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1.
Mongolian Medical Sciences ; : 53-61, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-972884

ABSTRACT

Introduction@#This field assessment was performed to ensure the effective implementation of Order No. A/142 of the Deputy Prime Minister of Mongolia dated 30<sup>th</sup> December 2021 and Order No. A/01 of the Head of the National Committee for Reducing Environmental Pollution dated 3<sup>rd</sup> January 2022 and to monitor the level of indoor air pollutants emitted from traditional stoves and standard stoves. @*Purpose@#To determine the level of indoor air pollutants emitted from briquette combustion and to develop recommendations by comparing various types of stoves and dwellings. @*Materials and Methods@#Through analytical cross-sectional designs, three households from Songinokhairkhan district and one household from Chingeltei district were selected to participate in this assessment as they use briquettes for heating, vary in their dwelling types (ger (traditional Mongolian tent), house) and their stove types (traditional, standard), stay home during the day and chose to participate in the assessment. 24-hour continuous measurements were conducted for each dwelling and before taking measurements, we calibrated and adjusted the air suction velocity of the measuring instrument at the Central Metrology Laboratory. The monitor was placed at a distance of 0.5m from the stove and a height of 0.5-1.0m from the floor. The results were then compared with the Mongolian National Standard “General air quality and technical requirements MNS4585:2016” and WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality 2021. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 24.0 software, mean, ANOVA test, and if the p-value is less than 0.05, our results are statistically significant.@*Results@#The concentration level of SO<sub>2</sub> in houses with “Dul” stoves was within the level specified in the Mongolian standard MNS4585: 2016 and WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality 2021, while 24-hour SO<sub>2</sub> concentration in gers and houses with traditional stoves was 1.3-2.92 times higher than the standards. The 24-hour average concentration of nitrogen dioxide in houses with traditional stoves was 1.73 times higher than the Mongolian air quality standard MNS4585: 2016. There were statistically significant differences in the emission levels of SO<sub>2</sub> and NO<sub>2</sub> depending on dwelling and stove types (df=4, f=4.04, p=0.008 and df=4, f=17.17, p=0.001, respectively.). The 8-hour average (10,000 μg/m3) CO concentration was statistically significant for various types of dwellings and stoves (df=4, f=45.17, p=0.001), whereas there was a statistically significant difference in CO concentrations in gers with traditional stoves and gers with standard stoves in terms of morning, afternoon, and evening hours (df=3, f=33.17, p=0.001). @*Conclusion@#Indoor air pollutants in the households except for houses with “Dul” stoves have been determined to exceed the air quality standards set by the Mongolian air quality standards and WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality 2021.

2.
Mongolian Medical Sciences ; : 34-41, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-972882

ABSTRACT

Introduction@#Air pollution is one of the greatest environmental risk to health. Ambient air pollution accounts for an estimated 4.2 million deaths per year due to stroke, heart disease, lung cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. Approximately 46% of the population resides in Ulaanbaatar, and over half of the population living in ger (traditional yurt dwelling) areas consumes raw coal, which leads to an increase in ambient air pollutants. The Government of Mongolia took a series of actions to reduce air pollution; one was the ban on the consumption of raw coal beginning on 15 May 2019. The aim of this study is to describe the Ulaanbaatar air quality related to briquettes usage during cold seasons. @*Material and Methods@#We used ecological research design in this study. Quantitative data about air quality of Ulaanbaatar city during the cold seasons (Oct, Nov, Dec, Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr) in 2018-2020 years were analyzed from Department of air quality. These 5 indicators such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particles (PM<sub>2.5</sub>, PM<sub>10</sub>) and carbon monoxide were selected for statistical analysis. The SPSS-20 software was used to analyze the data. @*Ethics@#The methodology was approved by the Medical Ethics Sub-Committee of the Ach medical university on 5<sup>th</sup> of February, 2021.@*Results@#The average sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the air have increased in October 2019–April 2020 compared to the previous five years. But carbon oxide, particular matter concentrations have decreased in the selected years. Sulfur dioxide (p <0.0001), nitrogen dioxide (p =0.001), PM<sub>10</sub>(p <0.0001), and PM<sub>2.5</sub> (p <0.0001) are differentiated before and after the use of improved fuels by Wilcoxon signed rank test. However, the CO content did not differ from that of the briquette’s consumption (p =0.412).@*Conclusions@#During the cold seasons, the concentration of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide has increased in air of Ulaanbaatar after used briquettes, while the concentration of particulate matter has decreased during the cold seasons.

