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Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(1): 32-41, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515419


BACKGROUND: Long-term outcomes of Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (OPCAB) as an alternative to the traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) technique with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are not well defined. AIM: To compare 10-year survival of isolated OPCAB versus CABG with CPB. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of information obtained from databases, clinical records and surgical protocols of patients treated with isolated CABG between January 2006 and November 2008 at a Regional Hospital. Of 658 isolated CABG, 192 (29.2%) were OPCAB and 466 (79.9%) CPB. Propensity Score Matching (PSM) was performed to compare both groups. After PSM, two groups of 192 cases were obtained. Mortality data was obtained from the Chilean public identification service. Ten-year survival was calculated and compared with Kaplan-Meier and log-rank methods. RESULTS: Follow-up data was obtained in all cases. No statistically significant differences were found when comparing 10-year survival between OPCAB versus CPB (78.6% and 80.2% respectively, p 0.720). There was also no statistical difference in cardiovascular death free survival (90.1% with CPB versus 89.1% OPCAB, p 0.737). Survival was comparable when analyzing subgroups with diabetes mellitus, left ventricular dysfunction or chronic kidney disease, among others. CONCLUSIONS: In our series, OPBAB has a comparable 10-year survival with CABG with CPB.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/adverse effects , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Survival Analysis , Chile/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Bypass , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Propensity Score
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(10): 1325-1333, oct. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431848


BACKGROUND: The adoption of sanitary measures due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic hampered teaching and learning methods in medicine. AIM: To communicate the results of a wound suture training workshop, based on the Basic Procedural Skills Training methodology and adapted to the pandemic context. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred fourteen students were randomized in small groups due to sanitary measures and trained with a modification of the Basic Procedural Skills Training methodology. An informed consent was obtained from every student. The suturing skills were evaluated before and after the intervention with "The Objective Structured Assessment Of Technical Skills" (OSATS) instrument. The perception of the workshop and the implementation of the COVID-19 prevention measures were also evaluated. RESULTS: The students showed a statistically significant improvement after the intervention. In the OSATS verification list, the average score increased from 4.5 to 8.6 (p < 0.01). In the OSATS global scale, the average score increased from 13.0 to 25.3 (p < 0.01). The perception of the workshop and the prevention measures were well evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Despite all the limitations of the pandemic context, we achieved a significant improvement after the intervention and a very good perception by the students.

Humans , Students, Medical , COVID-19 , Clinical Competence , Educational Measurement/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(9): 1162-1170, sept. 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431895


Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the treatment of choice for a broad spectrum of patients with coronary disease. Aim: To describe global survival and factors associated with lower long-term survival in patients operated with isolated CABG. Material and Methods: Analysis of a cohort of patients who underwent CABG between January 2006 and December 2008 at a public hospital. The database and operation records of 1.003 cardiac surgeries were reviewed. Of these, an isolated CABG was performed in 658 patients aged 62 ± 9 years including 516 male (78%). Survival data were obtained from the Chilean Civil Registry Office and a complete ten-year follow up was accomplished. Survival was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test and Cox regression. Results: Operative mortality occurred in 13 patients (2%). Survival at 1, 3, 5 and 10 years was 97, 94, 91 and 76%, respectively. One, 3, 5 and 10-year free of cardiovascular death survival was 98, 97, 95 y 89%, respectively. Factors associated with long-term survival were chronic kidney disease in hemodialysis (Hazard ratio (HR) 7.9; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 4.6-13.6), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 2.3; 95% CI 1.4-3.7), chronic arterial occlusive disease (HR 2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.4) and diabetes mellitus (HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.6). According to EuroSCORE, 10-year survival was 86, 75 and 62% (p < 0.01) in low, medium and high-risk patients, respectively. Conclusions: These patients had a 10-year survival comparable to large international series. Groups associated with lower 10-year survival were identified.

