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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828003

ABSTRACT

To discuss the effect of deterioration on the quality of Armeniacae Semen Amarum by observing the changes of macroscopic characteristics, active components and rancidness degrees of Armeniacae Semen Amarum in deterioration process. The traditional macroscopic identification was used to observe, identify and classify the morphologic and organleptic characteristics of Armeniacae Semen Amarum. The contents of amygdalin and fatty oil(two representatives of active components) were detected by HPLC and general rule 0713 in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, respectively. Acid value and peroxide value of the samples were selected as the representative indices of different rancidness degrees, and the general rule 2303 was adopted as the method for quantitative analysis. Then principal component analysis(PCA), partial least square analysis discrimination analysis(PLS-DA) were further utilized to establish the discriminative models of samples with different rancidness degrees, and also to screen out the largest contribution factors. In sensory evaluation, Armeniacae Semen Amarum samples were divided into three groups: non-rancid, slightly-rancid, and noticeably-rancid. The color of seed coat, cotyledon and surface of noticeably-rancid samples was deepened, and the odor differed much from non-rancid samples. Average content of amygdalin and fatty oil in non-rancid samples was 4.12% and 67.77%, respectively, both meeting the requirements of Chinese Pharmacopoeia; and decreased to some extent in slightly-rancid samples. However, the content of amygdalin sharply dropped to 0.074% in noticeably-rancid samples. The acid value and peroxide value were increased significantly with the intensifying of the rancidness degree, from only 1.363 and 0.016 74 in non-rancid samples to 1.865 and 0.023 70 in slightly-rancid samples, even doubled in noticeably-rancid samples(2.167 and 0.033 82). The discriminative models established by PCA and PLS-DA could complete the task of distinguishing the non-rancid samples from noticeably-rancid ones. The contribution degree of amygdalin content as one of the input attributes of discriminative model was higher than 1. Rancidness affected the quality of Armeniacae Semen Amarum, resulting in appearance changes, decrease in content of active components, and increase in acid value and peroxide value. Obviously, noticeably-rancid samples were non-conforming to Chinese Pharmacopoeia and no longer suitable for medicinal use. Rancidness can significantly reduce the quality of Armeniacae Semen Amarum, and even could possibly produce toxicity, which should attach more attention.


Subject(s)
Amygdalin , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Semen
2.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 47(4): 245-248, Oct-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1042735

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report an unexpected difficult airway in a patient with unrecognized lingual tonsillar hypertrophy. A 54-year-old hypertensive woman presented for resection of a mediastinal mass under general anesthesia (GA). After induction, mask ventilation was impossible. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was used, achieving suboptimal ventilation. Fiberoptic intubation through LMA was attempted but tube advancement was hindered by a protrudingmass. Finally, intubation was achieved using the Frova introducer. After completion of the surgery, the patient was transferred, intubated, to the postanesthesia care unit. Ear, nose, and throat assessment concluded that the mass was a hyper-trophied lingual tonsil. Unexpected lingual tonsillar hypertrophy can complicate GA, making mask ventilation, and even intubation impossible. It is considered a frequent cause of unexpected difficult airway. Diagnosis cannot be made by standard airway physical examination. Once recognized, fiberoptic intubation is mandatory in subsequent surgeries.


Resumen Presentamos el caso de una vía aérea difícil imprevista debido a hipertrofia de la amígdala lingual no conocida. Mujer de 54 años, hipertensa, que ingresa para resección de masa mediastínica bajo anestesia general. Tras la inducción, la ventilación mediante mascarilla facial resultó imposible. Se coloca mascarilla laríngea (ML) y se consigue ventilación de forma subóptima. Se intenta intubación guiada por fibroscopia a su través, pero se objetiva masa protruyente que impide la progresión del tubo. Finalmente se intuba mediante introductor Frova. Tras finalizar la cirugía, la paciente se traslada intubada a la Unidad de Reanimación Postanestésica (URPA). Se realiza evaluación por otorrinolaringología (ORL), que concluye que la masa corresponde a una amígdala lingual hipertrófica. La hipertrofia de la amígdala lingual puede complicar la anestesia, dificultando la ventilación e intubación. Se considera una causa frecuente de vía aérea difícil imprevista. El diagnóstico no puede realizarse mediante exploración anestésica estándar. Una vez conocida, las intubaciones siguientes deben ser guiadas por fibroscopia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pharynx , Amygdalin , Hypertrophy , Otolaryngology , Tongue , Palatine Tonsil , Ventilation , Laryngeal Masks
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691402