3.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 856-862, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960492

ABSTRACT

Background Current evidence on whether occupational sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure affects the risk of hypertension is still limited, and the research results of the effect of environmental SO2 exposure on risk of hypertension remain inconsistent. Objective To analyze the association between self-reported occupational exposure to SO2 and the risk of hypertension, and the potential dose-response relationship between the years of exposure to SO2 and the risk of hypertension. Methods Based on the Jinchang cohort, a nested case-control study design was adopted. A total of 841 newly diagnosed hypertension patients were followed up as the case group, and the control group was selected with 1∶1 individual matching based on non-occupational factors and occupational factors, respectively. The former matching conditions included age ±2 years old, same gender, working age ±2 years, and home address in the same sub-district. The latter was limited to working in the same workshop on the basis of the former conditions. Finally, the former included 717 controls and the latter included 488 controls. A unified questionnaire was used to collect general demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, history of diabetes, family history of hypertension, and information on occupational exposure to SO2 (self-reported history of occupational exposure to SO2 and years of exposure to SO2). Conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between occupational exposure to SO2 and hypertension, and the dose-response relationship between the years of SO2 exposure and the risk of hypertension. Results In the nested case-control study matching with the non-occupational factors, the OR of hypertension in workers with self-reported occupational exposure to SO2 was 2.39 (95%CI: 1.68-3.39); while when matching with the occupational factors, the OR of hypertension in workers with self-reported occupational exposure to SO2 was 1.48 (95%CI: 1.04-2.12). The results of the dose-response relationship showed that as the SO2 exposure years increased from 1-9 years, 10-19 years, 20-29 years, and 30 years and above, in the nested case-control study matching with non-occupational factors, the ORs of hypertension were 1.85 (95%CI: 0.68-5.08), 1.46 (95%CI: 0.58-3.67), 1.64 (95%CI: 1.00-2.67), and 4.95 (95%CI: 2.63-9.31), respectively; in the nested case-control study matching with occupational factors, the ORs of hypertension were 0.98 (95%CI: 0.40-2.41), 1.84 (95%CI: 0.72-4.70), 1.37 (95%CI: 0.82-2.29), and 2.44 (95%CI: 1.37-4.35), respectively. The two dose-response relationships were positive by χ2 trend test (Ptrend<0.05). Conclusion Self-reported occupational exposure to SO2 is associated with the risk of hypertension in the study population, and the hypertension risk increases with the increase of SO2 exposure years.

4.
Chinese Journal of Disease Control & Prevention ; (12): 828-834, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779424

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the relationship between the concentration of air pollutants and daily emergency department visits for different diseases (circulatory system disease, digestive system disease, nervous system disease and respiratory system disease) in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province. Methods The daily average concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2, carbon monoxide (CO) and PM2.5 and the daily maximum 8-hour concentrations of O3, the daily average temperature, the relative humidity and cause -specific emergency department visits of the four major diseases from 2015 to 2017 were collected in Guangzhou. Semi-parametric generalized additive model was used to analyze the relationship between the concentration of pollutants and daily cause-specific emergency department visits. Results The daily average concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, O3 and PM2.5 during the study period were 13.24 μg /m3, 45.96 μg /m3, 0.97 mg /m3, 123.77 μg /m3 and 36.22 μg /m3, respectively. For circulatory system disease,the independently significant associations of SO2 with emergency department visits in single-pollutant models (2.91%, 95% CI: 1.00%-4.85%), and multipollutant models (4.39%, 95% CI: 1.22%-7.67%) were observed. Conclusion The ambient SO2 increases the risk of emergency department visits due to circulatory diseases in Guangzhou. Comprehensive prevention and control measures should be taken to reduce the emission of SO2.

5.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 3330-3336, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817390

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status of sulfur fumigation of TCM and its decoction pieces, and to put forward the suggestions on limit standard of sulfur dioxide residue. METHODS: The information of 374 varieties of TCM and sulfur dioxide residue were collected from the provincial and municipal drug inspection institutions of 27 provinces,municipalities and autonomous regions in China during 2013-2017, and then summarized and analyzed. The average value,median value,maximum value,qualification rate and detection rate of sulfur dioxide residue of 121 varieties with the sample number ≥10 batches were classified and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: This investigation involved 374 varieties of TCM and its decoction pieces, and a total of 13 776 batches of samples. The average content of sulfur dioxide was 242 mg/kg,the median value was 27 mg/kg,and the maximum value was 8 782 mg/kg. The overall qualified rate was 79.7%. According to the results of classified statistics, among the 10 varieties whose limit shall not exceed 400 mg/kg,5 varieties,including Codonopsis pilosula, Radix Trichosanthis, Asparagus cochinchinensis, Pueraria lobata, Achyranthes bidentata, were seriously affected by sulfur fumigation,and the qualified rate was less than 80%. Among the varieties with the sample number≥30 batches, there was no or very little abuse of sulfur fumigation in 16 varieties, such as Carthamus tinctorius; 19 varieties, such as Eupolyphaga Steleophaga, had excessive sulfur fumigation, but it was not serious; 25 varieties,such as Lonicera japonica,had severe excessive sulfur fumigation. Among the varieties with the sample number of 10-29 batches,33 varieties including Ziziphus jujube seed had no or very little abuse of sulfur fumigation; 8 varieties including Cuscuta chinensis had excessive sulfur fumigation but were not serious; 10 varieties including Pericarpium Trichosanthis had serious excessive sulfur fumigation. CONCLUSIONS: For the varieties with no or very little excessive sulfur fumigation,it is recommended that batch testing should not be carried out and a single list should be made; for the varieties with sulfur fumigation or severe sulfur fumigation, it is suggested to increase the sulfur dioxide residue limit under all varieties in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and set the limit for the varieties with severe sulfur fumigation to be no more than 400 mg/kg,while the limit for the 2025 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia can be reduced to no more than 150 mg/kg. Other varieties should retain the provisions of “sulfur dioxide residue of sulfur dioxide medicinal materials and decoction pieces (except for minerals) shall not exceed 150 mg/kg” in the general rules 0212 “for the identification of medicinal materials and decoction pieces” in the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (part Ⅳ).

