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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1291-1299, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980925


Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a membrane receptor on myeloid cells and plays an important role in the body's immune defense. Recently, TREM2 has received extensive attention from researchers, and its activity has been found in Alzheimer's disease, neuroinflammation, and traumatic brain injury. The appearance of TREM2 is usually accompanied by changes in apolipoprotein E (ApoE), and there has been a lot of research into their structure, as well as the interaction mode and signal pathways involved in them. As two molecules with broad and important roles in the human body, understanding their correlation may provide therapeutic targets for certain diseases. In this article, we reviewed several diseases in which TREM2 and ApoE are synergistically involved in the development. We further discussed the positive or negative effects of the TREM2-ApoE pathway on nervous system immunity and inflammation.

Humans , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Microglia/metabolism , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Neuroinflammatory Diseases
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1117-1130, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982468


Resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenolic phytochemical, has been suggested as a putative anti-aging molecule for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by the activation of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1/Sir2). In this study, we tested the effects of RES and Sirt1/Sir2 on sleep and courtship memory in a Drosophila model by overexpression of amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose duplications and mutations cause familial AD. We found a mild but significant transcriptional increase of Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2) by RES supplementation for up to 17 days in APP flies, but not for 7 days. RES and dSir2 almost completely reversed the sleep and memory deficits in APP flies. We further demonstrated that dSir2 acts as a sleep promotor in Drosophila neurons. Interestingly, RES increased sleep in the absence of dSir2 in dSir2-null mutants, and RES further enhanced sleep when dSir2 was either overexpressed or knocked down in APP flies. Finally, we showed that Aβ aggregates in APP flies were reduced by RES and dSir2, probably via inhibiting Drosophila β-secretase (dBACE). Our data suggest that RES rescues the APP-induced behavioral deficits and Aβ burden largely, but not exclusively, via dSir2.

Animals , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Drosophila/physiology , Drosophila Proteins/metabolism , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Sirtuin 1 , Sleep
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 60(3): 313-324, sept. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407820


RESUMEN: Los biomarcadores más estudiados en la demencia tipo Alzheimer (DA) son los niveles elevados de Aβ42 y de proteína Tau en líquido cefalorraquídeo. Dada la complejidad de la sintomatología cognitiva y síntomas neuropsiquiátricos (SNP) de esta patología, algunos estudios recientes proponen sustancias como las orexinas, como blanco terapéutico de DA y SNP. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar publicaciones científicas recientes que hayan analizado la asociación entre orexinas, SNP y DA en humanos, algunos modelos animales y que hayan evaluado a las orexinas como posibles biomarcadores tanto para investigación como en el área clínica. En esta revisión también se describen los estudios que sugieren a las orexinas como un posible biomarcador en la DA, dada su relación con el Aβ42 y la proteína Tau, y otros estudios que las asocian con presencia de SNP, especialmente alteración del sueño. Se plantea la hipótesis de que la presencia de SNP en DA se asocia con las orexinas, debido a que este sistema influye en el funcionamiento hipotalámico y de forma indirecta en áreas cerebrales que regulan el comportamiento. Sin embargo, aún falta mayor investigación, principalmente de estudios longitudinales para conocer claramente la influencia de las orexinas en los SNP.

ABSTRACT The most studied biomarkers in Alzheimer's dementia (AD) are elevated levels of Aβ42 and Tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Given the complexity of the cognitive symptomatology and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of this pathology, some recent studies propose substances such as orexins as a therapeutic target for AD and NPS. The present work aims to review recent scientific publications that have analyzed the association between orexins, PNS and AD in humans. There are some animal models that have evaluated orexins as possible biomarkers both for research and in the clinical area. This review also describes studies that suggest orexins as possible biomarkers in AD, given their relationship with Aβ42 and Tau protein, and other studies that associate them with the presence of SNPs, especially sleep disturbance. It is hypothesized that the presence of SNPs in AD is associated with orexins, because this system influences hypothalamic functioning and indirectly in brain areas that regulate behavior. However, further research is still lacking, mainly longitudinal studies to clearly know the influence of orexins on SNPs.

