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1.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 421-427, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995746

ABSTRACT

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS) is a branch of spectroscopy, which can be used to determine the number, type and relative position of components in the mixture. Due to its high throughput, high sensitivity and high stability, especially its "fingerprint", non-destructive and non-biased detection of metabolites, NMRS has become one of the most commonly used analytical and detection techniques in metabolomics. Based on the research of clinical laboratory application, this review briefly expounds the technical principle of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, introduces the development and latest research results of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in biomedical application fields such as blood lipid analysis, tumor detection, prediction of mental and nervous system diseases, infectious diseases, nutrition and health management, and discusses the development prospect of clinical translational medicine.

2.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 305-309, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934371

ABSTRACT

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is one of the main analytical techniques for detecting metabolomics, which has the advantages of simple operation, rapid detection and non-invasive feature. By monitoring the changes of metabolites in the body, it is helpful to deeply understand the mechanism of disease and play a role in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, but its clinical application has not yet been popularized. In recent years, the application of metabolomics in tumors has increasingly become a research hotspot. Therefore, in order to provide a reference for the research and clinical application of tumor metabolomics, the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and tumor metabolomics were introduced in this paper, and the application progress of metabolomics analysis based on this technique in early tumor screening, clinical diagnosis and prognosis evaluation were reviewed in this paper.

3.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 82-86, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934340

ABSTRACT

Patient based real time quality control (PBRTQC) is a quality control method that uses the test results of clinical specimens from patients to monitor the analysis performance of the test process in real time and continuously. Although the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine PBRTQC working group had recommended that this method should be popularized in clinical practice in 2020, there is still certain lagging in cognition, research and application of PBRTQC in domestic clinical laboratories. This paper highlights the research progress, operation categories, clinical application value, domestic standard guidelines, PBRTQC procedure establishment, performance verification, implementation principles, application status and prospects of PBRTQC, so as to promote the recognition, acceptance, reference and wide application of PBRTQC in domestic clinical laboratories.

4.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 1093-1098, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958626

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can carry a variety of bioactive components including nucleic acids, proteins and small molecule metabolites, and their value in tumor diagnosis and treatment has been widely recognized. However, current studies on EV inclusions mainly focus on RNA and protein, and the role of small molecule metabolites that can most directly reflect the cell state in EV remains unclear. EV metabolomics in cancer research has gradually gained traction in recent years. There are still many challenges in EV metabolomics research due to the complexity of pretreatment and low content of metabolite, but its value in regulating tumor progression and serving as tumor markers has gradually emerged, which is expected to provide new targets for tumor diagnosis and treatment.

5.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 367-371, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885928

ABSTRACT

As a new type of intercellular signaling rector, extracellular vesicles (EV) are involved in almost the whole process of tumorigenesis, progression, metastasis, and drug resistance. Therefore, EV have become the ideal biomarker candidates and research hotspots for cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, EV tumor biomarker research mainly focused on RNA and protein, and a small part of the research focused on lipids at the early stage. EV DNA has received little attention and its diagnostic value has gradually been recognized in recent years. Study on the biological characteristics and function of EV DNA may highlight its potential in tumor diagnosis.

6.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 255-259, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885908

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EV) are widely distributed, rich in content, and fully participate in the regulation of important cellular physiological activities. As a new technology for tumor diagnosis, the natural advantages of EV include protecting its contents, being easy to obtain from various biofluids, having the potential to be truly non-invasive and high tissue fidelity. In order to transfer EV for clinical use, many isolation technologies such as microfluidics, immunochips, nano-flow cytometry and acoustic capture have been continuously developed. At present, several EV tumor diagnostic products have been applied in the clinical setting. However, due to the great differences in detection methods and platforms, there are still some technical difficulties in its clinical applications. With the accumulation of clinical evidence and the continuous improvement of clinical diagnostic methods, the liquid biopsy based on EV can finally be applied in the clinic.

7.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 882-886, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912491

ABSTRACT

The application of artificial intelligence (AI) technology in laboratory medicine has shown great potential, but it also has many challenges and difficulties. Understanding the basic principles, evaluation methods, application scenarios, advantages and limitations of artificial intelligence can facilitate its use in the working practice. In the near future, AI will be fully applied in clinical testing, enabling laboratory medicine to play a more accurate role in disease diagnosis, curative effect monitoring, prognositic judgment and other aspects. With the help of AI technology, laboratory medicine has a promising future.