ABSTRACT

Amarogentin is an efficacious Chinese herbal medicine and a component of the bitter apricot kernel. It is commonly used as an expectorant and supplementary anti-cancer drug. β-Glucosidase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the glycosidic bond between aryl and saccharide groups to release glucose. Upon their interaction, β-glucosidase catalyzes amarogentin to produce considerable amounts of hydrocyanic acid, which inhibits cytochrome C oxidase, the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiration chain, and suspends adenosine triphosphate synthesis, resulting in cell death. Hydrocyanic acid is a cell-cycle-stage-nonspecific agent that kills cancer cells. Thus, β-glucosidase can be coupled with a tumor-specific monoclonal antibody. β-Glucosidase can combine with cancer-cell-surface antigens and specifically convert amarogentin to an active drug that acts on cancer cells and the surrounding antibodies to achieve a killing effect. β-Glucosidase is injected intravenously and recognizes cancer-cell-surface antigens with the help of an antibody. The prodrug amarogentin is infused after β-glucosidase has reached the target position. Coupling of cell membrane peptides with β-glucosidase allows the enzyme to penetrate capillary endothelial cells and clear extracellular deep solid tumors to kill the cells therein. The Chinese medicine amarogentin and β-glucosidase will become an important treatment for various tumors when an appropriate monoclonal antibody is developed.


Subject(s)
Amygdalin , Therapeutic Uses , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Therapeutic Uses , Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Cell-Penetrating Peptides , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Iridoids , Therapeutic Uses , Prodrugs , Therapeutic Uses , beta-Glucosidase , Therapeutic Uses
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20737

ABSTRACT

Amygdalin, D-mandelonitrile-beta-D-glucoside-6-beta-glucoside, belongs to aromatic cyanogenic glycoside group derived from rosaceous plant seed. Mounting evidence has supported the anti-cancer effects of amygdalin. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent against breast cancer cells is not clear. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of amygdalin on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Here, we show that amygdalin exerted cytotoxic activities on estrogen receptors (ER)-positive MCF7 cells, and MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Amygdalin induced apoptosis of Hs578T TNBC cells. Amygdalin downregulated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), upregulated Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), activated of caspase-3 and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Amygdalin activated a pro-apoptotic signaling molecule p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) in Hs578T cells. Treatment of amygdalin significantly inhibited the adhesion of Hs578T cells, in which integrin alpha5 may be involved. Taken together, this study demonstrates that amygdalin induces apoptosis and inhibits adhesion of breast cancer cells. The results suggest a potential application of amygdalin as a chemopreventive agent to prevent or alleviate progression of breast cancer, especially TNBC.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose , Amygdalin , Apoptosis , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Breast Neoplasms , Caspase 3 , Humans , Integrin alpha5 , Lymphoma, B-Cell , MCF-7 Cells , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Plants , Receptors, Estrogen , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1330-1335, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320081

ABSTRACT

The study aims to develop an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of amygdalin and paeoniflorin in urine samples, and to investigate their urinary excretion characteristics in healthy volunteers after intravenous infusion administration of Huoxue-Tongluo lyophilized powder for injection (HTLPI). The urine samples were extracted by methanol, and then separated on a Hedera ODS-2 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 5 mmol · L(-1) ammonium acetate buffer solution containing 0.05% formic acid (20:80). Electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in the positive ion mode using MRM. The method exhibited good linearity over the concentration range of 0.03 -40 µg · mL(-1). The values on both the occasions (intra- and inter-day) were all within 15% at three concentration levels. No matrix effect and carry-over effect were observed. Amygdalin and paeoniflorin were stable in human urine under different storage conditions. Approximately 79.6% of the administered amount of amygdalin was excreted unchanged in urine within 24 h and which was 48.4% for paeoniflorin. The developed LC-MS/MS method can be applied to evaluate the urinary excretion of amygdalin and paeoniflorin.