6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 242-247, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776396

ABSTRACT

The traditional sulfur fumigation processing method has been widely used in the initial processing and storage of traditional Chinese medicinal materials due to its economy, efficiency, convenience, high operability and effect on mold and insect prevention. However, excessive sulfur fumigation of traditional Chinese medicinal materials would lead to the changes in chemical compositions, and even endanger human health. This study showed that traditional Chinese medicinal materials were sulfur fumigated directly after being harvested for quick drying, or fumigated after being weted in the storage process for preventing mold and insects. We found that the sulfur dioxide limits for traditional Chinese medicinal materials were stricter than those for foods. Based on the existing limit standards, we obtained the data of sulfur dioxide residues for 35 types of traditional Chinese medicinal materials in a total of 862 batches. According to the limit standard in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (150, 400 mg·kg⁻¹), the average over-standard rate of sulfur dioxide was as high as 52.43%, but it was reduced to 29.47% if calculated based on the limit for vegetable additive standard (500 mg·kg⁻¹). Sulfur fumigation issue shall be considered correctly: sulfur dioxide is a type of low toxic substance and less dangerous than aflatoxin and other highly toxic substances, and a small amount of residue would not increase the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. However, sulfur fumigation might change the content of chemical substances and affect the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. Furthermore, the exposure hazards of toxic substances are comprehensively correlated with exposure cycle, exposure frequency, and application method. In conclusion, it is suggested to strengthen the studies on the limit standard of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, formulate practical and feasible limit standard for sulfur dioxide residues in traditional Chinese medicinal materials that are consistent with the medication characteristics of traditional Chinese medicinal materials and can guarantee people's demand for safe medication.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Fumigation , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Sulfur , Sulfur Dioxide , Reference Standards
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 261-266, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776393

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of different storage time on the chemical compositions and sulfur dioxide residues of sulfur-fumigated Gastrodiae Rhizoma (GR), and provide scientific basis for solving the quality and safety issues of sulfur-fumigated traditional Chinese medicinal materials. GR, sulfur-fumigated GR and its medicinal slices were stored under the same conditions, and then 8 active ingredients and sulfur dioxide residues were measured respectively. The results showed that the content of gastrodins in sulfur-fumigated GR and its medicinal slices was significantly lower than that in the non-fumigated GR. Moreover, the content of sulfur dioxide residue in sulfur-fumigated GR was significantly higher than that in its medicinal slices. That is to say, sulfur fumigation degree had significantly higher effect on GR quality as compared with its medicinal slices. During the whole storage time (8 months), the content of the eight chemical components in GR was not changed greatly in general. However, after the storage for 4 months, the content of 8 components and sulfur dioxide residues in all of GR samples were significantly changed. In particular, the content of sulfur dioxide residue in GR medicinal materials decreased up to 50% or more.


Subject(s)
Drug Storage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Fumigation , Gastrodia , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry , Sulfur , Sulfur Dioxide
8.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 95-98, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881672

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish a detecting method for sulfur dioxide in workplace air by molecular sieve solid adsorption tube sampling and ion chromatography. METHODS: Air samples were collected by molecular sieve solid adsorption tubes,desorbed by distilled water,oxidized by hydrogen peroxide in weak base system,separated by anion exchange chromatography and detected by conductivity detector. RESULTS: The good linearity range of sulfur dioxide was0. 10-16. 00 mg/L,and the correlation coefficient was 0. 999 8. The detection limit was 0. 02 mg/L,the minimum detectable concentration was 0. 01 mg/m3. The average desorption efficiency was 96. 53%-99. 35%. The within-run and between-run relative standard deviations were 1. 73%-3. 65% and 1. 80%-4. 46% respectively. The samples could be stored at room temperature for at least 14 days. CONCLUSION: This method is suitable for detecting sulfur dioxide in workplace air.

