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Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 9-14, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009101


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the early effectiveness of local infiltration anesthesia (LIA) with compound betamethasone in total knee arthroplasty (TKA).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 102 patients with knee osteoarthritis who were treated by TKA and met the selection criteria between May 2022 and March 2023 were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into control group and study group according to whether LIA preparation was added with compound betamethasone, with 51 cases in each group. There was no significant difference of baseline data, such as age, gender, body mass index, operative side, preoperative range of motion (ROM), Knee Society Score (KSS), white blood cell (WBC), and hematocrit between the two groups ( P>0.05). The intraoperative total blood loss and hidden blood loss were recorded, and WBC was recorded on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd days after operation. Pain was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) score on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd days after operation and morphine intake milligrames equivalent within 48 hours after operation. Passive ROM, maximum extension and flexion angles of knee joint were measured on the 3rd day after operation; the early postoperative complications were recorded.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in total blood loss and hidden blood loss between the two groups ( P>0.05). The postoperative pain levels in both groups were relatively mild, and there was no significant difference in VAS scores in the first 3 days after operation and in morphine intake milligrams equivalent within 48 hours after operation between the two groups ( P>0.05). The WBC in the first 3 days after operation was significantly improved in both groups ( P<0.05). The WBC in the study group was significantly higher than that in the control group on the 1st and 2nd days after operation ( P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the two groups on the 3rd day after operation ( P>0.05). On the 3rd day after operation, the maximum extension angle of knee joint in the study group was smaller than that in the control group, while the maximum flexion angle and passive ROM of knee joint in the study group were larger than those in the control group, and the differences were significant ( P<0.05). There were 6 cases of fever and 17 cases of deep venous thrombosis in the control group, and 1 case and 14 cases in the study group, respectively. There was no poor wound healing and periprosthetic joint infection in the two groups, and there was no significant difference in the incidence of complications between the two groups ( P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The application of compound betamethasone in LIA during TKA is a safe and optimal strategy to promote the early postoperative rehabilitation of patients.

Humans , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Anesthesia, Local , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Knee Joint/surgery , Osteoarthritis, Knee/surgery , Blood Loss, Surgical , Morphine
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 725-735, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520381


Abstract Background: Ultra-low-dose Spinal Anesthesia (SA) is the practice of employing minimal doses of intrathecal agents so that only the roots that supply a specific area are anesthetized. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of ultra-low-dose spinal anesthesia with that of Perineal Blocks (PB). Methods: A two-arm, parallel, double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing two anesthetic techniques (SA and PB) for hemorrhoidectomy and anal fistula surgery was performed. The primary outcomes were postoperative pain, complementation and/or conversion of anesthesia, and hemodynamic changes. Results: Fifty-nine patients were included in the final analysis. The mean pain values were similar in the first 48 h in both groups (p > 0.05). The individuals allocated to the SA group did not need anesthetic complementation; however, those in the PB group required it considerably (SA group, 0% vs. PB group, 25%; p = 0.005). Hemodynamic changes were more pronounced after PB: during all surgical times, the PB group showed lower MAP values and higher HR values (p < 0.05). Postoperative urinary retention rates were similar between both groups (SA group 0% vs. PB group 3.1%, p = 0.354). Conclusion: SA and PB are similarly effective in pain control during the first 48 h after hemorrhoidec-tomy and anal fistula surgery. Although surgical time was shorter among patients in the PB group, the SA technique may be preferable as it avoids the need for additional anesthesia. Furthermore, the group that received perineal blocks was under sedation with a considerable dose of propofol.

