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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286584

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the influential factors for job burnout among the managerial staff in a Sino-Japanese joint venture automobile manufacturer in Guangzhou, China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 288 managers in a Sino-Japanese joint venture automobile manufacturer were surveyed using the Occupational Stress Indicator, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Social Support Rating Scale.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>On the depersonalization dimension, the male managers had significantly higher scores than the female managers. The scores of emotion exhaustion and depersonalization of MBI showed significant differences among the managers with different levels of occupational stress. The path analysis showed that occupational stress, neuroticism, and psychoticism had negative effects on emotion exhaustion, while job satisfaction and utilization of social support had direct positive effects on emotion exhaustion. Occupational stress, psychoticism, and passive coping style had direct negative effects on depersonalization, while job satisfaction, objective support, and utilization of social support had positive effects on depersonalization. Job satisfaction and active coping style had positive effects on sense of personal accomplishment, while passive coping style had a negative effect on sense of personal accomplishment. Personality exerted its effect on social support through coping style and thus on job satisfaction and job burnout.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Male managers have a greater propensity to depersonalization than their female counterparts. High occupational stress is a risk factor for job burnout. Personality, social support, and coping style are influential factors for job burnout.</p>


Subject(s)
Administrative Personnel , Psychology , Adult , Burnout, Professional , Psychology , Fatigue , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Male , Middle Aged , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
2.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 742-746, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341045

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the association between genetic polymorphism of rs1409181 in ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) among older Chinese in Guangzhou. Methods 390 subjects aged ≥50 years were randomly selected from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study-CVD. Information on personal history, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipids were collected. Color Doppler ultrasound was used to measure the indicators of LVH, including left ventricular internal diastolic diameter (LVIDD) , thickness of the interventricular septum diastolic wall (IVSD) and the posterior wall diastolic diameter (LVPWD). LVIDD was calculated using Devereux ventricular mass (LVM)equation while the Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) equation was used to estimate LVH. The genotype of rs1409181 was determined by Taqman SNP genotyping kits using the ABI 7900HT real time PCR system. Results In the GG, CG and CC genotype groups, the proportions of LVH were 21.5%, 28.2% and 37.5% respectively. Compared with GG, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the LVH were 1.39(0.78-2.50) and 2.36(1.21-4.60) for CG genotype and CC genotype of ENPP1 respectively (P for trend=0.01). Conclusion Polymorphism of ENPP1 gene rs1409181 was associated with LVH in the older Chinese people in Guangzhou.

3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 983-987, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341019

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the dose-response relationship of smoking status with carotid atherosclerosis in 959 relatively healthy Chinese men. Methods 959 older Chinese men were selected from Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS) on cardiovascular disease. Personal histories were collected and fasting plasma glucose and lipids, blood pressure, and common carotid artery intima-median thickness (CCA-IMT) were measured. Results ( 1 ) Composition of the cases:39.1% were non-smokers, 25.7% were former smokers and 35.2% were current smokers. The mean (95% confidence interval) carotid IMT was 0.78 (0.77-0.79) mm. 18.4% of the subjects had carotid IMT equal to or thicker than 1.0 mm while 34.1% had carotid plaque. (2)After adjusting for age, sex,physical activity, body mass index, fasting glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,systolic and diastolic blood pressure, compared to never smokers, current smokers had significantly increased risk for thicker IMT and carotid plaque [odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% GI: 1.30-2.55 and OR=1.95, 95%CI: 1.38-2.75, respectively, all P<0.001]. The risk for thicker IMT and carotid plaque increased with the increasing amount (cigarettes/day) and duration of smoking (years) as well with cigarette pack-years (P for trend all ≤0.01 ). Conclusion An elevated risk with a clear doseresponse relationship was found between cigarette smoking and carotid atherosclerosis. Quitting smoking or reducing the amount of smoking may lower the risk of atherosclerosis, preventing and controlling the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, and reducing the related cardiovascular mortalities.

