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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(4): 1245-1257, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285930

ABSTRACT

Resumo Avaliou-se os formulários de notificação de suspeitas de reações adversas a medicamentos (RAM) do sistema de farmacovigilância do Brasil e outros doze países latino-americanos. O estudo foi composto por três etapas. Na primeira, os formulários foram pontuados em relação à presença de itens essenciais para compor uma notificação de RAM. Na segunda, as variáveis dos formulários foram quantificadas e classificadas, quanto à razoabilidade em contribuírem para a avaliação de causalidade. Na última etapa, recorreu-se à análise de agrupamento hierárquico para identificar os formulários similares. O formulário da Venezuela obteve a maior pontuação (18 pontos). A mediana das variáveis nos formulários dos países foi de 41 [26 (Guatemala) a 95 (Brasil)]. A maioria das variáveis dos formulários foram classificadas como vitais e a maior parte contribui como fator de explicação alternativo para a avaliação de causalidade. Quatro agrupamentos foram identificados (1, 2, 3 e 4). Os formulários do Brasil e da Bolívia formaram dois grupos distintos, 1 e 3 respectivamente. Há necessidade de modificação dos formulários dos países ou até mesmo exclusão de variáveis, tornando-os mais adequados ao processo de avaliação da causalidade das RAM.


Abstract The scope of this study was to assess the forms used to report suspected adverse drug reactions (ADR) to the pharmacovigilance system in Brazil and twelve other Latin-American countries. The study comprised three stages. In the first stage, the forms were attributed a score relating to the presence of critical items to generate ADR notification. In the second stage, the variables of the forms were quantified and classified regarding feasibility to contribute to an appropriate assessment of causality. In the last stage, hierarchical clustering was used to identify similar forms. The Venezuelan form achieved the highest score (18 points). The median number of variables in the forms of each country was 41 [26 (Guatemala) to 95 (Brazil)]. Most of the variables of the form were classified as life-critical and the majority contribute as an alternative explanation to causality assessment. Four clusters were identified (1, 2, 3 and 4). The forms of Brazil and Bolivia formed two distinct groups, 1 and 3 respectively. The results of this study indicate the need to change the forms of the different countries studied or even delete some variables, making them more appropriate for the process of assessment of ADR causality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Pharmacovigilance , United States , Bolivia , Brazil/epidemiology , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 79-86, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249060

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. El uso de medicamentos puede conllevar errores de medicación que desemboquen en la hospitalización del paciente, el aumento de los costos relacionados con la atención e, incluso, la muerte. Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de errores de medicación notificados en un sistema de información de farmacovigilancia en Colombia entre el 2018 y el 2019. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio observacional a partir del registro de errores de medicación de un sistema de farmacovigilancia que cubre a 8,5 millones de pacientes ambulatorios afiliados al sistema de salud de Colombia. Los errores se categorizaron en ocho grupos de la A (situaciones potenciales de error) hasta la I (error que pudo llevar a la muerte). Se hizo el análisis descriptivo y se estableció la prevalencia de los errores de medicación. Resultados. Durante los años 2018 y 2019, se reportaron 29.538 errores de medicación en pacientes ambulatorios, con una prevalencia general de 1,93 por cada 10.000 medicamentos dispensados. En el 0,02 % (n=6) de los casos, se presentaron errores que llegaron a afectar a los pacientes y causaron daño (tipos E, F e I). La mayoría de los errores se asoció con la dispensación (n=20.636; 69,9 %) y la posible causa más común fue la falta de concentración en el momento de dispensar los medicamentos (n=9.185; 31,1 %). Los grupos farmacológicos más implicados en errores de medicación fueron los antidiabéticos (8,0 %), los inhibidores del sistema renina-angiotensina (7,6 %) y los analgésicos (6,0 %). Conclusiones. Los errores de medicación son relativamente poco frecuentes y con mayor frecuencia se catalogan como circunstancias o eventos capaces de generar un error de tipo A. Muy pocas veces, pueden causarle daño al paciente, incluso, hasta la muerte.


Abstract | Introduction: The use of drugs may involve medication errors leading to hospitalization, increased costs related to care, and even death. Objective: To determine the prevalence of medication errors reported in a pharmacovigilance information system in Colombia between 2018 and 2019. Materials and methods: We conducted an observational study based on the records of medication errors from a pharmacovigilance system covering 8.5 million outpatients affiliated with the Colombian health system. The errors were categorized from A (potential situations to error) to I (an error that could lead to death). We performed a descriptive analysis and established the prevalence of medication errors. Results: During 2018 and 2019, 29,538 medication errors in outpatients were reported with a general prevalence of 1.93 per 10,000 drugs dispensed. The errors that reached the patient and caused damage (types E, F, and I) occurred in 0.02% (n=6) of the patients. Most of them were related to the dispensation (n=20,636; 69.9%) and the possible most common cause was the lack of concentration at the time of dispensing (n=9185; 31.1%). The pharmacological groups most involved in medication errors were antidiabetics (8.0%), renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (7.6%), and analgesics (6.0%). Conclusions: Medication errors are relatively rare situations, generally classified as circumstances or events capable of generating the error (type A error). In low proportion, they can reach the patient and cause damage or even death.


Subject(s)
Medication Errors , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Pharmacovigilance , Patient Harm
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze clinical feature and information of medication to explore the risk signals of preparations containing Psoraleae Fructus (BGZP) related with hepatobiliary adverse drug reactions (ADR), in order to reinforce pharmacovigilance.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted based on hepatobiliary ADR related with BGZP from the China Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring System in years from January 2012 to December 2016. Serious and general ADRs were analyzed and assessed.@*RESULTS@#There were 355 cases of hepatobiliary ADR related to BGZP. Both the amount of cases and the proportion of serious ADR showed an increasing growth by years (P<0.05). It was found that 10.43% of 355 cases may be involved with irrational drug use, including overdose, repeated medication, and combination of multiple drugs. There were 190 cases which used BGZP (non-combination), and they were mainly for common in diseases caused by abnormal immune activation (accounting for 40.53% of the total cases). Especially at the age group with the most cases with age of 41-50 years, the cases associated with immunological diseases of female were obviously more than that of male (P<0.05). The latency of hepatobiliary ADR related to BGZP ranged from 1 to 386 days, and the median latency was 27.5 days, along with the range of cumulative dose (0.45-520.02 g) as well as the daily dose (0.09-2.64 g/d) after the conversion.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Cases of hepatobiliary ADR related to BGZP showed significant individual differences, and there was no correlation between drug usage duration and dosage and the occurrence of hepatobiliary ADR. It may be similar with idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury, and recommended that BGZP should be used with more caution under monitoring liver function, especially in female patients with immunological diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharmacovigilance , Retrospective Studies
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921726

