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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 767-779, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980828


Alternative splicing (AS) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that removes introns and ligates exons to generate mature messenger RNAs (mRNAs), extremely improving the richness of transcriptome and proteome. Both mammal hosts and pathogens require AS to maintain their life activities, and inherent physiological heterogeneity between mammals and pathogens makes them adopt different ways to perform AS. Mammals and fungi conduct a two-step transesterification reaction by spliceosomes to splice each individual mRNA (named cis -splicing). Parasites also use spliceosomes to splice, but this splicing can occur among different mRNAs (named trans -splicing). Bacteria and viruses directly hijack the host's splicing machinery to accomplish this process. Infection-related changes are reflected in the spliceosome behaviors and the characteristics of various splicing regulators (abundance, modification, distribution, movement speed, and conformation), which further radiate to alterations in the global splicing profiles. Genes with splicing changes are enriched in immune-, growth-, or metabolism-related pathways, highlighting approaches through which hosts crosstalk with pathogens. Based on these infection-specific regulators or AS events, several targeted agents have been developed to fight against pathogens. Here, we summarized recent findings in the field of infection-related splicing, including splicing mechanisms of pathogens and hosts, splicing regulation and aberrant AS events, as well as emerging targeted drugs. We aimed to systemically decode host-pathogen interactions from a perspective of splicing. We further discussed the current strategies of drug development, detection methods, analysis algorithms, and database construction, facilitating the annotation of infection-related splicing and the integration of AS with disease phenotype.

Animals , Alternative Splicing/genetics , RNA Splicing , Spliceosomes/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/genetics , Mammals/metabolism
Biol. Res ; 56: 12-12, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429913


BACKGROUND: Drought stress has significantly hampered agricultural productivity worldwide and can also result in modifications to DNA methylation levels. However, the dynamics of DNA methylation and its association with the changes in gene transcription and alternative splicing (AS) under drought stress are unknown in linseed, which is frequently cultivated in arid and semiarid regions. RESULTS: We analysed AS events and DNA methylation patterns in drought-tolerant (Z141) and drought-sensitive (NY-17) linseed under drought stress (DS) and repeated drought stress (RD) treatments. We found that the number of intron-retention (IR) and alternative 3' splice site (Alt3'SS) events were significantly higher in Z141 and NY-17 under drought stress. We found that the linseed response to the DS treatment was mainly regulated by transcription, while the response to the RD treatment was coregulated by transcription and AS. Whole genome-wide DNA methylation analysis revealed that drought stress caused an increase in the overall methylation level of linseed. Although we did not observe any correlation between differentially methylated genes (DMGs) and differentially spliced genes (DSGs) in this study, we found that the DSGs whose gene body region was hypermethylated in Z141 and hypomethylated in NY-17 were enriched in abiotic stress response Gene Ontology (GO) terms. This finding implies that gene body methylation plays an important role in AS regulation in some specific genes. CONCLUSION: Our study is the first comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the relationship between linseed methylation changes and AS under drought and repeated drought stress. Our study revealed different interaction patterns between differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and DSGs under DS and RD treatments and differences between methylation and AS regulation in drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive linseed varieties. The findings will probably be of interest in the future. Our results provide interesting insights into the association between gene expression, AS, and DNA methylation in linseed under drought stress. Differences in these associations may account for the differences in linseed drought tolerance.

DNA Methylation , Flax/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Alternative Splicing/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Gene Expression Profiling , Droughts , Transcriptome
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2991-3004, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921401


Flowering is a critical transitional stage during plant growth and development, and is closely related to seed production and crop yield. The flowering transition is regulated by complex genetic networks, whereas many flowering-related genes generate multiple transcripts through alternative splicing to regulate flowering time. This paper summarizes the molecular mechanisms of alternative splicing in regulating plant flowering from several perspectives, future research directions are also envisioned.