4.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 121-125, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-277677

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the serum leptin and adiponectin levels among relatively healthy older people and their association with traditional cardiovascular risk factors.Methods Personal medical history and blood sample were collected from 1515 older people of Guangzhou.Fasting serum glucose,lipids,leptin and adiponectin were measured.Results(1)In relatively healthy older adults aged 50 or above,from Guangzhou,the following data were seen:serum leptin levels(x-±s)in men and women were(3.90±2.36)ng/ml and(12.17 ±2.01)ng/ml respectively;serum adiponectin levels in men and women were(5.33 ± 2.78)mg/L and(7.18 ± 2.58)mg/L respectively.(2)Serum leptin and adiponectin level increased with age.After adjusting for body mass index,the trend for serum leptin level in men(P<0.001)and adiponectin level in women(P<0.05)were significantly associated with age.(3)No association was found between cigarette smoking and levels of leptin or adiponectin in both men and women after adjusting for age(P from 0.09 to 0.76).(4)In both men and women,serum leptin and adiponectin levels were positively associated with waist circumference/body mass index,systolic blood pressure,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride(P from 0.04 to<0.001).In men,leptin was also significantly associated with the increase of diastolic blood pressure and glucose but decreased with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(P from 0.03 to 0.02).(5)Decreased adiponectin level was associated with increased waist circumference and triglyceride in both men and women(P from 0.003 to<0.001)and with the increased body mass index,fasting plasma glucose as well as with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men(P from 0.05 to<0.001)but with increased systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol in women(P from 0.05 to 0.006).Conclusion In Guangzhou city,among relatively healthy older adults aged 50 or above,their serum leptin and adiponectin levels were lower in men than in women.Serum leptin level in men and adiponectin level in women were significantly associated with the increase of age.Increased leptin and decreased adiponectin levels were associated with increased traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291559

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the polymorphisms of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease genes using Taqman single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping kits.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 2000 subjects were recruited from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS), and 15 SNPs were detected using Taqman SNP genotyping kits and an ABI 7900HT real time PCR system. The data were tested for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and then compared with the data of the Chinese population from the International HapMap Project (HapMap_HCN).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) All genotype data of the 15 SNPs were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg rules. (2) The significant differences were observed among two SNPs, rs4220 and rs5368 and the HapMap_HCN (rs4220 28.2% vs 17.8%; chi(2) = 4.891, P = 0.028; rs5368 22.1% vs 32.2%, chi(2) = 5.137, P = 0.024). Comparing other gene bank data, such as AFD-CHN-PANEL, the Allele Frequency Database (ALFRED) and JBIC-allele, it would be most likely that our observations represent differences between the Northern and Southern populations in China.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Such Biobank study provided a useful platform for the study of the role of genetic and environmental determinants on cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease.</p>


Subject(s)
Asians , Genetics , Biological Specimen Banks , Brain Diseases , Epidemiology , Genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases , Epidemiology , Genetics , China , Epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Genetic Association Studies , Genotype , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 462-465, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266500

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the impact of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) physical activity intensity on to the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Chinese elderly. Methods A total number of 1996 residents aged 50 or above living in Guangzhou city were recruited from the phase 3 of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Information on physical activity and fasting plasma glucose status was derived from standardized interviews and laboratory assays. Results Among the participants who were classified as physically active (60.0%), moderate active (29.8%) and inactive (10.2%), the prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus were 9.1%, 12.0%and 14.2%,respectively. After adjustment on age, sex, obesity and other potential confounding factors, data from logistic regression model showed that the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for diabetes on subjects in physically moderate active and active group were 0.75 (0.46-1.26)and 0.60 (0.38-0.97) respectively with P for trend as 0.03, when comparing to those physically inactive ones. Conclusion Promotion of physical activity might have had some effects in reducing the risk of diabetes mellitus among the older adults.

