cell responses after AHR activation required the AHR in T cells. AHR activation reduced the number of T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells; however, the ratio of Tfr to Tfh cells was amplified. These alterations to Tfh and Tfr cells during IAV infection corresponded with differences in expression of BCL6 and FOXP3 in CD4+ T cells and required the AHR to have a functional DNA-binding domain. Overall, these findings support that the AHR modulates Tfh cells during viral infection, which has broad-reaching consequences for understanding how environmental factors contribute to variation in immune defenses against infectious pathogens, such as influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , T Follicular Helper Cells , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Influenza A virus/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/immunology , T Follicular Helper Cells/immunology
8.
J Virol ; 96(5): e0179121, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799229

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and seasonal influenza viruses are cocirculating in the human population. However, only a few cases of viral coinfection with these two viruses have been documented in humans with some people having severe disease and others mild disease. To examine this phenomenon, ferrets were coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 and human seasonal influenza A viruses (IAVs; H1N1 or H3N2) and were compared to animals that received each virus alone. Ferrets were either immunologically naive to both viruses or vaccinated with the 2019 to 2020 split-inactivated influenza virus vaccine. Coinfected naive ferrets lost significantly more body weight than ferrets infected with each virus alone and had more severe inflammation in both the nose and lungs compared to that of ferrets that were single infected with each virus. Coinfected, naive animals had predominantly higher IAV titers than SARS-CoV-2 titers, and IAVs were efficiently transmitted by direct contact to the cohoused ferrets. Comparatively, SARS-CoV-2 failed to transmit to the ferrets that cohoused with coinfected ferrets by direct contact. Moreover, vaccination significantly reduced IAV titers and shortened the viral shedding but did not completely block direct contact transmission of the influenza virus. Notably, vaccination significantly ameliorated influenza-associated disease by protecting vaccinated animals from severe morbidity after IAV single infection or IAV and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection, suggesting that seasonal influenza virus vaccination is pivotal to prevent severe disease induced by IAV and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection during the COVID-19 pandemic. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses cause severe morbidity and mortality during each influenza virus season. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human population offers the opportunity to potential coinfections of both viruses. The development of useful animal models to assess the pathogenesis, transmission, and viral evolution of these viruses as they coinfect a host is of critical importance for the development of vaccines and therapeutics. The ability to prevent the most severe effects of viral coinfections can be studied using effect coinfection ferret models described in this report.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coinfection/prevention & control , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Ferrets/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Vaccination , Virus Shedding
9.
J Microbiol ; 60(5): 550-559, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797492

ABSTRACT

Adjuvants are substances added to vaccines to enhance antigen-specific immune responses or to protect antigens from rapid elimination. As pattern recognition receptors, Toll-like receptors 7 (TLR7) and 8 (TLR8) activate the innate immune system by sensing endosomal single-stranded RNA of RNA viruses. Here, we investigated if a 2,4-diaminoquinazoline-based TLR7/8 agonist, (S)-3-((2-amino-8-fluoroquinazolin-4-yl)amino)hexan-1-ol (named compound 31), could be used as an adjuvant to enhance the serological and mucosal immunity of an inactivated influenza A virus vaccine. The compound induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages. In a dose-response analysis, intranasal administration of 1 µg compound 31 together with an inactivated vaccine (0.5 µg) to mice not only enhanced virus-specific IgG and IgA production but also neutralized influenza A virus with statistical significance. Notably, in a virus-challenge model, the combination of the vaccine and compound 31 alleviated viral infection-mediated loss of body weight and increased survival rates by 40% compared with vaccine only-treated mice. We suggest that compound 31 is a promising lead compound for developing mucosal vaccine adjuvants to protect against respiratory RNA viruses such as influenza viruses and potentially coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Vaccine , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Quinazolines , Toll-Like Receptor 7
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(3): e1010395, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793483

