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1.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 588-595, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000329

ABSTRACT

Background@#Thyroid cancer mortality has been largely overlooked as relatively stable given the large gap between thyroid cancer incidence and mortality. This study evaluated long-term trends in age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) throughout Korea and compared them with mortality data reported by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER). @*Methods@#Cancer-specific mortality data from 1985 to 2020 were obtained from Statistics Korea. ASMRs from thyroid cancer were calculated based on the Korean mid-year resident registration population of 2005. We assessed SEER*Explorer and downloaded the mortality data. @*Results@#The ASMR increased from 0.19 to 0.77/100,000 between 1985 and 2002 but decreased continuously to 0.36/100,000 in 2020. The annual percent change (APC) in the ASMR between 1985 and 2003 and between 2003 and 2020 was 6.204 and −4.218, respectively, with similar patterns observed in both men and women. The ASMR of the SEER showed a modest increase from 1988 to 2016 and then stabilized. In subgroup analysis, the ASMR of the old age group (≥55 years) increased significantly from 0.82 in 1985 to 3.92/100,000 in 2002 (APC 6.917) but then decreased again to 1.86/100,000 in 2020 (APC −4.136). ASMRs according to the age group in the SEER showed a relatively stable trend even in the elderly group. @*Conclusion@#The ASMR of thyroid cancer in Korea had increased from 1985 to 2002 but has since been steadily decreasing. This trend was mainly attributed to elderly people aged 55 or over. The absolute APC value of Korea was much higher than that of the SEER.

2.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 279-296, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914806

ABSTRACT

Antiresorptives are the most widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis. They are also used in malignant bone metastases, multiple myeloma, and Paget's disease, and provide therapeutic efficacy on those diseases. However, it was reported that the occurrence of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) could be related to antiresorptive exposures, and there have been many cases regarding this issue. Therefore, a clearer definition and treatment guidelines were needed for this disease. The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research and the Amnerican Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons reported statements on bisphosphonate-related ONJ (BRONJ), and a revised version was recently presented. In the revised edition, the diagnosis BRONJ was changed to medication-related ONJ (MRONJ), which reflects consideration of the fact that ONJ also occurs for denosumab, a bone resorption inhibitor of the receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB ligand antibody family, and bevacizumab, an anti-angiogenesis inhibitor. The Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research and the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons had collectively formed a task force for the preparation of an official statement on MRONJ based on a previous position paper in 2015. The task force reviewed current knowledge and coordinated dental and medical opinions to propose the guideline customized for the local Korean situation.

3.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 850-857, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#The aim of this study was to address the role of the elasticity index as a possible predictive marker for detecting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and quantitatively assess shear wave elastography (SWE) as a tool for differentiating PTC from benign thyroid nodules.@*METHODS@#One hundred and nineteen patients with thyroid nodules undergoing SWE before ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy were analyzed. The mean (E(Mean)), minimum (E(Min)), maximum (E(Max)), and standard deviation (E(SD)) of SWE elasticity indices were measured.@*RESULTS@#Among 105 nodules, 14 were PTC and 91 were benign. The E(Mean), E(Min), and E(Max) values were significantly higher in PTCs than benign nodules (E(Mean) 37.4 in PTC vs. 23.7 in benign nodules, p = 0.005; E(Min) 27.9 vs. 17.8, p = 0.034; E(Max) 46.7 vs. 31.5, p < 0.001). The E(Mean), E(Min), and E(Max) were significantly associated with PTC with diagnostic odds ratios varying from 6.74 to 9.91, high specificities (86.4%, 86.4%, and 88.1%, respectively), and positive likelihood ratios (4.21, 3.69, and 4.82, respectively). The E(SD) values were significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (6.3 vs. 2.6, p < 0.001). E(SD) had the highest specificity (96.6%) when applied with a cut-off value of 6.5 kPa. It had a positive likelihood ratio of 14.75 and a diagnostic odds ratio of 28.50.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The shear elasticity index of E(SD), with higher likelihood ratios for PTC, will probably identify nodules that have a high potential for malignancy. It may help to identify and select malignant nodules, while reducing unnecessary fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsies of benign nodules.

