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1.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 181-187, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001599

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the Comprehensive Attention Test, Korean-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Rating Scale-IV scores in children and adolescents with ADHD. @*Methods@#Fifty-five children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and not taking psychiatric medications were included in this retrospective study. A correlation analysis was performed. @*Results@#Although simple visual and auditory selective attention have diagnostic value in traditional continuous performance tests, this study revealed that inhibition-sustained attention and interference-selective attention are also effective in evaluating ADHD. Furthermore, the correlation between the attention and intelligence test scores varied depending on the use of visual or auditory stimuli. @*Conclusion@#The findings of this study contribute to clarifying our understanding of the cognitive characteristics of children and adolescents with ADHD and can be used in future research.

2.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 74-79, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926008

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#There has been increased use of medications in treating depressive disorders.Nowadays, patient value is an important part of prescribing medications. This study examines depressive patients’ perspectives on the side effects of medications. @*Methods@#We administered questionnaires nationwide to 364 patients with depressive disorders. Intent or willingness to endure 21 side effects from the Antidepressant Side-Effect Checklist (ASEC) were examined and compared in patients who are less than mildly ill and who are more than moderately ill. @*Results@#In the population, decreased appetite, yawning, increased body temperature, dry mouth, sweating, and constipation are regarded as generally endurable side effects. In contrast, dizziness, light-headedness, nausea or vomiting, headaches, disorientation, problems with urination, and difficulty sleeping are hard to endure. There were differences between patients who are less than mildly ill and those who are more than moderately ill regarding the willingness to endure drowsiness, decreased appetite, sexual dysfunction, palpitations, and weight gain. @*Conclusion@#This nationwide study revealed a general willingness in depressed patients to endure side effects. Sensitive and premeditative discussions of patient value with regard to medications might contribute to finding successful treatments.

3.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 146-153, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836313

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean Form of the Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (K-PUTS). @*Methods@#Thirty-eight patients with Tourette’s disorder who visited Jeonbuk National University Hospital were assessed with the K-PUTS. Together with the PUTS, the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scale (ARS), and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) were implemented to evaluate concurrent and discriminant validity. @*Results@#The internal consistency of items on the PUTS was high, with a Cronbach’s α of 0.79. The test-retest reliability of the PUTS, which was administered at 2 weeks to 2 months intervals, showed high reliability with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.60. There was a significant positive correlation between the overall PUTS score and the YGTSS score, showing concurrent validity. There was no correlation between the PUTS, CY-BOCS, and ASRS scores, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the PUTS. Factor analysis for construct validity revealed three factors: “presumed functional relationship between the tic and the urge to tic,” “the quality of the premonitory urge,” and “just right phenomena.” @*Conclusion@#The results of this study indicate that the K-PUTS is a reliable and valid scale for rating premonitory urge of tics.

4.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 25-30, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13198

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study compared the intelligence test profiles of Tourette's Disorder (TD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and TD with ADHD (TD+ADHD) groups. METHODS: The Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (K-WISC-III) and Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-fourth edition (K-WISC-IV) were administered to 13 children and adolescents with TD, 17 children and adolescents with ADHD, and 15 children and adolescents with TD+ADHD. Each parameter was compared among the groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: The mean scores of the freedom from distractibility/working memory index (FD/WMI) and the digit span and arithmetic subtests of the TD+ADHD group were significantly lower than those of the TD group. CONCLUSION: According to the intelligence test results, the comorbid ADHD+TD group showed a significant decrease in working memory compared to the TD group. These findings are similar to those of previous research on cognitive functions and suggest that the TD+ADHD comorbid and TD alone groups exhibit different endophenotypes. The results also imply that WISC-III and WISC-IV, the most commonly used intelligence tests clinically, are effective in evaluating cognitive functions such as attention. Further research is required to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Cognition , Endophenotypes , Freedom , Intelligence Tests , Intelligence , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Tourette Syndrome
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 826-830, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159366

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Bullying/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Internet , Korea/epidemiology , Psychopathology
6.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 258-265, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174677