Humans , Male , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Coronary Artery Bypass , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(1): 13-21, feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388912


Resumen Introducción: El traumatismo torácico (TT) es la causa de aproximadamente un cuarto de las muertes por traumatismos. Los pacientes tratados con cirugía por traumatismo torácico (CTT) presentan un amplio espectro de características y pronósticos. Objetivos: Describir características clínicas, indicaciones, temporalidad, morbilidad, mortalidad y las variables asociadas a mortalidad en pacientes con CTT. Materiales y Método: Estudio observacional de pacientes tratados con CTT, período enero-1981 a diciembre-2019. Revisión de protocolos prospectivos de TT y base de datos. Se realizó regresión logística para variables asociadas a mortalidad. Se utilizó SPSS25® con prueba chi-cuadrado para comparar clasificación, tipo de TT y su distribución temporal, considerando significativo p < 0,05. Resultados: En total 808 casos (18,2%) de 4.448 TT requirieron CTT. Fueron hombres 767 (94,9%) y la edad promedio fue 31,5 ± 13,8 años. El traumatismo fue penetrante y por arma blanca en la mayoría de los casos. Fueron politraumatizados 164 (20,3%). La cirugía fue urgente en 474 (58,7%), precoz en 41 (5,0%) y diferida en 293 (36,3%) casos. La mortalidad global fue de 6,7% y fue significativamente mayor en TT contusos, politraumatizados y en cirugía urgente. La mortalidad fue 9,7% en CTT urgente, 4,9% en precoz y 2,0% en diferida (p < 0,001). Se observaron variables independientes asociadas a mortalidad. Conclusión: En nuestra serie, las CTT se realizaron principalmente en hombres jóvenes con TT penetrantes. Correspondieron a un grupo heterogéneo en cuanto a las indicaciones, hallazgos y lesiones intratorácicas y/o asociadas. Múltiples variables demostraron influir significativamente en la mortalidad de los pacientes tratados con CTT.

Background: Thoracic Trauma (TT) is the cause of approximately a quarter of trauma deaths. The patients who undergo Thoracic Trauma Surgery (TTS) present a wide spectrum of characteristics and prognosis. Aim: To describe clinical characteristics, indications, temporality, morbidity, mortality and mortality associated variables in TTS patients. Materials and Method: Observational study of TT hospitalized patients, period January-1981 to December-2019. A review of operation notes and database was done. A logistic regression for mortality associated variables was made. To compare classification, type of TT and its temporal distribution, SPSS25® with chi-square test was used, considering significant p < 0.05. Results: A total of 808 (18.2%) of 4.448 TT patients required TTS, 767 (94.9%) were men with average age: 31.5 ± 13.8. The trauma was penetrating trauma due to a stab in most cases, 164 (20.3%) were polytraumatized. The surgery was urgent in 474 (58.7%), early in 41 (5.0%) and delayed in 293 (36.3%) cases. The global mortality was 6.7% and was significantly higher in the blunt TT, polytrauma, urgent and early surgery patients. Mortality in urgent TTS was 9.7%, early 4.9% and 2.0% in delayed (p < 0.001). Independent variables associated with mortality were observed. Conclusions: In our series, TTS were performed mainly in young men with penetrating TT. The group was heterogeneous regarding surgical indications, findings and intrathoracic or associated injuries. Multiple variables showed to influence significantly on mortality in patients who underwent TTS.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Thoracic Injuries/diagnosis , Thoracic Injuries/therapy , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Thoracic Injuries/epidemiology , Mortality , Thoracic Wall/anatomy & histology , Thoracic Wall/physiology
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(1): 7-16, ene. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389607


Background: Lung cancer is the world's leading cause of cancer death. Aim: To describe the clinical, staging and survival characteristics of lung cancer in a public Chilean regional hospital. Material and Methods: Analysis of a prospective database of a thoracic surgery service, retrieving histologically confirmed lung cancer cases from January 2010 to December 2019 and reviewing their medical records. Cases were re-staged by the TNM-8 system and variables were compared between periods 2010-2014 and 2015-2019. Results: We retrieved 551 lung cancer cases, 333 (60 %) men, with a mean age of 65 years. Distant metastases were found in 72% of cases (excluding lymphatic metastases). Of the non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), 50 (10%) cases were in stage I, 18 (4%) in stage II, 81 (16%) in stage III and 347 (70%) in stage IV. Global five-year survival was 18%, 20% for NSCLC, 71% for excised NSCLC, 8% for non-excised NSCLC, 88% for stage I and 92% for subgroup IA. Resective surgery was performed in 81 (14%) cases. When comparing 2010-2014 and 2015-2019 periods, the frequency of resective surgery increased from 7% to 20%. Conclusions: The diagnosis of lung cancer was frequently made in advanced stages. There was a significant increase in early diagnosis and frequency of surgeries with curative intent in the second observation period.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public , Neoplasm Staging
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 592-601, oct. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388884