8.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 883-886, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869503

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the association of apolipoprotein E(ApoE)gene polymorphism with lipid metabolism and common chronic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the elderly.Methods:A total of 4 322 elderly outpatients and inpatients from our hospital were enrolled in this retrospective analysis.The distribution of ApoE subtypes in the elderly was analyzed.Then 600 cases(321 cases with atherosclerosis and 279 healthy controls)were included to analyze blood lipid-related biochemical indexes.ApoE genotypes were determined by DNA microarray analysis.Results:ApoE E3 was the most common subtype, making up 67.1%(2 898/4 322)in this study population.The distribution of ApoE subtypes in the elderly with chronic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases was basically the same as that in the elderly population.However, in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, the rate of ApoE E4 carriers was 26.4%(152/576), which was higher than that of ApoE E2 carriers(12.2%, 70/576)( P<0.01). Triglyceride(TG)levels in those with atherosclerosis carrying ApoEε2 and ε4 alleles were higher than those in healthy controls carrying ApoEε2 and ε4 alleles ApoEε2 alleles: (1.85±2.09)mmol/L vs.(2.00±1.44)mmol/L, ApoEε4 alleles: (1.53±1.31)mmol/L vs.(1.84±1.32)mmol/L, P<0.05.TG( OR=4.360, 95% CI: 2.150-8.844), high density lipoprotein cholesterol( OR=0.486, 95% CI: 0.307-0.770), low density lipoprotein cholesterol( OR=2.321, 95% CI: 1.020-5.281)and ApoE alleles( OR=0.335, 95% CI: 0.210-0.533)were risk factors for atherosclerosis( P<0.01). Conclusions:ApoE polymorphism is associated with lipid metabolism in elderly patients.Genetic background may be among the factors affecting lipid metabolism.ApoE ε4 allele carriers have an increased risk of dyslipidemia, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

9.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 794-801, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-871973

ABSTRACT

Objective:A multi-center and large sample volume study was conducted on the verification and improvement of the early established criteria for intelligent routine urinalysis validation (including the microscopic review rules and manual validation rules, referred to as intelligent criteria for short), in order to improve the clinical application of this intelligent criteria.Methods:A total of 31 456 urine specimens were collected from the inpatients and outpatients in six hospitals in China, from March to September 2019. Firstly, 3105 specimens were analyzed for preliminary verification and improvement of the intelligent criteria based on the results of the microscopic examination and manual validation. Secondly, 28 351 specimens were used to verify the clinical application of the improved intelligent criteria. All samples were manually validated as reference.Results:The approval inconsistency rate of the manual validation rules in the original intelligent criteria was 8.59% (202/2 352), and the interception inconsistency rate was 8.84% (208/2 352). The false negative rate and the microscopic review rate of the microscopic review rules were similar to the previous results. Based on an in-depth analysis of big data and the discussions by senior technicians from eight hospitals, one microscopic review rules and four manual validation rules were added, meanwhile two manual validation rule was deleted. The manual validation standards were unified. Finally, the intelligent criteria was improved. Based on the improved intelligent criteria, for microscopic review rules, the false positive rate, false negative rate (misdiagnosis rate), and microscopic review rate did not change significantly, which were 14.72% (457/3 105), 4.06% (126/3 105), and 24.73% (768/3 105), respectively. The approval inconsistency rate and the interception inconsistency rate of manual validation rules were both reduced to 0; the total manual validation rate of the intelligent criteria was 50.89% (1 580/3 105), and the auto-validation rate was 49.11% (1 525/3 105). The large sample volume verification results were consistent with the preliminary verification results of the improved intelligent criteria.Conclusion:This multi-center and large sample volume study had shown that the improved intelligent criteria had better clinical performance.

10.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 115-119, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-871872

ABSTRACT

As a new type of paracrine/autocrine and remote signaling, extracellular vesicles (EVs) involved in almost the whole process of tumorigenesis, progression, metastasis, and drug resistance, which has greatly inspired tumor diagnosis and treatment. EVs have the great potential to be the blood or urine biomarkers and can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring. Due to its great clinical application value, EVs have become a hotspot in cancer research in recent years. Therefore, in this review, the advantages, progression, and technical challenges of EVs biomarkers in clinical tumors diagnosis are discussed.