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine the validity of primary screening tools for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a community-based sample of children using the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and the Korean version of the ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS). METHODS: A large-scale community-based study for ADHD screening was conducted in the Jeollabuk province in the Republic of Korea. In 2010-2011, we surveyed a total of 49,088 first- and fourth-grade elementary school students. All of the participants in this study were assessed by the K-ARS-Parent version (K-ARS-P) and the K-ARS-Teacher version (K-ARS-T) as the primary screening instruments. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV) was used for confirming the diagnosis of ADHD. DISC-IV was administered to subjects who received top 10% scores in the K-ARS-P or K-ARS-T tests. RESULTS: Of the 3,085 subjects who completed the DISC-IV, 1,215 were diagnosed as having ADHD. A reasonable level of sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were obtained when the total K-ARS-P scores were > or =90th percentile. The positive predictive value and specificity increased significantly when the total K-ARS-P scores were > or =90th percentile, T scores were > or =60 in the attention problems of K-CBCL, and T scores were > or =63 in the total problems of K-CBCL. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that the K-ARS-P could effectively serve as a primary screening tool to identify elementary school children with ADHD in the community. Also, there might be some increment in the effectiveness of K-ARS-P when combined with K-CBCL-A and K-CBCL-T as a secondary screening tool.


Subject(s)
Child , Child , Humans , Appointments and Schedules , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Checklist , Child Behavior , Diagnosis , Mass Screening , Republic of Korea , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 90-94, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to examine if basal luteinizing hormone (LH) levels could be useful for screening central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls. METHODS: A total of 90 girls under the age of 8 years were included in this study. They underwent the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test at Good Gang-An Hospital from March 2008 to December 2012 for evaluation of premature sexual development. Patients were classified into two groups: the pubertal response group of patients who had 5 IU/L peak LH levels in the GnRH stimulation test, and the prepubertal response group of patients who had LH levels <5 IU/L. Chronological and bone ages, height, weight, body mass index, gonadotropin response to GnRH stimulation, and basal levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol were studied in both groups. The relationship between basal LH and peak-stimulated LH was evaluated using Spearman's correlation. To determine the optimal cut-off values of basal LH levels for differentiating between two groups, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed. RESULTS: When the correlation between basal LH levels and peak LH after GnRH stimulation was analyzed in all subjects (N=90), basal LH levels had a statistically significant positive correlation with peak stimulated LH levels (rs=0.493, p<0.001). The cut-off level of optimal basal LH was 0.1 IU/L, according to the ROC curves. Its sensitivity was 73.3%, and its specificity was 77.8%. CONCLUSION: The study results showed that serum basal LH levels are useful for screening CPP in girls.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Body Weight , Estradiol , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gonadotropins , Lutein , Luteinizing Hormone , Mass Screening , Puberty, Precocious , ROC Curve , Sexual Development
8.
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 90-94, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-133300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to examine if basal luteinizing hormone (LH) levels could be useful for screening central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls. METHODS: A total of 90 girls under the age of 8 years were included in this study. They underwent the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test at Good Gang-An Hospital from March 2008 to December 2012 for evaluation of premature sexual development. Patients were classified into two groups: the pubertal response group of patients who had 5 IU/L peak LH levels in the GnRH stimulation test, and the prepubertal response group of patients who had LH levels <5 IU/L. Chronological and bone ages, height, weight, body mass index, gonadotropin response to GnRH stimulation, and basal levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol were studied in both groups. The relationship between basal LH and peak-stimulated LH was evaluated using Spearman's correlation. To determine the optimal cut-off values of basal LH levels for differentiating between two groups, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed. RESULTS: When the correlation between basal LH levels and peak LH after GnRH stimulation was analyzed in all subjects (N=90), basal LH levels had a statistically significant positive correlation with peak stimulated LH levels (rs=0.493, p<0.001). The cut-off level of optimal basal LH was 0.1 IU/L, according to the ROC curves. Its sensitivity was 73.3%, and its specificity was 77.8%. CONCLUSION: The study results showed that serum basal LH levels are useful for screening CPP in girls.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Body Weight , Estradiol , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gonadotropins , Lutein , Luteinizing Hormone , Mass Screening , Puberty, Precocious , ROC Curve , Sexual Development
9.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 151-156, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: It has been reported that higher percentage of B cells react with monoclonal D8/17 antibody in patients with rheumatic fever, childhood onset obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette's disorder, or prepubertal anorexia nervosa. The purpose of this study is to replicate the previous studies in a Korean young population with tic disorder and to identify any relationship between D8/17 and clinical symptoms. METHODS: The binding of D8/17 to B cells was determined in patients with tic disorder (N=21) and healthy controls (N=9) by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter analysis. RESULTS: In the sample examined by this study, the average percentage of B cells expressing D8/17 in tic disorder was 2.05%; healthy controls was 3.15%. No statistically significant differences were found in the mean percentages of D8/17 between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The expression of D8/17 in B cells was very low in this study. No subjects with tic disorder or healthy controls was above 12% in D8/17 positive proportion. Further studies, including higher number of patients and control group members, should be performed.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Anorexia Nervosa , B-Lymphocytes , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Rheumatic Fever , Tic Disorders , Tics , Tourette Syndrome
10.
Korean Journal of Psychopharmacology ; : 129-132, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12400