7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 776-779, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261282

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the impact of lifestyle-related,physiological and biochemical factors on aortic arch calcification(AAC).Methods 20 430 subjects aged 50 to 85 years were included in this study from the first and second recruitment phase of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.All the subjects received face-to-face interviews to collect detailed information on their socio-demographic background,occupational exposures,living environment,lifestyle,family and personal disease histories,and received a physical examination and tests including 12-lead ECG,chest radiograph,and pulmonary function testing.Each subject was screened for a range of fasting biochemical parameters.Radiographs were reviewed by two senior radiologists.300 radiographs were independently read by the two radiologists to assess agreement using Kappa coefficient.Logistic regression was used to assess the association between life style,physiological and biocheroical factors and AAC.Resuits (1)The rate of agreement on diagnosis for the two radiologists was 85% and Kappa coefficient was 0.68(P<0.01) which showed a moderate agreementbetween the two radiologists.(2) Except hypertension,the subjects were significantly difierent on their lifestyle,physiological and biochemical factors in both men and women(P<0.05).(3)AAC was significantly associated with older age,smoking status,LDL-C,and hypertension(P<0.01)in both genders.Ors(95%CI)indicated the following results:age was 1.11(1.10-1.12) in men and 1.12 (1.12-1.13)in women;smoking as 1.31(1.17-1.47)in men and 1.31(1.09-1.57)in women;LDL-Cas 1.16(1.06-1.27) in men and 1.38(1.22-1.56) in women,hypertension as 1.33(1.18-1.50) in men and 1.27(1.18-1.38) in women.However,diabetes was found to be associated with an increased risk of AAC in women[OR(95%CI)]1.38(1.22-1.56).Conclusion Age,smoking,hypertension and Low-density lipoprotcin level were risk factors to beth genders,on AAC,while diabetes increased the risk of AAC,in women.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-347228

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the health status and intention of quitting smoking in factory workers, so as to provide scientific evidence for smoking control.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A cross-sectional survey was carried out on smoking behavior, self-reported health status (SRHS), and intention of quitting smoking in 668 Guangzhou factory workers with different job types. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used on current smokers. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the association of SRHS, difficulty of quitting smoking (DQS) with some risk factors.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) 65.0% (n = 348) male and 3.0% (n = 4) female workers were ever-smokers. 90.6% of male smokers usually smoked when getting together with friends or smokers, staying at home, or at leisure time, or just after a meal. (2) 10.7% of the daily smokers and ex-smokers had a worse SRHS than the general same-age people, which is significantly higher than 5.1% of the occasional smokers and those who were never smoking. The OR was 2.22 (95% CI 1.08 approximately 4.59) after adjusting age and education. (3) Of male daily smokers, 50.5% ever thought of quitting smoking. The proportions of ever-thought of quitting smoking were 73.3%, 50.0% and 37.2% respectively in those with better, pretty the same and worse SRHS than the general same-age people (P = 0.009). The proportions of DQS self-scored 30 or less, 31 to 60 and 60 or more were 26.9%, 24.9% and 48.2% respectively in male daily smokers. The OR for DQS (self-scored > 30 vs < or =30) increased with increasing number of colleague smoked and worked around, and with nicotine dependence.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Daily smokers and former smokers have worse SRHS than those who are occasional smokers or never smokers in male workers, and most of those with worse SRHS who ever thought of quitting smoking. The DQS is mainly significantly associated with number of colleague smoking and working around, and with nicotine dependence.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Status , Humans , Intention , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health , Smoking , Smoking Cessation , Psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco Use Disorder , Epidemiology
9.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1061-1063, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-298319

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate smoking behavior and nicotine dependence (ND), so as to provide evidence for tobacco control in workers. Methods A cross-sectional study to investigate smoking behavior and ND in 668 workers with different job assignment in Guangzhou. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and logistic regression model were used to analyze the association between ND and some risk factors. Results (1) The prevalence of ever-smoking was 65.0 % ( 348/535 ) in men ( 55.5 % daily smokers, 5.4% occasional smokers and 4.1% ex-smokers), and 3.0% (4/133) in women. The prevalence of current smoking for manual workers and safety officers were 67.6 % and 64.5 % respectively.(2) Among daily and occasional smokers, 66.7% and 89.7% of them had low ND respectively. Among daily smokers, ND increased with the duration of smoking. Manual workers and officers had higher ND. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking was relatively high in workers and officers and in men. However,majority of the smokers were with low ND and could be the prioritized target for a primary smoking cessation intervention program.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338976