ABSTRACT

Pharmacovigilance system is an extension of the original adverse drug reactions monitoring and reporting system as well as an internationally recognized basic system that must be matched with the whole life cycle supervision of drugs. European Union(EU)pharmacovigilance system, World Health Orgnization(WHO) Uppsala Monitoring Center system and ICH system are internationally recognized pharmacovigilance systems. They all have their own pharmacovigilance characteristics and could provide guarantee for clinical safe drug use. With the deepening of international communication, pharmacovigilance has also been developed in China. Pharmacovigilance of Chinese medicine is a new concept based on the existing pharmacovigilance system of chemical medicine and the characteristics of Chinese medicine. In ancient China, Chinese medicine also had its own ways of early warning. Ancient medical books have records on the toxicity classification, clinical pharmacovigilance and intoxication rescue of Chinese medicine. With the increase of public recognition of Chinese medicine in recent years, especially since the government issued the 13 th Five-Year Plan for the development of Chinese medicine, the pharmaceutical industry in China has paid more and more attention to the pharmacovigilance of Chinese medicine.However, the pharmacovigilance system of Chinese medicine has not yet been established, and it still needs to be explored and improved.Therefore, it is very necessary to develop the system to standardize pharmacovigilance-related activities of Chinese medicine. In this context, this study analyzed and learned the characteristics of pharmacovigilance systems of EU, ICH, and WHO Uppsala Monitoring Center, so as to provide some enlightenment for the establishment and improvement of pharmacovigilance system of Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Books , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , European Union , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pharmacovigilance
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1471-1476, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Taxanes are an essential class of antineoplastic agents used to treat various cancers and are a fundamental cause of hypersensitivity reactions. In addition, other adverse events, such as bone marrow toxicity and peripheral neuropathy, can lead to chemotherapy discontinuation. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of taxanes in the real world.@*METHODS@#Taxane-associated adverse events were identified by the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms and analyzed and compared by mining the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System pharmacovigilance database from January 2004 to December 2019. Reported adverse events, such as hypersensitivity reaction, bone marrow toxicity, and peripheral neuropathy, were analyzed with the following signal detection algorithms: reporting odds ratio (ROR), proportional reporting ratio (PRR), multi-item gamma Poisson shrinker (MGPS), Bayesian confidence propagation neural network (BCPNN), and logistic regression methods. Adverse outcome events and death outcome rates were compared between different taxane groups using Pearson's χ2 test, whereas significance was determined at P < 0.05 with a 95% confidence interval (CI).@*RESULTS@#A total of 966 reports of hypersensitivity reactions, 1109 reports of bone marrow toxicity, and 1374 reports of peripheral neuropathy were analyzed. Compared with paclitaxel and docetaxel, bone marrow toxicity following the use of nab-paclitaxel had the highest ROR of 6.45 (95% two-sided CI, 6.05-6.88), PRR of 5.66, (χ2 = 4342.98), information component of 2.50 (95% one-sided CI = 2.34), and empirical Bayes geometric mean of 5.64 (95% one-sided CI = 5.34). Peripheral neuropathy following the use of nab-paclitaxel showed a higher ROR of 12.78 (95% two-sided CI, 11.55-14.14), PRR of 12.16 (χ2 = 4060.88), information component of 3.59 (95% one-sided CI = 3.25), and empirical Bayes geometric mean of 12.07 (95% one-sided CI = 11.09).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results showed that bone marrow toxicity and peripheral neuropathy were the major adverse events induced by taxanes. Nab-paclitaxel exhibited the highest potential for taxane-associated adverse events. Further research in the future is warranted to explain taxane-associated adverse effects in real-world circumstances.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Bayes Theorem , Bridged-Ring Compounds , Taxoids/adverse effects , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(10): e00077721, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345618

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has stated that the prescription of remdesivir should be cautious for patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 30 and some studies reported risk of adverse renal events. The available information on the renal safety profile for remdesivir is limited, thus we analyzed the renal and urinary adverse reactions attributed to remdesivir reported in a large open pharmacovigilance database. We obtained reports of remdesivir and other drugs used to treat COVID-19 (tocilizumab, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir) registered by September 30 2020, from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We analyzed the reporting odds ratios (RORs) for reports of adverse renal and urinary events for remdesivir and other drugs. We found 2,922 reports with remdesivir registered in FAERS for COVID-19. Among these, 493 renal and urinary adverse effects (16.9%) were reported. The most frequent events were acute kidney injury (338; 11.6%), renal impairment (86; 2.9%), and renal failure (53; 1.8%). Versus hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, or tocilizumab, the use of remdesivir was associated with an increased chance of reporting renal and urinary disorders regardless of gender and age of patients (2.53; 95%CI: 2.10-3.06). The ROR remained significant when we restricted the analysis to hydroxychloroquine (4.31; 95%CI: 3.25-5.71) or tocilizumab (3.92; 95%CI: 2.51-6.12). Our results reinforce this already reported signal, emphasizing that it could be extremely useful for health professionals who prescribe this new antiviral to treat COVID-19, mainly knowing its low efficacy.


Resumo: De acordo com a Agência de Controle de Alimentos e Medicamentos dos Estados Unidos (FDA), a prescrição do remdesivir deve ser feita com cautela em pacientes com taxa de filtração glomerular estimada (TFGe) < 30, sendo que diversos estudos relatam risco de eventos adversos renais. São limitados os dados disponíveis sobre o perfil de segurança renal do remdesivir. Assim, analisamos as reações adversas renais e urinárias atribuídas ao remdesivir e notificadas em um grande base de dados abertos de farmacovigilância. Obtivemos notificações sobre remdesivir e outros medicamentos usados para tratar a COVID-19 (tocilizumabe, hidroxicloroquina, lopinavir/ritonavir) registradas até 30 de setembro de 2020 do Sistema de Notificação de Eventos Adversos da FDA (FAERS). Analisamos as razões de chances de notificação (RORs) para notificações de eventos adversos renais e urinários referentes ao remdesivir e outros medicamentos. Encontramos 2.922 notificações sobre remdesivir registradas no FAERS para COVID-19. Entre esses casos, foram notificados 493 efeitos adversos renais e urinários (16,9%). Os eventos mais frequentes foram lesão renal aguda (338; 11,6%), comprometimento renal (86; 2,9%) e insuficiência renal (53; 1,8%). Comparado com a hidroxicloroquina, lopinavir/ritonavir ou tocilizumabe, o uso do remdesivir esteve associado com um aumento das chances de notificação de transtornos renais e urinários, independentemente do sexo e idade dos pacientes (2,53; IC95%: 2,10-3,06). A ROR permaneceu significativo quando limitamos a análise à hidroxicloroquina (4,31; IC95%: 3,25-5,71) ou ao tocilizumabe (3,92; IC95%: 2,51-6,12). Nossos resultados corroboram outros estudos e destacam a utilidade para profissionais da saúde que usam esse novo antiviral para tratar a COVID-19, sobretudo em função de sua baixa eficácia.