Humans , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthetics , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Anesthesia, Local
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(4): 557-562, July-Aug. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521801


Abstract Objective The present study compares the analgesic efficacy of two techniques to perform non-surgical reduction: fracture hematoma block and radial nerve supracondylar block. Methods Forty patients with fractures of the distal third of the radius, who required reduction, were selected in a quasi-randomized clinical trial to receive one of the anesthetic techniques. All patients signed the informed consent form, except for those who did not wish to participate in the study, had neurological injury, had contraindication to the procedure in the emergency room, or with contraindication to the use of lidocaine. To measure analgesia, the numerical pain rate scale was used at four different moments: preblock, postblock, during reduction, and after reduction; then three differences were calculated: the first between before and after blocking; the second between during reduction and after blockade; and the third between before blocking and after reduction. Results The fracture hematoma and supracondylar block groups showed the following mean values, respectively: 3.90 (1-10) and 3.50 (-6-10) in difference 1; 4.35 (-5-10) and 5.00 (-3-10) in difference 2; and 4.65 (1-10) and 3.80 (-3-10) in difference 3. Conclusion Both techniques proved to be efficient for analgesia, with mild superiority of hematoma block, but without statistical significance.

Resumo Objetivo O estudo compara a eficácia analgésica de duas técnicas para realizar redução incruenta: o bloqueio de hematoma da fratura e o bloqueio supracondilar de nervo radial. Métodos Quarenta pacientes com fraturas do terço distal do rádio, que necessitassem redução, foram selecionados em um ensaio clínico quasi-randomizado, para receber uma das técnicas anestésicas. Todos os pacientes assinaram o termo de consentimento ou assentimento, com exceção daqueles que não desejassem participar do estudo, tivessem lesão neurológica, com contraindicação ao procedimento na sala de emergências, ou com contraindicação ao uso da lidocaína. Para aferir a analgesia foi utilizada a escala numérica da dor em quatro momentos distintos: pré-bloqueio, pós-bloqueio, durante a redução e após a redução; em seguida, foram calculadas três diferenças: a primeira entre antes e após o bloqueio; a segunda entre durante a redução e após o bloqueio; e a terceira entre antes do bloqueio e após a redução. Resultados Os grupos do bloqueio de hematoma de fratura e bloqueio supracondilar apresentaram respectivamente os seguintes valores médios: 3.90 (1-10) e 3.50 (-6-10) na diferença 1; 4.35 (-5-10) e 5.00 (-3-10) na diferença 2; e 4.65 (1-10) e 3.80 (-3-10) na diferença 3. Conclusão As duas técnicas se provaram eficientes para analgesia, com discreta superioridade do bloqueio de hematoma, mas sem significância estatística.

Humans , Radius Fractures , Pain Measurement , Closed Fracture Reduction , Anesthesia, Local , Nerve Block
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(3): 538-541, May-June 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449829


Abstract Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common compressive neuropathy in the human body. Its symptoms result from compression of the median nerve in the carpus. The treatment can be conservative, with medications and/or infiltrations that alleviate the symptoms, or surgical, which is more effective, with decompression of the median nerve by surgical section of the flexor retinaculum of the carpus. The anesthetic technique varies according to the anesthesia method: sedation, venous locoregional anesthesia and, more recently, wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT), which can be performed by the surgeons themselves. The WALANT technique uses local anesthesia with a vasoconstrictor, and does not require the use of a tourniquet on the upper limb nor sedation. The median nerve block in ultrasound-guided WALANT provides better accuracy to the technique, with greater patient safety; in the present article, its use in the performance of carpal tunnel decompression is described, and the literature is reviewed.

Resumo A síndrome do túnel do carpo (STC) é a neuropatía compressiva mais comum do corpo humano. Seus sintomas decorrem da compressão do nervo mediano no carpo. O tratamento pode ser incruento, com medicações e/ou infiltrações que amenizam os sintomas, ou cruento, mais eficaz, com a descompressão do nervo mediano pela seção cirúrgicadoretináculodos flexores do carpo. A técnica anestésica varia de acordo com o serviço de anestesia: sedação, anestesia locorregional venosa e, mais recentemente, a anestesia local com o paciente acordado e sem torniquete (wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet, WALANT), que pode ser realizada pelo próprio cirurgião. Por utilizar anestesia local com vasoconstritor, essa técnica dispensa o uso de torniquete no membro superior e a necessidade de sedação. O bloqueio do nervo mediano na WALANT guiada por ultrassonografiaconfere melhor precisão àtécnica,e mais segurança ao paciente, e, neste artigo seu uso na realização da descompressão do túnel do carpo é descrito, e a literatura, revisada.