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To examine electrocardiogram (ECG) change of workers after leaving occupational noise exposure.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In the first phase of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study, 10413 Guangzhou residents aged 50 years or more received a face-to face interview including noise exposure history, a full medical check-up and laboratory tests in 2003 - 4. ECG examination was carried out using 12-lead MAC-CS ECG machine made in HP Ltd, Shanghai, China. ECG of every subject was independently diagnosed by two doctors who had obtained ECG diagnosis qualification.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) Among 10413 subjects, 70% were female, and more than half were aged 60-69 years. The mean age and education level in males were higher than those in females. (2) 2119 subjects (21.0%) were previously exposed to noise and were retired now. (3) The prevalence of ECG abnormality was respectively 82.4% and 79.1% in females and males. Rate of ECG abnormality increased with age in both females and males (P = 0.000), and was lower in females with higher education level (P = 0.000). There was not significant difference in ECG abnormality between workers previously exposed or unexposed to noise in both females and males (P > 0.05). 4 Comparing workers previously exposed to those unexposed to noise in both females and males, after adjusting for age, educational level and smoking status, the rates of arrhythmia, axes deviation, atria and ventricle hypertrophy, ST-T change and coronary artery syndrome were not significantly different (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our study showed that the prevalence of ECG abnormality was not significantly increased in workers previously exposed to noise and had left exposure now compared to those never exposed to noise. Because our study was cross section and occupational history was obtained from a questionnaire but was not confirmed by the companies, further study is needed.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noise, Occupational , Occupational Exposure
11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 173-176, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-232326

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To examine the prevalence and characteristics of aortic arch calcification (AAC) in residents aged 50 or over in Guangzhou, China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Face-to-face interview, physical examination and laboratory tests were conducted on 10 413 Chinese adults aged 50 or over. Posterior-anterior plain chest X-ray radiographs were obtained from 10 305 subjects using a Toshiba KSO-15R machine. The radiographs were reviewed together by two radiologists while 300 radiographs were independently gone through by two radiologists to assess the agreement with Kappa coefficient method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The rate of agreement on Diagnosis for the two radiologists was 85.0% and Kappa coefficient was 0.68, with P < 0.001 which showed a moderate agreement between the two radiologists. Among the 10 305 subjects, there were 3064 men and 7349 women, with their mean age (+/- standard deviation) as 64.0 +/- 6.0 and 66.2 +/- 5.8, respectively. Most of them had educational level of middle school or below, and most of their occupations were factory or agricultural workers. The prevalence of AAC was 40.6%. Women showed significantly higher prevalence rate than men (41.4% versus 38.6%, P < 0.001) and the prevalence of AAC increased significantly with age. Subjects with primary educational level or below had the highest prevalence of AAC. There was no significant association found between occupation and AAC prevalence. 98.7% of the subjects with AAC occurred in aortic arch. Most AAC had a length of 10 mm or longer and a width from 1-4 mm, which indicated the severity of AAC among the subjects.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The prevalence of AAC among Guangzhou Biobank Cohort was about 40.6%, higher than those reported in foreign studies, while most of the lesions were quite serious.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Aorta, Thoracic , Pathology , Calcinosis , Epidemiology , Cardiomyopathies , Epidemiology , China , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-298185

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a method of ion chromatography for urine iodide determination and evaluate its application in epidemiological studies.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Urinary iodine was determined using ICS-2500 ion chromatography coupled with IonPac AS7 analytical column (4 mm x 250 mm), silver electrode and direct current amperometry for 467 elderly subjects (above 50 years) with their urinary Tsh and FT4 also determined. The history of thyroid diseases was examined among these subjects.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The peak area of the ion chromatography was linearly correlated with urinary iodine concentration, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The detection limit of iodide was around 3.5 microg/L (S/N=3), with coefficients of variation ranging from 3.16% to 3.45% and mean recovery rate of 95%. The urinary iodine level in the 467 elderly subjects showed a positively skewed distribution with the median level of 224.7 microg/L.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Ion chromatography for urinary iodine determination has excellent selectivity, sensitivity, reliability, accuracy and stability, and may ensure satisfactory effect for application in epidemiological studies.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Epidemiology , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Methods , Female , Humans , Iodine , Urine , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Thyroid Diseases , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Urine
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-343073