Resumen: La Agencia Americana de Control de Alimentos y Medicamentos (FDA) ha destacado que la prescripción de remdesivir debe ser prudente con pacientes con tasa de filtración glomerular estimada (TGFe) < 30; además, algunos estudios informaron del riesgo de reacciones adversas renales. La información disponible sobre el perfil de seguridad renal, en el caso del remdesivir, es limitada. Por ello, analizamos las reacciones adversas renales y urinarias atribuidas al remdesivir e notificadas en una extensa base de datos abierta de farmacovigilancia. Obtuvimos las notificaciones de remdesivir y otros medicamentos usados para tratar la COVID-19 (tocilizumab, hidroxicloroquina, lopinavir/ritonavir) registrados el 30 de septiembre de 2020 por el Sistema de Notificación de Eventos Adversos de la FDA (FAERS). Analizamos las odds ratios informadas (RORs) en el caso de informes de eventos adversos renales y urinarios adversos relacionados con el remdesivir y otros medicamentos. En el FAERS, encontramos 2.922 notificaciones de remdesivir registradas como medicament sospechoso usado en COVID-19. De estos, habían 493 con efectos renales y urinarios adversos (16,9%). Los efectos adversos más frecuentes fueron lesiones renales agudas (338; 11,6%), insuficiencia renal (86; 2,9%), y fallo renal (53; 1,8%). Frente a hidroxicloroquina, lopinavir/ritonavir, o tocilizumab, el uso de remdesivir se asoció con un riesgo mayor de notificar alteraciones renales y urinarios, independientemente del género y edad de los pacientes (2,53; IC95%: 2,10-3,06). La ROR permaneció significativo al restringir el análisis a la hidroxicloroquina (4,31; IC95%: 3,25-5,71) o tocilizumab (3,92; IC95%: 2,51-6,12). Nuestros resultados corroboran datos previos, algo que podría ser extremadamente útil para los profesionales de la salud que decidan usar este nuevo antiviral para tratar la COVID-19, sobre todo conociendo su baja eficacia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacovigilance , COVID-19/drug therapy , Brazil , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2 , Kidney
10.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(10): e00304420, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339533

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Desde 1963 que a farmacovigilância foi reconhecida como uma área prioritária na saúde pública a nível global pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, garantindo a monitorização permanente da segurança dos medicamentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar as reações adversas a medicamentos recebidas pela Unidade de Farmacovigilância do Porto (UFPorto), Portugal, ao longo de duas décadas de atividade. Foram consideradas todas as notificações de suspeitas de reações adversas a medicamentos recebidas entre janeiro de 2001 e dezembro de 2019. Foram calculadas as taxas de notificação anuais, assim como a sua distribuição por origem, tipo de notificador e local de exercício da atividade, gravidade, conhecimento prévio e causalidade das reações adversas a medicamentos notificadas. No período em estudo, a UFPorto recebeu 9.711 notificações de suspeitas de reações adversas a medicamentos. As instituições hospitalares são aquelas que mais notificam (n = 6.003; 64%), assim como o médico entre os profissionais de saúde (n = 5.284; 54,4%). Os eventos adversos mais frequentemente reportados são graves (n = 6.275; 72%) e encontram-se descritos no respectivo Resumo das Características do Medicamento (n = 6.978; 72%). À maioria das notificações avaliadas pela UFPorto foi atribuído o grau de causalidade "provável" (n = 7.473; 77%), independentemente do tipo de notificador. Os resultados obtidos são concordantes com outros dados previamente reportados na literatura médica internacional e em relatórios oficiais nacionais. Contudo, continua-se a verificar taxas de subnotificação acentuadas, face ao esperado. Ao longo de aproximadamente 20 anos de atividade da UFPorto, tem-se verificado um aumento da sua atividade nas diversas vertentes da segurança do medicamento.


Abstract: Since 1963, the World Health Organization has acknowledged pharmacovigilance as a priority area in global public health, guaranteeing permanent monitoring of drug safety. This study aimed to characterize the reports of adverse drug reactions received by the Porto Pharmacovigilance Centre (UFPorto), Portugal, in the unit's two decades of work. The analysis included all reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received from January 2001 to December 2019. We calculated the annual reporting rates and distribution by origin, type of notifier and place of work, severity, prior knowledge, and causality of the reported adverse drug reactions. During the study period, UFPorto received 9,711 notifications of suspected adverse drug reactions. Hospital institutions reported the most suspected adverse drug reactions (n = 6,003; 64%), as did physicians among healthcare workers (n = 5,284; 54.4%). The most frequently reported adverse events were severe (n = 6,275; 72%) and are described in the respective Summary of Product Characteristics (n = 6,978; 72%). Most of the reports received by UFPorto were evaluated as having "probable" causality (n = 7,473; 77%), independently of the type of notifier. The results are consistent with other data previously reported in the international medical literature and official national reports. However, the underreporting rates are still higher than expected. In approximately 20 years, UFPorto has experienced an increase in its activity in various areas of drug safety.