Subject(s)
Amygdalin , Urine , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glucosides , Urine , Humans , Monoterpenes , Urine , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1136-1142, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299156

ABSTRACT

The effect of amygdalin joint hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on the endplate chondrocytes derived from intervertebral discs of rats induced by IL-1beta and the possible mechanism were studied and explored. Chondrocytes were obtained from endplate of one-month SD rat intervertebral discs and cultured primary endplate chondrocytes. After identification, they were divided into normal group, induced group, amygdalin group, HSYA group and combined group. CCK-8 kit was adopted to detect the proliferation of the endplate chondrocytes. FCM was measured to detect the apoptosis. Real-time PCR method was adopted to observe the mRNA expression of Aggrecan, Col 2 alpha1, Col 10 alpha1, MMP-13 and the inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta. The protein expression of Col II, Col X was tested through immunofluorescence. Compared with the normal group, the proliferation of the endplate chondrocytes decreased while the apoptosis increased (P < 0.05). With down regulation of the mRNA expressions of Aggrecan, Col 2 alpha1 and up regulation of the mRNA expressions of Col 10 alpha1, MMP-13, IL-1beta (P < 0.05), the protein expression of Col II decreased while the protein expression of Col X increased. Compared with the induced group, amygdalin group, HSYA group, the combined group could inhibit the apoptosis and promote the proliferation (P < 0.05). They could increase the mRNA expressions of Aggrecan and Col 2 alpha1 while decrease the mRNA expressions of Col 10 alpha1, MMP-13 and IL-1beta (P < 0.05). They could also enhance the protein expression of Col II while reduce the protein expression of Col X. The effect of the combined group was significantly better than that of amygdalin and HSYA. Amygdalin joint HSYA could inhibit the degeneration of the endplate chondrocytes derived from intervertebral discs of rats induced by IL-1beta and better than the single use of amygdalin or HSYA.


Subject(s)
Amygdalin , Pharmacology , Animals , Apoptosis , Cells, Cultured , Chalcone , Pharmacology , Chondrocytes , Collagen , Metabolism , Drug Synergism , Interleukin-1beta , Intervertebral Disc , Cell Biology , Quinones , Pharmacology , Rats
7.
Toxicological Research ; : 91-98, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59643

ABSTRACT

Armeniacae semen (AS) has been considered a toxic herb in the Korean medicine as it contains hydrogen cyanide and amygdalin, especially in its endocarp. Therefore, prebrewed AS that is devoid of endocarp has been traditionally used. In the present study, amygdalin content of the prebrewed AS was significantly lower (2.73 +/- 0.32 microg/ml; p < 0.01) than the content in the extract that contained the endocarps (28.50 +/- 6.71 microg/ml); amygdalin content corresponded to 10% of the extract in the present study. Because of single oral dose toxicity of prebrewed AS according to the recommendation of Korea Food and Drug Administration Guidelines (2009-116, 2009), which was based on single oral dose toxicity study of prebrewed AS, mortality due to toxic principles was significantly reduced. In this study, 2,000 mg/kg of prebrewed AS led to death of 1 female rat and 1 male rat at the end of 2 hr of administration. Based on these results, the 50% lethal dose in both male and female rats was determined to be 9279.5 mg/kg. Seizure, loss of locomotion, and increases in respiration and heart rate were observed as prebrewed AS treatment-related toxicological signs; these signs were restrictedly manifested in the prebrewed AS (2,000 mg/kg)-treated rats. In addition, no changes were observed in body weight, organ weight, gross features, and histopathological parameters with 2,000 mg/kg of AS in both male and female rats. These findings serve as direct evidence that amygdalin in AS is the toxic principle, which can be reduced by the traditional prebrewing method involving the exclusion of endocarp.


