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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919208

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels are useful in discriminating tuberculous pleural effusions (TPEs) from malignant pleural effusions (MPEs). However, some patients with MPE exhibit high-ADA levels, which may mimic TPEs. There is limited data regarding the differential diagnosis between high-ADA MPE and high-ADA TPE. This study aimed to identify the predictors for distinguishing high-ADA MPEs from high-ADA TPEs. @*Methods@#Patients with TPE and MPE with pleural f luid ADA levels ≥ 40 IU/L were included in this study. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were compared between the two groups. Independent predictors and their diagnostic performance for high-ADA MPEs were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve. @*Results@#A total of 200 patients (high-ADA MPE, n = 30, and high-ADA TPE, n = 170) were retrospectively included. In the multivariate analysis, pleural fluid ADA, pleural f luid carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and pleural nodularity were independent discriminators between high-ADA MPE and high-ADA TPE groups. Using pleural ADA level of 40 to 56 IU/L (3 points), pleural CEA level ≥ 6 ng/mL (6 points), and presence of pleural nodularity (3 points) for predicting high-ADA MPEs, a sum score ≥ 6 points yielded a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 82%, negative predictive value of 98%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.965. @*Conclusions@#A scoring system using three parameters may be helpful in guiding the differential diagnosis between high-ADA MPEs and high-ADA TPEs.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875352

ABSTRACT

Since a novel beta-coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in December 2019, there has been a rapid global spread of the virus. Genomic surveillance was conducted on samples isolated from infected individuals to monitor the spread of genetic variants of SARS-CoV-2 in Korea. The Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency performed whole genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 in Korea for 1 year (January 2020 to January 2021). A total of 2,488 SARSCoV-2 cases were sequenced (including 648 cases from abroad). Initially, the prevalent clades of SARSCoV-2 were the S and V clades, however, by March 2020, GH clade was the most dominant. Only international travelers were identified as having G or GR clades, and since the first variant 501Y.V1 was identified (from a traveler from the United Kingdom on December 22 nd , 2020), a total of 27 variants of 501Y.V1, 501Y.V2, and 484K.V2 have been classified (as of January 25 th , 2021). The results in this study indicated that quarantining of travelers entering Korea successfully prevented dissemination of the SARS-CoV-2 variants in Korea.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874747

ABSTRACT

The cause of epithelioid granulomatous inflammation varies widely depending on the affected organ, geographic region, and whether the granulomas morphologically contain necrosis. Compared with other organs, the etiological distribution and morphological patterns of pleural epithelioid granulomas have rarely been investigated. We evaluated the final etiologies and morphological patterns of pleural epithelioid granulomatous inflammation in a tuberculosis (TB)-prevalent country. Of 83 patients with pleural granulomas, 50 (60.2%) had confirmed TB pleurisy (TB-P) and 29 (34.9%) had probable TBP. Four patients (4.8%) with non-TB-P were diagnosed. With the exception of microbiological results, there was no significant difference in clinical characteristics and granuloma patterns between the confirmed TB-P and non-TB-P groups, or between patients with confirmed and probable TB-Ps. These findings suggest that most pleural granulomatous inflammation (95.2%) was attributable to TB-P in TB-endemic areas and that the granuloma patterns contributed little to the prediction of final diagnosis compared with other organs.

4.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1256-1264, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833566

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Lung segmentation using volumetric quantitative computed tomography (CT) analysis may help predict outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CT volumetric quantitative analysis and prognosis in patients with COVID-19. @*Materials and Methods@#CT images from patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from February 18 to April 15, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. CT with a negative finding, failure of quantitative analysis, or poor image quality was excluded. CT volumetric quantitative analysis was performed by automated volumetric methods. Patients were stratified into two risk groups according to CURB-65: mild (score of 0–1) and severe (2–5) pneumonia. Outcomes were evaluated according to the critical event-free survival (CEFS). The critical events were defined as mechanical ventilator care, ICU admission, or death.Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between the variables and prognosis. @*Results@#Eighty-two patients (mean age, 63.1 ± 14.5 years; 42 females) were included. In the total cohort, male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 9.264; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.021–42.457; p = 0.004), C-reactive protein (CRP) (HR, 1.080 per mg/dL;95% CI, 1.010–1.156; p = 0.025), and COVID-affected lung proportion (CALP) (HR, 1.067 per percentage; 95% CI, 1.033– 1.101;p < 0.001) were significantly associated with CEFS. CRP (HR, 1.164 per mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.006–1.347; p = 0.041) was independently associated with CEFS in the mild pneumonia group (n = 54). Normally aerated lung proportion (NALP) (HR, 0.872 per percentage; 95% CI, 0.794–0.957; p = 0.004) and NALP volume (NALPV) (HR, 1.002 per mL; 95% CI, 1.000–1.004;p = 0.019) were associated with a lower risk of critical events in the severe pneumonia group (n = 28). @*Conclusion@#CRP in the mild pneumonia group; NALP and NALPV in the severe pneumonia group; and sex, CRP, and CALP in the total cohort were independently associated with CEFS in patients with COVID-19.

