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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 542-550, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976712

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated pathological complete response (pCR) according to androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy and estimated the relationship between AR expression and clinicopathological factors. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified 624 breast cancer patients who underwent surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy at the National Cancer Center in Goyang, Korea from April 2016 to October 2019. We retrospectively collected the clinicopathologic information and AR expression results and analyzed the data according to cancer stage, hormonal receptor (HR) status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, tumor subtype, and pCR. @*Results@#Among the 624 breast cancer patients, 529 (84.8%) were AR-positive (AR+) patients and 95 (15.2%) were AR-negative (AR–) patients. AR+ patients showed more estrogen receptor (ER) positivity, progesterone receptor (PR) positivity, HER2-positivity, and HR-positive and HER2-negative (HR+/HER2–) subtype. The rate of pCR was 31.4% (196/624). AR– patients had a significantly higher rate of pCR than AR+ patients (AR– 43.2% vs. AR+ 29.3%, p=0.007). The tumor factors associated with pCR were early stage, histologic grade 3, ER-negative, PR-negative, AR-negative, HER2-positive, and high Ki-67 values. In univariable analysis, AR+ significantly decreased the state of pCR (odds ratio, 0.546; 95% confidence interval, 0.349 to 0.853; p=0.008). According to tumor subtype, AR– tumor showed higher pCR rate in HR+/HER2– subtype (AR– 28.6% vs. AR+ 7.3%, p=0.022). @*Conclusion@#AR expression is predominant in the HR+/HER2– subtype. AR– is significantly associated with the pCR rate in breast cancer patients, especially within HR+/HER2– subtype. When determining neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the HR+/HER2– subtype, AR expression can be considered as a pCR predictive marker.

2.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 1-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898999

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 1-21, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891295

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

4.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 1-15, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874885

ABSTRACT

Given the recent advances in management and understanding of breast cancer, a standardized pathology report reflecting these changes is critical. To meet this need, the Breast Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists has developed a standardized pathology reporting format for breast cancer, consisting of ‘standard data elements,’ ‘conditional data elements,’ and a biomarker report form. The ‘standard data elements’ consist of the basic pathologic features used for prognostication, while other factors related to prognosis or diagnosis are described in the ‘conditional data elements.’ In addition to standard data elements, all recommended issues are also presented. We expect that this standardized pathology report for breast cancer will improve diagnostic concordance and communication between pathologists and clinicians, as well as between pathologists inter-institutionally.

5.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 380-387, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915798

ABSTRACT

Background@#Papillary breast lesions (PBLs) comprise diverse entities from benign and atypical lesions to malignant tumors. Although PBLs are characterized by a papillary growth pattern, it is challenging to achieve high diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. Thus, we investigated the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs in core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens with World Health Organization (WHO) classification. @*Methods@#Diagnostic reproducibility was assessed using interobserver variability (kappa value, κ) and agreement rate in the pathologic diagnosis of 60 PBL cases on CNB among 20 breast pathologists affiliated with 20 medical institutions in Korea. This analysis was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and p63. The pathologic diagnosis of PBLs was based on WHO classification, which was used to establish simple classifications (4-tier, 3-tier, and 2-tier). @*Results@#On WHO classification, H&E staining exhibited ‘fair agreement’ (κ = 0.21) with a 47.0% agreement rate. Simple classifications presented improvement in interobserver variability and agreement rate. IHC staining increased the kappa value and agreement rate in all the classifications. Despite IHC staining, the encapsulated/solid papillary carcinoma (EPC/SPC) subgroup (κ = 0.16) exhibited lower agreement compared to the non-EPC/SPC subgroup (κ = 0.35) with WHO classification, which was similar to the results of any other classification systems. @*Conclusions@#Although the use of IHC staining for CK5 and p63 increased the diagnostic agreement of PBLs in CNB specimens, WHO classification exhibited a higher discordance rate compared to any other classifications. Therefore, this result warrants further intensive consensus studies to improve the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs with WHO classification.

6.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 119-124, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766010

ABSTRACT

Primary malignant melanoma of the breast (PMMB) is a rare tumor with only a few case reports available in the literature. We report two cases of PMMB, one derived from the breast parenchyma and the other from the breast skin. The first case consisted of atypical epithelioid cells without overt melanocytic differentiation like melanin pigments. The tumor cells showed diffuse positivity for S100 protein, tyrosinase, and BRAF V600E. However, the tumor cells were negative for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and HMB-45. The second case showed atypical melanocytic proliferation with heavy melanin pigmentation. The tumor cells were positive for S100 protein, HMB-45, tyrosinase, and BRAF V600E. These two cases represent two distinct presentations of PMMB in terms of skin involvement, melanin pigmentation, and HMB-45 positivity. Although PMMB is very rare, the possibility of this entity should be considered in malignant epithelioid neoplasms in the breast parenchyma.