Subject(s)
Amygdalin , Animals , Body Weight , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Hydrogen Cyanide , Korea , Locomotion , Male , Organ Size , Rats , Respiration , Seizures , Semen , United States Food and Drug Administration
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350705

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish an HPLC method for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin in Xiao'er Pingchuan Qutan granule.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Pheny ether chromatographic column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) was adopted, with acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid (containing 0.1% three ethylamine) (3:97) as the mobile phase. The UV detection wavelength was at 210 nm, with the flow rate of 1 mL x min(-1), and column temperature was at 35 degrees C.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The linearity of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin ranged between 0.078 60-3.144 microg (r = 1.000 0), 0.103 4-2.068 microg (r = 0.999 7) and 0.430 5-3.157 microg (r = 0.999 8), respectively. Their average recoveries were 98.46% (RSD 1.1%), 103.0% (RSD 1.5%) and 97.15% (RSD 2.1%), respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method is simple, stable and reliable that it can be used to determine the content of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin in Xiao'er Pingchuan Qutan granule.</p>


Subject(s)
Amygdalin , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Ephedrine , Chemistry , Linear Models , Pseudoephedrine , Chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 521-525, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235634

ABSTRACT

Ten compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of linseed meal (Linum usitatissimum L) through a combination of various chromatographic techniques, including silica gel, macroporous adsorbent resin, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC. On the basis of spectroscopic data analysis, they were elucidated as 1-methylethyl-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1" --> 6')-beta-D-glucopyanoside (1), linustatin (2), neolinustatin (3), lotaustralin (4), linamarin (5), deoxyguanosine (6), deoxyadenosine (7), (+)-pinoresinol-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol (9) and tachioside (10), separately. Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, and compounds 6, 8 and 10 were isolated from the linseed meal for the first time.


Subject(s)
Amygdalin , Chemistry , Deoxyadenosines , Chemistry , Deoxyguanosine , Chemistry , Flax , Chemistry , Glucosides , Chemistry , Glycosides , Chemistry , Lignans , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Nitriles , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Seeds , Chemistry
10.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2012 Apr-Jun 55(2): 211-214
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142224

ABSTRACT

Background: Angiogenesis contributes to different physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the antiangiogenic effects of amygdalin on the cultured endothelial cells of diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided into two equal groups of control and amygdalin-treated animals. Eight weeks after the induction of diabetes, amygdalin was injected intraperitoneally (3 mg/kg) to the rats of the treatment group. One day later, rats were sacrificed; the aortic arteries were excised and cut as 2 mm rings. Each aortic ring was incubated in a cell-culture well for 7 days. The process of angiogenesis was monitored by counting the number of microvessels and primary microtubules in each well. Results: Optic microscopy showed proliferation and migration of new endothelial cells to the fibrin gels. The endothelial cells produced primary microtubules which gradually made several branches and finally made a vascular matrix. The number of the primary microtubules and microvessels were significantly lower in the amygdalin-treated vs. control group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Therefore, amygdalin exerts inhibitory effects on angiogenesis in aortic rings of diabetic rats and may pave a new way for treatment of unfavorable angiogenic conditions.