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish the method of gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the determination of the cotinine (COT) in human urine.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The conjugated trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (THOC) and COT were hydrolyzed in human urine with beta-glucuronidase. The composition of COT was extracted with the mixture of dichloromethane and n-butyl acetate (2:1) and was separated with HP-5MS fused-silica capillary column. The GC-MS was used for determining its content.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The monitoring limit of this method was 0.02 microg/L. Its recovery rate was higher than 90%, Its accuracy rate was 4.30%. It was used for the determination of the cotinine in human urine in Guangzhou Biological Bank the Elderly Cohort.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The GC-MS method is a good microanalysis for monitoring the cotinine in human urine rapidly and accurately with little background disturbance. It has been applied in our Guangzhou Cohort Study for determining cotinine in human urine.</p>


Subject(s)
Cotinine , Urine , Female , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Humans , Male , Sensitivity and Specificity , Smoking , Urine
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311484

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the effects of dust exposure and smoking on mortality of respiratory system diseases (RSD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Based on the Guangzhou Occupational Health Surveillance Record System established between 1989 and 1992, 80,987 factory workers, aged 30 years old or older, occupationally exposed or not exposed to dusts, were included in a prospective cohort study.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The mean age of the cohort was 43.5. Most subjects were workers, had secondary education, and almost all were married. The dust exposure rate was 16.3%, the smoking rate 43.7% and the alcohol-drinking rate 33.5%. (2) The cohort was followed up for 8 years on average, but 35 people (0.04%) were lost for follow up. Among the 1593 deaths, 219 and 90 people died of lung cancer and non-cancer respiratory system diseases (NCRSD) respectively. (3) The adjusted relative risk (RR) of death of lung cancer for smokers, 3.32, was 2.2 times of that for dust exposed workers, 1.53, and the RR of death of NCRSD for dust exposed workers, 2.41, 1.28 times of that for smokers, 1.89, especially for silica dust-exposed workers, 5.72, 3.03 times of that for smokers. Dust exposure combined with smoking caused significantly higher RR of death of RSD. (4) In male, the death risks of RSD were increased with the amount of smoking per day and years of smoking.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Occupational dust exposure and smoking may cause excessive lung cancer and NCRSD death with synergistic effects. Smoking has higher RR of Lung cancer death than dust exposure. However, the dust exposure contributes to higher RR of NCRSD death. There is a significant dose-effect relationship between smoking and the death risk of RSD.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , China , Epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Dust , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Smoking
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311466

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the changes of mercury (Hg) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with chronic mercury poisoning and elucidate the neurotoxic mechanism of mercury.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Nine patients with chronic mercury poisoning (poisoning group) as well as eight patients without exposure to mercury were included in this study. Mercury concentrations of 24 hour urine (U-Hg) and CSF (CSF-Hg) were measured with cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry-alkali stannous chloride method. The concentration of blood (B-Hg) at the same day was measured with cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry-acidic stannous chloride method. In five patients of poisoning group, these concentrations before chelation therapy were compared with those after chelation therapy.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The levels of B-Hg, U-Hg, and CSF-Hg in poisoning group (250.00 +/- 48.54, 160.07 +/- 91.15, 20.22 +/- 10.21 nmol/L, respectively) were significantly higher than those in control group (81.04 +/- 63.01, 24.73 +/- 9.96 nmol/L, undetectable, respectively; P < 0.01). In nine patients of poisoning group, CSF-Hg concentrations were correlated with B-Hg (r = 0.675, P < 0.05), but not U-Hg. After chelation therapy with dimercaptopropane sulfonate in five patients of poisoning group, the levels of B-Hg, U-Hg, and CSF-Hg were decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The reduction of CSF-Hg was not related with B-Hg and U-Hg.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>CSF-Hg concentration in chronic mercury poisoning patient is increased with the rise of B-Hg, but not U-Hg. When the levels of B-Hg and U-Hg drop to normal, the CSF-Hg level is still high enough to be detected. It indicates that mercury is combined with protein after entering brain and this complex is difficult to cross through blood-cerebral barrier. The complex may cause neuromuscular disorder and fremitus in chronic mercury poisoning.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Antidotes , Therapeutic Uses , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Male , Mercury , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Mercury Poisoning , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Drug Therapy , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Unithiol , Therapeutic Uses
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285910