11.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 755-758, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826493

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical phenotype and genetic basis of a consanguineous pedigree affected with hereditary coagulation factor XII (FXII) deficiency.@*METHODS@#Following extraction of genomic DNA, all exons and flanking regions of F12 gene were subjected to PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. ClustalX-2.1-win and MutationTaster software was used to analyze the conservation and impact of the variants on protein function.@*RESULTS@#DNA sequencing showed that the proband carried a homozygous g.6753-6755delACA deletion (p.252delAsn) in exon 9 of the F12 gene, for which her father, mother and brother were heterozygous carriers. The same deletion was not found in her sister.@*CONCLUSION@#The homozygous p.252delAsn deletion probably underlies the hereditary FXII deficiency in this pedigree.

12.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 115-119, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799464

ABSTRACT

As a new type of paracrine/autocrine and remote signaling, extracellular vesicles (EVs) involved in almost the whole process of tumorigenesis, progression, metastasis, and drug resistance, which has greatly inspired tumor diagnosis and treatment. EVs have the great potential to be the blood or urine biomarkers and can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring. Due to its great clinical application value, EVs have become a hotspot in cancer research in recent years. Therefore, in this review, the advantages, progression, and technical challenges of EVs biomarkers in clinical tumors diagnosis are discussed.

13.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science ; (12): 325-330, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821730

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To optimize the existing methods of isolation and purification for exosomes from urine and explore the effects of different storage conditions on the content of exosomal RNA in urine. @*Methods@#The exosomes in human urine samples were extracted by different precipitation method, i.e., precipitation following first concentrating and direct precipitation, respectively, and the separation efficiency and cost of the two methods were compared. ExoQuick-TCTM precipitation kit was used to extract exosomes. Nanoparticle tracking analysis technique (NTA) was used to detect the concentration and particle size distribution of exosome. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to detect the potential of exosome. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe morphology of exosomes. western blot was used to analyze the exosomal marker molecules CD63 and Alix. The extraction method of the precipitation following first concentrating was used to verify the reliability of the optimized method in 10 clinical urine samples . Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression levels of exosomal RNA marker let-7c and PSA mRNA in the urinary exosomes from 20 patients with prostate cancer after repeated freeze-thaw (0 [i.e., fresh], 1 , 3 and 5 times) and 9 patients with prostate cancer frozen at -80 ℃ for different time (0 [i.e., fresh], 1, 2 and 4 weeks), and were statistically analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test for differences between the 2 groups. @*Results@#The size distribution of exosomes extracted by the two methods was 30 to 150 nm by NTA, both of which were displayed as single peaks. The results of DLS showed that the potentials of exosome extracted by the two methods were negative values. The size of the exosomes extracted by the two methods was consistent observed under TEM namely the diameter distribution was 30 to 150 nm. western blot analysis confirmed that CD63 and Alix, the exosome labeling molecules, existed in the optimized method. The concentration of exosomes extracted from the 10 urine samples all reached 10 9 to 10 11 particles/mL. The contents of let-7c and PSA mRNA in exosomes decreased significantly after 5 freeze-thaw cycles, and the Z values were -1.79 and -1.73, respectively (P<0.05). The RNA content of the exosomes remained stable after freezing at -80 ℃ for 1 month. @*Conclusion@#The optimized exosome extraction method could reduce greatly the cost under the premises of ensuring the concentration and quality of exosomes. The isolated exosomes may keep stable RNA content after freezing at -80 ℃ for a short time, but could not be frozen and thawed repeatedly for more than 5 times.

14.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 26-30, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-746241

ABSTRACT

Objective Studying the differential expression of exosomal miRNAs between androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell and androgen-independent prostate cancer cell,in order to further elucidate the mechanism of androgen-independent prostate cancer and find new targets for its treatment.Methods Prostate cancer androgen-dependent LNCaP cell and prostate cancer androgen-independent LNCaP-AI + F cell (induced by androgen and flutamide) were selected as the study subjects.Illumina HiSeqTM 2500 was used to perform high-throughput sequencing between the two groups.The differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs was verified by quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR).The difference was statistically significant by t-test.Results Through the analysis of high-throughput sequencing results,thirteen molecules were screened increased in extracellular exosomes of the androgen-independent cell,including miR-7-5p,let-7a-5p,miR-375,miR-423-3p,miR-378a-3p,and miR-92a-3p,etc.Among them,miR-7-5p was verified by quantitative real-time PCR to be up-regulated by 19.52-fold (t=9.857,P=0.001).Conclusion Differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs may predict the development of androgen-independent prostate cancer and may further regulate the development of androgen-independent prostate cancer.