Resumen: Desde 1963 la farmacovigilancia fue reconocida por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, como un área prioritaria en la salud pública a nivel global, garantizando la monitorización permanente de la seguridad de los medicamentos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar las reacciones adversas a medicamentos recibidas por la Unidad de Farmacovigilancia de Oporto (UFPorto), Portugal, a lo largo de dos décadas de actividad. Se consideraron todas las notificaciones de sospechas de reacciones adversas a medicamentos, recibidas entre enero de 2001 y diciembre de 2019. Se calcularon las tasas de notificación anuales, así como su distribución por origen, tipo de notificador y lugar de ejercicio de la actividad, gravedad, conocimiento previo y causalidad de las reacciones adversas a medicamentos notificadas. En el período de estudio, la UFPorto recibió 9.711 notificaciones de sospechas reacciones adversas a medicamentos. Las instituciones hospitalarias son quienes más notifican (n = 6.003; 64%), así como el médico entre los profesionales de salud (n = 5.284; 54,4%). Los eventos adversos más frecuentemente reportados son graves (n = 6.275; 72%) y se encuentran descritos en lo respectivo Resumen de las Características del Medicamento (n = 6 978; 72%). A la mayoría de las notificaciones evaluadas por la UFPorto se le atribuyó el grado de causalidad "probable" (n = 7.473; 77%), independientemente del tipo de notificador. Los resultados obtenidos son concordantes con otros datos previamente reportados en la literatura médica internacional y en informes oficiales nacionales. No obstante, se continúa verificando tasas de subregistro acentuadas, frente a lo esperado. A lo largo de aproximadamente 20 años de actividad de la UFPorto, se ha verificado un aumento de su actividad en las diversas vertientes de la seguridad del medicamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Pharmacovigilance , Portugal/epidemiology , Brazil , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
11.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(1): e00245820, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153671

ABSTRACT

Em março de 2020, a Organização Mundial da Saúde anunciou a nova pandemia denominada de COVID-19, representando um desafio para os profissionais e serviços de saúde. Ainda não foi identificado um tratamento eficaz contra essa doença e vários fármacos são utilizados sem evidências de sua eficácia, que em alguns casos pode causar eventos indesejados. Esse é um estudo transversal com o objetivo de avaliar as reações adversas a medicamentos (RAMs) nos pacientes com COVID-19, identificadas entre 1º de março e 15 agosto de 2020 no Brasil, e os fatores associados ao surgimento de reações graves. Para comparar as proporções das amostras relacionadas ao notificador, paciente, fármacos e eventos adversos utilizamos os testes não paramétricos qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher, e para comparar as médias dos dados com a distribuição normal foi usado o teste t e de Mann-Whitney. Também foi realizada a análise de regressão logística multivariável, estimando as odds ratio (OR) brutas e ajustadas pelo software Stata, versão 10.0. Foram identificadas 631 RAMs em 402 pacientes. Os medicamentos mais envolvidos foram hidroxicloroquina (59,5%), azitromicina (9,8%) e a cloroquina (5,2%). As reações se manifestaram prioritariamente no sistema cardíaco (38,8%), gastrointestinal (14,4%), tecido cutâneo (12,2%) e hepático (8,9%). A cloroquina (OR = 5,4; IC95%: 1,9-15,6) e a hidroxicloroquina (OR = 2,1; IC95%: 1,2-3,6) foram os únicos medicamentos associados a RAM grave. Nossos achados fornecem subsídios para melhores práticas em farmacovigilância, contribuindo para tomadas de decisões regulatórias efetivas e seguras pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, para os pacientes e toda a sociedade.


En marzo de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud anunció la nueva pandemia denominada COVID-19, representando un desafío para los profesionales y servicios de salud. Todavía no se identificó un tratamiento eficaz contra esta enfermedad y varios fármacos se utilizan sin evidencias de su eficacia, que, en algunos casos, pueden causar eventos indeseados. Este es un estudio transversal, con el objetivo de evaluar las reacciones adversas a medicamentos (RAMs) en pacientes con COVID-19, identificadas desde el 1º de marzo al 15 agosto de 2020 en Brasil, y los factores asociados al surgimiento de reacciones graves. Para comparar las proporciones de las muestras relacionadas con el notificador, paciente, fármacos y eventos adversos, utilizamos los tests no paramétricos chi-cuadrado y exacto de Fisher, y para comparar las medias de los datos con la distribución normal, se utilizó el test t y de Mann-Whitney. También se realizó un análisis de regresión logística multivariable, estimando las odds ratio (OR) brutas y ajustadas, mediante el software Stata, versión 10.0. Se identificaron 631 RAMs en 402 pacientes. Los medicamentos más implicados fueron: hidroxicloroquina (59,5%), azitromicina (9,8%) y la cloroquina (5,2%). Las reacciones se manifestaron prioritariamente en el sistema cardíaco (38,8%), gastrointestinal (14,4%), tejido cutáneo (12,2%) y hepático (8,9%). La cloroquina (OR = 5,4; IC95%: 1,9-15,6) e hidroxicloroquina (OR = 2,1; IC95%: 1,2-3,6) fueron los únicos medicamentos asociados a RAM grave. Nuestros resultados proporcionan apoyo para mejores prácticas en farmacovigilancia, contribuyendo a las tomas de decisiones regulatorias efectivas y seguras, por parte de la Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria, para los pacientes y toda la sociedad.


In March 2020, the World Health Organization announced the new COVID-19 pandemic, which represented a challenge for health services and professionals. An effective treatment against this disease has not yet been developed; as such, several drugs are used without evidence of efficacy, which in some cases may lead to unwanted events. This is a cross-sectional study with the objective of evaluating adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in patients with COVID-19, identified between March 1 and August 15, 2020, in Brazil, as well as assessing the factors associated with the emergence of severe reactions. To compare the proportions of samples related to the notifier, patient, drugs and adverse events, we used Fisher's chi-square and exact nonparametric tests; and to compare the means of the data with normal distribution, we used the Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney's test. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was also performed, estimating the crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) by the Stata software, version 10.0. A total of 631 ADRs were identified in 402 patients. The main drugs were hydroxychloroquine (59.5%), azithromycin (9.8%) and chloroquine (5.2%). The reactions manifested primarily in the cardiac system (38.8%), gastrointestinal system (14.4%), skin tissue (12.2%) and hepatic system (8.9%). Chloroquine (OR = 5.4; 95%CI: 1.9-15.6) and hydroxychloroquine (OR = 2.1; 95CI%: 1.2-3.6) were the only drugs associated with severe ADR. Our findings provide support for better practices in pharmacovigilance, contributing to effective and secure regulatory decision-making by the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency, patients and society as a whole.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pharmacovigilance , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2021. 113 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1367190