Subject(s)
Amygdalin/administration & dosage , Animals , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cyanides/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Male , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-252952

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate pharmacokinetic parameters of peoniflorin, albiflorin and amygdaloside after administration of Guizhi Fuling capsule in beagle dogs.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Plasma was collected from forelimb vein of Beagle dogs after oral administration of Guizhi Fuling capsule. HPLC-MS/MS method was used to determine the concentrations of constituents in plasma. The pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by program DAS 2.0.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The limit of quantitation of peoniflorin, albiflorin and amygdaloside were 0.25, 2.64, 0.04 microg x L(-1), respectively. After administrated with different doses, half-life of peoniflorin in dogs were 4.33, 3.62 h, albiflorin were 6.16, 5.91 h, amygdaloside were 2.43, 1.32 h. The AUC(0-t) of all components were related to dose.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The pharmacokinetic course of peoniflorin, albiflorin and amygdaloside can be described by two-compartment model, and these components have high expose.</p>


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Amygdalin , Blood , Animals , Area Under Curve , Benzoates , Blood , Bridged-Ring Compounds , Blood , Capsules , Pharmacokinetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Dogs , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacokinetics , Glucosides , Blood , Half-Life , Male , Monoterpenes , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Methods
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275737

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate effect of amygdalin on expression of four biomarkers in the animal model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Rats were given one dose (5 mg/kg) of bleomycin in bleomycin-treated groups, amygdalin-treated groups and saline in controls by intratracheal instillation exposed surgically. The amygdalin-treated groups rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of amygdalin (15 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)). The rats were sacrificed 7, 14 and 28 days after bleomycin administration. Polarized light microscopy and Image-Pro Plus detected I and III collagen expressed in Paraffin-embedded lung sections stained with Sirius red. Surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) with weak cationic proteinchip (CM10) detected differentially expressed proteins in the pooled serum samples of all groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Consistent fibrotic responses were found in all bleomycin and amygdalin-tread groups. On the 7th, 14th and 28th day after bleomycin or saline instillation, four differentially expressed proteins were detected in the pooled serum of all groups rats, consisting of 4 proteins with mass/charge ratio of 3530.7, 7043.5, 8332.6 and 9068.0, respectively. Compared with control groups, protein peaks intensity ratio with mass/charge ratio of 3530.7 on 7, 28 d and 7043.5, 8332.6 and 9068.0 on 7, 14 and 28 d was > 2 in bleomycin-treated groups. Compared with amygdalin-treated groups, protein peaks intensity with mass/charge ratio of 3530.7 at 7, 14, 28 d had no change almost, but protein peaks intensity ratio with mass/charge ratio of 7043.5 at 7 d, 8332.6 on 28 d and 9068.0 on 14 d was > 2 in bleomycin-tread groups. All the four protein peaks intensity had no change almost at other point.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Amygdalin may reduce the bleomycin-induced increase of differentially expressed protein peak intensities in rat serum.</p>


Subject(s)
Amygdalin , Pharmacology , Animals , Biomarkers , Blood , Bleomycin , Blood Proteins , Metabolism , Male , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Blood , Rats , Rats, Wistar
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279375

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the influence of processing on metabolism of the main component of bitter almond-amygdalin in rat.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The blood was collected at different times after amygdalin given by injection and oral, bitter almond and its processed production given by oral respectively, and then detected by both HPLC and HPLC-MS(n) methods after extraction pretreatment.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>After injection, amygdalin was absorbed in prototype to blood rapidly, while the other three kinds of medicine given by oral were all not detected the prototype of amygdalin, but two metabolites were detected which were isomers of prunasin confirmed by mass spectrometry. The metabolic pathway of prunasin in processed bitter almond group was markedly different from the bitter almond group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Processing has a significant effect on bitter almond metabolic processes in rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Amygdalin , Metabolism , Animals , Female , Male , Prunus , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231589