15.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 1-4, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-746236

ABSTRACT

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the blood of cancer patients provides an opportunity for non-invasive sampling of tumor DNA.This "liquid biopsy"allows for detection of copy number variations,tumor-specific mutations,epigenetic changes,and can be used to guide and improve treatment throughout real-time "tracking" the course of tumor disease.Aberrant methylation of specific gene regions can be a very consistent feature of cancer,in contrast to mutations,which makes ctDNA methylation amenable to the design of widely clinical applications in early diagnosis,monitoring disease status,predicting treatment response and predicting prognosis.Therefore,ctDNA methylation detection is considered as one of the most valuable methods for cancer diagnosis and risk assessment.

16.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 601-607, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-807186

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To establish a set of rules for autoverification of blood analysis, in order to provide a way to validate autoverification rules for different analytical systems, which can ensure the accuracy of test results as well as shorten turnaround time (TAT) of test reports.@*Methods@#A total of 34 629 EDTA-K2 anticoagulated blood samples were collected from multicenter cooperative units including the First Hospital of Jinlin University during January 2017 to November 2017. These samples included: 3 478 cases in Autoverification Establishment Group, including 288 cases for Delta check rules; 5 362 cases in Autoverification Validation Group, including 2 494 cases for Delta check; 25 789 cases in Clinical Application Trial Group. All these samples were analyzed for blood routine tests using Sysmex XN series automatic blood analyzers.Blood smears, staining and microscopic examination were done for each sample; then the clinical information, instrument parameters, test results and microscopic results were summarized; screening and determination of autoverification conditions including parameters and cutoff values were done using statistical analysis. The autoverification rules were input into Sysmex Laboman software and undergone stage Ⅰ validation using simulated data, and stage Ⅱ validation for post-analytical samples successively. True negative, false negative, true positive, false positive, autoverification pass rate and passing accuracy were calculated. Autoverification rules were applied to autoverification blood routine results and missed detection rates were validated, and also data of autoverification pass rate and TAT were obtained.@*Results@#(1)The selected autoverification conditions and cutoff values included 43 rules involving WBC, RBC, PLT, Delta check and abnormal characteristics. (2)Validation of 3 190 cases in Autoverification Establishment Group showed the false negative rate was 1.94%(62/3 190)(P<0.001), autoverification pass rate was 76.74%, passing accuracy was 97.47%; Validation of 2 868 cases in Autoverification Validation Group, the false negative rate was 3.38%(97/2 868)(P=0.002), autoverification pass rate was 42.26%, passing accuracy was 92.00%; Validation of Delta check on 288 cases in Autoverification Establishment Group and 2 494 cases in Autoverification Validation Group showed the false negative rates were respectively 1.39% and 2.61%(P<0.001). (3)Three hospitals adopted these rules of autoverification for 25 789 blood routine samples, and found that the average TAT of blood routine test reports were shortened by 24min, 32min and 7min respectively, the rate of samples reported within 30min were elevated by 33%, 53% and 7%. The autoverification pass rates were 72%-74%.@*Conclusions@#The application of this set of 43 autoverification rules in blood sample analysis can ensure test quality while shortenTAT and improve work efficiency. It is worth pointing out that for the same analytical systems in this research, validation is necessary before application of this set of rules, and periodic validation is required during application to make necessary adjustment; for different analytical systems, as this research provide a way to establish autoverification rules for blood routine tests.Clinical labs may establish their own suitable autoverification rules on the basis of technological parameters. (Chin J Lab Med, 2018, 41: 601-607)

17.
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 491-495, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806903

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are nanoscale extracellular vesicles, which range in size from 30 to 150 nm, and are released under physiological and pathological conditions. The content of exosomes reflects the origin and function of cells. As a form of intercellular vesicular transport, exosome-mediated intercellular communication participates in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. The information transmission mediated by exosomes is associated with pathophysiological status and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. This review summarizes the research progress of exosomes, including the origin and biological functions, the detection methods, the diagnosis and treatment of tumor.(Chin J Lab Med, 2018, 41: 491-495)

