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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e366-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001146

ABSTRACT

This study examined factors related to high fear of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in healthcare workers (HCWs) in COVID-19 dedicated teams. We assigned 371 HCWs to low, medium, and high COVID-19 infection fear groups, and investigated factors associated with COVID-19 infection fear. High COVID-19 infection fear was significantly associated with being a woman and poor professional quality of life. High COVID-19 infection fear group had higher burnout levels and secondary traumatic stress scores than the low and medium fear groups. These findings deepen our understanding of risk factors for and psychological outcomes of COVID-19 infection fear in HCWs.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e17-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967452

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the impact of distributional changes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection fear with sex differences. A quota sampling strategy was followed and 483 Korean adults were surveyed in a community sample. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess COVID-19 infection fear, depressive symptoms, and general characteristics.Quantile regression was used to explore the regression relationship of COVID-19 infection fear and an individual’s sex. There was a significant difference in COVID-19 infection fear (P= 0.001) and depression (P = 0.008) between the sexes - male and female. The differences between sexes at the 20th and 30th percentiles were significant (β = 2.04, P = 0.006; β = 1.5, P = 0.004, respectively). The results demonstrate that sex significantly predicts COVID-19 infection fear and women had significantly greater fear than men in the mild-level of COVID-19 infection fear.

3.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 32-48, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966698

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to compare recommendations of the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder 2022 (KMAP-BP 2022) with other recently published guidelines for treating bipolar disorder. We reviewed a total of six recently published global treatment guidelines and compared treatment recommendation of the KMAP-BP 2022 with those of other guidelines. For initial treatment of mania, there were no significant differences across treatment guidelines. All guidelines recommended mood stabilizer (MS) or atypical antipsychotic (AAP) monotherapy or a combination of an MS with an AAP as a first-line treatment strategy in a same degree for mania. However, the KMAP-BP 2022 recommended MS + AAP combination therapy for psychotic mania, mixed mania and psychotic depression as treatment of choice. Aripiprazole, quetiapine and olanzapine were the first-line AAPs for nearly all phases of bipolar disorder across guidelines. Some guideline suggested olanzapine is a second-line options during maintenance treatment, related to concern about long-term tolerability. Most guidelines advocated newer AAPs (asenapine, cariprazine, long-acting injectable risperidone, and aripiprazole once monthly) as first-line treatment options for all phases while lamotrigine was recommended for depressive and maintenance phases. Lithium and valproic acid were commonly used as MSs in all phases of bipolar disorder. KMAP-BP 2022 guidelines were similar to other guidelines, reflecting current changes in prescription patterns for bipolar disorder based on accumulated research data. Strong preference for combination therapy was characteristic of KMAP-BP 2022, predominantly in the treatment of psychotic mania, mixed mania and psychotic depression.

4.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 188-196, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966683

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) is a relatively specific test for bipolar disorders designed to assess the main functioning problems experienced by patients. This brief instrument includes 24 items assessing impairment or disability in 6 domains of functioning: autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning, financial issues, interpersonal relationships, and leisure time. It has already been translated into standardized versions in several languages. The aim of this study is to measure the validity and reliability of the Korean version of FAST (K-FAST). @*Methods@#A total of 209 bipolar disorder patients were recruited from 14 centers in Korea. K-FAST, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument Brief Form (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered, and psychometric analysis of the K-FAST was conducted. @*Results@#The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the K-FAST was 0.95. Test-retest reliability analysis showed a strong correlation between the two measures assessed at a 1-week interval (ICC = 0.97; p < 0.001). The K-FAST exhibited significant correlations with GAF (r = −0.771), WHOQOL-BREF (r = −0.326), YMRS (r = 0.509) and BDRS (r = 0.598). A strong negative correlation with GAF pointed to a reasonable degree of concurrent validity. Although the exploratory factor analysis showed four factors, the confirmatory factor analysis of questionnaires had a good fit for a six factors model (CFI = 0.925; TLI = 0.912; RMSEA = 0.078). @*Conclusion@#The K-FAST has good psychometric properties, good internal consistency, and can be applicable and acceptable to the Korean context.