4.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 268-274, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disorder caused by antibodies stimulating the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor. TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) measurement is useful for predicting GD relapse after antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment. However, the association of other thyroid autoantibodies with GD relapse remains obscure. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled patients with GD who were initially treated with ATD. TRAb, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were measured at the initial diagnosis and at the time of ATD discontinuation. RESULTS: A total of 55 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 49.7 years, and 39 patients (70.9%) were female. Antibody positivity at diagnosis was 90.9%, 69.1%, and 61.9% for TRAb, TPOAb, TgAb, respectively. Median ATD treatment period was 15.1 months. At the time of ATD withdrawal, TRAb titers decreased uniformly overall. Conversely, TPOAb and TgAb showed various changes. After withdrawal of ATD, 19 patients (34.5%) experienced relapse. No clinical features or laboratory results were significantly related to relapse in the overall patient group. However, in the TPOAb positive group at diagnosis, increasing titer of TPOAb or TgAb after ATD treatment was significantly and independently related to relapse free survival (TPOAb: hazard ratio [HR], 17.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 195.43; P=0.02) (TgAb: HR, 5.73; 95% CI, 1.21 to 27.26; P=0.03). CONCLUSION: Changes in TPOAb or TgAb titers during treatment might be useful for predicting relapse after ATD treatment in patients with positive TPOAb at diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Antibodies , Autoantibodies , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Graves Disease , Iodide Peroxidase , Receptors, Thyrotropin , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin
5.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 107-107, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740096

ABSTRACT

The original version of this article contained error in the URL of the SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS.

6.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 1-9, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smad3 linker phosphorylation plays essential roles in tumor progression and metastasis. We have previously reported that the mutation of Smad3 linker phosphorylation sites (Smad3-Erk/Pro-directed kinase site mutant constructs [EPSM]) markedly reduced the tumor progression while increasing the lung metastasis in breast cancer. METHODS: We performed high-throughput RNA-Sequencing of the human prostate cancer cell lines infected with adenoviral Smad3-EPSM to identify the genes regulated by Smad3-EPSM. RESULTS: In this study, we identified genes which are differentially regulated in the presence of Smad3-EPSM. We first confirmed that Smad3-EPSM strongly enhanced a capability of cell motility and invasiveness as well as the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker genes, CDH2, SNAI1, and ZEB1 in response to TGF-β1 in human pancreatic and prostate cancer cell lines. We identified GADD45B, CTGF, and JUNB genes in the expression profiles associated with cell motility and invasiveness induced by the Smad3-EPSM. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that inhibition of Smad3 linker phosphorylation may enhance cell motility and invasiveness by inducing expression of GADD45B, CTGF, and JUNB genes in various cancers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Line , Cell Movement , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Lung , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Prostatic Neoplasms , Sequence Analysis, RNA
7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 239-247, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82850