Humans , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Orexins/metabolism , Sleep Wake Disorders , Biomarkers , Dementia , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology
Biol. Res ; 55: 10-10, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383914


BACKGROUND: In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the neuroinflammatory response mediated by the activation of senescent microglia is closely related to energy dysmetabolism. However, the mechanism underlying the interaction between the energy metabolism of aging microglia and neuroinflammation remains unclear. METHODS: We used biochemical methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence, and western blot to determine the effects and mechanism of CD38 knockdown on energy metabolism and neuroinflammation in Aß1-40 injured BV2 cells. Using AD model mice, we detected CD38 enzyme activity, energy metabolism factors (ATP, NAD +, and NAD +/NADH), and neuroinflammatory factors (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) following the addition of CD38 inhibitor. Using a combination of biochemical analysis and behavioral testing, we analyzed the effects of the CD38 inhibitor on energy metabolism disorder, the neuroinflammatory response, and the cognition of AD mice. RESULTS: Following Aß1-40 injury, SA-ß-Gal positive cells and senescence-related proteins P16 and P21 increased in BV2 cells, while energy-related molecules (ATP, NAD +, and NAD +/NADH) and mitochondrial function (mitochondrial ROS and MMP) decreased. Further studies showed that CD38 knockdown could improve Aß1-40-induced BV2 cells energy dysmetabolism and reduce the levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. In vivo results showed an increase in senile plaque deposition and microglial activation in the hippocampus and cortex of 34-week-old APP/PS1 mice. Following treatment with the CD38 inhibitor, senile plaque deposition decreased, the number of Iba1 +BV2 cells increased, the energy metabolism disorder was improved, the proinflammatory cytokines were reduced, and the spatial learning ability was improved. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that senescent microglia appeared in the brain of 34-week-old APP/PS1 mice, and that Aß1-40 can induce senescence of BV2 cells. The expression of CD38 increases in senescent BV2 cells, resulting in energy metabolism disorder. Therefore, reducing CD38 expression can effectively improve energy metabolism disorder and reduce proinflammatory cytokines. Following intervention with the CD38 inhibitor in APP/PS1 mice, the energy metabolism disorder was improved in the hippocampus and cortex, the level of proinflammatory cytokines was reduced, and cognitive impairment was improved.

Animals , Mice , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Brain , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 17-24, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927891


Objective: To uncover the time-dependent expression pattern of ptk2b gene and ptk2b-encoded protein, protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta(PTK2B), in the brain tissues of transgenic animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its relationship with the levels of Aβ1-42, phosphorylation of Tau (p-Tau) and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1(LRP-1) in blood and brain tissues. Methods: In this study, 5-, 10- and 15-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 double-transgenic mice harboring the genotype of AD confirmed by the gene test were divided into the 5-, 10- and 15-month-old experiment groups, and simultaneously, age-matched C57BL/6J mice were placed into the corresponding control groups, with 8 mice in each group. All mice were subjected to the Morris Water Maze for test of cognitive and behavioral ability. Expression profiles of PTK2B, Aβ1-42, p-Tau/Tau and LRP-1 in the hippocampus or blood of mice were quantified by using the immunohistochemistry staining, Western blot or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the mRNA expression of ptk2b in the hippocampus was quantified by using the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: Results of experiment groups demonstrated that as mice aged, the expression levels of PTK2B, ptk2b mRNA, Aβ1-42 and p-Tau/Tau in the hippocampus were increased, and the expression of LRP-1 was decreased gradually. While in the blood, the level of Aβ1-42 was decreased, and the cognitive and behavioral ability was decreased in an age-dependent manner (all P< 0.05). However, comparisons among the control groups, only the age-dependent downregulation of LRP-1 were observed in hippocampus(P<0.05), but other indicators had no significant differences (P>0.05). Conclusion: In the hippocampus of APP/PS1 double-transgenic mice, the expressions of PTK2B, Aβ1-42 and p-Tau/Tau are upregulated, LRP-1 is downregulated, while cognitive and behavioral ability is decreased, and such changes are presented in a time-dependent manner.