ABSTRACT

We report a case of 48 years-old male bipolar disorder patient with acute kidney injury due to severe lithium intoxication. He was taking lithium 300 mg per day but suddenly ingested all 30 tablets of lithium 300 mg (total 9,000 mg) at one sitting to commit suicide. On his arrival at the emergency room, the serum lithium concentration was 12.47 mEq/L. Thereafter he was treated with hemodialysis four times for 4-4.5 hour per session and recovered without any prominent sequela. The serum lithium level checked 9 days after hemodialysis was 0.1 mEq/L. Therefore we suggest that clinicians should consider such a strategy as mandatory hemodialysis in a patient with severe kidney intoxication when serum lithium concentrations are very high or rapidly increasing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Acute Kidney Injury , Bipolar Disorder , Emergencies , Kidney , Lithium , Renal Dialysis , Suicide , Tablets
11.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 44-48, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Panic disorder is characterized by recurrent panic attacks, persistent concerns about additional attacks, and worry about the implications of the attack or significant changes in behavior related to the attacks. We examined the efficacy of 24-week naturalistic, open-label escitalopram treatment in terms of the response and remission rates and functional disability in 119 adult Korean patients with panic disorder from 6 clinical centers in South Korea. METHODS: Clinical severity and functional impairment were assessed at baseline and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks after the treatment using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale and Sheehan Disability Scale. Ninety-six patients (80.7%) showed a treatment response, and 87 patients (73.1%) had attained remission after 24 weeks of escitalopram treatment. RESULTS: Continuous improvement in the Panic Disorder Severity Scale and Sheehan Disability Scale scores was found over the 24 weeks of treatment. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that escitalopram treatment is very effective for panic disorder in terms of both response and remission rates and that long-term pharmacotherapy with escitalopram continuously improved panic symptoms and functional disability in Korean patients with panic disorder.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Antidepressive Agents , Citalopram , Panic , Panic Disorder , Prospective Studies
12.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 143-153, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the current prevalence rate of school bullying and its related psychopathology. METHODS: A total of 3,550 elementary/middle school students and their parents were recruited for this study. A self-report questionnaire on perpetration and victimization in school bullying was used for collection of data regarding prevalence and the present state of school bullying. For evaluation of associated psychopathology, self report forms, including the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Rating Scale (ARS), Korean-Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL), Korean-Youth Self Report (K-YSR), and the Korean Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (K-ESI) were applied. Samples were classified according to four subtype groups (control, victim, perpetrator, and victim-perpetrator) and characteristics of each group were compared. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence rate for bullying perpetration was 64.4% and the prevalence rate for bullying victimization was 63.4%, indicating involvement of more than half of students in school bullying. Bully-victims reported high social immaturity and depressive and suicidal tendency, whereas bully-perpetrators reported less social immaturity and more externalizing problems. Among the subtype groups, the victim-perpetrator group showed the most prominent depressive/anxiety tendency and behavioral problems. CONCLUSIONS: Both victimization and perpetration of bullying are common problems for child and adolescent groups and several psycho-social problems were found to be related. The results of this study will guide direction of future study and development of strategies for prevention of bullying.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Anxiety , Bullying , Checklist , Crime Victims , Depression , Parents , Prevalence , Psychopathology , Schizophrenia , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 102-106, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Panic disorder (PD) is frequently comorbid with insomnia, which could exacerbate panic symptoms and contribute to PD relapse. Research has suggested that characteristics are implicated in both PD and insomnia. However, there are no reports examining whether temperament and character affect insomnia in PD. Thus, we examined the relationship between insomnia and personality characteristics in PD patients. METHODS: Participants were 101 patients, recruited from 6 university hospitals in Korea, who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for PD. We assessed sleep outcomes using the sleep items of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17)(item 4=onset latency, item 5=middle awakening, and item 6=early awakening) and used the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised-Short to assess personality characteristics. To examine the relationship between personality and insomnia, we used analysis of variance with age, sex, and severity of depression (total HAMD scores minus sum of the three sleep items) as the covariates. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences (p>0.1) in demographic and clinical data between patients with and without insomnia. Initial insomnia (delayed sleep onset) correlated to a high score on the temperamental dimension of novelty seeking 3 (NS3)(F1,96=6.93, p=0.03). There were no statistical differences (p>0.1) in NS3 between patients with and without middle or terminal insomnia. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that higher NS3 is related to the development of initial insomnia in PD and that temperament and character should be considered when assessing sleep problems in PD patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depression , Hospitals, University , Korea , Panic , Panic Disorder , Recurrence , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Temperament
14.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 392-400, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between internet addiction and emotional and behavioral problems in 5th and 6th grade elementary school students and middle school students. METHODS: Two elementary school and two middle schools were chosen to participate. The participants completed self-report questionnaires designed by authors, an internet addiction scale, and the Korean Youth Self Report (K-YSR). RESULTS: The prevalence of internet addiction was 1.5%. We defined the upper 30% of internet addiction scores as an addiction tendency group and the lower 30% as a control group. There were significant differences in the gender ratio, age, and average length of each internet use, years of internet use experience, and exposure to pornography between the two groups. Linear regression analysis showed that significant association was found between internet addiction scores and withdrawn problems in middle school students but not in elementary school students. The level of internet addiction was associated with a high occurrence rate of total behavioral problems and delinquent behavior problems in boys and depression/anxiety problems in girls. CONCLUSION: This data supports that withdrawn and delinquent behaviors could be predictable factors of internet addiction, and gender differences may exist in the development of internet addiction. The intervention focused on these findings could be effective to prevent and treat internet addiction in children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Erotica , Internet , Linear Models , Prevalence , Psychopathology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Self Report
15.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 87-94, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175200

