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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(5)2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832380

ABSTRACT

We report a case of Susac syndrome after SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent vaccination that presented with meningitis and retinal microembolisation in the form of paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM). After presenting with headache, fever and myalgia followed by scotomata, a woman in her 50s was hospitalised for meningitis; she had had mild COVID-19 infection 2 months prior to admission, having received the first vaccine dose 1 month prior to the neurological manifestation. Eye fundus examination and optical coherence tomography were suggestive of PAMM. D-dimer levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated. Before infectious investigation results were available, she was started on empirical antibiotic and antiviral treatment. Having ruled out infectious causes, she was started on high-dose prednisolone. After 1 month, there was partial resolution of retinal lesions. This case highlights that exposure to SARS-CoV-2 antigen may be related to this rare syndrome; treatment with steroids may improve central and retinal impairment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Degeneration , Retinal Diseases , Susac Syndrome , Female , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Humans , Macular Degeneration/complications , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retinal Diseases/etiology , Retinal Vessels/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
2.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 64: 102231, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797024

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has caused unprecedented global disruption since 2020. Approximately 238 million people are affected worldwide where the elderly succumb to mortality. Post-COVID syndrome and its side effects have popped up with several health hazards, such as macular degeneration and vision loss. It thus necessitates better medical care and management of our dietary practices. Natural flavonoids have been included in traditional medicine and have also been used safely against COVID-19 and several other diseases. Kaempferol is an essential flavonoid that has been demonstrated to influence several vital cellular signaling pathways involved in apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we emphasize the plausible regulatory effects of Kaempferol on hallmarks of COVID-19 and macular degeneration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Degeneration , Retinal Diseases , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Kaempferols/pharmacology , Kaempferols/therapeutic use , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Macular Degeneration/metabolism , Retina/metabolism , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy
3.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 260(5): 1457-1473, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616130

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To review the role of curcumin in retinal diseases, COVID era, modification of the molecule to improve bioavailability and its future scope. METHODS: PubMed and MEDLINE searches were pertaining to curcumin, properties of curcumin, curcumin in retinal diseases, curcumin in diabetic retinopathy, curcumin in age-related macular degeneration, curcumin in retinal and choroidal diseases, curcumin in retinitis pigmentosa, curcumin in retinal ischemia reperfusion injury, curcumin in proliferative vitreoretinopathy and curcumin in current COVID era. RESULTS: In experimental models, curcumin showed its pleiotropic effects in retinal diseases like diabetic retinopathy by increasing anti-oxidant enzymes, upregulating HO-1, nrf2 and reducing or inhibiting inflammatory mediators, growth factors and by inhibiting proliferation and migration of retinal endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner in HRPC, HREC and ARPE-19 cells. In age-related macular degeneration, curcumin acts by reducing ROS and inhibiting apoptosis inducing proteins and cellular inflammatory genes and upregulating HO-1, thioredoxin and NQO1. In retinitis pigmentosa, curcumin has been shown to delay structural defects of P23H gene in P23H-rhodopsin transgenic rats. In proliferative vitreoretinopathy, curcumin inhibited the action of EGF in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In retinal ischemia reperfusion injury, curcumin downregulates IL-17, IL-23, NFKB, STAT-3, MCP-1 and JNK. In retinoblastoma, curcumin inhibits proliferation, migration and apoptosis of RBY79 and SO-RB50. Curcumin has already proven its efficacy in inhibiting viral replication, coagulation and cytokine storm in COVID era. CONCLUSION: Curcumin is an easily available spice used traditionally in Indian cooking. The benefits of curcumin are manifold, and large randomized controlled trials are required to study its effects not only in treating retinal diseases in humans but in their prevention too.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , Diabetic Retinopathy , Macular Degeneration , Reperfusion Injury , Retinal Diseases , Retinal Neoplasms , Retinitis Pigmentosa , Vitreoretinopathy, Proliferative , Animals , Curcumin/pharmacology , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy
4.
Ophthalmology ; 128(11): 1620-1626, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510165