Animals , Mice , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics , Focal Adhesion Kinase 2/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 , Maze Learning , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , RNA, Messenger
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e48747, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368155


Although malnutrition and risk of falls in the elderly have increased in recent years, uncertainties exist as to whether these conditions are associated after controlling for sociodemographic variables, body composition, metabolic condition, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to analyze the association between nutritional status and risk of fall in the elderly population. Participants were matched by gender and age, after they had been grouped on the basis of diagnosis of AD. The risk of falls, nutritional status, and mental status were assessed using the Downton Fall Risk Score (FRS), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE), respectively. Logistic regression modelsadjusted for the main confounders were used in the analyses. Among the 68 elderly individuals studied, participants who were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition were more likely to fall (odds ratio = 8.29; 95% confidence interval = 1.49-46.04) than those with normal nutritional status, regardless of gender, age, education, body composition, and metabolic condition. This association did not remain significant after adjustment for AD, a potential confounder in this association. Malnutrition or its risk was independently associated with high risk of fall; thus, malnutrition should be considered in the prevention of falls among the elderly population.

Humans , Male , Female , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Elderly Nutrition , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Body Composition/physiology , Aged/physiology , Aging/physiology , Nutritional Status/physiology , Dementia/complications , Malnutrition/complications , Metabolism/physiology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 230-234, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056427


The hypotheses currently considered the most likely causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are amyloid beta peptide deposition in the cerebral cortex and hyperphosphorylation of the Tau protein, with the consequent formation of neurofibrillary tangles. In clinical practice, although not accurate, AD diagnosis is based on the exclusion of other diseases, behavioural assessments and complementary examinations, such as imaging and blood tests. Advances in the field of biotechnology have created exciting prospects for the early detection of AD via biomarker assessment, which is considered a safer and more efficient procedure. Molecules recognised as biomarkers can be expressed in some body fluids, including cerebrospinal fluid, saliva and blood. The presence of amyloid beta peptide and Tau can be confirmed in saliva, which is also an easily and non-invasively collectable material with an accessible cost. The objective was evaluate the concentrations of the t-Tau protein and Ab42 peptide in the saliva of elderly individuals with and without dementia of the AD type Method: The objective of this case-control study, involving a total of 120 individuals, was to analyse whether a correlation exists between variations in the concentrations of the t-Tau and Ab42 biomarkers in the saliva of patients with confirmed AD and individuals in the inclusion group but without AD . We found that t-Tau expression in AD patients is significantly lower than that in individuals without AD, whereas the salivary concentration of Ab42 is higher in patients with AD but not significantly different from that of the group without AD. Conclusion: Thus, we demonstrate the feasibility of using salivary biomarkers as predictive markers for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

Las hipótesis consideradas actualmente como las causas más probables de la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) son la deposición de péptido beta amiloide en la corteza cerebral y la hiperfosforilación de la proteína Tau, con la consiguiente formación de ovillos neurofibrilares. En la práctica clínica, aunque no es precisa, el diagnóstico de la EA se basa en la exclusión de otras enfermedades, evaluaciones de comportamiento y exámenes complementarios, como imágenes y análisis de sangre. Los avances en el campo de la biotecnología han creado interesantes perspectivas para la detección temprana de la EA a través de la evaluación de biomarcadores, que se considera un procedimiento más seguro y más eficiente. Las moléculas reconocidas como biomarcadores se pueden expresar en algunos fluidos corporales, incluidos el líquido cerebroespinal, la saliva y la sangre. La presencia del péptido beta amiloide (AB) y la proteína Tau (t-Tau) se puede confirmar en la saliva, que también es un material fácil y no invasivo de recolección con un costo accesible. El objetivo fue evaluar las concentraciones de la proteína t-Tau y el péptido Ab42 en la saliva de las personas de edad avanzada con y sin demencia del tipo de tipo EA. El estudio de casos y controles, se realizó en un total de 120 personas, para analizar si existe una correlación entre las variaciones en las concentraciones de los biomarcadores t-Tau y Ab42 en la saliva de pacientes con EA confirmada e individuos en el grupo de inclusión pero sin AD. Encontramos que la expresión de t-Tau en pacientes con EA es significativamente menor que en individuos sin EA, mientras que la concentración salival de Ab42 es mayor en pacientes con EA pero no significativamente diferente de la del grupo sin la enfermedad . Por lo tanto, se demuestra la viabilidad del uso de biomarcadores salivales como marcadores predictivos para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad de Alzheimer.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , tau Proteins/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Saliva/metabolism , Saliva/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides/analysis , tau Proteins/analysis
Biol. Res ; 51: 35, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983939