18.
Chinese Journal of Infection Control ; (4): 99-103, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-507612

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the molecular epidemiological characteristics and homology of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)isolated from patients in intensive care units (ICUs)of a hospital,so as to provide laboratory basis for the effective control of healthcare-associated infection(HAI). Methods 62 S. aureus strains isolated from various specimens from ICU patients with infection in March-August 2013 were collected,7 housekeeping genes were amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR),the amplified products were sequenced,ST typing of strains was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST ), phylogenetic analysis of ST typing was conducted. Results 62S. aureus strains were amplified specific product of 7 housekeeping genes;there were 10 ST genotypes, in which 2 ST genotypes(STn1and STn2)were first discovered,1 ST genotype(ST675)was first discovered domes-tically. ST239 was the main ST type of S. aureus from ICU patients in this hospital,accounting for 74.20% ,which distributed in 6 ICUs,ST5 distributed in 3 ICUs. 62 strains formed 7 main branches in the phylogenetic tree,55 (88.71% )MRSA strains were detected. Conclusion S. aureus isolated from hospital ICUs has some homology, and the small number of types showed the trend of concentrated distribution.

19.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 915-920, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-711356

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of Mycobacterium tuberculosis heparin-binding he-magglutinin (HBHA) on the polarization of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and a mu-rine macrophage cell line(Raw264.7 cells). Methods After HBHA was confirmed to be able to enter into macrophages by immunofluorescence, mouse BMDM and Raw264. 7 cells were treated with LPS (100 ng/ml)+IFN-γ (2.5 ng/ml),IL-4 (20 ng/ml),HBHA (1 μg/ml,3 μg/ml,6 μg/ml,10 μg/ml) and ESAT-6 (5 μg/ml),respectively. IL-6,IL-12 and TNF-α in the supernatants of cell culture were measured by ELISA. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of molecular markers of macrophage polarization [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-α, Arg-1 and CD206] at mRNA level. Western blot assay was used to detect the expression of iNOS and Arg-1 at protein level. Results Increased secretion of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in the supernatants of cell culture and enhanced expression of iNOS and TNF-α at mRNA level were observed after treating BMDM with Mycobacterium tuberculosis HBHA. Similarly,in HBHA-trea-ted Raw264.7 cells,the secretion of IL-6 and the expression of TNF-α were also up-regulated. Mycobacteri-um tuberculosis HBHA and ESAT-6 had similar effects on murine macrophages. Neither of them could in-crease the expression of Arg-1,a molecular marker of M2 macrophages,in BMDM at protein level,but both enhanced the expression of iNOS,a molecular marker of M1 macrophages,in BMDM and Raw264.7 cells. Conclusion Mycobacterium tuberculosis HBHA can induce the polarization of murine macrophages to M1 phenotype.

20.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science ; (12): 53-56, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-515535

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the changes of peripheral blood tacrolimus concentration and lymphocyte subsets in the uterus transplant recipient,and provide the evidence for monitoring the immune status after uterus transplantation.Methods The peripheral blood tacrolimus concentrations of the uterus transplant recipient during 1 year after transplantation were measured with the microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA).Meanwhile,the whole blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets were determined by the blood analyzer and flow cytometer,respectively.Results The blood tacrolimus concentrations of the uterus transplant recipient in the first month and second month after transplantation were (13.51 ± 3.92) ng/mL and (15.58 ± 1.19) ng/mL,respectively.The lymphocyte absolute counts were normal before transplantation.At the fifth day after transplantation,the counts of CD3 + T lymphocytes,CD4 + T lymphocytes,CD8 + T lymphocytes and NK cells and the ratio of CD4/CD8 were significantly decreased.One week after transplantation,the counts of CD4 + T lymphocytes were recovered to the normal range and maintained,but its recovery was slower than that of CD8 + T lymphocytes.The ratio of CD4/CD8 ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 during 10 days after transplantation,and increased and maintained between 0.8 and 1.1 after that.The counts of NK cells increased gradually from the 10th day after transplantation,but still did not recover to the level before transplantation even at the 20th day after transplantation.However,the counts and percentages of B lymphocytes did not decrease but increased at the fifth day after transplantation,and recovered to normal gradually from the 10th day after transplantation.There was no significant correlation between the CD3 + T lymphocyte count and blood tacrolimus concentration.Conclusion The dynamic changes of blood lymphocyte subsets and tacrolimus concentration exist in the uterus transplant recipient,which need to be further verified by a large amount of clinical data.

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