ABSTRACT

Severe influenza kills tens of thousands of individuals each year, yet the mechanisms driving lethality in humans are poorly understood. Here we used a unique translational model of lethal H5N1 influenza in cynomolgus macaques that utilizes inhalation of small-particle virus aerosols to define mechanisms driving lethal disease. RNA sequencing of lung tissue revealed an intense interferon response within two days of infection that resulted in widespread expression of interferon-stimulated genes, including inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Macaques with lethal disease had rapid and profound loss of alveolar macrophages (AMs) and infiltration of activated CCR2+ CX3CR1+ interstitial macrophages (IMs) and neutrophils into lungs. Parallel changes of AMs and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) correlated with virus load when compared to macaques with mild influenza. Both AMs and IMs in lethal influenza were M1-type inflammatory macrophages which expressed neutrophil chemotactic factors, while neutrophils expressed genes associated with activation and generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs were prominent in lung and were found in alveolar spaces as well as lung parenchyma. Genes associated with pyroptosis but not apoptosis were increased in lung, and activated inflammatory caspases, IL-1ß and cleaved gasdermin D (GSDMD) were present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung homogenates. Cleaved GSDMD was expressed by lung macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells which were present in large numbers in alveolar spaces, consistent with loss of epithelial integrity. Cleaved GSDMD colocalized with viral NP-expressing cells in alveoli, reflecting pyroptosis of infected cells. These novel findings reveal that a potent interferon and inflammatory cascade in lung associated with infiltration of inflammatory macrophages and neutrophils, elaboration of NETs and cell death by pyroptosis mediates lethal H5N1 influenza in nonhuman primates, and by extension humans. These innate pathways represent promising therapeutic targets to prevent severe influenza and potentially other primary viral pneumonias in humans.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Animals , Interferons/immunology , Lung , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Primates , Pyroptosis
11.
J Virol ; 96(9): e0002622, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784768

ABSTRACT

Humoral immunity is a major component of the adaptive immune response against viruses and other pathogens with pathogen-specific antibody acting as the first line of defense against infection. Virus-specific antibody levels are maintained by continual secretion of antibody by plasma cells residing in the bone marrow. This raises the important question of how the virus-specific plasma cell population is stably maintained and whether memory B cells are required to replenish plasma cells, balancing their loss arising from their intrinsic death rate. In this study, we examined the longevity of virus-specific antibody responses in the serum of mice following acute viral infection with three different viruses: lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), influenza virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). To investigate the contribution of memory B cells to the maintenance of virus-specific antibody levels, we employed human CD20 transgenic mice, which allow for the efficient depletion of B cells with rituximab, a human CD20-specific monoclonal antibody. Mice that had resolved an acute infection with LCMV, influenza virus, or VSV were treated with rituximab starting at 2 months after infection, and the treatment was continued for up to a year postinfection. This treatment regimen with rituximab resulted in efficient depletion of B cells (>95%), with virus-specific memory B cells being undetectable. There was an early transient drop in the antibody levels after rituximab treatment followed by a plateauing of the curve with virus-specific antibody levels remaining relatively stable (half-life of 372 days) for up to a year after infection in the absence of memory B cells. The number of virus-specific plasma cells in the bone marrow were consistent with the changes seen in serum antibody levels. Overall, our data show that virus-specific plasma cells in the bone marrow are intrinsically long-lived and can maintain serum antibody titers for extended periods of time without requiring significant replenishment from memory B cells. These results provide insight into plasma cell longevity and have implications for B cell depletion regimens in cancer and autoimmune patients in the context of vaccination in general and especially for COVID-19 vaccines. IMPORTANCE Following vaccination or primary virus infection, virus-specific antibodies provide the first line of defense against reinfection. Plasma cells residing in the bone marrow constitutively secrete antibodies, are long-lived, and can thus maintain serum antibody levels over extended periods of time in the absence of antigen. Our data, in the murine model system, show that virus-specific plasma cells are intrinsically long-lived but that some reseeding by memory B cells might occur. Our findings demonstrate that, due to the longevity of plasma cells, virus-specific antibody levels remain relatively stable in the absence of memory B cells and have implications for vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis , Rituximab , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunologic Memory , Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis/immunology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Plasma Cells/cytology , Rhabdoviridae Infections/immunology , Rituximab/pharmacology
13.
J Virol ; 96(6): e0187321, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759293