Alternative Splicing/genetics , Arabidopsis/metabolism , Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics , Flowers/genetics
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(2): 96-101, Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894899


BACKGROUND The insect chitinase gene family is composed by more than 10 paralogs, which can codify proteins with different domain structures. In Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, a chitinase cDNA from adult female insects was previously characterized. The predicted protein contains one catalytic domain and one chitin-binding domain (CBD). The expression of this gene coincided with the end of blood digestion indicating a putative role in peritrophic matrix degradation. OBJECTIVES To determine the occurrence of alternative splicing in chitinases of L. longipalpis. METHODS We sequenced the LlChit1 gene from a genomic clone and the three spliced forms obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using larvae cDNA. FINDINGS We showed that LlChit1 from L. longipalpis immature forms undergoes alternative splicing. The spliced form corresponding to the adult cDNA was named LlChit1A and the two larvae specific transcripts were named LlChit1B and LlChit1C. The B and C forms possess stop codons interrupting the translation of the CBD. The A form is present in adult females post blood meal, L4 larvae and pre-pupae, while the other two forms are present only in L4 larvae and disappear just before pupation. Two bands of the expected size were identified by Western blot only in L4 larvae. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We show for the first time alternative splicing generating chitinases with different domain structures increasing our understanding on the finely regulated digestion physiology and shedding light on a potential target for controlling L. longipalpis larval development.

Animals , Chitinases/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Digestive System/enzymology , Chitinases/physiology , Alternative Splicing/genetics
Radiol. bras ; 48(2): 93-100, Mar-Apr/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746612


Objective: To present a detailed explanation on the processing of magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), demonstrating the effects of echo time and sensitive mask on the differentiation between calcification and hemosiderin. Materials and Methods: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (magnitude and phase) images of six patients (age range 41– 54 years; four men) were retrospectively selected. The SWI images processing was performed using the Matlab’s own routine. Results: Four out of the six patients showed calcifications at computed tomography images and their SWI images demonstrated hyperintense signal at the calcification regions. The other patients did not show any calcifications at computed tomography, and SWI revealed the presence of hemosiderin deposits with hypointense signal. Conclusion: The selection of echo time and of the mask may change all the information on SWI images, and compromise the diagnostic reliability. Amongst the possible masks, the authors highlight that the sigmoid mask allows for contrasting calcifications and hemosiderin on a single SWI image. .

Objetivo: Expor em detalhes o processamento da imagem ponderada em suscetibilidade magnética (susceptibility weighted imaging – SWI), destacando o efeito da escolha do tempo de eco e da máscara sensível à diferenciação de calcificação e hemossiderina simultaneamente. Materiais e Métodos: Imagens de tomografia computadorizada e por ressonância magnética (magnitude e fase) foram selecionadas, retrospectivamente, de seis pacientes (idades entre 41 e 54 anos; quatro homens). O processamento das imagens SWI foi realizado em rotina própria no programa Matlab. Resultados: Dos seis pacientes estudados, quatro apresentaram calcificações nas imagens de tomografia computadorizada. Nestes, as imagens SWI mostraram sinal hiperintenso para as regiões de calcificações. Os outros dois pacientes não apresentaram calcificações nas imagens de tomografia computadorizada e apresentaram depósito de hemossiderina com sinal hipointenso na imagem SWI. Conclusão: A escolha do tempo de eco e da máscara pode alterar toda a informação da imagem SWI e comprometer a confiabilidade diagnóstica. Dentre as possíveis máscaras, destacamos que a máscara sigmoide permite contrastar calcificação e hemossiderina em uma única imagem SWI. .

Animals , Mice , Alternative Splicing/genetics , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein/genetics , Tropomyosin/genetics , Base Sequence , Binding Sites , DNA Primers , Exons , Genetic Vectors , Ligands , Open Reading Frames , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Transfection
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2015. 115 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847453