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the situation of occupational health surveillance and the characteristics of occupational diseases in Guangzhou.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The situation of occupational health surveillance and the morbidity of occupational diseases were studied retrospectively by use of the physical examination data collected from the labour hygienic reports of the city from 1993 to 2002. The data were divided into two groups: the first group from 1993 to 1997, and the second from 1998 to 2002.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Annual average of occupational health examination in the past 10 years was over 75%. The data in the second group (1998 - 2002) showed that the number of hearing loss observed subjects, noise surveilled personnels, dust and chemicals contraindicated personnels were significantly higher than those in the 1st group (P < 0.01). The morbidity of chronic occupational disease newly occurred was 91 cases in lst group, and 181 cases in 2nd group (P < 0.05), in which the incidence of chemical poisoning and noise induced hearing loss increased significantly but that of pneumoconiosis between two groups was not significantly different (P > 0.05). In the past 10 years, 581 cases of occupational diseases were diagnosed, of which, 309 cases (53.18%) were acute poisonings, while 272 cases (46.82%) were chronic occupational diseases. Pneumoconiosis, lead and benzene poisoning were common in chronic occupational diseases (16.70%, 16.87% respectively). With the passage of time, the incidence ages of pneumoconiosis, chemical poisoning and total occupational diseases tended towards younger. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01)</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>A normal system for occupational health surveillance has been developed in Guangzhou. Detectable rates in focused surveillance and contraindication have been obviously increasing. The incidence of occupational disease (mainly including acute occupational poisoning, pneumoconiosis, lead and benzene poisonings) is also going up. The incidence age of chronic occupational diseases tends to be younger accompanied with a shorter work history.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Occupational Diseases , Epidemiology , Occupational Health , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346530

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the treatment of 42 patients with acute methanol poisoning because of drinking alcohol containing methanol.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Clinical data of 42 cases of methanol poisoning were collected and analyzed. Methanol concentration in drinking alcohol and blood was determined by gas chromatography (GC). National standard for occupational medicine (GBZ53-2002) was used to diagnose the cases.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The methanol concentration in the alcohol was 16% approximately 46%. 42 Patients (40 males, 2 females), at age of 46.1 (22 approximately 80), took 588.1 ml (50 approximately 2,000 ml) of the alcohol. The average methanol concentration in blood was 1.61 mmol/L (0.03 approximately 23.60 mmol/L). According to clinical diagnosis, there were 17 observed cases, 9 mild acute toxication, and 16 severe acute toxication. Among them, 35 (83.3%) patients were recovered, 2 (4.8%) blind, 4 (9.5%) with neuropsychic sequela and 1 (2.4%) dead after adopting 8 cure measures.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>To start using emergency plan for public health events suddenly happened, designate a special treatment hospital, clear blood methanol as soon as possible, correct acidosis, adequately administer folacin and hormone, protect optic nerve and retina, and take comprehensive symptomatic treatment as well as strict monitoring are the keys of clinical cure.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Methanol , Poisoning , Middle Aged , Poisoning , Therapeutics , Public Health Practice
18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 748-752, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247482