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Routine use of face masks for patients and physicians during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections has increased with the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This study evaluates the impact of universal face mask use on rates and outcomes of post-injection endophthalmitis (PIE). DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter, comparative cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Eyes receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF injections from October 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020, at 12 centers. METHODS: Cases were divided into a "no face mask" group if no face masks were worn by the physician or patient during intravitreal injections or a "universal face mask" group if face masks were worn by the physician, ancillary staff, and patient during intravitreal injections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of endophthalmitis, microbial spectrum, and visual acuity (VA). RESULTS: Of 505 968 intravitreal injections administered in 110 547 eyes, 85 of 294 514 (0.0289%; 1 in 3464 injections) cases of presumed endophthalmitis occurred in the "no face mask" group, and 45 of 211 454 (0.0213%; 1 in 4699) cases occurred in the "universal face mask" group (odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-1.18; P = 0.097). In the "no face mask" group, there were 27 cases (0.0092%; 1 in 10 908 injections) of culture-positive endophthalmitis compared with 9 cases (0.004%; 1 in 23 494) in the "universal face mask" group (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.99; P = 0.041). Three cases of oral flora-associated endophthalmitis occurred in the "no face mask" group (0.001%; 1 in 98 171 injections) compared with 1 (0.0005%; 1 in 211 454) in the "universal face mask" group (P = 0.645). Patients presented a mean (range) 4.9 (1-30) days after the causative injection, and mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) VA at endophthalmitis presentation was 2.04 (~20/2200) for "no face mask" group compared with 1.65 (~20/900) for the "universal face mask" group (P = 0.022), although no difference was observed 3 months after treatment (P = 0.764). CONCLUSIONS: In a large, multicenter, retrospective study, physician and patient face mask use during intravitreal anti-VEGF injections did not alter the risk of presumed acute-onset bacterial endophthalmitis, but there was a reduced rate of culture-positive endophthalmitis. Three months after presentation, there was no difference in VA between the groups.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Eye Infections, Bacterial/prevention & control , N95 Respirators , Comorbidity , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Intravitreal Injections/adverse effects , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
5.
Retina ; 41(11): 2215-2220, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483570

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the bacterial growth in the surgical face masks used by patients who received intravitreal injections and study the effect of povidone-iodine on the periocular area (PA) of masks. METHODS: Forty patients who attended for intravitreal injections were divided in those with less (<4 hours) and more (>4 hours) than 4 hours of mask use. Each group was divided depending on the application or not of povidone-iodine in the PA of the mask. Bacterial load was studied on PA and mouth area samples. RESULTS: The bacterial load in the PA was higher in the >4 hours group compared with the <4 hours group (13.2 vs. 48.75 colony-forming units/µL; P = 0.03). The contamination in the PA significantly decreased after applying povidone-iodine in the >4 hours group (P = 0.01). The use or not of povidone-iodine was strongly correlated to a positive culture (OR = 9.0, P = 0.00. CI 1.63-49.44). CONCLUSION: Surgical face masks worn for more than 4 hours present higher contamination in the PA than those with less use. Bacterial load in the PA is reduced with povidone-iodine on masks used for more than 4 hours. This contamination should be considered in the asepsis protocol of intravitreal injections.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , Equipment Contamination , Masks/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Bacterial Load , Bacteriological Techniques , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Povidone-Iodine/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
6.
Retina ; 41(12): 2456-2461, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348074

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of delay in care secondary to the coronavirus pandemic in patients requiring intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed, and subjects were divided into two groups: 1) a study group of patients who experienced a treatment delay of ≥6 weeks from the intended follow-up during the coronavirus pandemic and resumed treatment with ≥2 anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections over 6 months following treatment delay, and 2) a control group of patients who received regular care throughout the coronavirus pandemic. RESULTS: Totally, 234 subjects were analyzed. The mean treatment delay from the intended follow-up in the study group was 11.8 (±4.0) weeks. Visual acuity and central macular thickness worsened from baseline to 6 months after resuming anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in the study group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Visual acuity and central macular thickness were better in the control group compared with the study group at the end of the 6-month study period (P < 0.0001 for both). CONCLUSION: Treatment delay in subjects undergoing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for retina disease during the coronavirus pandemic had worse visual and anatomical outcomes despite reinitiating treatment over 6 months compared with a control group, suggesting irreversibility and permanence of outcomes.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Choroidal Neovascularization/physiopathology , Continuity of Patient Care , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Diabetic Retinopathy/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/physiopathology , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retinal Diseases/physiopathology , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Time-to-Treatment , United States/epidemiology , Visual Acuity/physiology , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Wet Macular Degeneration/physiopathology
7.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 35: 102449, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322305