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between internet game addiction and emotional and behavioral characteristics of students both in the 5th and 6th grade of elementary school and in middle school. METHODS: Two elementary schools and two middle schools were chosen to participate. The students completed self-report questionnaires designed by the authors, called the Internet Game Addiction Scale, Korean youth self-report (K-YSR). RESULTS: Compared to previous studies, the rates of those in the obvious game addiction group were much lower in this study. We defined the upper 10% of internet game addiction scores as a high risk user group and the lower 10% as a control group. There were significant differences between the groups with respect to the the ages at which internet gaming began, the frequency of game play per week, and the average length of each game playing session. Significant associations were also found between the level of internet game addiction and the withdrawn and delinquency subscales of the K-YSR. However, the association between game addiction and the withdrawn subscale was found only in middle school students. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study suggested that withdrawn and delinquent behaviors could be predictors of internet game addiction. Results also suggested the importance of early childhood intervention for preventing the development of more severe psychopathology in early adolescence.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Internet , Psychopathology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 441-444, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110989

ABSTRACT

Legalized gambling is a growing industry, and is probably a factor in the presently increasing prevalence of pathological gambling. We present a case of a 36-year-old pathological gambler who was treated with fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and who was assessed by functional MRI before and after drug administration. During activation periods, the pathological gambler was shown cards as stimuli, and fMRI results in several brain regions showed differential effects before and after medication and a maintenance period. This case demonstrates that the treatment response to fluvoxamine in a pathological gambler was observed not only by subjective self-report, but also by objective fMRI results. Therefore, fMRI may be a useful tool in the diagnosis and prediction of treatment response in patients afflicted with pathological gambling.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Behavior, Addictive/drug therapy , Fluvoxamine/therapeutic use , Gambling , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
17.
Korean Journal of Psychopharmacology ; : 5-18, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120566

ABSTRACT

The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was developed in 2002 and revised in 2006. The aim of this study was to compare the KMAP-BP 2006 with other recently published treatment guidelines for bipolar disorder. We conducted a systematic review of the six most recently published guidelines and treatment algorithms for bipolar disorder to compare the similarities and differences between these guidelines and the KMAPBP 2006. Most treatment guidelines had similarities in their treatment options. The guidelines generally advocated atypical antipsychotics as first-line treatment in the manic phase and lamotrigine in the depressive phase. While lithium and divalproex were commonly used as mood stabilizers in the manic phase, divalproex was recommended in mixed or dysphoric mania. Mood stabilizers or atypical antipsychotics were selected as first-line treatment in maintenance. Some guidelines were more concerned about special clinical situations such as pregnancy, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and elderly patients, which were not described in the KMAP-BP 2006. Our findings suggest that the medication strategies for bipolar disorder are based on data from recent studies and clinical experiences. Useful information and a rationale for making sequential treatment decisions can be provided by critically reviewing the treatment guidelines. The treatment algorithms and guidelines are not substitutes for clinical judgment, but can serve as critical references to complement individual clinical assessments.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Pregnancy , Antipsychotic Agents , Bipolar Disorder , Complement System Proteins , Judgment , Lithium , Obesity , Triazines , Valproic Acid
18.
Korean Journal of Psychopharmacology ; : 197-208, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153572