Resumen Introducción: Los traumatismos están entre las diez principales causas de muerte a nivel mundial y son la primera en jóvenes. El traumatismo torácico (TT) está presente en un alto porcentaje de las muertes por traumatismos y es la segunda causa de muerte después del traumatismo encefalocraneano. Objetivos: Analizar las variables asociadas a mortalidad, las causas principales y la distribución temporal de la mortalidad en hospitalizados fallecidos con TT. Materiales y Método: Estudio observacional de hospitalizados con TT, período enero de 1981 a diciembre de 2018. Revisión de protocolos prospectivos de TT y base de datos. Se consignaron las causas de muerte sindromáticas principales y se realizó una regresión logística para variables asociadas a mortalidad. Se utilizó SPSS25® con pruebas chi-cuadrado para comparar clasificación, tipo de TT y su distribución temporal, considerando significativo p < 0,05. Resultados: Total 4.297 TT, mortalidad global de 120 (2,8%) casos. Las principales variables independientes asociadas a mortalidad fueron el deterioro fisiológico al ingreso, el hemotórax masivo y el TT por arma de fuego. La principal causa de muerte fue el shock hipovolémico, con diferencias significativas según tipo de TT en las primeras 4 y 24 horas. En la distribución temporal se observó que las muertes con TT penetrante y aislado fueron más precoces y no se evidenció un nuevo peak en la mortalidad luego de la primera semana. Conclusiones: Se observaron variables independientes asociadas a mortalidad en hospitalizados con TT, siendo el deterioro fisiológico al ingreso el factor más importante. Además, existen diferencias significativas en las causas de muerte y distribución temporal de la mortalidad entre diferentes subgrupos de hospitalizados con TT.

Background: Trauma is one of the ten leading causes of death worldwide and the first among the youth. Thoracic trauma (TT) is present in a high percentage of deaths due to trauma and is the second leading cause of death after traumatic brain injury. Aim: To analyze the mortality associated variables, major causes and temporal distribution of mortality among dead hospitalized patients with TT. Materials and Method: Observational study in hospitalized patients with TT, period January 1981 to December 2018. Review of prospective TT protocols and data base. Major syndromic causes of death were recorded and a logistic regression for variables associated with mortality was made. SPSS25® with chi-quadrat tests was used to compare classification, type of TT and temporal distribution. A p value < 0,05 was considered significant. Results: Total 4.297 TT and global mortality was 120 (2,8%) cases. The main independent variables associated with mortality were the physiological decline upon admission, massive hemothorax and TT by firearms. The leading cause of death was hypovolemic shock, with significant differences according to the type of TT in the first 4 and 24 hours. In the temporal distribution was observed that, the deaths with penetrating and isolated TT were earlier and that there was no second peak of mortality following the first week. Conclusions: Independent variables associated with mortality were observed among hospitalized patients with TT, being physiological deterioration the most important factor. Besides, there are significant differences in the death causes and temporal distribution of mortality among the different subgroups of hospitalized patients with TT.

Humans , Male , Female , Thoracic Injuries/mortality , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/mortality , Wounds, Penetrating/mortality , Thoracic Injuries/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Cause of Death
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 410-419, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388845


