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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 841-850, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939090

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We evaluated the feasibility and long-term efficacy of the combination of cytarabine, idarubicin, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for treating patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). @*Methods@#We included 87 patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia and a t(15;17) or promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARα) mutation. Patients received 12 mg/m2/day idarubicin intravenously for 3 days and 100 mg/m2/day cytarabine for 7 days, plus 45 mg/m2/day ATRA. Clinical outcomes included complete remission (CR), relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and the secondary malignancy incidence during a 20-year follow-up. @*Results@#The CR, 10-year RFS, and 10-year OS rates were 89.7%, 94.1%, and 73.8%, respectively, for all patients. The 10-year OS rate was 100% for patients that achieved CR. Subjects were classified according to the white blood cell (WBC) count in peripheral blood at diagnosis (low-risk, WBC < 10,000/mm3; high-risk, WBC ≥ 10,000/mm3). The low-risk group had significantly higher RFS and OS rates than the high-risk group, but the outcomes were not superior to the current standard treatment (arsenic trioxide plus ATRA). Toxicities were similar to those observed with anthracycline plus ATRA, and higher than those observed with arsenic trioxide plus ATRA. The secondary malignancy incidence after APL treatment was 2.7%, among the 75 patients that achieved CR, and 5.0% among the 40 patients that survived more than 5 years after the APL diagnosis. @*Conclusions@#Adding cytarabine to anthracycline plus ATRA was not inferior to anthracycline plus ATRA alone, but it was not comparable to arsenic trioxide plus ATRA. The probability of secondary malignancy was low.

2.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 124-128, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836633

ABSTRACT

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare syndrome characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal injury, which results from uncontrolled complement activation. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of aHUS may result in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and an associated dependence on dialysis. In extreme cases, it may cause death due to multi-organ failure. Eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against C5, inhibits the formation of the terminal membrane attack complex and is used to treat aHUS. Here, we report a 46-year-old male patient who suffered from aHUS relapse, despite prior treatment with repeated plasma exchange and hemodialysis. Eculizumab therapy improved his hematologic findings without use of hemodialysis.

3.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 264-266, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785391

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Kininogen, High-Molecular-Weight
4.
Blood Research ; : 218-228, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) involves dysregulation of the complement system, but whether this also occurs in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) remains unclear. Although these conditions are difficult to differentiate clinically, TTP can be distinguished by low (<10%) ADAMTS13 activity. The aim was to identify the differences in complement activation products between TTP and aHUS and investigate ADAMTS13 activity as a prognostic factor in aHUS. METHODS: We analyzed patients with thrombotic microangiopathy diagnosed as TTP (N=48) or aHUS (N=50), selected from a Korean registry (N=551). Complement activation products in the plasma samples collected from the patients prior to treatment and in 40 healthy controls were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The levels of generalized (C3a), alternate (factor Bb), and terminal (C5a and C5b-9) markers were significantly higher (all P<0.01) in the patients than in the healthy controls. Only the factor Bb levels significantly differed (P=0.008) between the two disease groups. In aHUS patients, high normal ADAMTS13 activity (≥77%) was associated with improved treatment response (OR, 6.769; 95% CI, 1.605–28.542; P=0.005), remission (OR, 6.000; 95% CI, 1.693–21.262; P=0.004), exacerbation (OR, 0.242; 95% CI, 0.064–0.916; P=0.031), and disease-associated mortality rates (OR, 0.155; 95% CI, 0.029–0.813; P=0.017). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that complement biomarkers, except factor Bb, are similarly activated in TTP and aHUS patients, and ADAMTS13 activity can predict the treatment response and outcome in aHUS patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome , Biomarkers , Complement Activation , Complement System Proteins , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Mortality , Plasma , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Thrombotic Microangiopathies
5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 590-598, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714214