Humans , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome/surgery , Ultrasonography , Decompression, Surgical , Anesthesia, Local
Med. U.P.B ; 42(1): 2-9, ene.-jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1416060


Objetivo: determinar el efecto de dos tipos de ayuno sobre parámetros de satisfacción, náuseas, vómito, presión arterial y glucometría en pacientes sometidos a procedimientos de intervencionismo percutáneo bajo anestesia local en un servicio de hemodinámica en Medellín, 2019. Metodología: ensayo clínico aleatorizado abierto de dos brazos en pacientes sometidos a procedimientos de intervencionismo percutáneo bajo anestesia local durante tres meses. Cada brazo con 153 participantes; se asignó un ayuno de seis horas y al grupo de exposición un ayuno de dos horas para alimentos de fácil digestión; no hubo cega­miento, se realizó cálculo de muestra, y se hizo análisis univariado, bivariado y modelo de regresión logística con la variable satisfacción. Resultados: en el grupo de ayuno de seis horas el 2.6% presentó náuseas y en el grupo de exposición el 1.3%; se observó un caso de vómito. La presión arterial y glucometría mostraron diferencias estadísticas sin relevancia clínica. Se encontró significancia esta­dística para mareo, cefalea, hambre, sed y tipo de ayuno respecto con la satisfacción del paciente. Los pacientes con ayuno tuvieron un puntaje de satisfacción entre 60 y 100 y los de dieta ligera entre 82.5 y 100 puntos. Conclusiones: El ayuno de dos horas en dieta ligera mejora la satisfacción de los pa­cientes, disminuye la sensación de hambre, sed, presencia de cefalea y mareo, compa­rado con un ayuno de seis horas. Este estudio no encontró diferencias en las variables hemodinámicas ni en la frecuencia de náuseas y vómito.

Objective: to determine the effect of two types of fasting on parameters of satisfaction, nausea, vomiting, blood pressure and glucose measurement in patients undergoing percutaneous intervention procedures under local anesthesia in a hemodynamic service in Medellín, 2019. Methodology: Two-arm open-label randomized clinical trial in patients undergoing percutaneous interventional procedures under local anesthesia for three months, each arm with 153 participants, who were assigned a six-hour fast and the exposure group a two-hour fast for easily digestible foods. There was no blinding, sample calculation was performed, and univariate and bivariate analysis and logistic regression model were performed with the satisfaction variable. Results: in the six-hour fasting group, 2.6% presented nausea and in the exposure group, 1.3%; one case of vomiting was observed. Blood pressure and blood glucose showed statistical differences without clinical relevance. Statistical significance was found for dizziness, headache, hunger, thirst, and type of fasting with respect to patient satisfaction. Fasting patients had a satisfaction score between 60 and 100 and those on a light diet between 82.5 and 100 points. Conclusions: Fasting for two hours on a light diet improves patient satisfaction, decreases the sensation of hunger, thirst, headache and dizziness, compared to a six-hour fast. This study found no differences in the hemodynamic variables, nor in the frequency of nausea and vomiting.

Objetivo: determinaro efeito de dois tipos de jejum nos parâmetros de satisfação, náuseas, vômitos, pressão arterial e glicemia em pacientes submetidos a procedimentos de intervenção percutânea sob anestesia local em um serviço de hemodinâmica em Medellín, 2019. Metodologia: Ensaio clínico randomizado aberto de dois braços em pacientes submetidos a procedimentos intervencionistas percutâneos sob anestesia local por três meses. Cada braço com 153 participantes; um jejum de seis horas foi designado e o grupo de desafio um jejum de duas horas para alimentos facilmente digeríveis; não houve cegamento, foi realizado cálculo amostral, análise univariada, bivariada e modelo de regressão logística com a variável satisfação. Resultados: no grupo de jejum de seis horas, 2,6% apresentaram náuseas e no grupo de exposição, 1,3%; foi observado um caso de vômito. A pressão arterial e a glicemia apresentaram diferenças estatísticas sem relevância clínica. Foi encontrada significância estatística para tontura, dor de cabeça, fome, sede e tipo de jejum em relação à satisfação do paciente. Os pacientes em jejum tiveram um escore de satisfação entre 60 e 100 e os em dieta light entre 82,5 e 100 pontos. Conclusões: O jejum de duas horas com dieta leve melhora a satisfação do paciente, diminui a sensação de fome, sede, dor de cabeça e tontura, em comparação com o jejum de seis horas. Este estudo não encontrou diferenças nas variáveis hemodinâmicas ou na frequência de náuseas e vômitos.