Resumen Introducción: El traumatismo es la primera causa de muerte en adolescentes y la quinta en el adulto mayor. El traumatismo torácico (TT) posee características particulares en diferentes grupos de edad. Objetivos: Analizar características clínicas, índice de gravedad de traumatismo (IGT) y mortalidad en hospitalizados por TT según grupo etario. Materiales y Método: Estudio descriptivo de hospitalizaciones por TT, período enero de 1981 a diciembre de 2018. Revisión de protocolos prospectivos de TT y base de datos. Se definió grupo etario según Organización Mundial de la Salud (Adolescente: 10-19 años; Adulto Joven: 20-44 años; Adulto Maduro 45-59 años; Adulto Mayor: ≥ 60 años). Se comparó clasificación, mecanismo, agente, tratamiento, IGT, Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) y mortalidad del TT según grupo etario. Se utilizó SPSS25® con pruebas chi-cuadrado y ANOVA, considerando significativo p < 0,05. Resultados: Total 4.297 TT. Grupo etario Adolescente: 608 (14,1%); Adulto Joven: 2.544 (59,2%); Adulto Maduro: 601 (14,0%); Adulto Mayor: 544 (12,7%). Se observó disminución progresiva y significativa en TT penetrante, por agresión y del TT por arma blanca desde grupo etario Adolescente hasta Adulto Mayor. En Adulto Joven predominó tratamiento invasivo: cirugía 541 (21,2%) y en Adulto Maduro el TT con lesiones asociadas 215 (35,8%), p < 0,05. Según grupo etario, se observaron diferencias significativas en TRISS y en mortalidad. La mortalidad fue 1,6%; 2,5%; 3,3%; 5,0%, según grupo etario respectivamente (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: Existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las características clínicas, IGT y mortalidad del TT al comparar distintos grupos etarios. La edad es uno de los factores que determina el pronóstico de pacientes hospitalizados por TT.

Background: Trauma is the leading death cause among adolescents and the fifth in the elderly. Thoracic trauma (TT) has particular characteristics in different age-groups. Aim: To analyze clinical characteristics, trauma severity indices (TSI) and mortality in patients hospitalized for TT among different age-groups. Materials and Method: Descriptive study of patients hospitalized for TT between January-1981 and December-2018. Prospective TT surgical operation notes and data base were reviewed. Age-groups were determined according to the World Health Organization (Adolescent: 10-19 years; Young Adult: 20-44 years; Mature Adult: 45-59 years; Elderly > 60 years). TT classification, mechanism, agent, treatment, TSI, Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and mortality were compared among age-groups. SPSS25® with chi-square test and ANOVA were used, considering p < 0.05 significant. Results: Total 4.297 TT. Adolescent age-group: 608 (14.1%); Young Adult: 2,544 (59.2%); Mature Adult: 601 (14.0%); Elderly: 544 (12.7%). Was observed a progressive and significant decrease of penetrating TT, aggression-caused and bladed weapon-caused TT from Adolescent to Elderly. In Young Adult the invasive treatment predominant: surgery 541 (21.2%), whereas in Mature Adult TT with associated injuries 215 (35.8%), p < 0.05. Differences in TRISS and mortality 1.6%; 2.5%; 3.4%; 5.0% (p < 0.05) were observed among age-groups, respectively. Conclusions: There are statistical significant differences in clinical characteristics, TSI and mortality when comparing TT by age group. Age is an important factor determining the outcome in TT hospitalized patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thoracic Injuries/etiology , Thoracic Injuries/epidemiology , Thoracic Injuries/therapy , Wounds, Penetrating/complications , Wounds, Penetrating/epidemiology , Chile , Age Distribution , Hospital Care
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 401-409, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388842