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a gestão de risco nos serviços de saúde tem o papel de aplicar, de forma sistemática e contínua, as políticas, os procedimentos, as condutas e os recursos na identificação, análise, avaliação, comunicação e controle de riscos e eventos adversos que afetam a segurança, a saúde humana, a integridade profissional, o meio ambiente e a imagem institucional. A identificação dos eventos adversos que acontecem nos serviços de saúde é de extrema importância para o planejamento de ações de mitigação das falhas durante a assistência à saúde. Os sistemas de notificações voluntárias são o alicerce para um programa de segurança do paciente, ajudando a identificar melhorias no desenvolvimento de uma cultura de segurança, e funcionam como uma estratégia para garantir a qualidade. Objetivos: construir um protótipo de Sistema Informatizado de Notificação Voluntária de Incidentes Informatizado (SINVI); identificar os principais incidentes relacionados à prestação dos cuidados em banco de dados e discuti-los frente à literatura; validar um protótipo de um sistema informatizado de notificação voluntária de incidentes. Método: estudo metodológico desenvolvido em três etapas: identificação dos principais incidentes relacionados à prestação de cuidados; construção do protótipo de um Sistema Informatizado de Notificação Voluntária de Incidentes (SINVI); validação de conteúdo e usabilidade do protótipo do Sistema Informatizado de Notificação Voluntária de Incidentes (SINVI). Para a validação de conteúdo, foram utilizados o Coeficiente de Validação de Conteúdo (CVC), a Taxa de Concordância (TC) e o coeficiente de Kappa. Para a validação de usabilidade, foi utilizado o escore de System Usability Scale (SUS). Este estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa (CEP) com o número do Parecer: 3.674.180. Resultados: foram produzidos três produtos: dois estruturados em forma de artigo e o terceiro, em produto acadêmico. O primeiro identificou os principais eventos adversos notificados no país no período de 2014 a 2018; o segundo produto consiste na construção e validação do protótipo do SINVI e o terceiro é a apresentação do produto acadêmico, a produção técnica do protótipo do software do SINVI, localizado no estrado T1 na categorização da CAPES. Conclusão: os três produtos deste relatório de dissertação contribuem para a segurança do paciente nos serviços de saúde na medida em que fornecem subsídios para a gestão de risco e o núcleo de segurança do paciente na captação de dados agregados das notificações a partir do uso de um Sistema Informatizado de Notificação Voluntária de Incidentes (SINVI)


Introduction: risk management in health services has the role of applying, in a systematic and continuous manner, the policies, procedures, conducts and resources in the identification, analysis, evaluation, communication and control of risks and adverse events that affect safety, human health, professional integrity, the environment and the institutional image. The identification of adverse events that occur in health services is extremely important for the planning of actions to mitigate failures during health care. Voluntary reporting systems are the foundation of a patient safety program, helping to identify improvements in the development of a safety culture, and serve as a strategy to ensure quality. Objectives: build a prototype of a Computerized Voluntary Incident Notification System (SINVI); identify the main care-related incidents in a database and discuss them against the literature; validate a prototype of a computerized voluntary incident reporting system. Method: methodological study developed in three stages: identification of the main care-related incidents; construction of the prototype of a Computerized Voluntary Incident Notification System (SINVI); content and usability validation of the prototype of the Computerized Voluntary Incident Notification System (SINVI). For content validation, the Content Validation Coefficient (CVC), the Concordance Rate (CR), and the Kappa coefficient were used. For usability validation, the System Usability Scale (UHS) score was used. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (REC) with Opinion number: 3.674.180. Results: Three products were produced: two structured as articles and the third as an academic product. The first identified the main adverse events reported in the country from 2014 to 2018; the second product consists of the construction and validation of the SINVI prototype and the third is the presentation of the academic product, the technical production of the SINVI software prototype, located on the T1 platform in the CAPES categorization. Conclusion: the three products of this dissertation report contribute to patient safety in health services in that they provide subsidies for risk management and the patient safety nucleus in capturing aggregate data from the notifications using a Computerized Voluntary Incident Notification System (SINVI)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Safety Management/methods , Patient Safety , Health Services Administration/trends , Biomedical Technology/trends , Health Information Systems/trends
13.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 24, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1252108

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the distribution of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in pregnant women in the state of Minas Gerais, between 2015 and 2019. METHODS: This is an epidemiological, descriptive study conducted with AEFI data from 2015 to 2019, recorded in the Adverse Events Surveillance Information System, in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. A total of 670 AEFI were analyzed in pregnant women. The estimates were presented in proportions, according to the year of occurrence, health macro-region of Minas Gerais and immunobiological administered. RESULTS: The year in which there were the most records was 2017 (36.8%). Among the 14 macro-regions, the ones with the lowest and highest number of records were the Vale do Jequitinhonha (0.5%) and Center (31.8%), respectively. The vaccines contraindicated during pregnancy represented 27.6% of the total notifications. The total of 69.5% of the cases were considered immunization errors. In 75.9% of the records, the variable of medical care was ignored, and in 73.7% of the cases no information on the evolution was presented. CONCLUSION: This study shows the need for continuing education for the multidisciplinary team, in order to reduce cases of AEFI and ensure the adequate completion of notifications by health professionals.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição dos eventos adversos pós-vacinação (EAPV) em gestantes do estado de Minas Gerais, entre 2015 e 2019. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico, descritivo, realizado com dados de EAPV, do período de 2015 a 2019, registrados no Sistema de Informação da Vigilância de Eventos Adversos, no estado de Minas Gerais (MG), Brasil. Foram analisados 670 EAPV em gestantes. As estimativas foram apresentadas em proporções, de acordo com o ano de ocorrência, macrorregião de saúde de Minas Gerais e imunobiológico administrado. RESULTADOS: O ano em que mais houve registros foi 2017 (36,8%). Entre as 14 macrorregiões, as com menor e maior número de registros foram o Vale do Jequitinhonha (0,5%) e o Centro (31,8%), respectivamente. As vacinas contraindicadas durante a gestação representaram 27,6% do total de notificações. Foram considerados como erros de imunização 69,5% dos casos. Em 75,9% dos registros, a variável de atendimento médico foi ignorada, e em 73,7% dos casos não foi apresentada informação sobre a evolução. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo expõe a necessidade da educação continuada para a equipe multidisciplinar, a fim de reduzir casos de EAPV e garantir o preenchimento adequado das notificações pelos profissionais de saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Vaccines/adverse effects , Pregnant Women , Brazil , Immunization/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
14.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(3/4): 240-255, mayo.-ago. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223733