9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1030-1033, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-686987

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease and is related to air pollution exposure. However, only a few studies have concentrated on the association between air pollution and adult asthma. Moreover, the results of these studies are controversial. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze the influence of various pollutants on hospitalization due to asthma in adults.</p><p><b>Methods</b>A total of 1019 unrelated hospitalized adult asthma patients from Northeast China were recruited from 2014 to 2016. Daily average concentrations of air pollutants (particulate matter <2.5 μm [PM], particulate matter <10 μm [PM], sulfur dioxide [SO], nitrogen dioxide [NO], and carbon monoxide [CO]) were obtained from the China National Environmental Monitoring Centre website from 2014 to 2016. Cox logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between air pollutants and hospital admissions in adult asthma.</p><p><b>Results</b>The maximum odds ratio (OR) value for most air pollutants occurred on lag day 1. Lag day 1 was chosen as the exposure period, and 8 days before onset was chosen as the control period. Three pollutants (PM, CO, and SO) were entered into the regression equation, and the corresponding OR (95% confidence interval) was 0.995 (0.991-0.999), 3.107 (1.607-6.010), and 0.979 (0.968-0.990), respectively.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>A positive association between hospital admissions and the daily average concentration of CO was observed. CO is likely to be a risk factor for hospital admissions in adults with asthma.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Air Pollutants , Toxicity , Air Pollution , Asthma , Epidemiology , Carbon Monoxide , Toxicity , China , Environmental Monitoring , Hospitalization , Odds Ratio , Particulate Matter , Toxicity , Risk Factors , Sulfur Dioxide , Toxicity
10.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 999-1003, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-696543

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2)on the apoptosis induced by cobalt chloride (CoCl2)in the human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (HPAECs).Methods CoCl2was used in the primary HPAECs to mimize hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis.The aspartate aminotransferase 1(AAT1),and the key enzyme generating endogenous SO2 were over -expressed by transfecting HPAECs with lentivirus containing AAT1 cDNA.HPAECs were divided into 4 groups:vehicle group,vehicle + CoCl2 group,AAT1 group and AAT1 + CoCl2 group.The expressions of AAT1,B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl-2),bcl-associated X protein (bax),Caspase-3 and activated Caspase-3 (cleaved Caspase-3)in the HPAECs were measured by Western blot.The AAT activity was assessed with colorimetry method.The SO2 content in the HPAECs was in situ observed by SO2-specific fluorescent probe.The HPAECs apoptosis was investigated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)assay.Results There were significant differences in the endogenous SO2 content,the expre-ssions of AAT1 and bcl-2,and the ratio of cleaved Caspase-3/Caspase-3 among 4 groups of HPAECs were (F=147.364,23.738,6.521,64.884,all P<0.05).However,there was no difference in the expression of bax among 4 groups of HPAECs (F=1.620,P>0.05).Compared with vehicle group,AAT activity [(0.96 ± 0.24)Carmen's unit/μg vs.(2.21 ± 0. 60)Carmen's unit/μg],endogenous SO2 content (40.71 ± 7.72 vs.105.60 ± 16.20)and bcl-2 expression (0.59 ± 0.19 vs.1.02 ± 0.20)in the HPAECs of vehicle +CoCl2 group were significantly de-creased,while the cell apoptosis assessed by TUNEL and the ratio of cleaved Caspase-3/Caspase-3 (1.56 ± 0.25 vs.0.95 ± 0.13)were significantly increased (all P<0.05).However,there were no differences in the expression of AAT1 (0. 50 ± 0.12 vs.0.53 ± 0.11)in the HPAECs between vehicle group and vehicle+CoCl2 group (P>0.05). The SO2 content (351.50 ± 42.43 vs.105.60 ± 16.20)and AAT1 expression (1.22 ± 0.33 vs.0.53 ± 0.11)in the HPAECs of AAT1 group were higher than those of vehicle group (all P <0. 05 ). Compared with AAT1 group, endogenous SO2content (333.50 ± 46.22 vs.351.50 ± 42.43)and the expression of AAT1 (1.26 ± 0.36 vs.1.22 ± 0.33)and bcl-2 (1.14 ± 0.38 vs.1.03 ± 0.27)in the HPAECs of AAT1 +CoCl2group did not change (all P>0. 05).Moreover,no difference was observed in the HPAECs apoptosis assessed by TUNEL and the ratio of cleaved Caspase-3/Caspase-3 (0.51 ± 0.17 vs.0.50 ± 0.11)between the two AAT1 -overexpressed groups (all P >0. 05).Conclusion Endo-genous SO2inhibited the hypoxic HPAECs apoptosis stimulated by the treatment of CoCl2.

11.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 10-15, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-858460

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the advantages and disadvantages of sulfuring to Codonopsis Radix in its process of storage. METHODS: Sulfur dioxide residual amount was determined by distillation. The character was observed referring to Ch.P. The content of polysaccharide was measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The contents of lobetyolin and rhizome atractylodis inner fat III were measured by high performance liquid chromatography, and fingerprints were established. RESULTS: Under the natural storage conditions, the contents of effective components decreased with the extension of storage time. After being stored for 30 m, the Codonopsis Radix samples without sulfuring treatment had darkened color and were damaged by worms seriously, the contents of polysaccharide, lobetyolin, and rhizome atractylodis inner fat III reduced by more than half, and yellow aspergillus toxin were detected; however, few sulfured samples were damaged by worms and the magnitude of content decrease of the three compounds was significantly smaller than that of the non-sulfured ones. CONCLUSION: Storage time is negatively correlated with the medicinal quality of Codonopsis Radix and proper sulfuring can slow the rate of quality deteriorating of Codonopsis Radix.