ABSTRACT

Given the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, coinfection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza A virus (IAV) is a major concern for public health. However, the immunopathogenic events occurring with coinfections of SARS-CoV-2 and IAV remain unclear. Here, we report the pathogenic and immunological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 and IAV H1N1 coinfection in the K18-hACE2 transgenic mouse model. Compared with a single infection with SARS-CoV-2 or IAV, coinfections not only prolonged the primary virus infection period but also increased immune cell infiltration and inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid leading to severe pneumonia and lung damage. Moreover, coinfections caused severe lymphopenia in peripheral blood, resulting in reduced total IgG, neutralizing antibody titers, and CD4+ T cell responses against each virus. This study sheds light on the immunopathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and IAV coinfection, which may guide the development of effective therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients coinfected with these viruses. IMPORTANCE The cocirculation of influenza virus merging with the COVID-19 pandemic raises a potentially severe threat to public health. Recently, increasing numbers of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus coinfection have been reported from many countries. It is a worrisome issue that SARS-CoV-2 coinfection with other pathogens may worsen the clinical outcome and severity of COVID-19 and increase fatality. Here, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2 and IAV coinfection using the K18-hACE2 mouse model. Coinfected mice exhibited increased mortality with prolonged IAV shedding. Furthermore, coinfected mice showed a higher level of cytokines and chemokines than a single infection condition. Interestingly, our data show that coinfected mice showed significantly fewer virus-specific and neutralizing antibodies than the mice with a single infection. Overall, this study suggests that coinfection aggravates viral pathology by impaired neutralizing antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
14.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0157821, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759290

ABSTRACT

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses a severe global threat to public health, as do influenza viruses and other coronaviruses. Here, we present chimpanzee adenovirus 68 (AdC68)-based vaccines designed to universally target coronaviruses and influenza. Our design is centered on an immunogen generated by fusing the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) to the conserved stalk of H7N9 hemagglutinin (HA). Remarkably, the constructed vaccine effectively induced both SARS-CoV-2-targeting antibodies and anti-influenza antibodies in mice, consequently affording protection from lethal SARS-CoV-2 and H7N9 challenges as well as effective H3N2 control. We propose our AdC68-vectored coronavirus-influenza vaccine as a universal approach toward curbing respiratory virus-causing pandemics. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic exemplifies the severe public health threats of respiratory virus infection and influenza A viruses. The currently envisioned strategy for the prevention of respiratory virus-causing diseases requires the comprehensive administration of vaccines tailored for individual viruses. Here, we present an alternative strategy by designing chimpanzee adenovirus 68-based vaccines which target both the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding-domain and the conserved stalk of influenza hemagglutinin. When tested in mice, this strategy attained potent neutralizing antibodies against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants, enabling an effective protection against lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Notably, it also provided complete protection from lethal H7N9 challenge and efficient control of H3N2-induced morbidity. Our study opens a new avenue to universally curb respiratory virus infection by vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , /immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred ICR , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(13): e2025607119, 2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758459

ABSTRACT

SignificanceAlthough the need for a universal influenza vaccine has long been recognized, only a handful of candidates have been identified so far, with even fewer advancing in the clinical pipeline. The 24-amino acid ectodomain of M2 protein (M2e) has been developed over the past two decades. However, M2e-based vaccine candidates have shortcomings, including the need for several administrations and the lack of sustained antibody titers over time. We report here a vaccine targeting strategy that has the potential to confer sustained and strong protection upon a single shot of a small amount of M2e antigen. The current COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of developing versatile, powerful platforms for the rapid deployment of vaccines against any incoming threat.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Viral Matrix Proteins , Viroporin Proteins , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Humans , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , Viroporin Proteins/immunology
16.
J Virol ; 96(7): e0010022, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1728835