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the effects of dust exposure and smoking on mortality.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Based on the Guangzhou Occupational Health Surveillance Record System established in 1989-1992, 80 987 factory workers, aged > or = 30, occupationally exposed to dust and non-exposure to dust, were included in a prospective cohort study.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The mean age of the cohort was 43.5. Most subjects were workers, with secondary education, and married. Out of them 16.3% having ever exposed to dust, 43.7% ever smoked and 33.5% drank alcohol. (2) The cohort were traced for 8 years on average, but 35 were lost for follow-up. Malignant neoplasm was most commonly seen among 1539 deaths. (3) The adjusted relative risk (RRs) of death of all causes, malignant neoplasm and cerebro-cardiovascular diseases for dust exposed workers were close to those for smokers. However, the adjusted RRs of death of nasopharynx cancer and respiratory system diseases for dust exposed workers were higher than those for smokers. The adjusted RRs of death of lung cancer and stomach cancer for smokers were 2.2 times and 1.5 times of that for dust exposed workers respectively. Dust exposure combined with smoking caused significantly higher death RR. (4) In males, the adjusted RRs of death of all causes, malignant neoplasm and respiratory system diseases for silica dust exposed workers and the adjusted RR of death of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases for wood dust exposed workers were higher those in smokers. (5) The population attributable risk percentage (PARP) of all causes of death for smokers was 2.5 times of that for dust exposed workers. (6) In males, the risks of death for all causes, malignant neoplasm, lung cancer and stomach cancer increased with the amount of smoking per day and the duration of smoking. The risks of death caused by coronary heart disease and respiratory system diseases were increasing with the amount of smoking per day and the duration of smoking respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The adjusted RRs for dust exposed workers were close to those for smokers with dust exposure and smoking having synergistic effects. Some of the adjusted RRs for smokers were higher than those for dust exposed workers PARP for smokers was higher than that for dust exposed workers. Our findings suggested that there was a significant dose-effect between smoking and risk of deaths.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Cause of Death , China , Epidemiology , Coal , Cohort Studies , Dust , Female , Humans , Male , Occupational Exposure , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Silicon Dioxide , Smoking
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258785

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of weather conditions and occupational hygiene on SARS outbreak.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>(1) Meteorological parameters around SARS outbreaks in 2003 in 9 cities (Guangzhou, Beijing, Tianjin, Taiyuan, Hong Kong, Taipei, Singapore, Toronto and Hanoi) were analyzed; (2) Causes of hospital infection were also analyzed from an occupational hygiene point of view.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The amplitude of air temperature, air pressure and diurnal temperature difference were greater around SARS outbreaks in most of the cities. Higher airborne particles concentration and lower wind speed were measured prior to SARS outbreaks in the cities with the most serious epidemic situation. The ten-day mean value of air temperature before SARS outbreaks in 9 cities was 16.6 degrees C +/- 7.6 degrees C, suggesting that coronary virus infection, which has been considered to cause SARS by now, may be most active at 9 degrees C - 24 degrees C. (2) Occupational hygiene in hospital proved to be an important socio-behavior factor for SARS outbreak. All hospital infection could be attributed to defects in the key links of occupational hygiene.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Greater fluctuations of air temperature and higher airborne particles concentration in winter and spring, as well as poor occupational hygiene conditions are significant promoters of SARS outbreak. Warning of atmospheric conditions favorable to SARS, and improvement in occupational hygiene management is the key to prevention from SARS outbreak.</p>


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , China , Epidemiology , Cross Infection , Epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Epidemiology
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-340056

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the clinical manifestation and ultrasonic characteristics of liver, kidney and heart of five patients with acute arsenic poisoning.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The activity of serum myocardial enzymes, function of liver and kidney, and urinary As concentrations were measured. HDI 3000 Enhanced, and Toshiba 38A two dimensional ultrasound was used to examine the ultrasonic echogram of heart, liver, kidney of the patients.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The arsenic concentrations in the urine (1.9 approximately 15.6 micromol/L) were higher than the normal value (1.17 micromol/L) in these patients (blood dialytic fluid of one patient with anuria was measured); (2) Four of them had increased WBC, or anemia, and abnormal urine routine to various degree; (3) The activities of serum myocardial enzymes (CK, AST, LDH and HBDH) in 4 patients were at least 2 items increased; (4) Serum bilirubin and urea nitrogen in all patients were increased; (5) The ultrasonic echogram of liver and kidney in these 5 patients showed abnormality to various degree, one of them had slight enlargements in left atrium and ventricle as well as a little pericardial fluid.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The clinical manifestation and ultrasonic characteristics of liver, kidney, and heart were consistent with the pathologic changes in acute arsenic poisoning. Early blood dialysis may reduce visceral damage.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Adult , Arsenic Poisoning , Diagnostic Imaging , Heart , Humans , Kidney , Diagnostic Imaging , Liver , Diagnostic Imaging , Male , Ultrasonography
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