5.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 52-58, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968346

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was conducted to examine the effect of adverse childhood experiences on depressive symptoms in university students and to verify whether positive psychological resources act as a protective factor for depression. @*Methods@#Data from 1,317 young adults aged 18-29 years who took part in the university-based cross-sectional survey were analyzed. All participants completed self-report questionnaires that included demographic variables, the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Positive Resources Test. @*Results@#The incidence of depression was 33.3% and was higher in women than in men. Based on the 10 ACE categories, 32.7% of the students reported one or more adverse childhood experiences, and 14.4% reported two or more forms of adverse childhood experiences. Students with depressive symptoms were likely to report more traumatic experiences in childhood and fewer positive psychological resources than those without depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that positive psychological resources moderated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and depression. @*Conclusion@#Based on these results, professionals should consider identifying adverse childhood experiences early and provide active mental health service support, including positive psychological and social resources for individuals who have adverse experiences during childhood.

6.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 98-109, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926005

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder is complex. A treatment guideline or algorithm can help clinicians implement better practices and clinical decisions. Therefore, the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was revised through expert consensus on pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder. @*Methods@#We revised the KMAP-BP 2018 questionnaire and conducted a survey of expert clinicians. Out of ninety-three members of the review committee, eighty-seven completed the survey. We analyzed the answers, discussed the data, and held a clinician hearing. Here, we report the results from KMAP-BP 2022. @*Results@#The preferred first-step strategies for acute euphoric mania are a combination of a mood stabilizer (MS) and an atypical antipsychotic (AAP), MS monotherapy, and AAP monotherapy. For psychotic mania, an MS and AAP combination, and AAP monotherapy are preferred. For hypomania, MS monotherapy and AAP monotherapy are preferred. The first-step strategies for mild to moderate bipolar depression are MS monotherapy, lamotrigine (LMT) monotherapy, AAP monotherapy, an MS+AAP combination, and an AAP+LMT combination. For non-psychotic severe depression, the MS+AAP combination, the AAP+LMT combination, and the MS+LMT combination are preferred. For psychotic severe depression, MS+AAP and AAP+LMT are preferred. @*Conclusion@#We obtained expert consensus and developed KMAP-BP 2022. Compared with KMAP-BP 2018, we can figure out clinicians’ preferences and decisions in real clinical situations more clearly. The preference for AAP increased, and that of MS and an antidepressant decreased. We hope KMAP-BP 2022 is helpful for clinicians who treat patients with bipolar disorder.

7.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 110-122, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926004

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) is a consensus-based medication guideline. To reflect advances in pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorders, we updated KMAP-BP to provide more timely information for clinicians. @*Methods@#We conducted a survey using a questionnaire on treatments formanic/hypomanic episodes. Eighty-seven members among ninety-three members of the review committee (93.5%) completed the survey. Each treatment strategy or treatment option for manic/hypomanic episodes was evaluated with an overall score of 9, and the resulting 95% confidence interval treatment options were categorized into three recommendation levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary). The executive committee analyzed the results and discussed the final production of an algorithm by considering the scientific evidence. @*Results@#The combination of a mood stabilizer and an atypical antipsychotic, monotherapy with a mood stabilizer, or monotherapy with an atypical antipsychotic were recommended as the firstline pharmacotherapeutic strategy for the initial treatment of mania without psychotic features. The mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic combination was the treatment of choice, and atypical antipsychotic monotherapy was the first-line treatment for mania with psychotic features. When initial treatment fails, a combination of mood stabilizer+atypical antipsychotic and switching to another first-line agent is recommended. For hypomania, monotherapy with either mood stabilizer or atypical antipsychotic is the recommended first-line treatment, but the mood stabilizer+atypical antipsychotic combination is recommended as well. @*Conclusion@#It is notable that there were changes in the preferences for the use of individual atypical antipsychotics, and the preference for the use of mood stabilizer increased for treatment-resistant mania.