ABSTRACT

La inmunización se encuentra entre las intervenciones en salud pública más exitosas y costo efectivas de todas las épocas, siendo su beneficio tan importante como su seguridad. Las vacunas, como cualquier otro medicamento, pueden generar eventos adversos, los que deben ser monitorizados permanentemente por sistemas de vigilancia. Esta disciplina recibe el nombre de Farmacovigilancia de Vacunas (FVV), encargada de estudiar los Eventos Supuestamente Atribuidos a la Vacunación ó Inmunización (ESAVI). El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la evolución del sistema de farmacovigilancia de vacunas en Chile. El sistema de FVV chileno se basa en la vigilancia pasiva, y contempla la notificación obligatoria al Instituto de Salud Pública (ISP) de todos los ESAVI detectados, por parte de profesionales de la salud, directores de establecimientos y titulares de registro sanitario, priorizando las notificaciones de ESAVI serios e incluyendo la monitorización de todas las vacunas usadas en el país, tanto las que se encuentran incorporadas al Programa Nacional de Inmunización (PNI), como las que se encuentran fuera de este. El sistema de FVV chileno se caracteriza por un trabajo colaborativo permanente entre el ISP y el PNI, y parte de sus desafíos incluyen generar capacidades y alianzas estratégicas con la academia para la realización de estudios post comercialización sobre seguridad de vacunas. Finalmente, es importante destacar que tanto el marco normativo promulgado el año 2010, como la elaboración de procedimientos, el trabajo permanente con el PNI, y la conformación de un comité de expertos de ESAVI, y las diferentes estrategias de retroalimentación, son medidas implementadas que han contribuido a mejorar la tasa de reporte nacional y el análisis de los casos.


Immunization is among the most successful and cost-effective public health interventions of all times, its benefits being as important as its safety. Vaccines, like any other medicine, can generate adverse events, which must be permanently monitored by surveillance systems. Vaccine Pharmacovigilance (VPV) is the discipline responsible for studying Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI). The objective of this article is to review the evolution of the pharmacovigilance system of vaccines in Chile. The Chilean VPV system is based on passive surveillance, and establishes the mandatory reporting of all AEFI detected by healthcare workers, directors of healthcare facilities, and Marketing Authorization holders, to the Public Health Institute of Chile (PHI), prioritizing the reporting of serious ESAVI and including the monitoring of all vaccines used in the country, both those that are incorporated into the National Immunization Program (NIP), and those that are outside of it. The Chilean VPV system is characterized by a permanent collaborative work between the PHI and the NIP, and its challenges include generating capacities and strategic alliances with the academy to carry out post-marketing studies on vaccine safety. Finally, it's important to point out that the regulatory framework promulgated in 2010, as well as the elaboration of procedures, the permanent work with the NIP, the formation of an AEFI expert committee, and the different feedback strategies implemented, have contributed in improving case analysis and the national reporting rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunization/statistics & numerical data , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Pharmacovigilance , Safety , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Chile , Immunization/adverse effects , Immunization Programs
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828415

ABSTRACT

To explore the general characteristics of adverse drug reactions/adverse events(ADR/AE) in patients after using Shujin Jianyao Pills, and explore risk warning signals, this study analyzed 166 cases of ADR/AE reports of Shujin Jianyao Pills collected from 2005 to 2017 based on the National Center for ADR Monitoring spontaneous reporting system(SRS). And the descriptive statistical method was used to analyze general characteristics. The results showed that among the 166 ADR/AE cases, 106 cases were female patients, accounting for 63.86%. Middle-aged and elderly people aged 45 to 64 accounted for the largest proportion(82 cases, 49.40%), which were followed by elderly aged 65 and over(48 cases, 28.91%). ADR/AE involved a wide range of systems and organs, of which skin and its accessories were the most damaged(30 cases, 12.93%), which were followed by systemic damage(27 cases, 11.64%). The top 10 ADR/AE manifestations were rash(15 cases, 6.33%), nausea(14 cases, 5.91%), dizziness(14 cases, 5.91%), abdominal pain(12 cases, 5.06%), pruritus(11 cases, 4.64%), low back pain(11 cases, 4.64%), vomiting(10 cases, 4.22%), hepatocyte damage(9 cases, 3.80%), headache(9 cases, 3.80%), and diarrhea(7 cases, 2.95%). Bayesian confidence propagation neural network(BCPNN) was used to mine the ADR/AE risk early warning signal of Shujin Jianyao Pills, and the propensity score method was used to control the balance of confounding factors. The results suggested warning signs for nausea, diarrhea, rash, and dizziness, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, liver cell damage. This study provides a basis for the post-marke-ting safety evaluation of Shujin Jianyao Pills, and can provide guidance for its rational clinical use and risk management.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Bayes Theorem , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pharmacovigilance , Risk Management
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827947

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the safety problems and events of traditional Chinese medicine represented by liver injury have occurred frequently. In particular, Polygonum multiflorum has been widely used and considered as a "non-toxic" tonic traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. However, in recent years, frequent reports of liver injury events have attracted widespread attention at home and abroad, which has made unfavorable impacts on traditional Chinese medicine and its international development. Some scho-lars have found that susceptible genes of P. multiflorum on liver injury lay a scientific foundation for formulating rational comprehensive prevention and control measures for liver injury risk of P. multiflorum and its relevant preparations. But what are the risk signals of adverse reactions of P. multiflorum in clinical application? Spontaneous reporting system is an important way to monitor and find adverse drug reaction(ADR) signals after the drug is launched in the market. It can find the ADR signals in time and effectively, and then effectively prevent and avoid the occurrence of adverse drug events. At present, the data mining technique has gradually become the main method of ADR/adverse event(AE) report analysis and evaluation at home and abroad. Specifically, Bayesian confidence propagation neural network in Bayesian method is a commonly used risk signal early warning analysis method. In this paper, BCPNN method was used to excavate the risk signals of adverse reactions of Xinyuan Capsules, a traditional Chinese medicine preparation containing P. multiflorum, such as nausea, diarrhea, rash, dizziness, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, liver cell damage, so as to provide evidence-based evidence for clinical safe and rational use of drugs.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Bayes Theorem , Capsules , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827945