12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 435-439, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342020

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>The pathogenesis of postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the changes and significance of sulfur dioxide (SO) in patients with POTS.</p><p><b>Methods</b>The study included 31 children with POTS and 27 healthy children from Peking University First Hospital between December 2013 and October 2015. A detailed medical history, physical examination results, and demographic characteristics were collected. Hemodynamics was recorded and the plasma SOwas determined.</p><p><b>Results</b>The plasma SOwas significantly higher in POTS children compared to healthy children (64.0 ± 20.8 μmol/L vs. 27.2 ± 9.6 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.05). The symptom scores in POTS were positively correlated with plasma SOlevels (r = 0.398, P < 0.05). In all the study participants, the maximum heart rate (HR) was positively correlated with plasma levels of SO(r = 0.679, P < 0.01). The change in systolic blood pressure from the supine to upright (ΔSBP) in POTS group was smaller than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The ΔSBP was negatively correlated with baseline plasma SOlevels in all participants (r = -0.28, P < 0.05). In the control group, ΔSBP was positively correlated with the plasma levels of SO(r = 0.487, P < 0.01). The change in HR from the supine to upright in POTS was obvious compared to that of the control group. The area under curve was 0.967 (95% confidence interval: 0.928-1.000), and the cutoff value of plasma SOlevel >38.17 μmol/L yielded a sensitivity of 90.3% and a specificity of 92.6% for predicting the diagnosis of POTS.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>Increased endogenous SOlevels might be involved in the pathogenesis of POTS.</p>

13.
Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (12): 79-82, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-754638

ABSTRACT

Objective To determine the content of sulfur dioxide residues, extracts and main components; To study the effects of sulfur fumigation on the characters, extracts and index components of Pinelliae Rhizoma. Methods The contents of succinic acid, adenosine and guanosine in 22 samples of Pinelliae Rhizoma from different producing areas were detected by RP-HPLC method. The extracts of Pinelliae Rhizoma were measured by cold-maceration. Sulfur dioxide residues in Pinelliae Rhizoma were examined by acid-base titration. Results Among the 22 samples of Pinelliae Rhizoma, the ratio of sulphur smoked products of Pinelliae Rhizoma was 81.8%. Three kinds of components of succinic acid, adenosine and guanosine were well separated, baseline separation was achieved, and the average recoveries of samples were 99.1%, 100.1% and 99.3%, respectively. Conclusion The phenomenon of sulfur fumigation is very serious in feild processed products of Pinelliae Rhizoma. To some extent, sulfur fumigation has an influence on the characters, extracts and the content of succinic acid in Pinelliae Rhizoma. This study provides references for quality standard revision of Pinelliae Rhizoma in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2020.

14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1715-1723, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688054

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Myocardial fibrosis is an important pathological change in many heart diseases, but its pathogenesis is very complex and has not yet been fully elucidated. The study was designed to examine whether endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO) is a novel myocardial fibroblast proliferation and migration inhibitor.</p><p><b>Methods</b>Primary rat myocardial fibroblasts were isolated and transfected with aspartate aminotransferase (AAT1 and AAT2) knockdown lentivirus or empty lentivirus. SO content in the supernatant was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography, and the expressions of AAT1, AAT2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK), and total ERK (T-ERK) in the cells were detected. Cell migration was detected by wound healing test. Independent sample t-test (for two groups) and one-way analysis of variance (three or more groups) were used to analyze the results.</p><p><b>Results</b>Both AAT1 and AAT2 knockdown significantly reduced SOlevels (F = 31.46, P < 0.01) and AAT1/2 protein expression (AAT1, t = 12.67, P < 0.01; AAT2, t = 9.61, P < 0.01), but increased PCNA expression and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) activity as well as the migration in rat primary myocardial fibroblasts (P < 0.01). Supplementation of SOrather than pyruvate significantly inhibited the increase in proliferation and migration caused by AAT knockdown (P < 0.01). Mechanistically, the ratio of p-ERK to T-ERK was significantly increased in the AAT1/2 knockdown groups compared with that in the empty lentivirus group (AAT1, t = -7.36, P < 0.01; AAT2, t = -10.97, P < 0.01). Whereas PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK activation, successfully blocked AAT knockdown-induced PCNA upregulation (F = 74.01, P > 0.05), CCK-8 activation (F = 50.14, P > 0.05), and migration augmentation in myocardial fibroblasts (24 h, F = 37.08, P > 0.05; 48 h, F = 58.60, P > 0.05).</p><p><b>Conclusion</b>Endogenous SOmight be a novel myocardial fibroblast proliferation and migration inhibitor via inhibiting the ERK signaling pathway.</p>

15.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 20(2): 189-199, Abr.-Jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-898592