BACKGROUND: The previous studies have demonstrated the reduction of thiamine diphosphate is specific to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and causal factor of brain glucose hypometabolism, which is considered as a neurodegenerative index of AD and closely correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment. The reduction of thiamine diphosphate may contribute to the dysfunction of synapses and neural circuits, finally leading to cognitive decline. RESULTS: To demonstrate this hypothesis, we established abnormalities in the glucose metabolism utilizing thiamine deficiency in vitro and in vivo, and we found dramatically reduced dendrite spine density. We further detected lowered excitatory neurotransmission and impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation, which are induced by TPK RNAi in vitro. Importantly, via treatment with benfotiamine, Aß induced spines density decrease was considerably ameliorated. CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed that thiamine deficiency contributed to synaptic dysfunction which strongly related to AD pathogenesis. Our results provide new insights into pathogenesis of synaptic and neuronal dysfunction in AD.

Animals , Male , Synapses/physiology , Thiamine Deficiency/complications , Thiamine Deficiency/metabolism , Thiamine Pyrophosphate/deficiency , Alzheimer Disease/etiology , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Neurons/physiology , Thiamine Deficiency/physiopathology , Thiamine Pyrophosphate/metabolism , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Diphosphotransferases/metabolism , Synaptic Transmission/physiology , Dendritic Spines/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Glucose/metabolism , Hippocampus/physiopathology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 864-869, Sept. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893065


Este artículo presenta un análisis desde el punto de vista bibliográfico de marcadores y biomarcadores de la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA). Las metodologías usadas fueron los marcadores de imágenes (Resonancia Magnética y Tomografía por emisión de positrones) y biomarcadores de la proteína BA42, de la proteína Tau y de la Apoliproteína E (ALPE). De esta manera, son de importancia los niveles de BA42 disminuidos, la Tau incrementada, los polimorfismos de ALPE y las alteraciones constatadas en los marcadores de imagen, como factores de riesgo esenciales para el desarrollo de la EA. Se realiza una revisión de la literatura con respecto a los hallazgos clínicos de esta enfermedad.

This article presents a bibliographical analysis of markers and biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The methodologies used were the imaging markers (Magnetic Resonance and Positron Emission Tomography) and biomarkers of the BA42 protein, Tau protein and Apoliprotein E (ALPE). Thus, decreased levels of BA42, increased Tau, ALPE polymorphisms, and alterations in imaging markers are important as risk factors for the development of AD. A review of the literature is made regarding the clinical findings of this disease.

Humans , Alzheimer Disease/diagnostic imaging , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Positron-Emission Tomography , tau Proteins/metabolism
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 39(2): 95-103, Apr.-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844186


Objective: To study associations of cerebrovascular metabolism genotypes and haplotypes with age at Alzheimer’s disease dementia (AD) onset and with neuropsychiatric symptoms according to each dementia stage. Methods: Consecutive outpatients with late-onset AD were assessed for age at dementia onset and Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores according to Clinical Dementia Rating scores, apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) haplotypes, angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) variants rs1800764 and rs4291, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol receptor gene (LDLR) variants rs11669576 and rs5930, cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene (CETP) variants I422V and TaqIB, and liver X receptor beta gene (NR1H2) polymorphism rs2695121. Results: Considering 201 patients, only APOE-ɛ4 carriers had earlier dementia onset in multiple correlations, as well as less apathy, more delusions, and more aberrant motor behavior. Both ACE polymorphisms were associated with less intense frontally mediated behaviors. Regarding LDLR variants, carriers of the A allele of rs11669576 had less anxiety and more aberrant motor behavior, whereas carriers of the A allele of rs5930 had less delusions, less anxiety, more apathy, and more irritability. CETP variants that included G alleles of I422V and TaqIB were mostly associated with less intense frontally mediated behaviors, while severely impaired carriers of the T allele of rs2695121 had more anxiety and more aberrant motor behavior. Conclusion: Though only APOE haplotypes affected AD onset, cerebrovascular metabolism genotypes were associated with differences in several neuropsychiatric manifestations of AD.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebrovascular Disorders/genetics , Cerebrovascular Disorders/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Genotype , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Linear Models , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age of Onset , Gene Dosage , Alleles , Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Late Onset Disorders , Liver X Receptors/genetics , Lipoproteins, LDL/genetics , Neuropsychological Tests
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(9): 737-744, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796045