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the method and significance for studying active anti-liver fibrosis ingredients consisted Chinese medicine compound prescription based on Chinese medicine theory.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Optimized prescription was screened out, adopting uniform block design with 4-factor 8-level table and regression analysis, through applying the four known effective ingredients (cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide, salvianolic acid B, amygdaloside and gypenosides) of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule (FZHYC, a new Chinese medine anti-liver fibrosis drug) to two rat liver fibrosis models established separately by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) and CCl4, and taking the liver content of hydroxyproline (Hyp) as the screen index. Then a further study for comparing and verifying the efficacy of the obtained optimized prescription was conducted on the two former models respectively by observing the changes of Hyp content in liver, serum ALT activity and fibrosis pathology after medication, controlled by the original FZHYC and the recipe assembled by all the four ingredients.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Two optimized prescriptions (OPA and OPB) were screened out separately in the studies conducted on the two models. Both of them were consisted of cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide, Amygdaloside and Gypenosides, but different in constituent ratio, i.e., the ratio in OPA was 60 : 80: 50, and that in OPB, 20: 160: 50. Verifying study showed both OPA and OPA were significantly effective, with the efficacy equivalent to that of FZHYC (P>0.05). However, when they were used in combining with salvianolic acid B (the cutout ingredient in the screening), the efficacy lowered surely.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Uniform design is a valuable method in the compatibility research of Chinese Medicine drugs' composition. To assemble a new compound recipe reasonably based on the prescription of traditional compound recipe could make its effect equivalent to that of the original prescription. Ingredients or constituents in a prescription, either presented synergistic or antagonistic effects, are not randomly stacked together, and they should be orderly assembled in intrinsic rules of qualitative and quantitative changing.</p>


Subject(s)
Amygdalin , Animals , Drug Combinations , Drug Design , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Gynostemma , Liver Cirrhosis , Drug Therapy , Male , Plant Extracts , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Regression Analysis
15.
Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. 2009; 8 (3): 227-238
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-97356

ABSTRACT

Resistance to antibacterial agents and sensivity reaction to such chemical compounds are the main reasons for investigators to develop new antibiotics from herbal sources. Antimicrobial effects of Metanolic extract of 12 herbal species Pistacia atlantica, Amygdalus scoparia, Cuscuta epthymum, Ephedra procera, Salsola boryosm, Sameraria armena, Scabiosa olivier, Scorzonera tortuosissima, Lepyrodielis holosteoidea, Vaccaria pyramidata, Sonchus oleraceam and Silene conoidema on 6 bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureas, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Echerichia colt, Kelebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeroginos and Bacillus subtilis were, separately, studied using Cylinder-plate method. In this laboratory study, methanolic extracts of herbal strains were prepared by maceration and after concentrating the extracts were dried. Then the concentrations of 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 mg/ml of the extracts were prepared using 1:1 solution of DMSO/methanol. The standard bacteria with certain concentration [0.5 MacFarland] were inoculated on to the Muller-Hinton agar medium. Prepared extracts were dropped into cylinders and 18-24 hours after incubation and penetration of extract into the culture medium, the antibacterial effects and growth inhibitory zone [mm] were measure and values were expressed as [Mean +/- SEM]. The least and the most amount of effective concentration were 3.125 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml, respectively. The most inhibitory diameter belonged to methanolic extract of Amygdalus scoparia on Staphylococcus epidermidis which was equal to 19 +/- 0.3mm. Metanolic extracts of herbal species of Pistacia atlantica, Amygdalus scoparia and Ephedra procera had the most antibacterial effects compared to gentamicin as positive control. Regarding the side effects of the synthetic drugs and also benefits of such herbal extracts, extracts of these herbs as antibacterial agents after further investigations seems to be useful


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Plant Extracts , Salsola , Pistacia , Amygdalin , Cuscuta , Ephedra , Sonchus , Vaccaria , Silene
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59833