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Introduction: Birth weight is an important indicator of several conditions that manifest earlier (as fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, inhibited growth and cognitive development) and later in life such as chronic diseases. Air pollution has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: Retrospective cohort study investigated the association between low birth weight (LBW) and maternal exposure to air pollutants in Volta Redonda city, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2003 to 2006. Methods: Birth data was obtained from Brazilian Information System. Exposure information (O3, PM10, temperature and humidity) was provided by Governmental Air Quality Monitoring System. Linear and Logistic models, adjusted for sex, type of pregnancy, prenatal care, place of birth, maternal age, parity, education, congenital anomalies and weather variables were employed. Results: Low birth weight (LBW) represented 9.1% of all newborns (13,660). For an interquartile range increase in PM10 it was found OR2 ndTrimester = 1.06 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.10), OR3 rdTrimester = 1.06 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.10) and, in O3 it was found OR2 ndTrimester = 1.03 (95%CI 1.01 - 1.04), OR3 rdTrimester = 1.03 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.04). The dose-response relationship and a reduction in birth weight of 31.11 g (95%CI -56.64 - -5.58) was observed in the third trimester of pregnancy due to an interquartile increase of O3. Conclusion: This study suggests that exposures to PM10 and O3, even being below the Brazilian air quality standards, contribute to risks of low birth weight.


RESUMO: Introdução: O peso de nascimento é considerado como um indicador importante de várias condições que se manifestam mais cedo (como mortalidade fetal e neonatal e morbidade, inibição do crescimento e desenvolvimento cognitivo) e mais tarde na vida, tais como as doenças crônicas. A poluição atmosférica tem sido associada a efeitos adversos da gestação. Objetivo: Estudo de coorte histórica que associa o baixo peso ao nascer (BPN) e a exposição materna aos poluentes do ar em Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, entre 2003 e 2006. Metodologia: Dados sobre nascidos vivos foram obtidos no sistema de informação Brasileiro, e os de exposição (O3, PM10, temperatura e umidade) na rede pública de monitoramento do ar. Foram utilizados modelos lineares e logísticos, ajustados por sexo, tipo de gravidez, assistência pré-natal, local de nascimento, idade materna, paridade, educação, anomalias congênitas e variáveis meteorológicas. Resultados: A prevalência de BPN foi de 9,1% sobre 13.660 nascimentos. Para o aumento de um interquartil no nível de PM10 (OR2 ºtrimestre = 1,06; IC95% 1,02 - 1,10; OR3 ºtrimestre = 1,06; IC95% 1,02 - 1,10) e no nível de O3 (OR2 ºtrimestre = 1,03; IC95% 1,01 - 1,04; OR3 ºtrimestre = 1,03; IC95% 1,02 - 1,04). Observou-se uma relação dose-resposta e uma redução do peso ao nascer de 31,11 g (95%IC -56,64 - -5,58) no terceiro trimestre da gravidez devido ao aumento de um interquartil de O3. Conclusão: Este estudo sugere que exposições ao PM10 e O3, mesmo abaixo de padrões de qualidade do ar, contribuem para os riscos de BPN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Brazil , Urban Health , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
16.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 1008-1012, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-618189

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the regulatory effects of endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) on collagen accumulation in pulmonary arterial fibroblasts of rats and its mechanisms.Methods Primary rat pulmonary artery fibroblasts were used in the experiment and were divided into 3 groups:the control group,the L-aspartate-beta-hydroxamate(HDX) group and the HDX ± SO2 group.SO2 content of pulmonary artery fibroblasts supernatant was detected by adopting high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Collagen type Ⅰ and collagen type Ⅲ in pulmonary artery fibroblasts were determined by using immunofluorescence.Phosphorylation of Smad2/3,protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-1 were detected by using Western blot.One-way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons followed by Bonferroni test for each group.P < 0.05 was considered as significant difference.Results Compared with control group,endogenous SO2 content in HDX group was significantly decreased [(14.30-± 0.48) μmol/L vs.(20.14 ± 0.49) μμmol/L,P < 0.01],the level of Smad2/3 increased (1.03 ±0.31 vs.0.48 ± 0.20,P < 0.01),protein expressions of MMP-13 and TIMP-1 in pulmonary artery fibroblasts were decreased (MMP-13:0.28 ± 0.06 vs.0.75 ± 0.11,P < 0.01;TIMP-1:0.40 ± 0.05 vs.0.66 ± 0.20,P < 0.01),and the ratio of MMP-13/TIMP-1 was decreased (0.71 ± 0.12 vs.1.23 ± 0.45,P <0.01).However,contents of collagen Ⅰ and collagen Ⅲ were significantly increased.Compared with HDX group,the level of Smad2/3 phosphorylation in HDX ± SO2 group decreased (0.57 ± 0.16 vs.1.03 ± 0.31,P < 0.01),protein expression of MMP-13 and TIMP-1 upregulated (MMP-13:0.63 ± 0.06 vs.0.28 ± 0.06,P < 0.01;0.59 ± 0.11 vs.0.40 ± 0.05,P =0.015),the ratio of M MP-13/TIMP-1 (1.10 ± 0.22 vs.0.71 ± 0.12,P =0.033) increased,but contents of collagen type Ⅰ and type Ⅲ were reduced obviously.Conclusions SO2 promotes the degradation of collagen and collagen accumulation in pulmonary artery fibroblasts of rats probably by inhibiting Smad2/3 signal pathway,increasing protein expression of MMP-13 and TIMP-1,and upregulating the ratio of MMP-13/TIMP-1.