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the clinical status of treatment-naive patients who had to delay 3-dose loading anti-VEGF (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor) injections during the COVID-19 lockdown, and to evaluate the effect of the delayed visual acuity treatment on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) parameters. METHOD: A total of 55 eyes of 46 patients who were received in the study period participated in this retrospective study, including 28 patients (37 eyes) with diabetic macular edema (DME), 11 patients (11 eyes) with retinal vein occlusion (RVO), and 7 patients (7 eyes) with wet age-related macular degeneration (wet-AMD). The patients were diagnosed with DME, RVO, or wet-AMD in February 2020 and had planned 3-dose loading injections in March, April, and May 2020, but could not be injected due to the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: From the patients' initial examination in February 2020, the mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.72 ± 59 logMAR. After the patients' lockdown visit in July 2020, the mean BCVA was 0.76 ± 64 logMAR. BCVA was stable in 11 eyes, decreased in 12 eyes, and increased in 14 eyes for patients with DME. BCVA was stable in 6, decreased in 3, and increased in 2 eyes for patients with RVO, and it was stable in 4 eyes and decreased in 3 eyes for patients with wet-AMD. CONCLUSION: We concluded that 6-month delay in treatment of DME patients with non-proliferative DRP had no adverse effect on the visual acuity. However, the loading dose in wet-AMD and RVO patients should be applied as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Macular Edema , Photochemotherapy , Retinal Diseases , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Pandemics , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
8.
Ophthalmology ; 128(11): 1620-1626, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275607

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Routine use of face masks for patients and physicians during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections has increased with the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This study evaluates the impact of universal face mask use on rates and outcomes of post-injection endophthalmitis (PIE). DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter, comparative cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Eyes receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF injections from October 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020, at 12 centers. METHODS: Cases were divided into a "no face mask" group if no face masks were worn by the physician or patient during intravitreal injections or a "universal face mask" group if face masks were worn by the physician, ancillary staff, and patient during intravitreal injections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of endophthalmitis, microbial spectrum, and visual acuity (VA). RESULTS: Of 505 968 intravitreal injections administered in 110 547 eyes, 85 of 294 514 (0.0289%; 1 in 3464 injections) cases of presumed endophthalmitis occurred in the "no face mask" group, and 45 of 211 454 (0.0213%; 1 in 4699) cases occurred in the "universal face mask" group (odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-1.18; P = 0.097). In the "no face mask" group, there were 27 cases (0.0092%; 1 in 10 908 injections) of culture-positive endophthalmitis compared with 9 cases (0.004%; 1 in 23 494) in the "universal face mask" group (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.99; P = 0.041). Three cases of oral flora-associated endophthalmitis occurred in the "no face mask" group (0.001%; 1 in 98 171 injections) compared with 1 (0.0005%; 1 in 211 454) in the "universal face mask" group (P = 0.645). Patients presented a mean (range) 4.9 (1-30) days after the causative injection, and mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) VA at endophthalmitis presentation was 2.04 (~20/2200) for "no face mask" group compared with 1.65 (~20/900) for the "universal face mask" group (P = 0.022), although no difference was observed 3 months after treatment (P = 0.764). CONCLUSIONS: In a large, multicenter, retrospective study, physician and patient face mask use during intravitreal anti-VEGF injections did not alter the risk of presumed acute-onset bacterial endophthalmitis, but there was a reduced rate of culture-positive endophthalmitis. Three months after presentation, there was no difference in VA between the groups.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Eye Infections, Bacterial/prevention & control , N95 Respirators , Comorbidity , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Intravitreal Injections/adverse effects , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
9.
Retina ; 41(11): 2208-2214, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219729

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the rates of postintravitreal injection-related endophthalmitis during the COVID-19 pandemic with institution of both physician and patient face masking. METHODS: All eyes receiving intravitreal injections of any kind from a single large tertiary retina practice in Houston, TX before (August 2017-March 22, 2020) and after (March 23, 2020-September 2020) COVID-19 pandemic universal masking protocols. The total number of injections and cases of acute injection-related endophthalmitis were determined from billing records and subsequent retrospective chart review. The primary outcome was the rate of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection. Secondary outcomes included visual acuity, time until initial presentation, patient age, and differences in the overall number of injections performed monthly pre-COVID-19 and post-COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 134, 097 intravitreal injections were performed during the study period (111,679 pre-COVID-19 and 22,418 post-COVID-19 masking protocols). A total of 41 cases of acute endophthalmitis occurred in the pre-COVID group (0.04%, one in 2,500) and 7 cases in the post-COVID group (0.03%, one in 3,333) P = 0.85. CONCLUSION: In this single center, retrospective study, the implementation of universal patient and physician masking as practiced during the COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly affect the rate of postintravitreal injection endophthalmitis.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Intravitreal Injections/adverse effects , Masks/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Choroid Diseases/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Visual Acuity
10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(3): 730-733, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089033