ABSTRACT

Armeniacae semen has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases. Amygdalin is the major compound of Armeniacae semen, and it is used for treatment of pain and cancers. In the present study, we compared the effects of aqueous extract of Armeniacae semen and a solution of amygdalin extracted from Armeniacae semen on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expressions in mouse BV2 microglial cells. We also compared the effects of these compounds on the prostaglandin E2 synthesis and the nitric oxide production in mouse BV2 microglial cells. In the present results, Armeniacae semen and amygdalin suppressed prostaglandin E2 synthesis and nitric oxide production by inhibiting the LPS-induced enhancement of COX-2 mRNA and iNOS mRNA expressions in mouse BV2 cells. For the COX-1 expression, Armeniacae semen showed more potent suppression effect compared to the amygdalin. However, amygdalin more potently suppressed the LPS-induced COX-2 mRNA expression compared to aqueous extract of Armeniacae semen. In the case of iNOS mRNA expression, Armeniacae semen and amygdalin showed similar suppressing effects. For the LPS-induced PGE2 synthesis, amygdalin showed more potent suppressing effect, meanwhile, Armeniacae semen and amygdalin showed similar suppressing effect on NO production. Based on the present results, amygdalin may exert anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect though mainly the inhibition of COX-2 pathway, in contrast Armeniacae semen may exert such effect though both the inhibition of COX-2 and iNOS pathways.


Subject(s)
Amygdalin , Animals , Cyclooxygenase 1 , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Dinoprostone , Medicine, Traditional , Mice , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , RNA, Messenger , Semen
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59831

ABSTRACT

Amygdalin is known as vitamain B17, and it was called laetrile. Amygdalin is composed of two molecules of glucose, one molecule of benzaldehyde which induces an analgesic action, and one molecule of hydrocyanic acid which is an anti-neoplastic compound. Amygdalin had been used to treat cancers and relieve pain. In order to evaluate whether the analgesic action of amygdalin is related with descending pain control system, we performed patch clamp study. In the present study, the modulatory effects of amygdalin on glycine- and glutamate-induced ion currents in periaqueductal gray (PAG) neurons were investigated using the nystatin-perforated patch clamp method. Continuous application of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on PAG neurons resulted in increased glycine-induced ion current, and in decreased glutamate-induced ion current. In contrast, continuous application of amygdalin with LPS resulted in decreased glycine-induced ion current increased by LPS, and increased glutamate- induced ion current decreased by LPS in concentration- and time-dependent fashion. These results demonstrate that amygdalin modulates neuronal activity of PAG by modulation of glycine and glutamate. Based on the present results, it can be suggested that amygdalin participates in the regulation of the descending pain control system in the level of PAG neurons. The present study demonstrated that activation of the descending pain control system is one of the possible analgesic mechanisms of amygdalin.


Subject(s)
Amygdalin , Animals , Benzaldehydes , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Glucose , Glutamic Acid , Glycine , Hydrogen Cyanide , Lipopolysaccharides , Neurons , Periaqueductal Gray , Rats
18.
Acta amaz ; 37(4): 599-603, 2007. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-476612

ABSTRACT

O óleo essencial extraído de folhas frescas de Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr.) Bur.& K. Shum por destilação de arraste a vapor foi avaliado quanto à toxicidade a Sitophilus zeamais Motsch., principal praga do milho armazenado. Papel de filtro e grãos de milho foram impregnados pelo óleo para se avaliar o efeito por via de contato (papel-filtro) e fumigação, respectivamente. Para avaliação do efeito da aplicação tópica 0,5 µl das diferentes concentrações do óleo foram aplicadas em adultos do inseto. A partir de uma ampla faixa de concentrações, foram determinadas as mais promissoras para os bioensaios definitivos. Na determinação das dose/concentrações-letais (DL50 e CL50) foi utilizada a análise de Probit, realizando-se também, uma análise de regressão linear conjunta de todos os dados de mortalidade. O óleo de T. nocturnum foi considerado tóxico para S. zeamais baseado nos seguintes valores: CL50 de 14,1 ng.cm-2 e CL50 de 1.321,6 ng.g-1 de grãos para os efeitos de contacto (papel-filtro) e fumigação, respectivamente, e DL50 de 14,7 µg.mg-1 de inseto para efeito tópico. Porcentagens de mortalidade próximas a 100 por cento foram obtidas nas concentrações de: 2 e 5 por cento (m/v) (contato), 3 4, e 5 por cento (m/v) (fumigação) e 10 por cento (m/v) para o efeito de aplicação tópica. O presente estudo mostrou que o ácido cianídrico, liberado do óleo essencial de T. nocturnum por hidrólise, pode ter atividade inseticida para S. zeamais e que concentrações acima de 4 por cento (m/v) são promissoras no controle do inseto.


