Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
Food Environ Virol ; 12(4): 361-366, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871571

ABSTRACT

The global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic dictates that anti-contagion strategies should become matters of essential routine in everyday life. Fomite transference is one of the routes of transmission that has been considered for this virus. However, the risks associated with contaminated surfaces of food packaging kept in refrigerators have not yet been adequately assessed. In this study, a surrogate virus, Alphacoronavirus 1, was used to investigate the persistence of coronavirus dried on a plastic carrier at 4 °C. Techniques of wet wiping, with or without disinfectant saturation, were employed to evaluate their effectiveness in the elimination of the virus. If not wiped, the loss of infectivity of the virus on plastic surfaces was, on average, 0.93 log10 (i.e. 83%) per day of storage at 4 °C. Wiping with water-saturated material reduced the initial virus titre on the plastic carrier by 2.4 log10 (99.6%); the same results were achieved through wiping with bactericidal wipes containing ethanol. Wipes saturated with a combination of disinfectant agents (didecyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide) decreased the virus titre still more efficiently, by 3.8 log10 (99.98%) and also significantly prevented further transfer of the virus to a secondary surface through wiping. Thus SARS-CoV-2 transmission potential via contaminated plastic packaging and food may be efficiently eliminated by wet-wiping, especially when wipes saturated with specific disinfectants are used.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Fomites/virology , Food Packaging , Food Safety , Pandemics/prevention & control , Plastics , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Refrigeration , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disinfectants , Ethanol , Food Storage/methods , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
2.
Virol J ; 17(1): 145, 2020 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rate at which COVID-19 has spread throughout the globe has been alarming. While the role of fomite transmission is not yet fully understood, precise data on the environmental stability of SARS-CoV-2 is required to determine the risks of fomite transmission from contaminated surfaces. METHODS: This study measured the survival rates of infectious SARS-CoV-2, suspended in a standard ASTM E2197 matrix, on several common surface types. All experiments were carried out in the dark, to negate any effects of UV light. Inoculated surfaces were incubated at 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C and sampled at various time points. RESULTS: Survival rates of SARS-CoV-2 were determined at different temperatures and D-values, Z-values and half-life were calculated. We obtained half lives of between 1.7 and 2.7 days at 20 °C, reducing to a few hours when temperature was elevated to 40 °C. With initial viral loads broadly equivalent to the highest titres excreted by infectious patients, viable virus was isolated for up to 28 days at 20 °C from common surfaces such as glass, stainless steel and both paper and polymer banknotes. Conversely, infectious virus survived less than 24 h at 40 °C on some surfaces. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 can remain infectious for significantly longer time periods than generally considered possible. These results could be used to inform improved risk mitigation procedures to prevent the fomite spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , COVID-19 , Humans , Microbial Viability , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature , Ultraviolet Rays , Viral Load
3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(7): 748-749, 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721542

ABSTRACT

The present communication emphasizes on a very pertinent issue of aerosol transmission, persistence and surface viability of novel SARS-CoV-2. Studies in this regard have been conducted on previously known human coronaviruses, and similarities have been drawn for novel SARS-CoV-2. The communication highlights that caution should be excercised while drawing inferences regarding the persistence and viability of the novel SARS-CoV-2 based on the knowledge of already known human coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Air Microbiology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus/physiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
4.
Environ Res ; 190: 110001, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709987

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a novel human corona virus disease (COVID-19) has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. One of the mechanisms of airborne transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome - corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) amid humans is through direct ejection of droplets via sneezing, coughing and vocalizing. Nevertheless, there are ample evidences of the persistence of infectious viruses on inanimate surfaces for several hours to a few days. Through a critical review of the current literature and a preliminary analysis of the link between SARS-CoV-2 transmission and air pollution in the affected regions, we offer a perspective that polluted environment could enhance the transmission rate of such deadly viruses under moderate-to-high humidity conditions. The aqueous atmospheric aerosols offer a conducive surface for adsorption/absorption of organic molecules and viruses onto them, facilitating a pathway for higher rate of transmission under favourable environmental conditions. This mechanism partially explains the role of polluted air besides the exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases in the rapid transmission of the virus amongst the public. Hence, it is stressed that more ambitious policies towards a cleaner environment are required globally to nip in the bud what could be the seeds of a fatal outbreak such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Water Res ; 179: 115907, 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175680