17.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 672-676, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-610565

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) on the oxidative stress induced by cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in the rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs).Methods Rat PASMCs were treated with 200 μ mol/L CoCl2 to mimic the hypoxia insult.Endogenous SO2 generating enzyme aspartate aminotransferase 1 (AAT1) expression was upregulated or downregulated (AAT1 sh) by transfection with lentivirus.Rat PASMCs were randomly divided into 8 groups:vehicle group,vehicle + CoCl2 group,AAT1 group,AAT1 + CoCl2 group,scramble group,scramble + SO2 group,AAT1 sh group and AAT1 sh + SO2 group.SO2 donor Na2 SO3/NaHSO3 at concentration of 100 μ mol/L were added in scramble + SO2 group and AAT1sh + SO2 group.The expressions of AAT1,superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and SOD2 in PASMCs were detected by Western blot method.In situ SO2 content in PASMCs was detected by fluorescent probe.The superoxide anions in PASMCs were labeled by dihydroethidium (DHE) probe under fluorescent microscope.Results Compared with the vehicle group,the levels of SO2 and the expressions of AAT1 (0.221 ± 0.002 vs.0.446 ± 0.004),SOD1 (0.076 ± 0.028 vs.0.171 ± 0.019) and SOD2 (0.080 ± 0.031 vs.0.196 ± 0.018) significantly decreased (all P < 0.01),and superoxide anion increased in rat PASMCs of vehicle + CoCl2 group.Meanwhile,compared with vehicle + CoCl2 group,the levels of SO2 and the expressions of AAT1 (0.839 ± 0.056 vs.0.221 ± 0.002),SOD1 (0.177 ± 0.020 vs.0.076 ± 0.028) and SOD2 (0.195 ±0.018 vs.0.080-± 0.031) markedly increased (all P < 0.01),and superoxide anion decreased in rat PASMCs of AAT1 + CoCl2 group.On the contrary,compared with the scramble group,the levels of SO2 and the expressions of AAT1 (0.062 ±0.017 vs.0.354 ±0.034),SOD1 (0.054 ±0.029 vs.0.157 ±0.023) and SOD2(0.180 ±0.100 vs.0.586 ± 0.176)significantly decreased (all P < 0.01),and superoxide anion increased in rat PASMCs of AAT1sh group.Furthermore,compared with the AAT1 sh group,the levels of SO2 and the expressions of SOD1 (0.155 ± 0.022vs.0.054 ± 0.029) and SOD2 (0.578 ± 0.200 vs.0.180 ± 0.100) significantly increased (all P < 0.01),and superoxide anion decreased in rats PASMCs of AAT1sh + SO2 group.Conclusion Endogenous SO2/AAT1 inhibits CoCl2-induced oxidative stress in rat PASMCs.

18.
Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry ; (12): 898-905, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-619958

ABSTRACT

A novel method based on cross sensitivity of cataluminescence (CTL) on nano-Ti3CeY2O11 was proposed for simultaneous determination of formaldehyde, benzene and sulfur dioxide in air.The relations between the concentrations of formaldehyde, benzene and sulfur dioxide and their CTL intensities were respectively ascertained at three wavelengths.The accurate concentrations of formaldehyde, benzene and sulfur dioxide can be calculated by superimposed total CTL intensities.The three analysis wavelengths are 420 nm, 535 nm and 680 nm.The surface temperature of the sensitive materials is 280℃.The carrier gas flow rate is 130 mL/min.The detection limits (3σ) are 0.04 mg/m3 for formaldehyde, 0.05 mg/m3 for benzene and 0.10 mg/m3 for sulfur dioxide, respectively.The linear ranges of CTL intensity versus analyte concentration are 0.08-75.60 mg/m3 for formaldehyde, 0.1-101.40 mg/m3 for benzene and 0.3 to 115.00 mg/m3 for sulfur dioxide.The recoveries of 12 testing standard samples by this method are 96.4%-103.7% for formaldehyde, 97.8%-102.5% for benzene and 97.2%-103.3% for sulfur dioxide.Common coexisting substances, such as acetaldehyde, toluene, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, methanol, ethanol and carbon dioxide, do not disturb the determination.The relative deviation of CTL signals of continuous 200 h detection for gaseous mixture containing formaldehyde, benzene and sulfur dioxide is less than 2%, which shows the longevity of the nanometer composite oxide to formaldehyde, benzene and sulfur dioxide.This method makes full use of the cross sensitive phenomenon, and can realize the on-line analysis of formaldehyde, benzene and sulfur dioxide in air.