O splicing alternativo do pré-mRNA de BCL-X produz duas isoformas de mRNAs com funções antagônicas, a pró-apoptótica BCL-XS e a anti-apoptótica BCL-XL, cujo balanço regula a homeostasia celular. Entretanto, o mecanismo que regula esse processamento ainda é desconhecido. Nesse trabalho, nós identificamos e caracterizamos um longo RNA não codificador de proteínas (lncRNA) nomeado INXS, que é transcrito a partir da fita oposta do locus genômico de BCL-X, sendo menos abundante em linhagens celulares tumorais e tecidos tumorais de pacientes quando comparados com os respectivos pares não tumorais. INXS é um RNA unspliced de 1903 nts, é transcrito pela RNA Polimerase II, possui cap 5', está enriquecido na fração nuclear das células e se liga à proteína Sam68 do complexo modulador de splicing. O tratamento de células tumorais 786-O com cada um de três agentes indutores de apoptose aumentou a expressão endógena do INXS, levando ao aumento expressivo da proporção entre os mRNAs de BCL-XS / BCL-XL, e ativação das caspases 3, 7 e 9. Estes efeitos foram anulados na presença do knockdown do INXS. Da mesma forma, a superexpressão ectópica do INXS causou uma mudança no splicing favorecendo a isoforma BCL-XS e ativação das caspases, aumentando os níveis da proteína BCL-XS e conduzindo as células à apoptose. Utilizando um modelo in vivo, cinco injeções intra-tumorais do INXS durante 15 dias causaram uma regressão acentuada no volume dos xenotumores. Portanto, INXS é um lncRNA que induz a apoptose, sugerindo que essa molécula seja um possível alvo a ser explorado na terapia contra o câncer

BCL-X mRNA alternative splicing generates pro-apoptotic BCL-XS or anti-apoptotic BCL-XL, whose balance regulates cell homeostasis. However, the mechanism that regulates the splice shifting is incompletely understood. Here, we identified and characterized a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) named INXS, transcribed from the opposite genomic strand of BCL-X, that was less abundant in tumor cell lines and patient tumor tissues compared with non-tumors. INXS is an unspliced 1903 nt-long RNA, is transcribed by RNA Polymerase II, 5'-capped, nuclear enriched and binds Sam68 splicing-modulator. The treatment of tumor cell line 786-O with each of three apoptosis-inducing agents increased endogenous INXS lncRNA, increased BCL-XS / BCL-XL mRNA ratio, and activated caspases 3, 7 and 9. These effects were abrogated in the presence of INXS knockdown. Similarly, ectopic INXS overexpression caused a shift in splicing towards BCL-XS and activation of caspases, increasing the levels of BCL-XS protein and then leading the cells to apoptosis. In a mouse xenograft model, five intra-tumor injections of INXS along 15 days caused a marked regression in tumor volume. INXS is an lncRNA that induces apoptosis, suggesting that INXS is a possible target to be explored in cancer therapies

Apoptosis/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/analysis , Alternative Splicing/genetics , bcl-X Protein , bcl-X Protein/analysis , DNA, Antisense , Gene Expression/genetics , Neoplasms , RNA
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(11): 1112-1117, Nov. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604275


Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., PCDFs), often called "dioxins", are ubiquitously present environmental contaminants. Some of them, notably 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), are among the most toxic synthetic compounds known. The biological effects of dioxins are mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Mutations in the AhR transactivation domain are linked to sensitivity to the acute lethality of TCDD. We present here a study of AhR gene polymorphism in normal and cancer human tissues affecting pre-mRNA splicing in the AhR gene-coding transactivation domain region (exon 10, intron 10, exon 11 region), previously shown to be associated with AhR dysfunction. We tested 126 pairs of normal and cancer tissue samples from liver, lung, stomach, kidney, mucous, breast, and pancreas of 49 males and 77 females (45-70 years of age). We used in vitro splicing assay, RT-PCR and sequencing methods. Our results showed that in an in vitro system it is possible to reconstitute cellular pre-mRNA splicing events. Tested cancer tissues did not contain mutations in the AhR transactivation domain region when the DNA sequences were compared with those from normal tissues. There were also no differences in AhR mRNA splice variants between normal and malignant breast tissues and no polymorphisms in the studied regions or cDNA.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alternative Splicing/genetics , Introns/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/genetics , Case-Control Studies , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Neoplasms/pathology
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 53(6): 709-715, ago. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-529947


RNA splicing is an essential, precisely regulated process that occurs after gene transcription and before mRNA translation, in which introns may be removed and exons, retained. Variability in splicing patterns is a major source of protein diversity from the genome and function to generate a tremendously diverse proteome from a relatively small number of genes. Changes in splice site choice can determine different effects on the encoded protein. Small changes in peptide sequence can alter ligand binding, enzymatic activity, allosteric regulation, or protein localization. Errors in splicing regulation have been implicated in a number of different disease states. This study reviewed the mechanisms of splicing and their repercussion in endocrinology, emphasizing its importance in some thyroid physiological and pathological conditions.