8.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 123-132, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926003

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#After the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was developed in 2002, its fifth revision was completed in 2022 to reflect the recent rapid developments and research into bipolar disorder and its psychopharmacology. @*Methods@#According to the methodology for previous versions, the depressive episode section of KMAP-BP 2022 was revised based on a survey consisting of 11 questions. Among ninetythree experts, eighty-seven members of the review committee (93.5%) completed the survey.The executive committee analyzed the results and discussed the final production of an algorithm by considering the scientific evidence. @*Results@#Overall, the results from this study showed little change in comparison with previous versions of KMAP-BP. However, there have been significant changes in recommendations over the span of about 20 years. The preferences for lamotrigine and atypical antipsychotics, especially aripiprazole, quetiapine, and olanzapine, have shown a tendency to continuously increase, but the preferences for risperidone and ziprasidone have not increased, but have decreased. Moreover, the preference for typical antipsychotics has significantly decreased. Additionally, concerns over the use of antidepressants in bipolar depression have been raised, and their use is not recommended in KMAP-BP 2022 as a first-line treatment. @*Conclusion@#Pharmacotherapy for acute depressive episodes with various clinical progressions and various subtypes still shows diversity, compared to pharmacotherapy for mania. We look forward to the development of bipolar depressive, episode-specific therapeutic drugs in the future, and hope the fifth update of KMAP-BP will be a complementary option for clinicians and their patients with bipolar disorder.

9.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 133-142, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926002

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Treatment guidelines or an algorithm can help clinicians implement better practices and clinical decisions. Therefore, the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder 2022 (KMAP-BP 2022) was revised again through a consensus of expert opinion. The diagnosis and treatment of mixed features are not simple, and there are many things to discuss. We describe the preferences and recommendations from KMAP-BP 2022 for the treatment of mood episodes with mixed features. @*Methods@#We revised the KMAP-BP 2018 questionnaire and conducted the survey with expert clinicians. Out of ninety-three members of the review committee, eighty-seven completed the survey. We analyzed the answers, discussed the data, and held a clinician hearing. @*Results@#In first-step strategies for mixed features with more manic symptoms, a combination of a mood stabilizer and an atypical antipsychotic is the treatment of choice. Mood stabilizer monotherapy and atypical antipsychotic monotherapy are preferred strategies. For mixed features with more depressive symptoms, a combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic, a combination of atypical antipsychotic and lamotrigine (LMT), atypical antipsychotic monotherapy, a combination of mood stabilizer and LMT, and mood stabilizer monotherapy are preferred. For mixed features with similar manic symptoms and depressive symptoms, a combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic, atypical antipsychotic monotherapy, and mood stabilizer monotherapy are preferred. @*Conclusion@#For mixed features, a combination of mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic is generally preferred, and LMT is preferred for depressive symptoms. Compared with KMAP-BP 2018, more diverse strategies and drugs are being attempted for the treatment of mixed features.

10.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 180-184, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924823

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to explore the accuracy of expectation of medical lethality and to identify characteristics related to high medical lethality in suicide attempters. @*Methods@#A total of 370 suicide attempters (173 men, 197 women) who visited the emergency department at one university hospital were interviewed. @*Results@#Using the Lethality Scale, 103 (27.8%), 114 (30.8%), and 153 (41.4%) suicide attempters were assigned to the low, medium, and high medical lethality groups, respectively. The medium and high medical lethality groups were older, and reported poorer socioenvironmental conditions, compared with the low lethality group. Higher levels of suicide intent were associated with more lethal attempts but only for those attempters who had accurate expectations of the medical lethality of their attempts. @*Conclusion@#The accuracy of expectations about the likelihood of dying was found to moderate the relationships between suicide intent and medical lethality.