Insecticidal activities of Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr.) Bur. & K. Shum (Bignoneaceae) essential oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The essential oil extracted from fresh leaves of the Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr.) Bur.& K. Shum by steam distillation, was tested against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.. Filter paper and maize grains impregnation was employed, for contact and fumigant toxicity effect studies, respectively. For topical effect studies, aliquots of 0,5 µl of the diluted oil applied to adults insects. We used a broad range of concentrations to be used for establish the most promising concentrations. Probit analysis was employed in analyzing the dose/ concentration-mortality response (LD50 and LC50). Linear regression analysis was applied in mortality of maize weevil adults. The toxicity (LC50) T. nocturnum oil to S. zeamais was of 14.1 ng.cm-2 and LC50 of 1,321.6 ng.g-1 of the grains for contact and fumigant effects, respectively, and LD50 of 14.7 µg.mg-1 of the insect for topical application. For contact and fumigant effects, the mortality rate was nearly 100 percent at oil concentrations of 2 percent and 5 percent (m/v), and 4 percent and 5 percent (m/v), respectively. For contact, fumigant, and topical effects, the mortality rate was nearly 100 percent at oil concentrations of 2 percent and 5 percent (m/v); 4 percent and 5 percent (m/v) and 10 percent (m/v) respectively. The current study shows that cyanidric acid, liberated from the essential oil of the T. nocturnum, posses fumigant insecticidal effect on S. zeamais in concentrations more than 4 percent (m/v) were promises.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Toxicity , Amygdalin , Insecticides
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324324

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the factors influencing on the ephedrine contents in different compositions of Maxingshigan decoction.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Adopt mixed uniform design to dismantle recipes, employ the stepping regression analysis to deal with experimental statistics, use the partial correlational analysis to analyze the correlation coefficients and the results were validated.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The regressive equation was of significance, that is Y = 4.36719347 + 7.752707437X1 + 1.2557197041X3 (r = 0.85564, P = 0.0189). The main influencing factors on ephedrine content in Maxingshigan decoction were gypsum and amygdalin. The influent factor of amygdalin on ephedrine content had great significance, and gypsum had significance.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The collective effects of amygdalin and gypsum affect the content of ephedrine in Maxing Shigan decoction which the content-effect relationship was in direct correlation.</p>


Subject(s)
Amygdalin , Chemistry , Calcium Sulfate , Chemistry , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Ephedra sinica , Chemistry , Ephedrine , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Herb-Drug Interactions , Materia Medica , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Prunus , Chemistry
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239710

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of three major bioactive components in Jingzhi Guizhi Fuling capsules namely laetrile, paeoniflorin and paeonol.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>A LiChrospher C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) was used. The chromatography was carried out with a stepwise gradient programming. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water (containing 0.1% phosphorous acid) and the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The linear range of laetrile was 12.87-102.94 micron x mL(-1), r = 0.999 9, paeoniflorin 24.84 - 198.7 microg x mL(-1), r = 0.9999 and paeonol 12.57-100.56 microg x mL(-1), r = 0.999 9. The method is accurate with variation less than 1.5 % and recovery more than 95 %.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method was successfully applied to analyze three major bioactive components in Jingzhi Guizhi Fuling capsules.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetophenones , Amygdalin , Benzoates , Bridged-Ring Compounds , Capsules , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Cinnamomum , Chemistry , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Glucosides , Monoterpenes , Paeonia , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Polyporales , Chemistry , Reproducibility of Results
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