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The treatment strategy for elderly patients older than 80 years with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has not been established because of poor treatment tolerability and lack of data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study was conducted to investigate clinical characteristics, treatment patterns and outcomes of patients older than 80 years who were diagnosed with DLBCL at 19 institutions in Korea between 2005 and 2016. RESULTS: A total of 194 patients were identified (median age, 83.3 years). Of these, 114 patients had an age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (aaIPI) score of 2-3 and 48 had a Charlson index score of 4 or more. R-CHOP was given in 124 cases, R-CVP in 13 cases, other chemotherapy in 17 cases, radiation alone in nine cases, and surgery alone in two cases. Twenty-nine patients did not undergo any treatment. The median number of chemotherapy cycles was three. Only 37 patients completed the planned treatment cycles. The overall response rate from 105 evaluable patients was 90.5% (complete response, 41.9%). Twentynine patients died due to treatment-related toxicities (TRT). Thirteen patients died due to TRT after the first cycle. Median overall survival was 14.0 months. The main causes of death were disease progression (30.8%) and TRT (27.1%). In multivariate analysis, overall survival was affected by aaIPI, hypoalbuminemia, elevated creatinine, and treatment. CONCLUSION: Age itself should not be a contraindication to treatment. However, since elderly patients show higher rates of TRT due to infection, careful monitoring and dose modification of chemotherapeutic agents is needed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , B-Lymphocytes , Cause of Death , Creatinine , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy , Hypoalbuminemia , Korea , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies
6.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 79-83, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155824

ABSTRACT

Myeloid neoplasia with eosinophilia and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) rearrangements is an uncommon Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm. Their most common morphological diagnosis is chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia, which is associated with t(5;12)(q33;p13) and results in the formation of the ETV6-PDGFRB fusion gene. Here, we report a 49-year-old man with a myeloid neoplasm with a PDGFRB rearrangement, who was incidentally diagnosed with hyperleukocytosis and eosinophilia during a health screening. A chromosome analysis of a bone marrow sample revealed 46, XY, t(5;12)(q33;p13), and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed the PDGFRB gene rearrangement. The patient was treated with imatinib and subsequently achieved complete hematological and molecular remission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Eosinophilia , Fluorescence , Gene Rearrangement , Imatinib Mesylate , In Situ Hybridization , Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic , Mass Screening , Myeloproliferative Disorders , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta , Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
7.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 68-71, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149385

ABSTRACT

Most patients with recurrent uterine cervical cancer have intra-pelvis metastasis with adjacent lymph node involvement, while a lone, distant metastasis is extremely rare. We report a 79-year-old woman with recurrent uterine cervical cancer that presented as thyroid mass with no intra-pelvic recurrence. Four years earlier, the patient had been diagnosed with uterine cervical cancer. She had undergone a course of concurrent chemoradiotherapy to the pelvis and had no subsequent evidence of recurrence. Several weeks before presenting, she had noticed a foreign body sensation in her throat and a palpable mass in the left side of her neck. Clinically, this was metastatic squamous cell carcinoma from the uterine cervix. Patients who present with swelling or palpable nodules in the neck with a previously diagnosed malignancy must be evaluated for metastatic disease, although metastasis from uterine cervical carcinoma to the thyroid gland is rare.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cervix Uteri , Chemoradiotherapy , Foreign Bodies , Lymph Nodes , Neck , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pelvis , Pharynx , Recurrence , Sensation , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
8.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 733-737, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219253

ABSTRACT

We report a very unusual case of endobronchial involvement of eosinophilic inflammation. A 58-year-old woman visited our clinic complaining of cough. A chest computed tomography scan showed a poorly enhancing mass compressing both main bronchi in the subcarinal area. Bronchoscopy also showed stenosis of the two main bronchi with irregular mucosal thickening. A bronchoscopic endobronchial mucosal biopsy revealed eosinophilic inflammation without evidence of malignancy. The subcarinal mass disappeared after systemic steroid treatment. This is the first report of mass-forming eosinophilic infiltration involving the central airway mimicking primary lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Biopsy , Bronchi , Bronchoscopy , Constriction, Pathologic , Cough , Eosinophils , Inflammation , Lung Neoplasms , Thorax
9.
Blood Research ; : 61-64, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228926