19.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 59-62, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-505118

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the changes in the endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) pathway in the myocardial hypertrophy induced by the angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) in mice.Methods Fourteen healthy C57BL mice,9 weeks old,were randomly divided into control group(n =7) and Ang Ⅱ group(n =7),and capsule osmotic pump with pre loaded 9 g/L saline and Ang Ⅱ was implanted into the back of each mouse subcutaneously.Mter 2 weeks,the mice were executed.The heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) and the left heart weight/full heart weight (LVW/HW) of the mice were measured.The microstructure of the cardiac myocyte was observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining under the microscope.The expression of myocardial alpha myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot methods.SO2 enzymes aspartate aminotransferase 1 (AAT1) and AAT2 protein expression were detected by Western blot method.Myocardial SO2 content and AAT activity were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection and colometric method.Results Compared with control group,the HW/BW and LVW/HW in mice of Ang Ⅱ group were significantly increased (all P < 0.O1),the cardiac myocytes were hypertrophy,and α-MHC positive staining in the cytoplasm of myocardium was weakened.Moreover,Western blot data showed that α-MHC protein expression in heart tissue of Ang Ⅱ-treated mice was decreased significantly (allP < 0.05).Simultaneously,the data showed that AAT2 protein expression,SO2 content and AAT activity in heart tissue of Ang Ⅱ-treated mice were also decreased markedly[(1.093 ±0.131) μ mol/g protein vs.(0.737 ±0.233) μmol/g protein,P < 0.05;(7.979 ± 1.317) U/rmg protein vs.(6.470 ± O.516) U/mg protein,P < 0.01].Furthermore,there was a negative correlation between LVW/HW and cardiac SO2 content in heart tissue (r =-0.56,P < 0.05).Conclusions Myocardial endogenous SO2/AAT2 pathway is down-regulated in the development of myocardial hypertrophy induced by Ang Ⅱ in mice.

20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(3): 216-222, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796032

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: There is evidence of the effects of air pollution on hospital admissions due to cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction. Objective: To estimate the association between exposure to air pollutants and hospital admissions due to myocardial infarction according to gender, between January 1st 2012 and December 31st 2013, in São Jose dos Campos-SP. Methods: An ecological time series study was carried out with daily data of admissions due to AMI, pollutants CO, O3, PM10, SO2, and NO2, according to gender. We used the Poisson regression generalized linear model to estimate the relative risks of hospital admissions with lags of 0-5 days, adjusted for temperature, humidity, seasonality and days of the week. Results: There were 1837 admissions for ischemic heart diseases, with 636 women and 1201 men. For females, the risks were significant for CO in lag 0 (RR = 1,09), lag1 (RR = 1,08) and lag 5 (RR = 1,10) and SO2 in lag 0 (RR = 1,10) and 3 (RR = 1,09). For men there was significance of the CO in, lag 3 and lag 5 (RR = 1,05). There was significance, regardless of gender, for CO at lag 1 (RR = 1,05) and lag 5 (RR = 1,07) and lag 0 for SO2 (RR = 1,06). Conclusion: The data presented show the important role of CO and SO2 in the genesis of myocardial infarction admissions, and responses to pollutant exposure are different if analyzed by gender and together - hence the importance of a stratified analyses.


Resumo Fundamento: Existem evidências sobre os efeitos da poluição do ar nas internações por doenças cardiovasculares, entre elas o infarto do miocárdio. Objetivo: Estimar a associação entre exposição a poluentes do ar e internações por infarto segundo gêneros, entre 01 de Janeiro de 2012 e 31 de Dezembro de 2013, em São José dos Campos - SP. Métodos: Estudo ecológico de série temporal com dados diários de internações por IAM dos poluentes CO, O3, PM10, SO2, NO2, segundo gêneros. Utilizou-se modelo linear generalizado da Regressão de Poisson para estimar os riscos relativos para internações com defasagens de 0 a 5 dias, ajustados por temperatura, umidade, sazonalidade e dias da semana. Resultados: Foram 1837 internações por doenças isquêmicas do coração, sendo 636 mulheres e 1201 homens. Para o gênero feminino, os riscos foram significativos para o CO nos lag 0 (RR = 1,09), lag1 (RR = 1,08) e lag 5 (RR = 1,10) e para o SO2 no lag 0 (RR = 1,10) e 3 (RR = 1,09). Para o gênero masculino houve significância para o CO no lag 3 e lag 5 (RR = 1,05). Sem distinção de gênero houve significância para o CO no lag 1 (RR = 1,05) e lag 5 (RR = 1,07) e no lag 0 para o SO2 (RR = 1,06). Conclusão: Os dados apresentados mostram o importante papel do CO e do SO2 na gênese das internações por infarto e que as respostas à exposição aos poluentes são diferentes se analisadas por sexo e em conjunto, daí a importância de se estratificarem as análises.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Reference Values , Seasons , Temperature , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Humidity , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
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