Humans , Fasting , Vomiting , Blood Glucose , Patient Satisfaction , Hemodynamics , Anesthesia, Local
Rev. estomatol. Hered ; 33(1): 34-41, ene. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1441864


Objetivo: Determinar la incidencia de complicaciones de la técnica anestésica Spix en procedimientos odontológicos a pacientes atendidos en la clínica de la Universidad Andrés Bello (UNAB). Material y Métodos: Se analizó a 37 pacientes que fueron atendidos por alumnos de cuarto y quinto año de la clínica odontológica, a los cuales se le realizó la técnica anestésica Spix para realizar el procedimiento odontológico. Se consignó mediante la observación la presencia de formación de hematomas intraorales en el sitio de punción, rotura de la aguja, cantidad de tubos de solución anestésica inyectados, presencia de dolor a la inyección de solución anestésico y la presencia o no de parálisis facial. Mediante la recolección de datos y posterior encuesta a los participantes se consignó la presencia de trismus al día siguiente de la atención y parestesia persistente al día siguiente de la atención. Resultados: De 37 pacientes estudiados que recibieron la técnica anestésica Spix, 6 presentaron hematoma intraoral (16,2%), ninguno reportó rotura de la aguja, 1 presentó parálisis facial (2,7%), 1 presentó parestesia persistente al día siguiente (2,7%), 12 presentaron trismus posterior a la inyección (32,4%). El rango de dolor reportado fue entre 1 y 4 según la escala EVA. Conclusión: Hay una baja incidencia de las complicaciones asociadas a la técnica anestésica Spix en la clínica odontológica de la UNAB, siendo el trismus la complicación más frecuente. Se necesita un mayor número de muestra para entender mejor esta realidad.

Objective: To determine the incidence of complications of the Spix anesthetic technique in the dental procedures of patients attended at the Andrés Bello University dental clinic. Material and Methods: 37 patients who were cared for by fourth- and fifth-year students from the dental clinic of the Andrés Bello University were analyzed, who underwent the Spix anesthetic technique to perform the dental procedure. The presence of intraoral hematoma formation at the puncture site, needle breakage, number of injected anesthesia tubes, presence of pain upon injection of anesthetic and the presence or not of facial paralysis were recorded. Through data collection and subsequent survey of the participants, the presence of trismus was recorded the day after care. Results. Of the 37 cases of patients studied who received the Spix anesthetic technique, 6 had intraoral hematoma (16.2%), no needle break was reported, 1 had facial paralysis (2.7%), 1 had persistent paresthesia at the next day (2.7%), 12 presented trismus after the injection (32.4%), the pain range was between 1 and 4 according to the VAS scale. Conclusion. There is a low incidence of complications associated with the Spix anesthetic technique in the Andrés Bello University dental clinic, trismus being the most frequent (32.4%). A larger sample number should be needed to better understand this reality.