ABSTRACT Cell physiology is impaired before protein aggregation and this may be more relevant than inclusions themselves for neurodegeneration. The present study aimed to characterize an animal model to enable the analysis of the cell biology before and after protein aggregation. Ten-month-old Lewis rats were exposed either to 1 or 2 mg/kg/day of rotenone, delivered subcutaneously through mini-pumps, for one month. Hyperphosphorylated TAU, alpha-synuclein, amyloid-beta peptide and protein carbonylation (indicative of oxidative stress) were evaluated in the hippocampus, substantia nigra and locus coeruleus through immunohistochemistry or western blot. It was found that 2 mg/kg/day rotenone increased amyloid-beta peptide, hyperphosphorylation of TAU and alpha-synuclein. Rotenone at 1mg/kg/day did not alter protein levels. Protein carbonylation remained unchanged. This study demonstrated that aged Lewis rats exposed to a low dose of rotenone is a useful model to study cellular processes before protein aggregation, while the higher dose makes a good model to study the effects of protein inclusions.

RESUMO A fisiologia celular está prejudicada antes da agregação proteica podendo ser mais importante para a neurodegeneração do que as próprias inclusões. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar um modelo animal para analisar os mecanismos e efeitos da agregação proteica. Ratos Lewis com 10 meses de idade foram expostos a rotenona (1 ou 2 mg/kg/dia), administrada subcutaneamente, utilizando minibombas osmóticas. Os níveis de peptídeo beta-amiloide, TAU hiperfosforilada, alfa-sinucleína e proteínas carboniladas (indicativo de estresse oxidativo) foram avaliados por imunohistoquímica e western blot no hipocampo, substância negra e locus coeruleus. Foi demonstrado que 2 mg/kg/dia de rotenona promoveu aumento do peptídeo beta-amiloide, hiperfosforilação da TAU e alfa-sinucleína. Já 1 mg/kg/dia de rotenona não alterou os níveis dessas proteína nessas regiões. As proteínas carboniladas não se alteraram. Foi demonstrado que ratos Lewis idosos expostos a baixas doses de rotenona são modelo de estudo dos processos celulares antes da agregação proteica, enquanto 2 mg/kg/dia de rotenona permite estudos sobre os efeitos da agregação proteica.

Animals , Male , Rotenone/administration & dosage , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Central Nervous System/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Protein Aggregation, Pathological/chemically induced , Protein Aggregation, Pathological/pathology , Rats, Inbred Lew , Substantia Nigra/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Amyloid beta-Peptides/drug effects , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , alpha-Synuclein/drug effects , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hippocampus/pathology
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Apr; 50(2): 120-125
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147295


Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with many cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms is biochemically characterized by a significant decrease in the brain neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Plant-derived metabolites, including alkaloids have been reported to possess neuroprotective properties and are considered to be safe, thus have potential for developing effective therapeutic molecules for neurological disorders, such as AD. Therefore, in the present study, thirteen plant-derived alkaloids, namely pleiocarpine, kopsinine, pleiocarpamine (from Pleiocarpa mutica, family: Annonaceae), oliveroline, noroliveroline, liridonine, isooncodine, polyfothine, darienine (from Polyalthia longifolia, family: Apocynaceae) and eburnamine, eburnamonine, eburnamenine and geissoschizol (from Hunteria zeylanica, family: Apocynaceae) were analyzed for their anti-cholinergic action through docking with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as target. Among the alkaloids, pleiocarpine showed promising anti-cholinergic potential, while its amino derivative showed about six-fold higher anti-cholinergic potential than pleiocarpine. Pleiocarpine and its amino derivative were found to be better inhibitors of AChE, as compared to commonly used drugs tacrine (brand name: Cognex) and rivastigmine (brand name: Exelon), suggesting development of these molecules as potential therapeutics in future.

Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Catalytic Domain , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Cholinergic Antagonists/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Crystallography, X-Ray/methods , Drug Design , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Ligands , Models, Chemical , Models, Molecular , Phytotherapy , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(3): 375-380, mar. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-677347


Brainfunctioning is mainly intrinsic, notprimarily reflexive. This is supported by the high energy requirements ofthe resting brain (20% ofall the energy consumed) which only marginally increases with changes in brain activity. Modern neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques have led to the discovery of the so called brain default mode network (DMN), a constellation of brain regions which support brain activity at rest and whose discharges decrease during task-induced activities. Another characteristic ofthe DMN are the elevated levéis of aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), that is, metabolism ofglucose to lactic acid in thepresence ofsufficient levéis ofoxygen. In Alzheimer's disease there is amyloid deposition and metabolic disruption at the DMN regions. Changes in connectivity among the different nodes ofthe DMN and its connections with the hippocampus have been reported. The characteristics ofthe DMN and its relation to Alzheimer's disease are discussed. This issue is ofinterest in the pathogenesis and possibly for its usefulness as a biomarker ofthe disease.

Humans , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Brain/physiopathology , Glycolysis/physiology , Nerve Net/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/etiology , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Nerve Net/metabolism
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e39-2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71808


This study is aimed at gaining insights into the brain site-specific proteomic senescence signature while comparing physiologically aged brains with aging-related dementia brains (for example, Alzheimer's disease (AD)). Our study of proteomic differences within the hippocampus (Hp), parietal cortex (pCx) and cerebellum (Cb) could provide conceptual insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in aging-related neurodegeneration. Using an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) brain site-specific proteomic strategy, we identified 950 proteins in the Hp, pCx and Cb of AD brains. Of these proteins, 31 were significantly altered. Most of the differentially regulated proteins are involved in molecular transport, nervous system development, synaptic plasticity and apoptosis. Particularly, proteins such as Gelsolin (GSN), Tenascin-R (TNR) and AHNAK could potentially act as novel biomarkers of aging-related neurodegeneration. Importantly, our Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA)-based network analysis further revealed ubiquitin C (UBC) as a pivotal protein to interact with diverse AD-associated pathophysiological molecular factors and suggests the reduced ubiquitin proteasome degradation system (UPS) as one of the causative factors of AD.

Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Gelsolin/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Organ Specificity , Proteome/genetics , Tenascin/genetics , Ubiquitin C/genetics
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 34(supl.2): s194-s205, Oct. 2012.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662767


Neurodegenerative disorders are undoubtedly an increasing problem in the health sciences, given the increase of life expectancy and occasional vicious life style. Despite the fact that the mechanisms of such diseases are far from being completely understood, a large number of studies that derive from both the basic science and clinical approaches have contributed substantial data in that direction. In this review, it is discussed several frontiers of basic research on Parkinson´s and Alzheimer´s diseases, in which research groups from three departments of the Institute of Biomedical Sciences of the University of São Paulo have been involved in a multidisciplinary effort. The main focus of the review involves the animal models that have been developed to study cellular and molecular aspects of those neurodegenerative diseases, including oxidative stress, insulin signaling and proteomic analyses, among others. We anticipate that this review will help the group determine future directions of joint research in the field and, more importantly, set the level of cooperation we plan to develop in collaboration with colleagues of the Nucleus for Applied Neuroscience Research that are mostly involved with clinical research in the same field.

Os transtornos neurodegenerativos são, sem dúvida, um problema crescente nas ciências da saúde, dado o aumento da expectativa de vida e de estilos de vida pouco saudáveis. Embora os mecanismos de tais doenças ainda estejam longe de ser esclarecidos, vários estudos que derivam tanto da ciência básica quanto de abordagens clínicas contribuíram nessa direção. Na presente revisão, são discutidas linhas de frente da pesquisa básica sobre as doenças de Parkinson e Alzheimer, em que grupos de pesquisas de três departamentos do Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas da Universidade de São Paulo estão envolvidos em um esforço multidisciplinar. O foco principal desta revisão envolve os modelos animais desenvolvidos para se estudar os aspectos celulares e moleculares daquelas doenças neurodegenerativas, incluindo o estresse oxidativo, a sinalização da insulina e as análises proteômicas, dentre outros. Antecipamos que esta revisão irá auxiliar o grupo a determinar as futuras direções da pesquisa conjunta nessa área e, o mais importante, estabelecer o nível de cooperação que planejamos desenvolver juntamente com colegas do Núcleo de Apoio à Pesquisa em Neurociência Aplicada que estão envolvidos com pesquisa clínica na mesma área.