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact on vision due to delay in presentation of patients requiring intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections, consequent to COVID-19-related travel restrictions. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively of patients who received anti-VEGF injections during four months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Visual acuities, indication for treatment were noted along with basic demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Data were analyzed for 303 eyes of 263 patients. The indication for treatment was age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 60 eyes (19.8%), while 162 eyes (53.5%) had Diabetic Macular Edema, 71 eyes (23.4%) had Retinal Vein Occlusion and 10 eyes (3.3%) had other diagnosis. The visual acuity in the treatment naïve eyes (Group A, n = 168) was significantly worse (P <0.001) than those who presented for retreatment (Group B, n = 135). In Group B, there was a significant decline in vision for the entire cohort (P = 0.009) and those with AMD (P = 0.036). Those in Group B presented at a mean interval of 19.1 ± 10.6 (range, 4-64) weeks for retreatment. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a delay in patients receiving anti-VEGF injections. The visual acuity is worse in both treatment naïve as well as those requiring retreatment. This could have long-term impact on vision of patients requiring this vision preserving treatment.


Subject(s)
Bevacizumab/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quarantine , Ranibizumab/administration & dosage , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Young Adult
11.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 259(3): 567-574, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060218

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Following the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, the easing of strict measures to reduce its spread has led to a resurgence of cases in many countries at both the national and local level. This article addresses how guidance for ophthalmologists on managing patients with retinal disease receiving intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) during the pandemic should be adapted to the local epidemic pressure, with more or less stringent measures implemented according to the ebb and flow of the pandemic. METHODS: The Vision Academy's membership of international retinal disease experts analyzed guidance for anti-VEGF intravitreal injections during the COVID-19 pandemic and graded the recommendations according to three levels of increasing epidemic pressure. The revised recommendations were discussed, refined, and voted on by the 14-member Vision Academy Steering Committee for consensus. RESULTS: Protocols to minimize the exposure of patients and healthcare staff to COVID-19, including use of personal protective equipment, physical distancing, and hygiene measures, should be routinely implemented and intensified according to local infection rates and pressure on the hospital/clinic or healthcare system. In areas with many COVID-19-positive clusters, additional measures including pre-screening of patients, postponement of non-urgent appointments, and simplification of complex intravitreal anti-VEGF regimens should be considered. Treatment prioritization for those at greatest risk of irreversible vision loss should be implemented in areas where COVID-19 cases are increasing exponentially and healthcare resources are strained. CONCLUSION: Consistency in monitoring of local infection rates and adjustment of clinical practice accordingly will be required as we move forward through the COVID-19 era. Ophthalmologists must continue to carefully weigh the risk-benefits to minimize the exposure of patients and healthcare staff to COVID-19, ensure that patients receive sight-saving treatment, and avoid the potential long-term impact of prolonged treatment postponement.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Personal Protective Equipment , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy
15.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 31(1): 10-12, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-791664

ABSTRACT

We report our experience during COVID-19 outbreak for intravitreal injections in patients with maculopathy. We proposed a treatment priority levels and timings; the "High" priority level includes all monocular patients; the "Moderate" is assigned to all patients with an active macular neovascularization; the patients affected by diabetic macular edema or retinal vein occlusion belong to the "Low" class. This organization allowed us to treat the most urgent patients although the injections performed had a 91.7% drop compared to the same period of 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Health Priorities/organization & administration , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Retinal Diseases/classification , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration , Central Serous Chorioretinopathy/classification , Central Serous Chorioretinopathy/drug therapy , Diabetic Retinopathy/classification , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Italy/epidemiology , Macular Degeneration/classification , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Macular Edema/classification , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Quarantine , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/classification , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy
16.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 258(12): 2655-2660, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777820