Humans , Pain , Postoperative Complications , Trismus , Anesthesia, Local , Mandibular Nerve , Nerve Block , Patients , Dental Care
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(1): 91-100, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420641


Abstract Background Postoperative cough may occur after tracheal intubation, but it is indistinct which drug is best at diminishing these events. Additionally, airway reflexes are commonly accompanied by severe hemodynamics responses during emergence. Objectives To evaluate the role of topical airway anesthesia on immediate post-extubation cough/bucking and extubation time. Methods Randomized clinical trials from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and LILACS published until December 23, 2020 were included. Our primary outcome was postoperative cough/bucking incidence which was compared between local anesthetics and controls. Extubation times were likewise considered. Predisposition appraisal and subgroup, affectability investigations were likewise performed. Results The pooled analysis found a 45% reduction in cough incidence after treatment with topical airway local anesthetic (RR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.72; p< 0.001). The number needed to treat (NNT) was 4.61. The intervention showed no differences in reduction of the extubation time (mean difference = -0.07; 95% CI: -0.14 to 0.28; p= 0.49). Conclusion Topical airway anesthesia demonstrated better than placebo or no medication in reducing immediate post-extubation cough/bucking. Further studies could have this objective to combine the different ways to perform better outcomes for patients.

Humans , Cough/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal , Postoperative Period , Airway Extubation , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Local , Anesthetics, Local
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 556-562, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520354


Abstract Background: Awake fiberoptic tracheal intubation is an established method of securing difficult airways, but there are some reservations about its use because many practitioners find it technically complicated, time-consuming, and unpleasant for patients. Our main goal was to test the safety and efficacy of a 300-mm working length fiberscope (video rhino-laryngoscope) when used for awake nasotracheal intubation in difficult airway cases. Methods: This was a prospective, single-center study involving adult patients, having an ASA physical status between I and IV, with laryngopharyngeal pathology causing distorted airway anatomy. Awake nasotracheal intubation, using topical anesthesia and light sedation, was performed using a 300 mm long and 2.9 mm diameter fiberscope equipped with a lubricated reinforced endotracheal tube. The primary outcomes were the success and duration of the procedure. Patients' periprocedural satisfaction and other incidents were recorded. Results: We successfully intubated all 25 patients included in this study. The mean ± SD duration of the procedure, starting from the passage of the intubating tube through one of the nostrils until the endotracheal intubation, was 76 ± 36 seconds. Most of the patients showed no discomfort during the procedure with statistical significance between the No reaction Group with the Slight grimacing Group (95%CI 0.13, 0.53, p = 0.047) and the Heavy grimacing Group (95%CI 0.05, 0.83, p = 0.003). The mean ±SD satisfaction score 24 hours post-intervention was 1.8 ± 0.86 - mild discomfort. No significant incidents occurred. Conclusions: Our study showed that a 300-mm working length flexible endoscope is fast, safe, and well-tolerated for nasotracheal awake intubation under challenging airways.

Endoscopy , Airway Management , Patient Satisfaction , Anesthesia, Local
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1415750


Objetivo: Describir la técnica de bloqueo supramaleolar de tobillo y nuestra experiencia con este bloqueo en la cirugía de tobillo y pie. materiales y métodos:Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional, retrospectivo de los últimos 5 años en pacientes con enfermedad de tobillo y pie, sometidos a un bloqueo supramaleolar de tobillo. Se excluyó a pacientes con cirugía previa, cirugías bilaterales, neuropatía periférica o enfermedad vascular, diabetes, infección activa o tabaquistas. Se realizó el bloqueo supramaleolar de tobillo con lidocaína al 2% y bupivacaína al 0,5%, teniendo en cuenta las referencias anatómicas. Se evaluaron la duración del bloqueo, la escala analógica visual de dolor a las 24 h de la cirugía, el tiempo hasta la toma del primer analgésico y el grado de satisfacción del paciente. Resultados:Se incluyó a 771 pacientes operados, todos tuvieron una analgesia completa por, al menos, 12 h (duración promedio 18 h). El puntaje promedio de la escala para dolor a las 24 h fue de 1,4. El tiempo promedio hasta la toma del primer analgésico fue de 16 h. El grado de satisfacción del paciente con el bloqueo y el dolor percibido en las primeras 24 h fue: muy satisfecho (89%), satisfecho (10%) y poco satisfecho (1%). No hubo casos de secuela neurológica permanente, toxicidad sistémica ni infección. Conclusión:El bloqueo supramaleolar de tobillo es un método simple, eficaz y seguro que puede realizar el traumatólogo para obtener una analgesia posquirúrgica prolongada. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Background: We present the description of a supramalleolar ankle block technique and our experience using this technique in foot and ankle surgery. Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective observational study of the past 5 years of patients with foot and ankle pathology that had undergone the supramalleolar ankle block. We excluded patients with a history of previous foot surgery, bilateral surgeries, vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, diabetes, smoking, or active surgical site infection. The supramalleolar ankle block was guided by anatomic landmarks and we used a solution of lidocaine 2% and bupivacaine 0.5%. We evaluated the duration of the ankle block, the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain 24 hrs after surgery, the time until the first analgesic dose, and the level of patient satisfaction. Results:771 patients were included in this study, all of whom had complete analgesia for at least 12 hrs (mean 18 hrs) after surgery. The mean value on the VAS for pain after 24 hrs was 1.4. On average, the first analgesic dose was administered 16 hrs after surgery. The level of satisfaction about the pain perceived in the first 24 hrs after surgery was: very satisfied (89%), satisfied (10%), and dissatisfied (1%). There were no reports of permanent neurological sequelae, systemic toxicity, or surgical site infections. Conclusion: We consider the supramalleolar ankle block a simple, effective, and safe procedure to obtain long-lasting postoperative analgesia. Level of Evidence: IV