Após a transcrição genética e antes da tradução do mRNA, ocorre o splicing do RNA, que consiste em um processo essencial, precisamente regulado, por meio do qual podem ocorrer excisões de íntrons e retenções de éxons. A variabilidade dos padrões de splicing é a principal fonte de diversidade de proteínas geradas por um pequeno número de genes. Alterações na escolha do sítio de splicing podem determinar efeitos diferentes nas proteínas codificadas. Pequenas alterações na sequência peptídica podem alterar o seu sítio de ligação de substratos, sua atividade enzimática, a regulação alostérica ou a localização proteica. Erros na regulação do splicing têm sido implicados em grande número de doenças. Nessa revisão, foram descritos os mecanismos de splicing enfatizando sua importância em algumas condições fisiológicas e patológicas envolvendo a tireoide.

Humans , RNA Splicing/genetics , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Alternative Splicing/genetics , Receptors, Thyroid Hormone/physiology , Thyroid Gland/physiology , Thyroid Hormones/metabolism , Thyroid Neoplasms/metabolism , Thyrotropin/physiology
São Paulo; s.n; 2008. 166 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: lil-553328


Análises recentes têm mostrado a ocorrência de splicing alternativo (AS) do mRNA em pelo menos 60% dos genes humanos, sendo que 80% desses eventos ocorrem dentro da região codificadora, aumentando a diversidade proteômica. ... Para identificar variantes de splicing diferencialmente reguladas em câncer de mama, 270 exons expressos em tecidos ... Esses exons foram imobilizados em membranas de nylon juntamente com controles positivos e negativos, e hibridizados contra amostras tumorais e normais de mama. ... Para validação técnica dos exons selecionados como superexpressos de acordo com os critérios estabelecidos, foi empregada a técnica de RT-PCR quantitativo (qRT-PCR), usando o mesmo grupo de amostras já utilizadas anteriormente. ... Os resultados mostraram que a razão do nível de expressão entre as 3 VCE e a expressão constitutiva do gene (VCE/EC) foi significativamente maior em amostras tumorais de mama quando comparadas às amostras normais (p<0,05), sugerindo que TRIM37-VCE, MK-STYX-VCE e BRRN1-VCE são, de fato, variantes de splicing superexpressas em câncer de mama. Essas variantes foram também avaliadas em um grupo independente de 40 amostras tumorais de mama para validar biologicamente a superexpressão da VCE em amostras tumorais de mama quando comparadas às amostras normais. Todos os dados foram correlacionados com características clínicas e histopatológicas das amostras.