Resumen Introducción: El traumatismo penetrante cardíaco (TPC) es una lesión poco frecuente y con alta morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: Analizar la evolución de características clínicas, anatómicas, gravedad, morbilidad y mortalidad de pacientes operados por TPC. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio analítico de pacientes tratados quirúrgicamente por TPC en Hospital Clínico Regional "Dr. Guillermo Grant Benavente", Concepción, Chile. Se analizaron los periodos: enero-1990 a diciembre-2004 y enero-2005 a diciembre-2019. Se comparó: sexo, edad, lesiones asociadas, agente y mecanismo del traumatismo, comportamiento fisiopatológico, ubicación anatómica de la lesión, clasificaciones del traumatismo cardíaco Attar, Saadia y OIS-AAST, IGT (índices de gravedad del traumatismo): ISS, RTS-T y TRISS, morbilidad y mortalidad según periodos. Se realizó análisis estadístico con SPSS25®, se utilizaron las pruebas chi-cuadrado, exacta de Fisher y Mann-Whitney. Se consideró significativo un valor p < 0,05. Resultados: Total 235 TPC, 112 en el primer periodo y 123 en el segundo. Mecanismo arma blanca en 96 (85,7%) y 104 (84,6%) según periodos. En el segundo periodo se observó un aumento de lesiones extratorácicas asociadas, paro cardiorrespiratorio y lesión de ubicación izquierda. Las clasificaciones del traumatismo cardíaco y los IGT ISS, RTS-T y TRISS mostraron mayor gravedad y probabilidad de muerte en los pacientes del segundo periodo. La mortalidad no mostró diferencias: 14 (12,5%) y 14 (11,4%) según periodos (p = 0,792). Discusión: En nuestra serie los pacientes tratados por TPC han evolucionado hacia un perfil de mayor gravedad tanto en parámetros fisiológicos como anatómicos. La mortalidad se ha mantenido estable a través del tiempo.

Background: Penetrating cardiac injury (PCI) is a rare injury with high morbidity and mortality. Aim: To analyze the evolution of clinical and anatomical characteristics, severity, morbidity and mortality of patients operated on by PCI. Materials and Methods: Analytical study of patients surgically treated for PCI at the "Guillermo Grant Benavente" Regional Clinical Hospital, Concepción, Chile. Two periods were analyzed: January-1990 to December-2004 and January-2005 to December-2019. Sex, age, associated injuries, trauma agent and mechanism, pathophysiological behavior, anatomic location of the injury, classifications of cardiac trauma: Attar, Saadia and OIS-AAST, TSI (trauma severity indices): ISS, RTS-T and TRISS, morbidity and mortality were compared according to periods. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS25®, the chi-square, Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney tests were used. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Total 235 PCI, 112 in the first period and 123 in the second. Stab as mechanism in 96 (85.7%) and 104 (84.6%) according to periods. An increase in associated extra thoracic injuries, cardiorespiratory arrest, and injury to the left location were observed in the second period. The cardiac trauma classifications and the TSI ISS, RTS-T and TRISS showed greater severity and probability of death in the second period patients. Mortality did not show differences: 14 (12.5%) and 14 (11.4%) according to periods, p = 0.792. Discussion: In our series, patients treated with PCI have evolved towards a more severity profile in both, physiological and anatomical parameters. Mortality has been stable over time.

Humans , Male , Female , Wounds, Penetrating/surgery , Heart Injuries/surgery , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Wounds, Penetrating/complications , Heart Atria/injuries , Heart Injuries/epidemiology
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 262-271, jun. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388832


Resumen Introducción: El secuestro pulmonar (SP) es una malformación congénita caracterizada por tejido pulmonar con vascularización de una arteria sistémica anómala. Objetivo: Analizar las características y tratamiento de pacientes adultos y pediátricos con secuestro pulmonar. Materiales y Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Periodo: enero de 1988 a diciembre de 2018. La información se obtuvo de fichas clínicas y registros de anatomía patológica. Se describen edad, sexo, características clínicas, diagnóstico, tratamiento quirúrgico y hallazgos anatomopatológicos. Se realizó análisis estadístico mediante SPSS25® y se usó la prueba Mann-Whitney y X2, considerándose significativo p < 0,05. Resultados: Total 33 pacientes, 25 (75,8%) mujeres. Edad promedio 30,2 años, rango: 0-68. Adultos 23 (69,7%) pacientes y pediátricos (< 15 años) 10 (30,3%) pacientes. La presentación clínica fue sintomatología pulmonar en 23 (69,7%) casos y 9 (27,3%) eran asintomáticos. Tres (9,1%) presentaron malformación congénita asociada. Diagnóstico preoperatorio en 15 (45,5%) pacientes. La ubicación más frecuente fue lóbulo inferior izquierdo. El tipo intralobar fue el más frecuente en 23 (69,7%) casos. La cirugía más frecuente fue la lobectomía con identificación y ligadura del vaso sistémico. El vaso aberrante se originó en aorta torácica en 27 (81,8%) casos e infradiafragmático (no precisado) en 3 (9,1%) casos. Vaso único en 26 (78,8%) y doble en 5 (15,2%) casos. No hubo mortalidad. Existen diferencias en las características entre los secuestros en pacientes adultos y pediátricos. Discusión y Conclusión: Los SP son infrecuentes, se presentan principalmente en adultos jóvenes como neumopatías a repetición, se distinguen diferencias en las características entre los pacientes adultos y pediátricos, y tienen excelente pronóstico posoperatorio.