Subject(s)
Breast , Epithelioid Cells , Keratins , Melanins , Melanoma , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Mucin-1 , Pigmentation , Skin
7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 846-849, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129217

ABSTRACT

Metastasis of a phyllodes tumor to the stomach is an extremely rare condition with important clinical implications. A 44-year-old woman was initially diagnosed with a phyllodes tumor in her right breast in 2008, and subsequently presented to an out-patient clinic with dizziness on December 16, 2013. We found that she had severe anemia (hemoglobin levels, 6.7 g/dL), and we quickly performed esophagogastroduodenoscopy to identify the cause. This procedure revealed large ulcerofungating masses with active bleeding in the stomach. Histopathological examination revealed that the masses were consistent with phyllodes tumor metastases. In patients with a metastatic phyllodes tumor presenting as anemia, gastric metastasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses because overlooking the possibility might have dire consequences if cytotoxic chemotherapy were administered.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Anemia , Breast , Diagnosis, Differential , Dizziness , Drug Therapy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Hemorrhage , Neoplasm Metastasis , Outpatients , Phyllodes Tumor , Stomach
8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 846-849, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129203

ABSTRACT

Metastasis of a phyllodes tumor to the stomach is an extremely rare condition with important clinical implications. A 44-year-old woman was initially diagnosed with a phyllodes tumor in her right breast in 2008, and subsequently presented to an out-patient clinic with dizziness on December 16, 2013. We found that she had severe anemia (hemoglobin levels, 6.7 g/dL), and we quickly performed esophagogastroduodenoscopy to identify the cause. This procedure revealed large ulcerofungating masses with active bleeding in the stomach. Histopathological examination revealed that the masses were consistent with phyllodes tumor metastases. In patients with a metastatic phyllodes tumor presenting as anemia, gastric metastasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses because overlooking the possibility might have dire consequences if cytotoxic chemotherapy were administered.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Anemia , Breast , Diagnosis, Differential , Dizziness , Drug Therapy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Hemorrhage , Neoplasm Metastasis , Outpatients , Phyllodes Tumor , Stomach
9.
Journal of the Korean Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine ; : 59-63, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223482

ABSTRACT

A 66-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital due to her right breast cancer. Preoperative breast MRI shows 1.9 cm malignancy on her right breast (cT1N0M0) and incidentally found osteosclerotic change of left coststernoclavicular region. Bone scintigraphy showed hot uptake and the possibility of bone metastasis was not excluded. However, because the bone metastasis is not common in early stage cancer and the costosternoclavicular region is not common site, other possibility should be considered. SAPHO syndrome can be diagnosed even in the absence of dermatosis when there is an axial or appendicular osteitis and hyperostosis, especially in costosternoclavicular region. Though breast imaging specialists are not accustomed to this disease entity, awareness and diagnosis of the SAPHO syndrome can help differentiate bone metastasis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Acquired Hyperostosis Syndrome , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Hyperostosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis , Osteitis , Radionuclide Imaging , Skin Diseases , Specialization
10.
Korean Journal of Pathology ; : 399-406, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32980

ABSTRACT

Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN) is relatively rare and it occurs almost exclusively in women. We recently experienced three cases of SPN diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). These three cases were two male and one female patient whose age was 29, 37, and 44 years old. Radiological diagnosis was pancreatic endocrine tumor (PEN) showing solid with a heterogenous echogenicity. EUS-FNA cytology specimens consisted of single cells and aggregates of uniform cells, forming microadenoid structures, branching, papillary clusters with delicate fibrovascular cores. In conclusion, a single diagnosis of SPN based on clinical and radiological findings would be risky because there is a possibility of it being misdiagnosed as PEN or other malignancies. An EUS-FNA is therefore essential for establishing the diagnosis. In addition, the pathologists should recognize the characteristic cytologic findings with immunoprofiles of SPN to prevent misdiagnosis of SPN.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnostic Errors , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Pancreas
11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 289-295, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64606