ABSTRACT

Understanding how animal influenza A viruses (IAVs) acquire airborne transmissibility in humans and ferrets is needed to prepare for and respond to pandemics. Here, we investigated in ferrets the replication and transmission of swine H1N1 isolates P4 and G15, whose majority population had decreased polymerase activity and poor hemagglutinin (HA) stability, respectively. For both isolates, a minor variant was selected and transmitted in ferrets. Polymerase-enhancing variant PA-S321 airborne-transmitted and propagated in one ferret. HA-stabilizing variant HA1-S210 was selected in all G15-inoculated ferrets and was transmitted by contact and airborne routes. With an efficient polymerase and a stable HA, the purified minor variant G15-HA1-S210 had earlier and higher peak titers in inoculated ferrets and was recovered at a higher frequency after airborne transmission than P4 and G15. Overall, HA stabilization played a more prominent role than polymerase enhancement in the replication and transmission of these viruses in ferrets. The results suggest pandemic risk-assessment studies may benefit from deep sequencing to identify minor variants with human-adapted traits. IMPORTANCE Diverse IAVs circulate in animals, yet few acquire the viral traits needed to start a human pandemic. A stabilized HA and mammalian-adapted polymerase have been shown to promote the adaptation of IAVs to humans and ferrets (the gold-standard model for IAV replication, pathogenicity, and transmissibility). Here, we used swine IAV isolates of the gamma lineage as a model to investigate the importance of HA stability and polymerase activity in promoting replication and transmission in ferrets. These are emerging viruses that bind to both α-2,6- and α-2,3-linked receptors. Using isolates containing mixed populations, a stabilized HA was selected within days in inoculated ferrets. An enhanced polymerase was also selected and propagated after airborne transmission to a ferret. Thus, HA stabilization was a stricter requirement, yet both traits promoted transmissibility. Knowing the viral traits needed for pandemic potential, and the relative importance of each, will help identify emerging viruses of greatest concern.


Subject(s)
Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Animals , Ferrets , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/chemistry , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/metabolism , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/transmission , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Protein Stability , Swine
17.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715566

ABSTRACT

Betulinic acid (BA) and its derivatives exhibit a variety of biological activities, especially their anti-HIV-1 activity, but generally have only modest inhibitory potency against influenza virus. The entry of influenza virus into host cells can be competitively inhibited by multivalent derivatives targeting hemagglutinin. In this study, a series of hexa-, hepta- and octavalent BA derivatives based on α-, ß- and γ-cyclodextrin scaffolds, respectively, with varying lengths of flexible oligo(ethylene glycol) linkers was designed and synthesized using a microwave-assisted copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The generated BA-cyclodextrin conjugates were tested for their in vitro activity against influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus and cytotoxicity. Among the tested compounds, 58, 80 and 82 showed slight cytotoxicity to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with viabilities ranging from 64 to 68% at a high concentration of 100 µM. Four conjugates 51 and 69-71 showed significant inhibitory effects on influenza infection with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 5.20, 9.82, 7.48 and 7.59 µM, respectively. The structure-activity relationships of multivalent BA-cyclodextrin conjugates were discussed, highlighting that multivalent BA derivatives may be potential antiviral agents against influenza infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Cyclodextrins/chemistry , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Dogs , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
18.
J Immunol ; 208(6): 1467-1482, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690085