Current analyses have shown that alternative mRNA splicing (AS) appears in at least 60% of human genes and 80% of these events occurs within the coding region, increasing the proteomic diversity. Some AS variants have been preferentially expressed in human tumors and are potential molecular markers, contributing to the development of more accurate diagnostic and prognostic factors as well as therapeutic targets. To identify differentially regulated splicing variants in breast cancer, 270 exons expressed in tumor tissues were selected by a computational analysis, of which 75 were associated with breast, because they are found to be expressed in libraries that originated from breast tumors and they were not found in the corresponding normal libraries. These exons were immobilized on nylon membranes together with positive and negative controls, and hybridized against tumor and normal breast samples. To identify the most highly expressed exons in tumor tissues, 3 comparisons were performed: 4 tumor against 2 normal breast cell lines (LTxLN), 27 tumor against 5 non-neoplasic breast tissues (TxN) and 4 matched tumor-normal samples (PTxPN). A Tstudent test was used to select for differentially expressed exons (p<0.05) in each comparison (LTxLN; TxN; PTxPN). Here, 24 were selected as over expressed exons in the LTxLN comparison, 79 exons in the TxN comparison and 195 exons in the PTxPN comparison. For technical validation, those exons having a fold change of ≥ 3 in tumor samples and being present in at least 2 comparisons were selected. Fourteen exons were identified by microarray experiments and evaluated through quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR), using the same sample set utilized previously. In order to test whether the exons selected by microarray experiments belonged to a prone over expressed splicing variant, 2 criteria were adopted: (1) Validation by qRTPCR of the variant that comprises the selected over expressed exon (VCE) (fold change ≥ 3); (2) For those exons confirmed in criterion (1), evaluation of whole gene expression (through the analysis of constitutive gene expression) is adopted as a secondary criterium. Three of the VCE's were confirmed through qRT-PCR as being over expressed in breast tumor, such as TRIM37-VCE, MK-STYX-VCE and BRRN1-VCE. The constitutive expression of the gene (EC) was analyzed by qRT-PCR, through the primer design within constitutive exons, that is, present in all variants of the gene. The results showed that the expression level ratio between the 3 VCE's and the constitutive expression of genes (VCE/EC) was significantly higher in tumor samples when compared to normal samples (p<0.05), suggesting that TRIM37-VCE, MK-STYX-VCE and BRRN1-VCE are indeed breast tumor associated variants. These variants were also evaluated in an independent set of 40 breast tumor samples to biologically validate the VCE over expression in tumor samples as compared to normal samples. All data were correlated with clinical and histopathological samples features, and some significative associations were found, such as the expression of estrogen (ER+) and progesterone (PgR+) receptors with TRIM37-VCE. Although an increase of the experimental data is required for the complete exploration of this study, the results suggest 3 splicing variants that are over expressed in ductal carcinoma of the breast, and are candidates for molecular markers.

Breast Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Alternative Splicing , Alternative Splicing/genetics , Exons
Journal of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. 2008; 16 (64): 1-10
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-103288


Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Because of the highly heterogeneous nature of tumoral and non-tumoral thyroid nodules and lack of suitable clinico-pathological criteria and absence of appropriate molecular markers, scientists have been trying to find a molecular tumor marker for specific diagnosis of thyroid tumors. Recent attention has been paid to Survivin, a novel member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein Family [IAP], as a new molecular marker in cancer. Studies have demonstrated that Survivin and its splice variants have different expression in cancerous tissues compared to normal tissues. In this study the expression of Survivin and its splice variants; 2B and [delta] Ex3 were evaluated as new diagnostic molecular markers in thyroid cancer. Tissue samples were collected from 61 thyroid specimens including 14 tumor margins, 11 non-tumoral and 36 tumoral samples. Expression levels of Surviving and its variants were measured by semi quntitative RT-PCR. Expression level of Survivin in tumor samples was significantly higher compared with surgical margins and non tumural tissues. There was also a significant increase in expression level of Survivin-[delta]Ex3 in tumoral tissues compared with surgical margins. The expression of Survivin 2B in tumors was lower than the non-tumoral tissues. Our data indicated the important role of Survivin in production of thyroid tumors and also revealed that high expression of [delta]Ex3 variant is correlated with nature of thyroid tumors. Therefore, evaluating Survivin gene expression and its recently introduced splice variants may be used in diagnosis and classification of thyroid tumors from non-tumoral lesions

Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics , Alternative Splicing/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genetic Variation , Neoplasm Proteins , Gene Expression
São Paulo; s.n; 26 nov. 2007. 126 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-494813