11.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1050-1057, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918731

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes across the lifespan, but research on intergenerational transmission of maternal ACEs and its impact on the offspring’s mental health problems are limited. The study examines the effects of maternal ACEs on the risk of internalizing or externalizing problems among offspring. @*Methods@#There were 450 mother-child dyads. Mothers completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. The child outcomes included internalizing and externalizing problems assessed by the Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and Korean Youth Self-Report (K-YSR), depression assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) and anxiety assessed by the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). @*Results@#36.1% of mothers experienced at least one ACE, and 11.1% experienced three or more ACEs. Cumulative maternal ACEs were associated with internalizing problems, externalizing problems, depression and anxiety in the offspring. Household dysfunction from maternal ACEs was significantly associated with delinquent behavior, anxiety/depression, and somatic complaints in the offspring. @*Conclusion@#The findings support the hypothesis that maternal ACEs are related to mental health problems in the offspring. Further research is needed to determine the factors mediating intergenerational transmission as well as intervention strategies to prevent ACEs and mental health problems in the offspring.

12.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 77-84, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918520

ABSTRACT

Background@#To address the high suicide rate in Korea, determining the suicidality risk factors is a key concern in policymaking and prevention. This study aimed to describe the effects of traumatic childhood experiences on suicidality among young adults. @*Methods@#This study included 1,379 subjects from two universities in Jeju, Korea. All participants completed selfadministered questionnaires that included demographic variables, the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale to evaluate traumatic childhood experiences, and a Korean version of the Suicide Module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to evaluate suicidality. @*Results@#Of the subjects, 33.2% reported experiencing traumatic childhood experiences, and the prevalence of positive suicidality was 21.8%. Regression analyses indicated a significant association between traumatic childhood experiences and positive suicidality after controlling for multiple variables. Furthermore, subjects with positive suicidality were likely to report experiencing more traumatic childhood experiences (p<0.001). After categorizing the subjects into two groups according to ACE score, the positive ACE group showed a higher risk of suicidal ideation (p<0.001, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.09) and suicidal attempt (p<0.001, AOR=4.15) than those negative ACE. @*Conclusion@#Intervention and practical strategies for college students with a history of traumatic childhood experiences must be considered for suicide prevention.

13.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 17-23, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918518

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is growing interest in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) because many ADHD children have symptoms that last through adulthood, and adult ADHD has a high risk of comorbid mental disorders. This study examined the prevalence and comorbidities of adult ADHD, with a focus on depression and pathological internet use among Korean college students. @*Methods@#This study included 1358 college students, who were asked to complete self-reporting questionnaires on their characteristics, ADHD symptoms, and related clinical factors. The study analyzed associations between ADHD and depression, anxiety, pathological internet use, and problematic alcohol use. @*Results@#The prevalence rate of ADHD among college students was 5.7%. A significant association was determined between ADHD symptoms and school satisfaction, depression, anxiety, and pathological internet use. Multivariate analysis showed that ADHD symptoms in college students were significantly associated with depression and pathological internet use. @*Conclusion@#The prevalence of ADHD among college students was similar to that of children and adolescents. Moreover, the risk of depression and pathological internet use was high in the ADHD group. Early screening and intervention for ADHD and comorbidities will be required to prevent the negative consequences of the condition and help students adapt in the future.

15.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 55-63, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918513

ABSTRACT

Background@#The relationship between a low vitamin D level and depression has been demonstrated repeatedly. We assessed the correlation between vitamin D status and the prevalence of depression according to body weight status. @*Methods@#Data from 1,747 participants who took part in the 2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. The presence of depression was identified by the brief, self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), vitamin D status was defined based on the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level, and body weight status was expressed as the body mass index. @*Results@#After adjusting for potential confounding factors, participants in the vitamin D deficiency group (odds ratio [OR], 2.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-7.20) and severe deficiency group (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.04-8.00) were significantly more likely to experience depression. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that among the participants with overweight or obesity, those in the vitamin D deficiency group were 3.71 times more likely than those in the sufficiency group (OR, 3.71; 95% CI, 1.08-12.74) to experience depression. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest a significant association between low vitamin D levels and depression in adults with overweight or obesity. Further studies are needed to elucidate the association between vitamin D status and depression according to body weight status.