ABSTRACT

In order to understand the characteristics of adverse drug reaction/adverse event(ADR/AE) of Ginkgo biloba Dropping Pills and evaluate the safety of clinical use after marketing, 407 ADR/AE case report data of Ginkgo biloba Dropping Pills collected by National Center for ADR Monitoring System during 2009-2018 was systematically analyzed, and its general characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. The results showed that among the 407 cases of spontaneous reporting system(SRS) data, 401 cases were general ADR/AE, accounting for 98.5%, and 6 cases were severe ADR/AE, accounting for 1.5%; there were more females than males(171/150) in ADR/AE, and they were mainly middle-aged and elderly people aged 45-64 years(152 cases, accounting for 37.35%); gastrointestinal system(23.89%) was mostly involved in ADR/AE. The top ten clinical symptoms were nausea(15.49%), dizziness(9.88%), vomiting(8.11%), rash(5.60%), chest tightness(5.46%), palpitations(5.31%), pruritus(4.72%), headache(4.57%), abdominal distension(3.83%), gastric dysfunction(3.54%); proportional reporting ratio(PRR) and Bayesian confidence progressive neural network method(BCPNN) were adopted to mine ADR/AE warning signals. Due to the small sample size, there were only 0-2 ADR/AE cases with various symptoms in many quarters, with no warning signal by PRR and BCPNN methods. The findings suggest that ADR/AE of Ginkgo biloba Dropping Pills based on SRS system was not recorded in the package insert, and further active monitoring studies shall be conducted to improve relevant ADR/AE information and pay attention to its clinical drug safety issues.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Bayes Theorem , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Female , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neural Networks, Computer , Pharmacovigilance
18.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(supl.2): e00182019, 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124356

ABSTRACT

A vacinação é uma das ações mais efetivas para proteger o indivíduo e a população contra doenças imunopreveníveis. Vacinas são produtos seguros e eficazes, porém, como qualquer outro medicamento, podem causar eventos adversos, que ganham maior visibilidade na medida em que as doenças são controladas, eliminadas ou erradicadas. Este trabalho analisou as ações de vigilância de eventos adversos pós-vacinação (EAPV) com base em dados da literatura científica e sites de programas de imunizações, agências reguladoras e de saúde, além da expertise dos autores nas áreas de imunizações e farmacovigilância. Com o aumento do número de vacinas no calendário básico e a ampliação do acesso da população, tornou-se fundamental o estabelecimento de um sistema eficiente de vigilância de EAPV no Brasil. Entretanto, a subnotificação de casos no Brasil e em outros países dificulta a detecção de EAPV, principalmente os raros. Informações sempre atualizadas sobre o benefício/risco das vacinas permitem que programas de imunizações deem respostas rápidas e claras aos rumores de EAPV. Isso garante a confiabilidade no sistema, ainda mais diante do crescente movimento antivacinista e a influência cada vez maior das mídias sociais na opinião pública.


La vacunación es una de las acciones más efectivas para proteger al individuo y a la población contra enfermedades inmunoprevenibles. Las vacunas son productos seguros y eficaces, sin embargo, como cualquier otro medicamento, pueden causar eventos adversos, que tienen mayor visibilidad según se controlen, eliminen o se erradiquen las enfermedades. Este trabajo analizó las acciones de vigilancia de eventos adversos posvacunación (EAPV), basándose en datos de la literatura científica y sitios web de programas de inmunizaciones, agencias reguladoras y de salud, además de la expertise de los autores en las áreas de inmunizaciones y farmacovigilancia. Con el aumento del número de vacunas en el calendario básico y la ampliación del acceso de la población, se hizo fundamental el estabelecimiento de un sistema eficiente de vigilancia de EAPV en Brasil. Sin embargo, la subnotificación de casos en Brasil y en otros países dificulta la detección de EAPV, principalmente, los raros. Informaciones siempre actualizadas sobre el beneficio/riesgo de las vacunas permiten que programas de inmunizaciones proporcionen respuestas rápidas y claras a los rumores sobre EAPV. Esto garantiza la confianza en el sistema, incluso más aún ante el creciente movimiento antivacunas y la influencia cada vez mayor de los redes sociales en la opinión pública.


Immunization is one of the most effective measures to protect individuals and the population against vaccine-preventable diseases. Vaccines are safe and effective products, but like any other drug they can cause adverse events, which tend to become more visible as the diseases are controlled, eliminated, or eradicated. This study analyzed activities in the surveillance of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) based on data from the scientific literature, websites of immunization programs and health andregulatory agencies, and the authors' expertise in the areas of immunizations and pharmacovigilance. With the increase in the number of vaccines in the basic immunization schedule and expansion of the population's access, it has become essential to establish an efficient surveillance system for AEFI in Brazil. However, underreporting of cases in Brazil and in other countries hinders the detection of AEFI, especially rare events. Constantly updated information on vaccines' risks and benefits allows immunization programs to provide rapid and clear responses to rumors of AEFI. This ensures the system's reliability, especially in the face of the growing antivaccine movement and the increasing influence of social media in public opinion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Pharmacovigilance , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Immunization/adverse effects
19.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(7): e00043019, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124307

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Os Sistemas Nacionais de Farmacovigilância (SINAF), ao realizar a gestão do risco sanitário, identificam, avaliam e atuam na sua minimização, contribuindo para o uso adequado dos medicamentos, a segurança do paciente e a melhor qualidade do cuidado. O registro acelerado, cada vez mais frequente, dificulta a avaliação da eficácia e segurança de novas substâncias, agregando dificuldades para a regulação contemporânea e para a proteção da saúde. O artigo analisa, por meio da aplicação de indicadores propostos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, os SINAF de Portugal e do Brasil. O SINAF brasileiro foi institucionalizado mais tardiamente, gera menos sinais de segurança, apresenta menor taxa de notificação de suspeitas de eventos adversos a medicamentos (EAM) e demonstra dificuldade na produção e disseminação de informação a profissionais e população. Portugal se favorece da condição de estado membro da Agência Europeia de Medicamentos. Sugere-se, ainda, que as diferenças se relacionem ao contexto político-social que dificulta a implantação das políticas públicas e compromete a efetividade do SINAF brasileiro. São desafios para os SINAF a sensibilização dos profissionais, a adoção de métodos complementares à notificação voluntária, a farmacovigilância de medicamentos biológicos e de base genética, e a avaliação do impacto de suas ações. O SINAF brasileiro tem como desafio complementar aprimorar a captação e qualidade das notificações, inclusive da indústria, gerar sinais de segurança no contexto nacional e comunicar o risco, de forma tempestiva, a profissionais e população.