Adult , Bupivacaine , Treatment Outcome , Foot , Anesthesia, Local , Lidocaine , Ankle Joint
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e384323, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1519873


Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to compare the WALANT (wide awake, local anesthesia, no tourniquet) technique with local anesthesia associated with sedation in relation to pain intensity for minor hand surgical procedures. The secondary objective was to evaluate the need for analgesic complementation. Methods: A prospective, randomized, comparative, and clinical study was carried out. The sample size in each group was determined after statistical evaluation of the results of a pilot project. The participants were allocated to one of two groups; those in group 1 were submitted to the WALANT technique, and those in group 2, to local anesthesia associated with sedation, for elective surgery. The surgical procedures were carpal tunnel syndrome, De Quervain's tenosynovitis, synovial cyst, finger cyst, and trigger finger. Pain intensity, need for complementation and evolution to complex regional pain syndrome were evaluated. Results: There was no difference between groups in pain intensity after WALANT and need for intraoperative complementation. There was no significant difference in the amount of opioid applied postoperatively between the groups. There was no difference between groups regarding comfort during surgery. There was no difference in adverse effects and complications between the groups. Hematoma was the most frequent adverse event. No severe adverse events were observed. Conclusions: The WALANT technique promoted an analgesic effect similar to that of local anesthesia associated with sedation, without increasing adverse effects.

Pain Measurement , Epinephrine , Hand/surgery , Anesthesia, Local , Anesthetics , Lidocaine
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 23: e210215, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1448804


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of posterior maxillary teeth extraction buccal infiltration with or without the use of palatal injection. Material and Methods: A total of 70 patients underwent extraction of bilateral maxillary posterior teeth under 2% lignocaine hydrochloride with 1:2,00000 adrenaline infiltration in this single-centric split-mouth randomized trial. The test side was administered with a buccal infiltration of 2 mL of anesthetic alone. An extended waiting period of 10 minutes was given before the commencement of the procedure. A standard protocol was followed for the control side. A single operator performed all extractions. Results: A total of 140 posterior maxillary teeth were extracted. Patients marked pain perception on a visual analogue scale in three different instances. During the administration of injections for the test side, the pain score was less than that of the control side and was statistically significant. The overall pain during the extraction procedure was comparable and statistically insignificant. The overall success of the method was 90%. Conclusion: Extraction of posterior maxillary teeth was feasible with a single buccal infiltration without palatal injection in most cases using an extended waiting period. Dentists can attempt extraction without palatal injections with optimal success. However, the alternate technique could be used when there is a necessity for rescue palatal anesthesia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tooth Extraction/adverse effects , Pain Measurement/instrumentation , Dentists , Anesthesia, Local/methods , Lidocaine/adverse effects , Statistics, Nonparametric
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 502-506, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981623