ABSTRACT

Adipose tissue secretes a variety of bioactive substances that are associated with chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While resistin was first known as an adipocyte-secreted hormone (adipokine) linked to obesity and insulin resistance in rodents, it is predominantly expressed and secreted by macrophages in humans. Epidemiological and genetic studies indicate that increased resistin levels are associated with the development of insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Resistin also appears to mediate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by promoting endothelial dysfunction, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, arterial inflammation, and the formation of foam cells. Thus, resistin is predictive of atherosclerosis and poor clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease and heart failure. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that resistin is associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertension. The present review will focus on the role of human resistin in the pathogeneses of inflammation and obesity-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adipose Tissue , Arteritis , Atherosclerosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cell Proliferation , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dyslipidemias , Foam Cells , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Macrophages , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Obesity , Resistin , Rodentia
8.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 9-15, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, it has been suggested that decrease in serum sodium level is associated with osteoporosis. However, no study in Korea has reported the association of decrease in serum sodium level with osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the decrease in serum sodium level and severity of osteoporotic fracture in patients. METHODS: We enrolled 290 subjects who were admitted and operated at Soonchunhyang University Hospital due to major fractures. For the control group, we enrolled 1,027 subjects who visited a health promotion center. We carried a 1:1 matching with age and sex from the case group. RESULTS: In a total of 164 age- and sex-matched subjects, serum sodium level was significantly lower in the fracture group than in the non-fracture group (P=0.001). Serum sodium level was significantly lower in the severe osteoporosis group than that in the non-severe osteoporosis group (P=0.002). Old age and decrease in serum sodium level were independent risk factors of osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR]=1.088, P=0.008, confidence interval [CI]=[1.022-1.157]; OR= 0.840, P=0.037, CI=0.713-0.989). CONCLUSIONS: Serum sodium level was significantly lower in the fracture group than that in the non-fracture group and in the severe osteoporosis group than that in the non-severe osteoporosis group. Based on our results, the decrease in serum sodium level could be an independent risk factor for osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Density , Health Promotion , Hyponatremia , Korea , Osteoporosis , Osteoporotic Fractures , Risk Factors , Sodium
9.
Soonchunhyang Medical Science ; : 123-127, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165836

ABSTRACT

Although the prognosis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is extremely good, locoregional recurrences after initial treatment occur. Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a reliable tumor marker to detect recurrence or persistence of PTC. However, occasionally serum Tg may miss the detection of a recurrence. We report a 54-year-old female presented with hoarseness due to cervical recurrence without concomitant elevation of serum Tg and anti-Tg antibody, in contrast to extremely increased needle-washout Tg, who had undergone a total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation as initial therapies for PTC. Several factors causing such discrepancy between needle-washout Tg and serum Tg can be suggested including site of recurrence, volume of tumor, interference by some kind of plasma antibodies other than anti-Tg antibody, and any conformational defect of Tg protein. Among them, the most convincing explanation is that any conformational defect of Tg may lead to impaired secretion of Tg to blood. We suggest that more studies are needed to find the cause for potential mechanisms involved in PTC recurrences without increased serum Tg.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Antibodies , Hoarseness , Plasma , Prognosis , Recurrence , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
10.
Soonchunhyang Medical Science ; : 159-162, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95064

ABSTRACT

Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is a rare disease presenting as acute abdomen. The presence of the air in the portal vein has been associated with a mortality rate of more than 75%. Because of high mortality rate, most HPVG requires emergent surgical interventions and intensive medical management. HPVG is most commonly caused by mesenteric ischemia but may have a variety other causes. Clostridium perfringens is the most common pathogen of gas forming bacteria that can cause of HPVG, but Clostridium perfringens blood stream infection with HPVG is not yet reported in Korea. We experienced a case of HPVG caused by Clostridium perfringens blood stream infection at mesenteric venous hemangioma with portal hypertension due to mesenteric arteriovenous malformation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdomen, Acute , Arteriovenous Malformations , Bacteria , Clostridium perfringens , Hemangioma , Hypertension, Portal , Ischemia , Korea , Mortality , Portal Vein , Rare Diseases , Rivers
11.
Soonchunhyang Medical Science ; : 163-167, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95063

ABSTRACT

Methimazole and prophylthiouracil are commonly prescribed for patients with hyperthyroidism. The serious side effect of toxic hepatitis caused by these two drugs is well known. According to recent Korean and American management guidelines for hyperthyroidism, mehimazole is recommended as the first-choice antithyroid drug for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Toxic hepatitis rarely occurs in methimazole users. We report a rare case of a 52-year-old female with toxic hepatitis after methimazole use that had past medical history of simvastatin induced liver injury.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Drug Interactions , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Hepatitis , Hyperthyroidism , Liver , Methimazole , Simvastatin
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