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Preoperative chemotherapy has been used to increase the rate of breast conserving surgery (BCS) in Caucasian women. However, whether it would also increase the rate of BCS in Korean women has not been verified. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of preoperative chemotherapy to make BCS possible in Korean women who have locally advanced cancer without any increase of locoregional recurrence according to operation methods (BCS vs. mastectomy). METHODS: From August 2002 to April 2005, 205 patients with stage II or III breast cancer were enrolled in a phase III randomized trial of preoperative chemotherapy. Surgeons decided on the type of surgery (mastectomy or BCS) at initial diagnosis. By randomization, patients received four cycles of either docetaxel/capecitabine or doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide followed by surgery and crossover to the other treatment as postoperative chemotherapy. RESULTS: The mean tumor size was 3.29 cm and the mean breast volume was 489 cc at diagnosis. After preoperative chemotherapy, clinical response was shown in 76.0% of the patients. Of the 71 patients planned for a mastectomy at initial diagnosis, 27 patients underwent BCS (38.0%). Clinical T stage after preoperative chemotherapy, pathologic T size and lymphatic invasion were correlated with conversion to BCS. In multivariate analysis, only lymphatic invasion showed statistical significance. Locoregional disease-free survival did not statistically differ between the two operation methods for the patients who were planned for a mastectomy at the initial exam. CONCLUSION: This study showed that preoperative chemotherapy also increased the rate of BCS, while avoiding any increase of locoregional recurrence in Korean women with locally advanced breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Mastectomy , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Random Allocation , Recurrence
12.
Korean Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; : 1019-1023, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159534

ABSTRACT

Heterologous sarcomas of the uterus are rare neoplasms. We report a rare case of heterologous uterine sarcoma composed of leiomyosarcomatous and liposarcomatous components with a brief review of literature. A 53-year-old woman had vaginal spotting. The endometrial biopsy performed at a local clinic revealed a high grade spindle cell sarcoma. Pelvis magnetic resonance imaging showed about 5.4 cm sized multiseptated T1 and T2 high signal mass in a uterine fundus without lymph node metastasis or pelvic wall involvement. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection, and peritoneal washing cytology were performed. Pathologic diagnosis was made as leiomyosarcoma with liposarcomatous differentiation (lipoleiomyosarcoma). The patient received adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy (5040 cGy). Follow up images showed no evidence of disease 8 months after surgery.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Biopsy , Follow-Up Studies , Hysterectomy , Leiomyosarcoma , Liposarcoma , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Metrorrhagia , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pelvis , Sarcoma , Uterus
13.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 407-410, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65283

ABSTRACT

Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are rare malignant tumors, affecting mostly children and adolescents. Only three cases of primary breast PNETs have been reported in the medical literature, with none in Korea. We present a case of a primary PNET of the breast in a 33-year-old woman, with imaging and immunohistopathology findings.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Immunohistochemistry , Mammography , Neuroectodermal Tumors/diagnosis , Positron-Emission Tomography
14.
Korean Journal of Cytopathology ; : 183-187, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726364

ABSTRACT

Pseudohyperplastic prostatic adenocarcinoma is a rare histologic variant of prostatic adenocarcinoma that resembles benign nodular hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry can verify the absence of basal cells, but it is frequently admixed with conventional adenocarcinoma. Because fine needle aspiration cytology is rarely performed in primary prostatic adenocarcinoma, the cytology of the pseudohyperplastic variant has not been described. We experienced a case of metastatic pseudohyperplastic adenocarcinoma in a pulmonary nodule of 75-year-old man. The cytologic smear was mostly composed of large, flat sheets with elongated branching papillae in a clean background. The sheets showed a well-defined honeycomb appearance of tall columnar, regularly arranged monotonous cells with little cytologic atypia. In subsequent prostatic biopsy, pseudohyperplastic variants were identified together with conventional adenocarcinoma of Gleason's grade 3 and 4. The cytologic features of pulmonary nodules were identical to those of pseudohyperplastic components of prostatic adenocarcinoma.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Hyperplasia , Immunohistochemistry , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prostate
15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 568-571, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89785

ABSTRACT

Teratomas comprise the most common extragonadal germ cell tumors in childhood. Most teratomas involving the thyroid are benign and occur in children. However, the adult cases reported are mostly malignant and commonly arise in the thyroid. We report a case of a 31-yr-old female with a huge neck mass. Pathologic examination revealed it to be malignant teratoma composed of primitive neuroepithelial tissue with primitive neural tubes and loose myxoid to fibrous immature mesenchymal stroma. The patient underwent extensive evaluation of the thyroid gland with computed tomography (CT) scan and positron emission tomography (PET) scan, which revealed no evidence of metastatic disease. She underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral modified radical neck dissection, intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy. At 22-months of follow-up, the patient has remained euthyroid and showed no evidence of recurrence. This is the first case, to our knowledge, of malignant thyroid teratoma with a exuberant primitive neuroectodermal tumor component in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive/complications , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Teratoma/complications , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 101-106, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192421