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To quantify the shrinking in outpatient and intravitreal injections' volumes in a tertiary referral retina unit secondary to virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we reviewed the charts of all patients who had a visit at a medical retina referral center during the Italian quarantine (from 9th of March 2020 to 3rd of May 2020). Number and characteristics of these data were compared with data from the same period in 2019 (from 9th of March 2019 to 3rd of May 2019). RESULTS: In the 2019 study period, there were 303 patients attending clinic (150 males, 153 females). In the 2020 study period, patients decreased to 75 (48 males, 27 females; P = 0.022 comparing gender prevalence between the two periods) with an overall reduction of 75.2%. Mean ± SD age was 71.4 ± 14.3 years (range 25-93 years) in the 2019 study period and 66.7 ± 13.1 years (range 32-91 years) in the 2020 study period (P = 0.005). The largest drop in outpatient volume was recorded in AMD patients (- 79.9%). Regarding the intravitreal treatments, there were 1252 injections in the 2019 period and 583 injections in the 2020 period (- 53.6% in injections). The drop in intravitreal treatments was larger in patients with posterior uveitis, retinal vein occlusion, and diabetes (- 85.7%, - 61.9%, and - 59.6%, respectively). CONCLUSION: The volume of outpatient visits and intravitreal injections declined during the COVID-19 quarantine. The short- and long-term impacts are that routine in-person visits and intravitreal injections are expected to increase after the quarantine and, even more, after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Office Visits/statistics & numerical data , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Retinal Diseases/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Visual Acuity/physiology
17.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 222: 194-201, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739728

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of physician face mask use on rates and outcomes of postinjection endophthalmitis. DESIGN: Retrospective, comparative cohort study. METHODS: Setting: Single-center. StudyPopulation: Eyes receiving intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections from July 1, 2013, to September 1, 2019. INTERVENTION: Cases were divided into "Face Mask" group if face masks were worn by the physician during intravitreal injections or "No Talking" group if no face mask was worn but a no-talking policy was observed during intravitreal injections. MainOutcomeMeasures: Rate of endophthalmitis, visual acuity, and microbial spectrum. RESULTS: Of 483,622 intravitreal injections administered, 168 out of 453,460 (0.0371%) cases of endophthalmitis occurred in the No Talking group, and 9 out of 30,162 (0.0298%) cases occurred in the Face Mask group (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-1.57; P = .527). Sixteen cases of oral flora-associated endophthalmitis were found in the No Talking group (1 in 28,341 injections), compared to none in the Face Mask group (P = .302). Mean logMAR visual acuity at presentation in cases that developed culture-positive endophthalmitis was significantly worse in the No Talking group compared to the Face Mask group (17.1 lines lost from baseline acuity vs 13.4 lines lost; P = .031), though no difference was observed at 6 months after treatment (P = .479). CONCLUSION: Physician face mask use did not influence the risk of postinjection endophthalmitis compared to a no-talking policy. However, no cases of oral flora-associated endophthalmitis occurred in the Face Mask group. Future studies are warranted to assess the role of face mask use to reduce endophthalmitis risk, particularly attributable to oral flora.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Eye Infections, Bacterial/prevention & control , Intravitreal Injections/adverse effects , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/etiology , Humans , Physicians , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Visual Acuity
19.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 258(6): 1149-1156, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-121183

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is an urgent need to address how to best provide ophthalmic care for patients with retinal disease receiving intravitreal injections with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents during the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic. This article provides guidance for ophthalmologists on how to deliver the best possible care for patients while minimizing the risk of infection. METHODS: The Vision Academy's Steering Committee of international retinal disease experts convened to discuss key considerations for managing patients with retinal disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. After reviewing the existing literature on the issue, members put forward recommendations that were systematically refined and voted on to develop this guidance. RESULTS: The considerations focus on the implementation of steps to minimize the exposure of patients and healthcare staff to COVID-19. These include the use of personal protective equipment, adherence to scrupulous hygiene and disinfection protocols, pre-screening to identify symptomatic patients, and reducing the number of people in waiting rooms. Other important measures include triaging of patients to identify those at the greatest risk of irreversible vision loss and prioritization of treatment visits over monitoring visits where possible. In order to limit patient exposure, ophthalmologists should refrain from using treatment regimens that require frequent monitoring. CONCLUSION: Management of patients with retinal disease receiving intravitreal injections during the COVID-19 pandemic will require adjustment to regular clinical practice to minimize the risk of exposure of patients and healthcare staff, and to prioritize those with the greatest medical need. The safety of patients and healthcare staff should be of paramount importance in all decision-making.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Intravitreal Injections , Ophthalmology/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Disinfection , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
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