5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 826-830, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833402

ABSTRACT

We retrospectively reviewed patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections who wereadmitted to an intensive care unit in Daegu, South Korea. The outcomes of patients who did (cases) or did not (controls) receivedarunavir-cobicistat (800–150 mg) therapy were compared. Fourteen patients received darunavir-cobicistat treatment, and 96 receivedother antiviral therapy (controls). Overall, the darunavir-cobicistat group comprised patients with milder illness, and thecrude mortality rate of all patients in the darunavir-cobicistat group was lower than that in the controls [odds ratio (OR) 0.20, 95%confidence interval (CI) 0.04–0.89, p=0.035]. After 1:2 propensity-score matching, there were 14 patients in the darunavir-cobicistatgroup, and 28 patients in the controls. In propensity score-matched analysis, the darunavir-cobicistat group had lower mortalitythan the controls (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01–0.52, p=0.009). In conclusion, darunavir-cobicistat therapy was found to be associatedwith a significant survival benefit in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832330

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that had affected more than eight million people worldwide by June 2020. Given the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) for host immunity, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 in patients with diabetes. @*Methods@#We conducted a multi-center observational study of 1,082 adult inpatients (aged ≥18 years) who were admitted to one of five university hospitals in Daegu because of the severity of their COVID-19-related disease. The demographic, laboratory, and radiologic findings, and the mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM. In addition, 1:1 propensity score (PS)-matching was conducted with the DM group. @*Results@#Compared with the non-DM group (n=847), patients with DM (n=235) were older, exhibited higher mortality, and required more intensive care. Even after PS-matching, patients with DM exhibited more severe disease, and DM remained a prognostic factor for higher mortality (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.15). Subgroup analysis revealed that the presence of DM was associated with higher mortality, especially in older people (≥70 years old). Prior use of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor or a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor did not affect mortality or the clinical severity of the disease. @*Conclusion@#DM is a significant risk factor for COVID-19 severity and mortality. Our findings imply that COVID-19 patients with DM, especially if elderly, require special attention and prompt intensive care.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831798