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate stage IV breast cancer at the initial presentation by the review of a single institute' data. We also tried to figure out the factors to predict stage IV breast cancer. METHODS: We reviewed the prospectively collected database of 1,424 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer at the National Cancer Center in Korea from October 2000 to January 2005. RESULTS: The proportion of stage IV breast cancer was 2.7% (38/1,424). The median tumor size of the stage IV patients was 4.1 cm. The most common metastatic site was bone (47.4%) followed by lung (44.7%) and liver (36.8%). Metastases were found in 0.9% (6/672) of the T1 tumors, 2.4% (13/535) of the T2 tumors, 8.3% (4/48) of the T3 tumors, and 27.1% (13/48) of the T4 tumors (p or =2 cm) (p=0.026), positive lymph node status (p104 IU/L) (p=0.013), aspartate transferase (>40 IU/L) (p=0.003) and CA15-3 (>32 U/mL) (p=0.025). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the factors to predict distant metastasis of breast cancer were large size of tumor, positive lymph node status, elevated alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transferase and CA15-3. Therefore breast cancer patients with those clinical characteristics should be carefully evaluated to detect distant metastasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alkaline Phosphatase , Aspartic Acid , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Korea , Liver , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prospective Studies , Transferases
17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 145-148, 2004.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92399

ABSTRACT

A heterotopic pancreas in the gastrointestinal tract is mostly found incidentally and its malignant transformation is extremely rare. We describe the second case of adenocarcinoma arising in a gastric heterotopic pancreas of an asymptomatic 35-yr-old man in Korea. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor with an irregular central umbilication in the gastric antrum. A wedge resection specimen demonstrated a submucosal oligolocular cystic mass (1.7x1.4x1.2 cm) with a solid portion. Microscopically, the cystic portion was composed of dilated pancreaticobiliary type ducts with adjacent small foci of periductal glandular structures. The adenocarcinoma components in the solid area infiltrated the proper muscle and the overlying mucosa of the stomach. The transitional area between the benign ductal structures and the adenocarcinoma component was found. The follow-up course was uneventful 5 months postoperatively.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Adenomyoma/pathology , Autopsy , Choristoma , Epithelium/pathology , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Pancreas/abnormalities , Pancreatic Neoplasms/complications , Time Factors
19.
Korean Journal of Pathology ; : 235-238, 2000.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167704

ABSTRACT

Intestinal capillariasis is caused by a small trichurid nematode, Capillaria philippinensis, which infects freshwater fish as intermediate hosts and subsequently fish eating birds as definitive hosts. It has occurred in areas such as the Philippines and Thailand where people eat raw fish. We report an imported case of intestinal capillariasis in a 31-year-old Korean man who lived in Saipan for ten years. He suffered from diarrhea with weight loss, abdominal distension, and pitting edema in the lower extremities for two years. He ate raw freshwater fish in the Saipan 2 years ago. The diagnosis was confirmed by jejunal biopsy. Flat mucosal surface without villi contained sections of numerous round worms with stichosome, larvae, and eggs which were identified as Capillaria philippinensis. The patient was successfully treated with albendazole.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Albendazole , Biopsy , Birds , Capillaria , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Eating , Edema , Eggs , Fresh Water , Larva , Lower Extremity , Ovum , Philippines , Protein-Losing Enteropathies , Thailand , Weight Loss
20.
Korean Journal of Pathology ; : 125-131, 2000.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223897

ABSTRACT

There have been some controversies on prognostic significance of lymph node (LN) micrometastasis (MM) in advanced gastric carcinomas (AGCs). The present study aimed at 1) determination of prognostic significance of MM, 2) evaluation of the relationship between MM and clinicopathological parameters, and 3) determination of LN group where MMs were frequently found. We studied 70 cases of AGC without LN metastasis on initial examination. The tumors were examined for location, size, depth of invasion, differentiation, histologic type, lymphatic invasion, and c-erbB-2 expression. To evaluate MM, pancytokeratin immunohistochemistry was performed in all LNs from 70 cases of AGCs. Among 2,203 dissected LNs from 70 patients, 37 (1.6%) LNs from 19 (27.1%) patients revealed MM. Micrometastases were seen in only group 1 and 2 LNs: none had group 3 and 4 LN involvement. The gender, age, tumor size, location of tumor, histologic type, differentiation, depth of invasion, lymphatic invasion, and c-erbB-2 expression were not significantly associated with MM status. The survival time of the MM-positive group (mean: 62 months) was significantly shorter than that of the MM-negative group (mean: 72 months) (p=0.046). The findings of this study indicate that the presence of MM in LNs is an important prognostic factor in AGC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Keratins , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Micrometastasis
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