Animals , Humans , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/etiology , Biomarkers/analysis , Brain/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Exercise/physiology , NADPH Oxidases/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Parkinson Disease/etiology , Peptides/analysis , Proteomics
Rev. argent. anestesiol ; 70(1): 91-96, 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-711982


Existe creciente evidencia derivada de modelos experimentales in vitro, cultivos celulares y modelos animales que sugiere el efecto de la anestesia sobre la degeneración neuronal y una interacción entre la cirugía, la anestesia y la neuropatología denominada Alzheimer. También existe la firme creencia de que los ancianos corren el riesgo de sufrir deterioro cognitivo transitorio, aunque también puede ser persistente, después de haber sido sometidos a una cirugía mayor, y ese deterioro puede estar asociado a muerte o debilidad. En este trabajo revisamos brevemente los fundamentos básicos de la enfermedad de Alzheimer y su interacción con la anestesia general, y los pocos datos clínicos en humanos que han sido utilizados para proponer una posible asociación entre la anestesia general y las demencias.

Humans , Aged , Anesthesia, General , Dementia/complications , Dementia/etiology , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Age Factors , Cerebrum , Cerebrum/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Postoperative Complications , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/physiology , tau Proteins/physiology , Cognition Disorders/complications , Cognition Disorders/etiology
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 39(3): 90-93, 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-640455


CONTEXTO: Deficiência de vitaminas do complexo B tem sido associada a deterioração cognitiva e quadros demenciais em idosos. OBJETIVO: Neste trabalho, foi avaliado se pacientes com doença de Alzheimer (DA) e com comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL) apresentam níveis séricos de ácido fólico e cobalamina (vitamina B12) menores que idosos controles. MÉTODOS: Foram recrutados 146 idosos (40 com DA, 56 com CCL e 49 idosos controles) para este estudo. Os níveis séricos de ácido fólico e vitamina B12 foram avaliados pelo método de eletroquimioluminescência. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes com DA apresentaram redução estatisticamente significativa nos níveis de ácido fólico em relação aos idosos com CCL e controles (p = 0,02). Esses resultados mantiveram-se estatisticamente significativos após controlar por variáveis sociodemográficas e desempenho cognitivo. Não se observaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas nos níveis de vitamina B12 nem em variáveis hematológicas entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Esses resultados reforçam a importância de anormalidades em aspectos nutricionais, em particular do metabolismo de um-carbono, na fisiopatologia da DA.

BACKGROUND: Complex B vitamin deficiency has been associated to cognitive impairment and dementing disorders in the elderly. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to assess whether patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have lower levels of folic acid and cobalamin (vitamin B12) compared to age and gender-matched controls. METHODS: One hundred and forty six elderly subjects (40 AD, 56 MCI and 49 healthy older adults) were recruited for this study. Serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels were measured by electrochemoluminescence. RESULTS: Compared to MCI and healthy controls a statistically significant reduction in serum concentrations of folic acid in AD patients was found (p = 0.02). This result remained statistically significant after controlling for socio-demographic and cognitive performance variables (p = 0.01). No significant differences were found in serum concentrations of vitamin B12 in patients with AD, MCI and healthy controls. No significant changes in hematologic parameters were observed across these diagnostic groups. DISCUSSION: The present study provides additional evidence that folic acid is reduced in patients with AD and reinforces the importance of nutritional changes, in particular the one-carbon metabolism, in the physiopathology of AD.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Cognition , /metabolism , /blood , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Educational Status , Validation Study , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Folic Acid/analysis , Folic Acid/blood
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 674-683, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69189


OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that prominent pulvinar hypointensity in brain MRI represents the disease process due to iron accumulation in Alzheimer disease (AD). We aimed to determine whether or not the pulvinar signal intensity (SI) on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at 3.0T MRI differs between AD patients and normal subjects, and also whether the pulvinar SI is correlated with the T2* map, an imaging marker for tissue iron, and a cognitive scale. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty one consecutive patients with AD and 21 age-matched control subjects were prospectively included in this study. The pulvinar SI was assessed on the FLAIR image. We measured the relative SI ratio of the pulvinar to the corpus callosum. The T2* values were calculated from the T2* relaxometry map. The differences between the two groups were analyzed, by using a Student t test. The correlation between the measurements was assessed by the Pearson's correlation test. RESULTS: As compared to the normal white matter, the FLAIR signal intensity of the pulvinar nucleus was significantly more hypointense in the AD patients than in the control subjects (p < 0.01). The pulvinar T2* was shorter in the AD patients than in the control subjects (51.5 +/- 4.95 ms vs. 56.5 +/- 5.49 ms, respectively, p = 0.003). The pulvinar SI ratio was strongly correlated with the pulvinar T2* (r = 0.745, p < 0.001). When controlling for age, only the pulvinar-to-CC SI ratio was positively correlated with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (r = 0.303, p < 0.050). Conversely, the pulvinar T2* was not correlated with the MMSE score (r = 0.277, p = 0.080). CONCLUSION: The FLAIR hypointensity of the pulvinar nucleus represents an abnormal iron accumulation in AD and may be used as an adjunctive finding for evaluating AD.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Iron/metabolism , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pulvinar/metabolism
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 740-748, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110118


The plant viral protease, NIa, has a strict substrate specificity for the consensus sequence of Val-Xaa-His-Gln, with a scissoring property after Gln. We recently reported that NIa efficiently cleaved the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide, which contains the sequence Val-His-His-Gln in the vicinity of the cleavage site by alpha-secretase, and that the expression of NIa using a lentiviral system in the brain of AD mouse model reduced plaque deposition levels. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous expression of NIa in the brain of AD mouse model is beneficial to the improvement of cognitive deficits. To address this question, Lenti-NIa was intracerebrally injected into the brain of Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 (Tg-APP/PS1) mice at 7 months of age and behavioral tests were performed 15-30 days afterwards. The results of the water maze test indicated that Tg-APP/PS1 mice which had been injected with Lenti-GFP showed an increased latency in finding the hidden-platform and markedly enhanced navigation near the maze-wall, and that such behavioral deficits were significantly reversed in Tg-APP/PS1 mice injected with Lenti-NIa. In the passive avoidance test, Tg-APP/PS1 mice exhibited a severe deficit in their contextual memory retention, which was reversed by NIa expression. In the marble burying test, Tg-APP/PS1 mice buried marbles fewer than non-transgenic mice, which was also significantly improved by NIa. After behavioral tests, it was verified that the Tg-APP/PS1 mice with Lenti-NIa injection had reduced Abeta levels and plaque deposition when compared to Tg-APP/PS1 mice. These results showed that the plant viral protease, NIa, not only reduces Abeta pathology, but also improves behavioral deficits.

Animals , Mice , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics , Avoidance Learning , Brain/metabolism , Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Disease Models, Animal , Endopeptidases/genetics , Gene Expression , Maze Learning , Memory , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Plaque, Amyloid/metabolism , Presenilin-1/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 89-98, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93421


Autophagy is a dynamic cellular pathway involved in the turnover of proteins, protein complexes, and organelles through lysosomal degradation. The integrity of postmitotic neurons is heavily dependent on high basal autophagy compared to non-neuronal cells as misfolded proteins and damaged organelles cannot be diluted through cell division. Moreover, neurons contain the specialized structures for intercellular communication, such as axons, dendrites and synapses, which require the reciprocal transport of proteins, organelles and autophagosomes over significant distances from the soma. Defects in autophagy affect the intercellular communication and subsequently, contributing to neurodegeneration. The presence of abnormal autophagic activity is frequently observed in selective neuronal populations afflicted in common neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These observations have provoked controversy regarding whether the increase in autophagosomes observed in the degenerating neurons play a protective role or instead contribute to pathogenic neuronal cell death. It is still unknown what factors may determine whether active autophagy is beneficial or pathogenic during neurodegeneration. In this review, we consider both the normal and pathophysiological roles of neuronal autophagy and its potential therapeutic implications for common neurodegenerative diseases.

Animals , Humans , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Autophagy/physiology , Huntington Disease/metabolism , Models, Biological , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Neurons/cytology , Parkinson Disease/metabolism