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Genome wide and candidate gene association studies have identified polymorphisms associated with the risk of lung cancer in never-smokers. This study was conducted to evaluate the association between 11 polymorphisms identified in female never smokers and the lung cancer risk in male smokers. @*Methods@#This study included 714 lung cancer patients and 626 healthy controls. The polymorphisms were genotyped using SEQUENOM MassARRAY iPLEX assay or Taq-Man assay. @*Results@#Two polymorphisms were associated with the risk of lung cancer in male smokers, as in female never smokers. Male smokers carrying the rs4975616 variant allele had a significantly decreased risk of lung cancer (in a codominant model: odds ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 0.96; p = 0.02). The rs9387478 polymorphism also reduced lung cancer risk in male smokers (in a codominant model: odds ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.997; p = 0.046). In a stratified analysis, the association between these polymorphisms and the risk of lung cancer was predominant in lighter smokers and for cases of adenocarcinoma. @*Conclusions@#These results suggest that a subset of polymorphisms known to be associated with the risk of lung cancer in female never smokers is also associated with the risk of lung cancer in male smokers.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information regarding the incidence and risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) detected by follow-up computed tomographic (CT) venography after pulmonary embolism (PE) is sparse. The aim of the present study was to identify the predictors of DVT in follow-up CT images, and to elucidate their clinical significance. METHODS: Patients with PE were classified into the following three cohorts based on the time of indirect CT venography follow-up: within 1 month, 1 to 3 months, and 3 to 9 months after the initial CT scan. Each cohort was subdivided into patients with or without DVT detected by follow-up CT. Clinical variables were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Follow-up CT revealed DVT in 61% of patients with PE within 1 month, in 15% of patients with PE at 1 to 3 months, and in 9% of patients with PE at 3 to 9 months after the initial CT scan. Right ventricular (RV) dilation on the initial CT (odds ratio [OR], 8.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.89–36.40; p=0.005) and proximal DVT at the initial presentation (OR, 6.93; 95% CI, 1.90–25.20; p=0.003) were found to independently predict DVT in follow-up CT images within 1 month, proximal DVT at the initial presentation was found to independently predict DVT in follow-up CT images at 1 to 3 months (OR, 6.69; 95% CI, 1.53–29.23; p=0.012), and central PE was found to independently predict DVT in follow-up CT images at 3 to 9 months (OR, 4.25; 95% CI, 1.22–4.83; p=0.023) after the initial CT scan. Furthermore, the detection of DVT by follow-up CT independently predicted the recurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) (OR, 4.67; 95% CI, 2.24–9.74; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Three months after PE, DVT was not detected by follow-up CT in most patients with PE. RV dilation on the initial CT, central PE, and proximal DVT at the initial presentation were found to predict DVT on follow-up CT, which might predict VTE recurrence.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Phlebography , Pulmonary Embolism , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Information regarding the incidence and risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) detected by follow-up computed tomographic (CT) venography after pulmonary embolism (PE) is sparse. The aim of the present study was to identify the predictors of DVT in follow-up CT images, and to elucidate their clinical significance.@*METHODS@#Patients with PE were classified into the following three cohorts based on the time of indirect CT venography follow-up: within 1 month, 1 to 3 months, and 3 to 9 months after the initial CT scan. Each cohort was subdivided into patients with or without DVT detected by follow-up CT. Clinical variables were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Follow-up CT revealed DVT in 61% of patients with PE within 1 month, in 15% of patients with PE at 1 to 3 months, and in 9% of patients with PE at 3 to 9 months after the initial CT scan. Right ventricular (RV) dilation on the initial CT (odds ratio [OR], 8.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.89–36.40; p=0.005) and proximal DVT at the initial presentation (OR, 6.93; 95% CI, 1.90–25.20; p=0.003) were found to independently predict DVT in follow-up CT images within 1 month, proximal DVT at the initial presentation was found to independently predict DVT in follow-up CT images at 1 to 3 months (OR, 6.69; 95% CI, 1.53–29.23; p=0.012), and central PE was found to independently predict DVT in follow-up CT images at 3 to 9 months (OR, 4.25; 95% CI, 1.22–4.83; p=0.023) after the initial CT scan. Furthermore, the detection of DVT by follow-up CT independently predicted the recurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) (OR, 4.67; 95% CI, 2.24–9.74; p < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Three months after PE, DVT was not detected by follow-up CT in most patients with PE. RV dilation on the initial CT, central PE, and proximal DVT at the initial presentation were found to predict DVT on follow-up CT, which might predict VTE recurrence.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728624

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have provided several lines of evidence that peripheral administration of oxytocin induces analgesia in human and rodents. However, the exact underlying mechanism of analgesia still remains elusive. In the present study, we aimed to identify which receptor could mediate the analgesic effect of intraperitoneal injection of oxytocin and its cellular mechanisms in thermal pain behavior. We found that oxytocin-induced analgesia could be reversed by d(CH₂)₅[Tyr(Me)²,Dab⁵] AVP, a vasopressin-1a (V1a) receptor antagonist, but not by desGly-NH₂-d(CH₂)₅[DTyr², Thr⁴]OVT, an oxytocin receptor antagonist. Single cell RT-PCR analysis revealed that V1a receptor, compared to oxytocin, vasopressin-1b and vasopressin-2 receptors, was more profoundly expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and the expression of V1a receptor was predominant in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-expressing DRG neurons. Fura-2 based calcium imaging experiments showed that capsaicin-induced calcium transient was significantly inhibited by oxytocin and that such inhibition was reversed by V1a receptor antagonist. Additionally, whole cell patch clamp recording demonstrated that oxytocin significantly increased potassium conductance via V1a receptor in DRG neurons. Taken together, our findings suggest that analgesic effects produced by peripheral administration of oxytocin were attributable to the activation of V1a receptor, resulting in reduction of TRPV1 activity and enhancement of potassium conductance in DRG neurons.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Calcium , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Electrophysiology , Fura-2 , Ganglia, Spinal , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Neurons , Oxytocin , Potassium , Receptors, Oxytocin , Receptors, Vasopressin , Rodentia , Spinal Nerve Roots
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Delayed hypersensitivity plays a large role in the pathogenesis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). Macrophages infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) increase the levels of adenosine deaminase2 (ADA2) in the pleural fluid of TPE patients. However, it is as yet unclear whether ADA2 can be produced by macrophages when challenged with MTB antigens alone. This study therefore evaluated the levels of ADA2 mRNA expression, using monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) stimulated with MTB antigens. METHODS: Purified monocytes from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers were differentiated into macrophages using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The MDMs were stimulated with early secretory antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP10). The mRNA expression levels for the cat eye syndrome chromosome region, candidate 1 (CECR1) gene encoding ADA2 were then measured. RESULTS: CECR1 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in MDMs stimulated with ESAT6 and CFP10, than in the unstimulated MDMs. When stimulated with ESAT6, M-CSF-treated MDMs showed more pronounced CECR1 mRNA expression than GM-CSF-treated MDMs. Interferon-γ decreased the ESAT6- and CFP10-induced CECR1 mRNA expression in MDMs. CECR1 mRNA expression levels were positively correlated with mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 10, respectively. CONCLUSION: ADA2 mRNA expression increased when MDMs were stimulated with MTB antigens alone. This partly indicates that pleural fluid ADA levels could increase in patients with culture-negative TPE. Our results may be helpful in improving the understanding of TPE pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Deaminase , Adenosine , Animals , Cats , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Interleukin-10 , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophages , Monocytes , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Pleural Effusion , RNA, Messenger , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105173