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a chronic disease of childhood, but for unknown reasons, disease activity sometimes subsides as children mature. In this study, we present clinical and animal model evidence suggesting that the age dependency of childhood asthma stems from an evolving host response to respiratory viral infection. Using clinical data, we show that societal suppression of respiratory virus transmission during coronavirus disease 2019 lockdown disrupted the traditional age gradient in pediatric asthma exacerbations, connecting the phenomenon of asthma remission to virus exposure. In mice, we show that asthmatic lung pathology triggered by Sendai virus (SeV) or influenza A virus is highly age-sensitive: robust in juvenile mice (4-6 wk old) but attenuated in mature mice (>3 mo old). Interestingly, allergen induction of the same asthmatic traits was less dependent on chronological age than viruses. Age-specific responses to SeV included a juvenile bias toward type 2 airway inflammation that emerged early in infection, whereas mature mice exhibited a more restricted bronchiolar distribution of infection that produced a distinct type 2 low inflammatory cytokine profile. In the basal state, aging produced changes to lung leukocyte burden, including the number and transcriptional landscape of alveolar macrophages (AMs). Importantly, depleting AMs in mature mice restored post-SeV pathology to juvenile levels. Thus, aging influences chronic outcomes of respiratory viral infection through regulation of the AM compartment and type 2 inflammatory responses to viruses. Our data provide insight into how asthma remission might develop in children.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Aging/physiology , Asthma/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Lung/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Respirovirus Infections/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sendai virus/physiology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Animals , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , United States/epidemiology
19.
Nanoscale ; 14(8): 3250-3260, 2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684132

ABSTRACT

Various vaccine strategies have been developed to provide broad protection against diverse influenza viruses. The hemagglutinin (HA) stem is the major potential target of these vaccines. Enhancing immunogenicity and eliciting cross-protective immune responses are critical for HA stem-based vaccine designs. In this study, the A helix (Ah) and CD helix (CDh) from the HA stem were fused with ferritin, individually, or in tandem, yielding Ah-f, CDh-f and (A + CD)h-f nanoparticles (NPs), respectively. These NPs were produced through a prokaryotic expression system. After three immunizations with AS03-adjuvanted NPs in BALB/c mice via the subcutaneous route, CDh-f and (A + CD)h-f induced robust humoral and cellular immune responses. Furthermore, CDh-f and (A + CD)h-f conferred complete protection against a lethal challenge of H3N2 virus, while no remarkable immune responses and protective effects were detected in the Ah-f group. These results indicate that the CDh-based nanovaccine represents a promising vaccine platform against influenza, and the epitope-conjugated ferritin NPs may be a potential vaccine platform against other infectious viruses, such as SARS-COV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Nanoparticles , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus , Hemagglutinins , Humans , Immunity , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(12): e1010174, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624813

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms and consequences of genome evolution on viral fitness following host shifts are poorly understood. In addition, viral fitness -the ability of an organism to reproduce and survive- is multifactorial and thus difficult to quantify. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) circulate broadly among wild birds and have jumped into and become endemic in multiple mammalian hosts, including humans, pigs, dogs, seals, and horses. H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) is an endemic virus of horses that originated in birds and has been circulating uninterruptedly in equine populations since the early 1960s. Here, we used EIV to quantify changes in infection phenotype associated to viral fitness due to genome-wide changes acquired during long-term adaptation. We performed experimental infections of two mammalian cell lines and equine tracheal explants using the earliest H3N8 EIV isolated (A/equine/Uruguay/63 [EIV/63]), and A/equine/Ohio/2003 (EIV/2003), a monophyletic descendant of EIV/63 isolated 40 years after the emergence of H3N8 EIV. We show that EIV/2003 exhibits increased resistance to interferon, enhanced viral replication, and a more efficient cell-to-cell spread in cells and tissues. Transcriptomics analyses revealed virus-specific responses to each virus, mainly affecting host immunity and inflammation. Image analyses of infected equine respiratory explants showed that despite replicating at higher levels and spreading over larger areas of the respiratory epithelium, EIV/2003 induced milder lesions compared to EIV/63, suggesting that adaptation led to reduced tissue pathogenicity. Our results reveal previously unknown links between virus genotype and the host response to infection, providing new insights on the relationship between virus evolution and fitness.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Animals , Genetic Fitness/physiology , Horses
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