O carcinoma de célula renal (CCR) subtipo célula clara é o câncer mais letal e prevalente do sistema urinário. A transformação maligna no CCR está possivelmente associada à mudanças no perfil de expressão de oncogenes e genes supressores de tumor, e acredita-se que estas alterações sejam críticas para o desenvolvimento do fenótipo maligno. Para identificar novos genes e vias moleculares associadas à transformação maligna no CCR célula clara, foram analisados perfis de expressão gênica de amostras pareadas de tumor e tecido não tumoral adjacente de 6 pacientes. Foi utilizada uma plataforma de microarrays de cDNA contendo 2.292 sondas mapeando éxons de genes codificadores e 822 sondas de RNAs não-codificadores mapeando em regiões intrônicas. A transcrição intrônica foi detectada em todos os tecidos normais e neoplásicos. Utilizando uma combinação de dois testes estatísticos e uma validação por leave-one-out, foi selecionado um subconjunto de 64 transcritos com expressão significativamente alterada em CCR célula clara em relação ao tecido não tumoral adjacente, estando a maior parte (86%) com expressão diminuída em CCR. Entre os transcritos com expressão diminuída, 49 mapearam em regiões não-traduzidas ou éxons de genes codificadores e 6 mapearam em regiões intrônicas de genes codificadores conhecidos. Os níveis de expressão diminuída de SIN3B, TRIP3, SYNJ2BP e NDE1 (p<0,02), e de transcritos intrônicos derivados dos loci de SND1 e ACTN4 (p<0,05), foram confirmados em CCR célula clara por Real-time RT-PCR. Um subconjunto de 25 transcritos se mostrou alterado em 6 amostras adicionais de CCR não-célula clara, indicando alterações transcricionais comuns em CCR independentemente do subtipo histológico ou do estado de diferenciação do tumor. Além disso, foi analisado o perfil de metilação dos genes com expressão diminuída em tumor SIN3B, TRIP3, SYNJ2BP e GPX3...

Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Gene Expression , Genome, Human/genetics , Kidney Neoplasms , Alternative Splicing/genetics , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 67(4): 369-373, jul.-ago. 2007. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-485032


La enzima P450 aromatasa (P450Aro) participa en la síntesis de estrógenos a partir de andrógenos. La mutación c655G>A, descripta en forma heterocigota en una niña y en forma homocigota en un hombre adulto, ambos con déficit de aromatasa, genera la disrupción del sitio dador de splicing exón5-intrón5. Se ha postulado que la retención del intrón5 y la generación de una proteína truncada inactiva serían las consecuencias de esta mutación. Sorpresivamente, la paciente presentó desarrollo espontáneo de mamas y niveles puberales de estradiol, sugiriendo una actividad aromatasa (AA) residual. En principio postulamos que la mutación c655G>A generaría la pérdida del exón5 con conservación del marco de lectura, generándose una proteína con menor actividad que podría explicar el déficit parcial. La expresión del ARNm sin exón5 (ARNm- E5) en linfocitos de la paciente sugiere una asociación entre la pérdida del exón y la presencia de la mutación; posteriormente confirmada realizando ensayos de splicing en células Y1. Sin embargo, la expresión del cDNAE5 en células Y1 presentó una AA nula que no explicaría un déficit parcial. La expresión del ARNm-E5 fue detectada en placenta, testículo y adrenal humanos como una variante de splicing normal. Estos resultados indicarían la ocurrencia de splicing alternativo (SA) en la zona codificante de P450Aro como un posible mecanismo regulador de la producción de estrógenos en tejidos esteroidogénicos humanos. La mutación c655G>A podría alterar los mecanismos fisiológicos reguladores del SA del exón5 favoreciendo su exclusión. De esta forma, bajos niveles de ARNm+E5 podrían expresarse aun en presencia de la mutación explicando el fenotipo de déficit parcial observado en la paciente.