Background: Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is a congenital malformation characterized by lung tissue with vascularization from anomalous systemic arteries. Aim: To analyze characteristics and treatment of adult and pediatric patients with pulmonary sequestration. Materials and Method: Transversal descriptive study. Period: January-1988 to December-2018. Information was obtained from clinical files and pathological anatomy records. Age, sex, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, surgical treatment and pathological findings are described. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS25® and the Mann-Whitney and Chi square test were used, considering p < 0.05 to be significant. Results: Total 33 patients, 25 (75.8%) women. Average age 30.2 years, range: 0-68. Adults 23 (69.7%) patients and pediatric (< 15 years) 10 (30.3%) patients. The clinical presentation was pulmonary symptoms in 23 (69.7%) cases and 9 (27.3%) were asymptomatic. Three (9.1%) presented another congenital malformation. Preoperative diagnosis in 15 (48.4%) patients. The most frequent location was the left lower lobe. The intralobar type was the most frequent: 23 (69.7%) cases. The most frequent surgery was lobectomy with identification and ligation of the systemic vessel. The systemic vessel originated in the thoracic aorta in 27 (81.8%) cases and infradiaphragmatic (not specified) in 3 (9.1%) cases. Single vessel in 26 (78.8%) and double in 5 (15.2%) cases. There was no mortality. Differences were found in characteristics between adult and pediatric patients. Conclusion: SP are infrequent, they mostly appear in young adults as recurrent lung diseases, differences in characteristics are distinguished between adult and pediatric patients and they have an excellent postoperative prognosis.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bronchopulmonary Sequestration/diagnosis , Bronchopulmonary Sequestration/physiopathology , Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Radiography, Thoracic , Bronchopulmonary Sequestration/etiology , Risk Assessment
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 141-149, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388807


Resumen Objetivo: Comparar la adquisición de habilidades quirúrgicas básicas en estudiantes de medicina según el tipo de instrucción teórico-práctica recibida previo a un taller estandarizado de sutura de heridas. Materiales y Método: Estudio cuasiexperimental antes-después para estudiantes de cuarto año durante el 2018. Se realizó taller de sutura de heridas aplicado en modelo biológico (pata de cerdo), previo consentimiento informado y aprobación Comité Ético Científico. Mediante instrumento "The Objective Structured Assessment Of Technical Skills" (OSATS) se evaluó técnica de sutura antes y después del entrenamiento. Se dividió a los participantes según conocimientos previos al taller: Grupo A: recibió instrucción teórico-práctica en pacientes in vivo. Grupo B: recibió instrucción teórico-práctica en modelos de simulación. Grupo C: sin conocimientos previos en suturas. Se evaluó percepción de estudiantes mediante encuesta validada. Se comparó puntaje OSATS antes-después del taller y encuesta de percepción según grupo, utilizando SPSS24® y ANOVA. Se consideró significativo p < 0,05. Resultados: Se evaluaron 124 estudiantes. Grupo A: 17 (13,7%); Grupo B: 38 (30,7%); Grupo C: 69 (55,6%) respectivamente. Existió diferencia en puntaje OSATS de ingreso al taller Grupo A: 19,4 ± 4,9; Grupo B: 13,7 ± 6,3; Grupo C: 11,1 ± 4,5 (p < 0,05). Puntaje OSATS finalizada la intervención Grupo A: 28,8 ± 1,5; Grupo B: 28,0 ± 1,9; Grupo C: 27,9 ± 2,2 (p = 0,48), sin diferencia significativa. La intervención fue bien percibida, sin diferencias significativas entre grupos. Discusión: El resultado de evaluación OSATS finalizado el taller es independiente de experiencias, instrucción teórico-práctica o conocimientos previos a la intervención. Conclusión: Los programas de entrenamiento con evaluación estandarizada pueden equiparar los resultados entre estudiantes con diferentes conocimientos previos.