Abstract: National Pharmacovigilance Systems (PVS) manage health risks and identify, assess, and act to minimize them, contributing to adequate use of medicines, patient safety, and improved quality of care. Fast-track drug registration, which has become increasingly frequent, hinders assessment of the efficacy and safety of new drugs, adding difficulties to current regulation and health protection. The article applies indicators proposed by the World Health Organization to analyze the National PVS of Portugal and Brazil. Brazil's PVS was established later than that of Portugal, generates fewer safety signals, has a lower notification rate for suspected adverse drug events (ADEs), and displays difficulty in producing and disseminating information to health professionals and the population. Portugal has the advantage of being a member state of the European Medicines Agency. The article also suggests that the differences are related to the political and social context that hinders the implementation of public policies and compromises the effectiveness of the Brazilian PVS. Challenges for PVS include awareness-raising of health professionals, the adoption of methods to complement voluntary notification, pharmacovigilance of biological and genetic drugs, and assessment of the system's impact. An additional challenge for the Brazilian PVS is to improve the notifications' uptake and quality, including from industry, generate safety signals in the national context, and communicate risk in timely fashion to health professionals and the population.


Resumen: Los Sistemas Nacionales de Farmacovigilancia (SINAF), cuando realizan la gestión del riesgo sanitario, identifican, evalúan y actúan en su minimización, contribuyendo al uso adecuado de los medicamentos, la seguridad del paciente y una mejor calidad del cuidado. El registro acelerado, cada vez más frecuente, dificulta la evaluación de la eficacia y seguridad de nuevas sustancias, agregando dificultades para la regulación contemporánea y para la protección de la salud. El artículo analiza, mediante la aplicación de indicadores propuestos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, los SINAF de Portugal y de Brasil. El SINAF brasileño se institucionalizó más tardíamente, genera menos señales de seguridad, posee una menor tasa de notificación de sospechas de efectos adversos relacionados con medicamentos (EAM) y demuestra dificultad en la producción y difusión de información a profesionales y población. Portugal se favorece de la condición de estado miembro de la Agencia Europea de Medicamentos. Se sugiere, incluso, que las diferencias se relacionan con el contexto político-social que dificulta la implementación de las políticas públicas y compromete la efectividad del SINAF brasileño. Son desafíos para los SINAF: la sensibilización de los profesionales, la adopción de métodos complementarios a la notificación voluntaria, la farmacovigilancia de medicamentos biológicos y de base genética y la evaluación del impacto de sus acciones. El SINAF brasileño tiene como desafío complementario perfeccionar la captación y calidad de las notificaciones, inclusive de la industria, generar señales de seguridad en el contexto nacional y comunicar el riesgo, de forma adecuada, a profesionales y población.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Pharmacovigilance , Portugal , Brazil , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Patient Safety
20.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 468-475, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1087433

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: a avaliação da cultura de segurança do paciente permite aos hospitais identificar e gerir prospectivamente questões relevantes de segurança em suas rotinas de trabalho. Método: estudo quantitativo, transversal e descritivo, ocorrida no ano de 2017 na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Adulta em um hospital privado, localizado em Niterói/RJ. A população foram os profissionais médicos e equipe de enfermagem, utilizando análise estatística por meio de programa R, com a interface Rcmdr. Resultados: baseados nas respostas às perguntas sobre notificação de eventos aplicada com a Pesquisa de Cultura de Segurança do Paciente a 97 profissionais, com uma taxa de resposta de 85,6%, correspondendo a 83 profissionais. Menos de 45% dos participantes da pesquisa sempre notificam um erro, engano ou falha, que afete ou não o paciente, 59,0% não fizeram nenhuma notificação nos últimos 12 meses antecedentes à pesquisa e não houve diferença significativa na quantidade de notificação que destacasse uma categoria profissional, graduados ou não. Discussão: houve maior adesão à notificação de eventos pelos com maior tempo de hospital e com maior tempo naquela terapia intensiva. Não se encontrou correlação do número de notificações relatadas com o tempo de profissão e com a carga horária de trabalho. Conclusão: no que tange à conscientização de incrementar a adesão à notificação de eventos, a análise realizada contribuiu para a melhoria da segurança do paciente


Objective: ealuating the patient's safety culture allows hospitals to identify and manage relevant safety issues prospectively in their work routines. Method: a quantitative, transversal and descriptive study, carried out in 2017 at the Adult Intensive Care Unit in a private hospital, located in Niterói / RJ. The population were medical professionals and nursing staff, using statistical analysis through program R, with the Rcmdr interface. Results: based on responses to questions about event notification applied with the Patient Safety Culture Survey to 97 professionals, with a response rate of 85.6%, corresponding to 83 professionals. Less than 45% of respondents report an error, deception, or failure, affecting the patient, 59.0% did not report in the last 12 months prior to the survey, and there was no significant difference in the amount of notification that stood out a professional category, graduates or not. Discussion: there was greater adherence to the notification of events by those with longer hospital time and with more time in that intensive therapy. There was no correlation between the number of reports reported with the time of profession and the workload. Conclusion: with regard to the awareness of increasing adherence to event notification, the analysis performed contributed to the improvement of patient safety


Objetivo: la evaluación de la cultura de seguridad del paciente permite a los hospitales identificar y gestionar prospectivamente cuestiones relevantes de seguridad en sus rutinas de trabajo. Método: estudio cuantitativo, transversal y descriptivo, ocurrido en el año 2017 en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Adulta en un hospital privado, ubicado en Niterói / RJ. La población fueron los profesionales médicos y equipo de enfermería, utilizando análisis estadístico por medio del programa R, con la interfaz Rcmdr. Resultados: basados en las respuestas a las preguntas sobre notificación de eventos aplicada con la Encuesta de Cultura de Seguridad del Paciente a 97 profesionales, con una tasa de respuesta del 85,6%, correspondiendo a 83 profesionales. En la mayoría de los casos, la mayoría de las personas que sufren de la enfermedad de Alzheimer, una categoría profesional, graduados o no. Discusión: hubo mayor adhesión a la notificación de eventos por los con mayor tiempo de hospital y con mayor tiempo en aquella terapia intensiva. No se encontró correlación del número de notificaciones relatadas con el tiempo de profesión y con la carga horaria de trabajo. Conclusión: en lo que concierne a la concientización de incrementar la adhesión a la notificación de eventos, el análisis realizado contribuyó a la mejora de la seguridad del paciente


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Monitoring/instrumentation , Patient Safety/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/trends , Risk Assessment , Intensive Care Units
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