P450 aromatase (P450Aro), involved in androgen to estrogen conversion, is encoded by the CYP19 gene. P450Aro c655G>A mutation described in heterozygous form in a girl and in homozygous form in an adult male with P450Aro deficiency results in an aberrant splicing due to disruption of a donor splice site. A truncated inactive protein would be expected if intron5 is retained. Surprisingly, the girl described with this mutation showed spontaneous breast development and pubertal estradiol (E2) levels suggesting residual P450Aro activity (AA). Formerly, we postulate the in frame E5 skipping as a consequence of this mutation generating a protein with some degree of activity. When P450Aro mRNA expression was analysed from patient's lymphocytes, an aberrant spliced mRNA lacking E5 (-E5mRNA) was detected, suggesting an association between E5 skipping and the presence of the mutation. Splicing assays in Y1 cells confirmed this association. -Ex5 cDNA expression in Y1 cells resulted in an inactive protein that could not explain patient's phenotype. Exon 5 might be predicted as a poorly defined exon suggesting a susceptibility to splicing mutations and physiological alternative splicing (AS) events. Therefore, -Ex5mRNA was assessed as a natural occurring alternative transcript in normal human steroidogenic tissues. As P450Aro -E5mRNA expression was detected in human term placenta, prepubertal testis and prepubertal adrenal, we might speculate that AS of P450Aro coding region would occur in humans and would be involved in the complex AA regulation. Furthermore, tissue specific regulation of AS might suggest low expression of +E5mRNA from the c655G>A allele explaining residual AA evidenced in the affected girl.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Alternative Splicing/genetics , Aromatase/deficiency , /genetics , Estrogens/biosynthesis , Exons/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Aromatase/genetics , Estradiol/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/analysis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Sexual Development/genetics
São Paulo; s.n; 9 mar. 2007. 146 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-464450


Nesse trabalho, nós mostramos estudos em larga-escala de RNAs não codificadores antisenso que são transcritos em regiões intrônicas de genes humanos. Alguns destes transcritos intrônicos possuem níveis de expressão correlacionados ao grau de diferenciação tumoral de câncer de próstata, apontando para uma relevância biológica destas mensagens em doenças complexas como o câncer. Nós também avaliamos a existência de um mecanismo comum de regulação de transcrição, compartilhado por mRNAs codificadores de proteína e RNAs intrônicos, através de análises de perfís de expressão de uma linhagem tumoral de próstata estimulada por andrógeno. A análise de ESTs e mRNAs depositados em bancos públicos de seqüência revelou mais de 55 mil RNAs Totalmente Intrônicos Não-codificadores (TIN), transcritos dos íntrons de 74% de todos os genes RefSeq únicos. Guiados por esta informação, nós desenhamos uma plataforma de oligonucleotídeos contendo sondas senso e antisenso para cada um de 7.520 transcritos TIN selecionados aleatoriamente, além de sondas para os genes codificadores de proteína correspondentes. Nos identificamos assinaturas intrônicas e exônicas de expressão tecido-específicas em fígado, próstata e rim.Os RNAs TIN antisenso mais altamente expressos eram transcritos de íntrons de genes codificadores de proteína enriquecidos na categoria “Regulação da transcrição...

Gene Expression , Genome, Human/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Obesity , Alternative Splicing/genetics , RNA Polymerase II/antagonists & inhibitors , Androgens , Origin of Life , Nucleic Acid Hybridization/methods , Introns , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 601-607, 2005.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24114


Nanog, a homeodomain (HD) transcription factor, plays a critical role in the maintenance of embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal. Here, we report the identification of an alternatively-spliced variant of nanog. This variant lacked a stretch of amino acids (residues 168-183) located between the HD and tryptophan-repeat (WR) of the previously-reported full length sequence, suggesting that the deleted sequence functions as a linker and possibly affects the flexibility of the C-terminal transactivation domain relative to the DNA binding domain. Expression of mRNA encoding the splice variant, designated as nanog-delta 48, was much lower than that of the full length version in human ES cells. The ratio of nanog-delta 48 transcript to full length transcript increased, however, in multipotent adult progenitor cells. EMSA analysis revealed that both forms of Nanog were able to bind a nanog binding sequence with roughly the same affinity. A reporter plasmid assay also showed that both variants of nanog modestly repressed transactivation of gata-4, whose expression is proposed to be inhibited by nanog, with comparable potency. We conclude that, despite the difference in primary structure and expression pattern in various stem cells, the alternatively-spliced variant of Nanog has similar activity to that of the full length version.