ABSTRACT

The main route of transmission of the human coronaviruses (HCoVs), and presumably also of the new pandemic SARS-CoV-2, is via droplets and close contacts, however their fecal elimination also suggests the possible spread via water. A scientific literature search was thus carried out to highlight the current state of the art and knowledge gaps regarding coronavirus in water. Since 1978 only 22 studies have met the inclusion criteria, and considered heterogeneous purposes, detection methods and types of water. In vitro experiments have addressed the recovery efficiency of analytical methods, survival in different types of water and the removal efficiency of water treatments. Field studies have monitored coronaviruses in surface waters, sewage, slurry, and biosolids. Overall, at the lab scale, HCoVs or surrogates can survive for several days at 4 °C, however their persistence is lower compared with non-enveloped viruses and is strongly influenced by temperature and organic or microbial pollution. HCoVs have rarely been detected in field investigations, however may be due to the low recovery efficiency of the analytical methods. The scarcity of information on HCoV in the environment suggests that research is needed to understand the fate of these viruses in the water cycle.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Water Res ; 179: 115899, 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165774

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses causing a spectrum of disease ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a public health emergency worldwide. SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, is spread by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact. However, since SARS-CoV-2 (as well as other coronaviruses) has been found in the fecal samples and anal swabs of some patients, the possibility of fecal-oral (including waterborne) transmission need to be investigated and clarified. This scoping review was conducted to summarize research data on CoV in water environments. A literature survey was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Web Science Core Collection. This comprehensive research yielded more than 3000 records, but only 12 met the criteria and were included and discussed in this review. In detail, the review captured relevant studies investigating three main areas: 1) CoV persistence/survival in waters; 2) CoV occurrence in water environments; 3) methods for recovery of CoV from waters. The data available suggest that: i) CoV seems to have a low stability in the environment and is very sensitive to oxidants, like chlorine; ii) CoV appears to be inactivated significantly faster in water than non-enveloped human enteric viruses with known waterborne transmission; iii) temperature is an important factor influencing viral survival (the titer of infectious virus declines more rapidly at 23°C-25 °C than at 4 °C); iv) there is no current evidence that human coronaviruses are present in surface or ground waters or are transmitted through contaminated drinking-water; v) further research is needed to adapt to enveloped viruses the methods commonly used for sampling and concentration of enteric, non enveloped viruses from water environments. The evidence-based knowledge reported in this paper is useful to support risk analysis processes within the drinking and wastewater chain (i.e., water and sanitation safety planning) to protect human health from exposure to coronavirus through water.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Water Supply , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Feces , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(9)2020 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-143844

ABSTRACT

Recently, due to the coronavirus pandemic, many guidelines and anti-contagion strategies continue to report unclear information about the persistence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the environment. This certainly generates insecurity and fear in people, with an important psychological component that is not to be underestimated at this stage of the pandemic. The purpose of this article is to highlight all the sources currently present in the literature concerning the persistence of the different coronaviruses in the environment as well as in medical and dental settings. As this was a current study, there are still not many sources in the literature, and scientific strategies are moving towards therapy and diagnosis, rather than knowing the characteristics of the virus. Such an article could be an aid to summarize virus features and formulate new guidelines and anti-spread strategies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Environmental Microbiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Dental Offices , Humans , Medical Office Buildings , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Hosp Infect ; 104(3): 246-251, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-3162

ABSTRACT

Currently, the emergence of a novel human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has become a global health concern causing severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Human-to-human transmissions have been described with incubation times between 2-10 days, facilitating its spread via droplets, contaminated hands or surfaces. We therefore reviewed the literature on all available information about the persistence of human and veterinary coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces as well as inactivation strategies with biocidal agents used for chemical disinfection, e.g. in healthcare facilities. The analysis of 22 studies reveals that human coronaviruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus or endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) can persist on inanimate surfaces like metal, glass or plastic for up to 9 days, but can be efficiently inactivated by surface disinfection procedures with 62-71% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within 1 minute. Other biocidal agents such as 0.05-0.2% benzalkonium chloride or 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate are less effective. As no specific therapies are available for SARS-CoV-2, early containment and prevention of further spread will be crucial to stop the ongoing outbreak and to control this novel infectious thread.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Microbial Viability , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , COVID-19 , Environmental Microbiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...