ABSTRACT

Oxaliplatin is a platinum compound used in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. It is known to evoke a drug-induced immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, which has not been reported in Korea. We describe a 53-year-old man who developed oxaliplatin-induced immune-mediated thrombocytopenia during chemotherapy for colon cancer. Oxaliplatin-dependent IgG platelet antibodies were detected in his serum on flow cytometry. He was treated with immunoglobulin and corticosteroids without any complications. Physicians should consider oxaliplatin-induced immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, when a sudden, isolated thrombocytopenia develops during chemotherapy with oxaliplatin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Antibodies , Blood Platelets , Colonic Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Flow Cytometry , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Korea , Platinum , Thrombocytopenia
10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 96-100, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53540

ABSTRACT

Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms have been well characterized. However, precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in patients with prior malignancies is uncommon, and the effect of prior cytotoxic therapy on development of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is controversial. Therapy-related precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia has been reported occasionally. However, cytotoxic therapy-related precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia has been reported in Korea only rarely. We herein describe two cases of therapy-related precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Korea , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid
11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 855-859, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32695

ABSTRACT

Hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients have a high risk of subsequent malignant neoplasms. Among post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) after hematopoietic cell transplantation, Hodgkin's lymphoma is rare and distinct from the majority of other PTLDs because of its later onset and relatively good prognosis. It is known to be associated with exposure to the Epstein-Barr virus, and the mixed cellularity subtype is the most common. We herein describe two cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma that developed after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.


Subject(s)
Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Hodgkin Disease , Lymphoproliferative Disorders , Prognosis , Transplants
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 662-666, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-22412

ABSTRACT

In this report, we describe a Korean patient with May-Hegglin anomaly from a mutation of the MYH9 gene. The proband was a 21-year-old man with thrombocytopenia. He did not have a bleeding tendency. His neutrophil count was normal at 7490/mm3; however, the neutrophils contained abnormal basophilic inclusions in their cytoplasm. The platelet count was decreased at 15000/mm3 with giant platelets. Coagulation test results were not remarkable. Direct sequencing of MYH9 revealed that he was heterozygous for a mutation in exon 1, which was a 97T>A substitution mutation affecting codon 33, substituting tryptophan with arginine (Trp33Arg). Family study showed that both of his parents had normal phenotype and genotypes, indicating a de novo occurrence of the mutation in the proband.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Asian People , Exons/genetics , Molecular Motor Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Myosin Heavy Chains/genetics , Thrombocytopenia/genetics
13.
Korean Journal of Hematology ; : 74-76, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-720214

ABSTRACT

Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is a rare condition characterized by multiple pneumocysts in the submucosa or subserosa of the bowel. Here, we report a rare case of asymptomatic PI after chemotherapy induction in an 18-yr-old man with B lymphoblastic leukemia with recurrent genetic abnormalities. The patient was treated conservatively and recovered without complications. The possibility of PI should be considered as a complication during or after chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. Conservative treatment should be considered unless there are complications, including peritonitis, bowel perforation, and severe sepsis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Hematologic Neoplasms , Peritonitis , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Sepsis
14.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 663-666, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205768

ABSTRACT

Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common complication in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. We report a case of hemorrhagic cystitis after unrelated cord blood transplantation associated with adenovirus infection. Despite hydration, hematuria and large clots persisted. We instilled cidofovir into the bladder, which resulted in clearance of the adenovirus and significant clinical improvement. Our case emphasizes the effectiveness of intravesical cidofovir treatment for viral hemorrhagic cystitis.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Adenoviridae Infections , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Cystitis , Cytosine , Fetal Blood , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Hematuria , Organophosphonates , Transplants , Urinary Bladder
15.
Korean Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ; : 228-231, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229047