Aim: To compare the learning of basic surgical skills among medical students according to the type of theoretical and practical instruction they had prior to a standardized wound suturing workshop. Materials and Method: Quasi-experimental before and after study intended to fourth year students for the 2018. The wound suturing workshop was carried out with help of a biological model (pork leg), prior to an informed consent and the approval of the Ethics Committee. The suturing skills were evaluated by the tool "The Objective Structured Assessment Of Technical Skills" (OSATS) before and after the training. All of the participating students were sorted in groups by their previous surgical knowledge: Group A: received theoretical and practical instruction in patients. Group B: received theoretical and practical instruction in simulation models. Group C: without previous suturing knowledge. The students perception was evaluated by a validated survey. The OSATS score before and after the workshop and the perception survey were compared between the groups, using SPSS24® and ANOVA. p < 0,05 was considered significant. Results: 124 students were evaluated. Group A: 17 (13.7%); Group B: 38 (30.7%); Group C: 69 (55.6%) accordingly. There was a OSATS score difference before the workshop Group A: 19.4 ± 4,9; Group B: 13.7 ± 6.3; Group C: 11.1 ± 4.5 (p < 0.05). OSATS score after the intervention Group A: 28.8 ± 1.5; Group B: 28.0 ± 1.9; Group C: 27.9 ± 2.2 (p = 0.48), without a significant difference. The intervention was well perceived, without significant differences among the groups. Discussion: The OSATS score post workshop is independent of experiences, theoretical and practical instruction or previous knowledge. Conclusion: Training programs with standardized evaluation can even out the results among students with different previous knowledge.

Humans , Education, Medical/methods , Surgeons/education , Education, Medical/trends , High Fidelity Simulation Training
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(10)oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389217


Background: Boot camps are used to acquire skills in simple surgical procedures, such as sutures, in a short period of time. Aim: To assess the retention of the procedural skills of medical students who participated in a simulation-based suture workshop. Material and Methods: One hundred five medical students were trained using the EPROBA methodology (Entrenamiento PROcedimental BAsico), with prior informed consent. The instrument "Objective Structured Assessment Of Technical Skills" (OSATS) was applied prior to and after the workshop, and during retention module, which was carried out between three and four months after the suture workshop. Participants were classified according to the level of previous knowledge in sutures. Results: The students showed significant improvement in their scores after the workshop (improvement from 12.9 to 28.5 points, p < 0.001). No significant differences were found between scores after the workshop and those obtained in the retention module (28.5 to 28.1 points, respectively, p = 0.235). No difference in scores were observed when retention was evaluated according to previous knowledge levels. Conclusions: Simulation programs are useful for the acquisition of procedural skills which are retained over time.

Humans , Students, Medical , Simulation Training , Medicine , Clinical Competence , Educational Measurement
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 762-771, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139369


Background: Lungs are the second location in frequency of hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis. Aim: To characterize the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, findings and treatment of patients hospitalized for a pulmonary hydatid cyst (PHC). Materials and Methods: Review of databases, medical records, operation notes and death certificates of patients admitted to a Chilean regional hospital with a PHC. Results: Four hundred twenty-nine cases were identified and complete data was obtained from 368 patients aged 34 ± 19 years, 224 (60,9%)men. The most common clinical manifestations were cough in 269 (73%) and chest pain in 217 (59%). The most frequent locations were the right lung in 210 (57%) and lower lobes in 218 (59%). One hundred eighty-seven cysts (51%) were complicated. Conservative surgery (cystectomy) was performed in 308 (84%). Postoperative morbidity was observed in 77 (21%) and mortality in 6 (2%) patients. Recurrence was observed in 28 (8%) patients. There was a significant reduction in morbidity, mortality, reoperations, and postoperative days over time. Conclusions: In these patients, pulmonary hydatidosis was diagnosed mainly during working ages and half of patients had a complicated cyst.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Echinococcosis, Pulmonary/surgery , Echinococcosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Echinococcosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local