Humans , Alternative Splicing/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Cell Nucleus , Cells, Cultured , DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry , Exons/genetics , GATA4 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Genes, Reporter , Homeodomain Proteins/chemistry , Introns/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Promoter Regions, Genetic , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Transcriptional Activation , Transfection
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 3(4): 512-520, 2004. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-410895


Although alternative splicing of many genes has been found associated with different stages of tumorigenesis and splicing variants have been characterized as tumor markers, it is still not known whether these examples are sporadic or whether there is a broader association between the two phenomena. In this report we evaluated, through a bioinformatics approach, the expression of splicing factors in both normal and tumor tissues. This was possible by integrating data produced by proteomics, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and microarray experiments. We observed a significant shift in the expression of splicing factors in tumors in both SAGE and microarray data, resulting from a large amount of experiments. We discuss that this supports the notion of a broader association between alternative splicing and cell transformation, and that splicing factors may be involved in oncogenic pathways.

Humans , Alternative Splicing/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Dosage , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Genetic Markers/genetics , Proteomics , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 3(4): 532-544, 2004. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-410897


Alternative splicing increases protein diversity through the generation of different mRNA molecules from the same gene. Although alternative splicing seems to be a widespread phenomenon in the human transcriptome, it is possible that different subgroups of genes present different patterns, related to their biological roles. Analysis of a subgroup may enhance common features of its members that would otherwise disappear amidst a heterogeneous population. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are a good set for such analyses since they are structurally and functionally related. This family of proteins is involved in a large variety of functions, probably achieved by the combinatorial use of protein domains through exon shuffling events. To determine if ECM genes have a different pattern of alternative splicing, we compared clusters of expressed sequences of ECM to all other genes regarding features related to the most frequent type of alternative splicing, alternative exon usage (AEU), such as: the number of alternative exon-intron structures per cluster, the number of AEU events per exon-intron structure, the number of exons per event, among others. Although we did not find many differences between the two sets, we observed a higher frequency of AEU events involving entire protein domains in the ECM set, a feature that could be associated with their multi-domain nature. As other subgroups or even the ECM set in different tissues could present distinct patterns of AEU, it may be premature to conclude that alternative splicing is homogeneous among groups of related genes.

Humans , Alternative Splicing/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Exons/genetics , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/genetics , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Gene Library , Genetic Code , Models, Genetic , Proteome
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 154-159, 2003.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10317


By searching an EST database, we identified two TNF receptor superfamily members (named mTNFRH1 and mTNFRH2). Amino acid sequences are highly conserved between the two receptors (78% identity). The chromosomal loci of mTnfrh1 and mTnfrh2 genes are found in distal chromosome 7 in the mouse. mTNFRH1 and mTNFRH2 do not contain the cytoplasmic domain, indicating that they might function as decoy receptors. Furthermore, an alternatively spliced form of mTNFRH1 was found which contains neither the transmembrane domain nor the cytoplasmic domain, thus presumably existing as a soluble form. Northern blot analysis showed that mTnfrh1 mRNA was negligibly expressed in tissues, while mTnfrh2 mRNA was strongly expressed in spleen, lung, liver, kidney, and testis. When the extracellular domains of mTNFRH1 and mTNFRH2 were expressed in bacteria, their molecular weight of extracellular region was approximately 15 kDa. Both of the soluble forms were effective in inhibiting T-cell proliferation stimulated by anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. Our data suggest that mTNFRH1 and mTNFRH2 may be implicated in exerting a modulatory role in the immune response.

Animals , Mice , Alternative Splicing/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Cell Division/physiology , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Gene Expression/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , T-Lymphocytes/cytology
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2001; 7 (4-5): 707-715
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-157986


Analysis of expressed mRNAs with differential display-polymerase chain reaction [DD-PCR] is a powerful tool for the characterization of genes involved in malignant pathways and might identify markers for different phases of chronic myelogenous leukaemia [CML]. We examined the presence of BCR-ABL transcripts in 25 CML patients in either the chronic phase or blast crisis. We then analysed the expression of leukocytic RNA transcripts in CML phases. DD-PCR technique was used to examine CML cases with BCR-ABL in comparison with CML cases lacking detectable BCR-ABL transcripts. Our results support the use of differential display not only for characterization of the CML differentially expressed genes but also to locate patterns that can be implemented as valuable fingerprints for each phase of CML

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alternative Splicing/genetics , Autoradiography , Blast Crisis/genetics , Cytogenetic Analysis , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Genes, abl/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Neoplasm/genetics