ABSTRACT

Gastritis cystica polyposa is an uncommon lesion that usually occurs at the gastroenterostomy site, but it may also develop in the non-operated stomach. This malady is characterized by polypoid mucosal changes with hyperplasia and cystic dilatation of glands that infiltrate into the submucosal layer. We report here on a case of gastritis cystica polyposa that presented as a mass impacted in the duodenum in a 63-year-old male, and this patient had been admitted for evaluation of progressive epigastric fullness and dyspepsia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed that the partial duodenal obstruction was caused by impaction of a huge polypoid mass with a stalk that originated from the lower body of the stomach. We fished out the impacted mass with a forceps catheter while holding the neck with a snare catheter. Thereafter, an endoloop was applied to the stalk of mass, and this was followed by polypectomy using a snare catheter.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Catheters , Dilatation , Duodenal Obstruction , Duodenum , Dyspepsia , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Gastritis , Gastroenterostomy , Hyperplasia , Neck , SNARE Proteins , Stomach , Surgical Instruments
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 405-408, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79513

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The in vitro study suggested that proline to serine polymorphism in codon 475 (C1423T) of the A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin type 1 repeats-13 (ADAMTS-13) gene is related to reduced activity of ADAMTS- 13. In this study, the frequency of the Pro475Ser polymorphism in Koreans was studied and plasma ADAMTS-13 activity was measured to find out whether this polymorphism contributes to decreased ADAMTS-13 activity in Koreans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The frequency of the C1423T allele of the ADAMTS13 gene was studied along with measuring plasma ADAMTS-13 activity in 250 healthy Korean individuals. RESULTS: The allele frequency of C1423T polymorphism was 4%, and the median activity of CT type was 107 (69-143)%, which was lower than in controls with the CC genotype [118 (48-197)%, (p=0.021)]. CONCLUSION: Therefore, the Pro475Ser polymorphism seems to be popular in the Korean population, and attenuates ADAMTS-13 plasma activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , ADAM Proteins/blood , Asian People , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Polymorphism, Genetic
18.
Korean Journal of Hematology ; : 197-205, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-720794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, clinical and laboratory findings of hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) in Korea from 1997 to 2006 and to develop the appropriate diagnostic approach for HHA. METHODS: By the use of questionnaires, information on the clinical and laboratory findings ofHHA diagnosed from 1997 to 2006 in Korea was collected and analyzed retrospectively. A total of 431 cases were enrolled in this study from 46 departments of 35 hospitals. RESULTS: The overall frequency of HHA did not change through the 10-year period for pediatrics but did show an increasing tendency for internal medicine. The overall male to female sex ratio did not show sex predominance (1.17:1), but a significant male predominance with a ratio of 1.49:1 was seen for pediatrics while a significant female predominance with a ratio of 1:1.97 was seen forinternal medicine. Of the total cases, 74.2% (282/431) were diagnosed before the age of 15 years. The etiologies of HHA were classified as red cell membrane defects, hemoglobinopathies, red cell enzyme deficiencies and unknown causes. There were 382 cases (88.6%) of red cell membrane defects with 376 cases (87.2%) of hereditary spherocytosis and 6 cases (1.4%) of hereditary elliptocytosis, 20 cases (4.6%) of hemoglobinopathies with 18 cases (4.2%) of beta-thalassemia, a case (0.2%) of alpha-thalassemia and a case (0.2%) of Hemoglobin Madrid, 7 cases (1.6%) of red cell enzyme deficiencies with 5 cases (1.2%) of glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency, a case (0.2%) of pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency and a case (0.2%) of enolase deficiency, and 22 cases (5.1%) of unknown causes. The most common chief complaint in pediatric patients was pallor and that in adult patients was jaundice. In the red cell membrane defect group of patients, the level of hemoglobin was significantly higher than in adult patients. The mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, corrected reticulocyte count, total and indirect bilirubin level and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the hemoglobinopathy group of patients were significantly lower than the values in the red cell membrane defect group of patients. The mean concentration of G-6-PD was 0.8+/-0.7U/1012RBC in the G-6-PD deficient patients, PK was 1.7U/1010 RBC in the PK deficient patient, and the level of enolase was 0.04U/g of Hb in the enolase deficient patient. CONCLUSION: The most prevalent cause of HHA in Korea during 1997 to 2006 was hereditary spherocytosis, but HHA by other causes such as hemoglobinopathy and red cell enzyme deficiency gradually increased with the development of molecular diagnostic methods and increasing general interest. However, the etiologies of HHA need to be pursued further in 5.1% of the patients. An systematic standard diagnostic approach is needed in a nationwide prospective study for correct diagnoses and appropriate management of HHA.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , alpha-Thalassemia , Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital , beta-Thalassemia , Bilirubin , Cell Membrane , Diagnosis , Elliptocytosis, Hereditary , Erythrocyte Indices , Hemoglobinopathies , Internal Medicine , Jaundice , Korea , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Oxidoreductases , Pallor , Pathology, Molecular , Pediatrics , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Prevalence , Pyruvate Kinase , Reticulocyte Count , Retrospective Studies , Sex Ratio , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 201-206, 2006.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152056