16.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 721-730, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914070

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The relationship among physical functional decline, low-grade inflammation, and depression remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between hand grip strength (HGS) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in a large sample with depression. @*Methods@#This study used data obtained from a representative Korean sample of 9,402 people who participated in the seventh Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical function was assessed using a digital grip strength dynamometer. Depression was identified using a cutoff of 5 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and high hs-CPR level was defined as ≥ 3.0 mg/L. @*Results@#In older adults (≥ 60 years) with depression, 43.8% of those with high hs-CRP levels had low HGS, compared to 21.8% of those with hs-CRP levels < 3.0 mg/L (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis revealed that, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, high hs-CRP was independently associated with lower HGS (B = −2.25; 95% confidence interval = −4.49 to −0.02) in older adults with depression, but not in younger or middle-aged adults with depression. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest a significant correlation between physical functional decline and low-grade inflammation in older adults with depression.

17.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 63-70, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900686

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) of mothers may negatively affect the mental health of their offspring. Little is known about the intergenerational effect of maternal ACE on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the offspring. This study investigated the impact of maternal ACEs on PTSD in the offspring. @*Methods@#A total of 156 mothers with children aged 13–18 years completed the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) Predictive Scales to determine the presence of psychiatric disorders in their offspring. The subjects completed the ACE questionnaire and the Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report-Short Form. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between maternal ACEs and PTSD in the offspring. @*Results@#Of the mothers, 23.7% had at least one ACE, and PTSD was reported in 21.8% of the offspring. The offspring of the mothers in the ACE group had a significantly higher rates of traumatic experiences and PTSD than the offspring of the mothers in the no ACE group. Maternal household dysfunction independently predicted offspring PTSD [odds ratio (OR)=3.008, p=0.05), and three or more maternal ACEs were significantly related to PTSD in the offspring (OR=10.613, p=0.025). @*Conclusion@#Maternal ACEs have a significant impact on the risk of traumatic experiences and PTSD in the offspring. These findings suggest the presence of intergenerational transmissions by which maternal ACEs affect the mental health of the offspring.

18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e220-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899888

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics related to high resilience among older people exposed to the Jeju 4·3 incident. A total of 1,121 aged adults were assigned to low, medium, and high resilience groups, and factors associated with low and high resilience were investigated. High resilience was significantly associated with a low prevalence of depression and high levels of life satisfaction and psychosocial support, as well as with younger age, being a man, higher education level, and current employment. The results deepen our understanding of resilience in the aged people who experienced the early life trauma.

19.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 63-70, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892982

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) of mothers may negatively affect the mental health of their offspring. Little is known about the intergenerational effect of maternal ACE on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the offspring. This study investigated the impact of maternal ACEs on PTSD in the offspring. @*Methods@#A total of 156 mothers with children aged 13–18 years completed the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) Predictive Scales to determine the presence of psychiatric disorders in their offspring. The subjects completed the ACE questionnaire and the Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report-Short Form. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between maternal ACEs and PTSD in the offspring. @*Results@#Of the mothers, 23.7% had at least one ACE, and PTSD was reported in 21.8% of the offspring. The offspring of the mothers in the ACE group had a significantly higher rates of traumatic experiences and PTSD than the offspring of the mothers in the no ACE group. Maternal household dysfunction independently predicted offspring PTSD [odds ratio (OR)=3.008, p=0.05), and three or more maternal ACEs were significantly related to PTSD in the offspring (OR=10.613, p=0.025). @*Conclusion@#Maternal ACEs have a significant impact on the risk of traumatic experiences and PTSD in the offspring. These findings suggest the presence of intergenerational transmissions by which maternal ACEs affect the mental health of the offspring.

20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e220-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892184

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics related to high resilience among older people exposed to the Jeju 4·3 incident. A total of 1,121 aged adults were assigned to low, medium, and high resilience groups, and factors associated with low and high resilience were investigated. High resilience was significantly associated with a low prevalence of depression and high levels of life satisfaction and psychosocial support, as well as with younger age, being a man, higher education level, and current employment. The results deepen our understanding of resilience in the aged people who experienced the early life trauma.

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