ABSTRACT

The cause of death in patients with tuberculosis (TB) may differ according to the phase of anti-tuberculosis treatment. However, there are limited data regarding this issue in Korea. We compared the cause of death of TB patients who died during the early intensive and late continuation phase of treatment. Twenty (56%) of the 36 early deaths were due to TB-related causes, whereas 34 (89%) of the 38 late deaths were due to TB-unrelated causes. This finding suggests that TB-related early deaths mainly attributable to delayed diagnosis should be improved to further reduce the overall TB deaths.

13.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 346-350, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165892

ABSTRACT

Diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO) is a rare condition characterized by chronic metaplastic ossification of the lung parenchyma. DPO is associated with various underlying pulmonary, cardiac, and systemic diseases. However, to our knowledge, DPO has rarely been described in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis. We describe two cases of DPO diagnosed in long-term hemodialysis patients. Awareness of this rare disorder is required for a better differential diagnosis of cases presenting with bilateral diffuse micronodular lesions, including calcific opacities.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Lung , Renal Dialysis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85712

ABSTRACT

Recently, genetic variants in the WNT signaling pathway have been reported to affect the survival outcome of Caucasian patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We therefore attempted to determine whether these same WNT signaling pathway gene variants had similar impacts on the survival outcome of NSCLC patients in a Korean population. A total of 761 patients with stages I-IIIA NSCLC were enrolled in this study. Eight variants of WNT pathway genes were genotyped and their association with overall survival and disease-free survival were analyzed. None of the eight variants were significantly associated with overall survival or disease-free survival. There were no differences in survival outcome after stratifying the subjects according to age, gender, smoking status, and histological type. These results suggest that genetic variants in the WNT signaling pathway may not affect the survival outcome of NSCLC in a Korean population.


Subject(s)
Aged , Asians/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Demography , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Genotype , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Republic of Korea , Smoking , Wnt Signaling Pathway/genetics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80072

ABSTRACT

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contributes to tumor angiogenesis. The role of VEGF single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lung cancer susceptibility and its prognosis remains inconclusive and controversial. This study was performed to investigate whether VEGF polymorphisms affect survival outcomes of patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgery. Three potentially functional VEGF SNPs (rs833061T>C, rs2010963G>C, and rs3025039C>T) were genotyped. A total of 782 NSCLC patients who were treated with surgical resection were enrolled. The association of the SNPs with overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) was analyzed. In overall population, none of the three polymorphisms were significantly associated with OS or DFS. However, when the patients were stratified by tumor histology, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) had significantly different OS (Adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.56–1.03 in SCC; aHR = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.98–1.82 in AC; P for heterogeneity = 0.01) and DFS (aHR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58–0.97 in SCC; aHR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.00–1.60 in AC; P for heterogeneity = 0.004) according to the rs833061T>C genotypes. Our results suggest that the prognostic role of VEGF rs833061T>C may differ depending on tumor histology.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Genotype , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Population Characteristics , Prognosis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although organizing pneumonia (OP) responds well to corticosteroid therapy, relapse is common during dose reduction or follow-up. Predictors of relapse in OP patients remain to be established. The aim of the present study was to identify factors related to relapse in OP patients. METHODS: This study was retrospectively performed in a tertiary referral center. Of 66 OP patients who were improved with or without treatment, 20 (30%) experienced relapse. The clinical and radiologic parameters in the relapse patient group (n=20) were compared to that in the non-relapse group (n=46). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis demonstrated that percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), PaO2/FiO2, and serum protein level were significant predictors of relapse in OP patients (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-0.97; p=0.018; OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.04; p=0.042; and OR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.87; p=0.039, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study shows that FVC, PaO2/FiO2 and serum protein level at presentation can significantly predict relapse in OP patients.