ABSTRACT

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare proliferative disease involving synovial membranes. Natural history and etiology of PVNS are not well known. PVNS presents as localized or diffuse tumor like nodular lesion of the synovial lining of the joint and the synovial spaces adjacent to the joints. Though histologically benign, it is a very aggressive lesion, capable of bone destruction and widespread infiltration of surrounding tissues. Standard therapy is surgical resection, but due to the infiltrative growth, the recurrence rate is significantly high. After several relapses surgical treatment of diffuse PVNS becomes difficult and may require amputation of the involved limb. Radiotherapy can provide an effective treatment option for patients with large lesions or lesions which are not suitable for surgery, after incomplete resection to prevent relapses or to avoid amputation. We report 2 cases of diffuse PVNS in the knee joint treated with arthroscopic gross total synovectomy and radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amputation, Surgical , Extremities , Joints , Knee Joint , Knee , Natural History , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Synovial Membrane , Synovitis, Pigmented Villonodular
20.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology ; : 157-163, 2006.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53727

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer, we retrospectively analyzed the treatment outcome of patients with rectal cancer taken curative surgical resection and postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total 46 patients with AJCC stage II and III carcinoma of rectum were treated with curative surgical resection and postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. T3 and T4 stage were 38 and 8 patients, respectively. N0, N1, and N2 stage were 12, 16, 18 patients, respectively. Forty patients received bolus infusions of 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m2/day) with leucovorin (20 mg/m2/day), every 4 weeks interval for 6 cycles. Oral Uracil/Tegafur on a daily basis for 6~12 months was given in 6 patients. Radiotherapy with 45 Gy was delivered to the surgical bed and regional pelvic lymph node area, followed by 5.4~9 Gy boost to the surgical bed. The follow up period ranged from 8 to 75 months with a median 35 months. RESULTS: Treatment failure occurred in 17 patients (37%). Locoregional failure occurred in 4 patients (8.7%) and distant failure in 16 patients (34.8%). There was no local failure only. Five year actuarial overall survival (OS) was 51.5% and relapse free survival (RFS) was 58.7%. The OS and RFS were 100%, 100% in stage N0 patients, 53.7%, 47.6% in N1 patients, and 0%, 41.2% in N2 patients (p=0.012, p=0.009). The RFS was 55%, 78.5%, and 31.2% in upper, middle, and lower rectal cancer patients, respectively (p=0.006). Multivariate analysis showed that N stage (p=0.012) was significant prognostic factor for OS and that N stage (p=0.001) and location of tumor (p=0.006) were for RFS. Bowel complications requiring surgery occurred in 3 patients. CONCLUSION: Postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was an effective modality for locoregional control of rectal cancer. But further investigations for reducing the distant failure rate are necessary because distant failure rate is still high.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemoradiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Fluorouracil , Follow-Up Studies , Leucovorin , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Radiotherapy , Rectal Neoplasms , Rectum , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Failure , Treatment Outcome
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