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although atypical antipsychotics are increasingly being used as monotherapy in acute mania, few Korean studies have investigated on them. This study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine monotherapy in patients with acute mania. METHODS: This multicenter, open-label study evaluated the efficacy of olanzapine to treat mania over 6 weeks. Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes) were treated with olanzapine (flexible dosage to a maximum of 30 mg/day). Clinical improvements were rated using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar Version (CGI-BP), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Adverse events were measured using the Simpson-Angus Rating Scale (SARS) and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS). The general functioning of patients was assessed using the Global Assessment Scale (GAS). All assessments were carried out at baseline and at days 7, 14, 21, and 42, with the exception of the GAS. RESULTS: The subjects comprised 76 patients (male=38, female=38), with 55 patients (72.4%) completing the study. The mean initial dose of olanzapine was 11.7+/-5.0 mg/day and mean daily doses at days 7, 14, 21, and 42 were 16.6+/-5.2, 17.2+/-5.0, 18.1+/-5.3, and 17.4+/-4.7 mg/day, respectively. At days 7, 14, 21, and 42, YMRS, CGI-BP, MADRS and BPRS scores had significantly improved from baseline. More improvement in MADRS scores was observed among patients with mixed mania than patients with euphoric mania. Changes in BPRS scores from baseline did not differ between patients with psychotic symptoms and those with euphoric mania. At days 21 and 42, 42 (55.3%) and 57 (75.0%) patients had responded (YMRS scores decreased from baseline by more than 50%). Also 27 (35.5%) and 46 (60.5%) patients had achieved remission (YMRS scores < or =12) at the same assessment points. GAS scores at days 21 and 42 indicated that olanzapine monotherapy improved patients' global functioning compared to baseline. SARS and BARS scores did not differ significantly between pre- and post-drug trial. CONCLUSION: The data indicate that olanzapine monotherapy has favorable effects across a broad range of mood symptoms and yields functional improvement in acute manic patients with minimal adverse events. Therefore, olanzapine monotherapy may be a preferred first-line agent to treat patients with acute mania. These results support the findings from previous studies and guidelines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents , Benzodiazepines , Bipolar Disorder , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Depression , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Psychomotor Agitation
19.
Korean Journal of Psychopharmacology ; : 168-171, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140958

ABSTRACT

Lithium treatment has been associated with a wide range of cardiac complications. We observed a 53-year-old female patient who presented with complete heart block due to lithium toxicity. The patient had been diagnosed as schizoaffective disorder and had been taking a stable dose of lithium, 1,500 mg/day since January 2007. Recently, she begun a strict diet and experienced muscle weakness and lethargy a few days later. While receiving fluid therapy, she lost her consciousness and was transferred to an emergency medical center. An electrocardiogram revealed that she had complete heart block, so a temporary pacemaker was inserted immediately. After 4 days of intensive care, her heartbeat recovered spontaneously and the temporary pacemaker was removed. On the 11th day, she had sufficiently recovered and could ambulate by herself. Lithium levels were measured at 5.22 mEq/L and 0.66 mEq/L on the 1st and 4th day of treatment, respectively. This case illustrates the importance of educating patients and their relatives about the possible lithium toxicity caused by a strict diet.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Consciousness , Diet , Electrocardiography , Emergencies , Fluid Therapy , Heart , Heart Block , Critical Care , Lethargy , Lithium , Muscle Weakness , Psychotic Disorders
20.
Korean Journal of Psychopharmacology ; : 168-171, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140955

ABSTRACT

Lithium treatment has been associated with a wide range of cardiac complications. We observed a 53-year-old female patient who presented with complete heart block due to lithium toxicity. The patient had been diagnosed as schizoaffective disorder and had been taking a stable dose of lithium, 1,500 mg/day since January 2007. Recently, she begun a strict diet and experienced muscle weakness and lethargy a few days later. While receiving fluid therapy, she lost her consciousness and was transferred to an emergency medical center. An electrocardiogram revealed that she had complete heart block, so a temporary pacemaker was inserted immediately. After 4 days of intensive care, her heartbeat recovered spontaneously and the temporary pacemaker was removed. On the 11th day, she had sufficiently recovered and could ambulate by herself. Lithium levels were measured at 5.22 mEq/L and 0.66 mEq/L on the 1st and 4th day of treatment, respectively. This case illustrates the importance of educating patients and their relatives about the possible lithium toxicity caused by a strict diet.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Consciousness , Diet , Electrocardiography , Emergencies , Fluid Therapy , Heart , Heart Block , Critical Care , Lethargy , Lithium , Muscle Weakness , Psychotic Disorders
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