Subject(s)
Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Pneumonia , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Vital Capacity
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viridans streptococci (VS) are a large group of streptococcal bacteria that are causative agents of community-acquired respiratory tract infection. However, data regarding their clinical characteristics are limited. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the clinical and radiologic features of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with or without parapneumonic effusion caused by VS. METHODS: Of 455 consecutive CAP patients with or without parapneumonic effusion, VS were isolated from the blood or pleural fluid in 27 (VS group, 5.9%) patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified as a single etiologic agent in 70 (control group) patients. We compared various clinical parameters between the VS group and the control group. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, the VS group was characterized by more frequent complicated parapneumonic effusion or empyema and bed-ridden status, lower incidences of productive cough, elevated procalcitonin (>0.5 ng/mL), lower age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index score, and more frequent ground glass opacity (GGO) or consolidation on computed tomography (CT) scans. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that complicated parapneumonic effusion or empyema, productive cough, bed-ridden status, and GGO or consolidation on CT scans were independent predictors of community-acquired respiratory tract infection caused by VS. CONCLUSION: CAP caused by VS commonly presents as complicated parapneumonic effusion or empyema. It is characterized by less frequent productive cough, more frequent bed-ridden status, and less common CT pulmonary parenchymal lesions. However, its treatment outcome and clinical course are similar to those of pneumococcal pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Comorbidity , Cough , Empyema , Glass , Humans , Incidence , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Respiratory Tract Infections , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Viridans Streptococci
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183079

ABSTRACT

Short telomeres are known as one of the risk factors for human cancers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the association between 6 polymorphisms, which were related with short telomere length in the Korean population, and lung cancer risk using 1,100 cases and 1,096 controls. Among the 6 polymorphisms, TERT rs2853669 was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk under a recessive model (odds ratio [OR]=1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-1.81, P=0.02). The effect of rs2853669 on lung cancer risk was significant in younger individuals (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.18-2.54, P=0.005) and adenocarcinoma (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.07-2.07, P=0.02). Our results suggest that a common functional promoter polymorphism, TERT rs2853669, may influence both telomere length and lung cancer risk in the Korean population.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Gene Frequency/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Telomerase/genetics , Telomere/physiology , Telomere Homeostasis/genetics
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99805

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is increasing epidemiological evidence of an association between childhood obesity and atopic dermatitis, but little is known about the underlying mechanism(s). In the present study, we used a rat model of atopic dermatitis to assess whether juvenile obesity, induced by reduction of litter size, aggravated the signs of atopic dermatitis and, if so, whether this aggravation was associated with changes in plasma concentration of adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin. METHODS: Dermatitis was induced by neonatal capsaicin treatment. Body weight, dermatitis score, serum IgE, skin nerve growth factor (NGF), serum leptin and adiponectin, and cytokine mRNA expression in the skin lesion were compared between small (SL, 5 pups) and large litters (LL, 15 pups). RESULTS: The body weight of juvenile rats up to 6 weeks of age was significantly heavier in the SL group, compared with those in the LL group. The SL group showed more robust development of dermatitis, and higher levels of serum IgE and skin NGF than the LL group. Additionally, the SL group demonstrated higher levels of leptin and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA but lower levels of adiponectin than the LL group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a causal link between a decrease in immunological tolerance, induced by juvenile obesity, and aggravation of atopic dermatitis.


Subject(s)
Adipokines , Adiponectin , Animals , Body Weight , Capsaicin , Dermatitis , Dermatitis, Atopic , Immunoglobulin E , Leptin , Litter Size , Models, Animal , Nerve Growth Factor , Obesity , Pediatric Obesity , Plasma , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Skin
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