OBJECTIVE@#To review the research progress of injection sites of local infiltration analgesia (LIA) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA).@*METHODS@#The relevant domestic and foreign literature in recent years was extensively reviewed. The neuroanatomy of the knee, and the research progress of the selection and the difference of effectiveness between different injection sites of LIA in clinical studies were summarized.@*RESULTS@#Large concentrations of nociceptors are present throughout the various tissues of the knee joint. Patellar tendon, subpatellar fat pad, lateral collateral ligament insertions, iliotibial band insertions, suprapatellar capsule, and posterior capsule were more sensitive to pain. Most current studies support injections into the lateral capsule, collateral ligament, retinaculum, quadriceps tendon, fat pad, and subcutaneous tissue. Whether to inject into the back of the knee and subperiosteum is controversial.@*CONCLUSION@#The relative difference of knee tissue sensitivity to pain has guiding significance for the selection of LIA injection site after TKA. Although researchers have conducted clinical trials on injection site and technique of LIA in TKA, there are certain limitations. The optimal scheme has not been determined yet, and further studies are needed.

Humans , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain Management/methods , Analgesia/methods , Knee Joint/anatomy & histology , Anesthesia, Local/methods
Odontol. vital ; (37)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1422181


Introducción: Se comparó la técnica anestésica con el nervio alveolar inferior (NAI) realizada por estudiantes de cuarto y quinto año de la carrera de Odontología de la Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago. El objetivo: Fue evaluar la ejecución y éxito de la técnica previo a una extracción dental simple. Metodología: Los estudiantes fueron invitados a participar y firmaron un consentimiento. Se realizó una encuesta que contenía un protocolo informativo para el alumno con los pasos por seguir, luego, al finalizar su atención clínica debía responder una serie de preguntas de selección múltiple. Mediante esta encuesta se evaluó cuántos estudiantes pudieron lograr un correcto bloqueo del nervio alveolar inferior con solo 1 tubo de anestesia lidocaína al 2% y cuántos de estos requirieron de anestesia adicional después de haber inyectado el primer tubo de anestesia, antes de iniciar el procedimiento quirúrgico. También se cuantificó la cantidad de tubos de anestesia que usaron los alumnos para realizar la exodoncia de forma indolora y cuántos requirieron de un refuerzo anestésico adicional durante el intraoperatorio. Así se pudo realizar un análisis comparativo entre ambas generaciones de alumnos en relación con el empleo de la técnica anestésica. Resultados: De los 104 encuestados se obtuvo que un 57% de los estudiantes de 4º y un 65% de los de 5º año, lograron una correcta técnica anestésica al NAI con 1 solo tubo de anestesia. Conclusión: No existieron diferencias significativas con respecto al año académico y las variables estudiadas, exceptuando la necesidad de un refuerzo anestésico posterior a la comprobación de una técnica anestésica exitosa, donde los alumnos de 4to año necesitaron efectuar un mayor control del dolor intraoperatorio.

Introduction: The anesthetic technique to the inferior alveolar nerve (NAI) was compared between the performance by fourthand fifth-year students of the Dentistry career at the Andrés Bello University, Santiago. Objective: Was to evaluate the performance and success of the technique before a simple dental extraction. Methods: The students invited to participate signed an informed consent. A survey was conducted that contained an informative protocol for the student with the steps to follow, then, at the end of their clinical care, had to answer a series of multiple-choice questions. Through this survey, it was evaluated how many students could achieve a correct inferior alveolar nerve block with only 1 tube of anesthesia lidocaine 2% and how many required additional anesthesia after having injected the first tube of anesthesia, before starting the surgical procedure. Also, the amount of anesthesia tubes that the students used to perform the extraction in a painless way was quantified and how many required an additional anesthetic reinforcement intraoperatively. Thereby, a comparative analysis between both generations of students was carried out in relation to the use of the anesthetic technique. Results: Of the 104 participants, it was found that 57% of the 4th year students and 65% of the 5th year students achieved a correct anesthetic technique at the NAI with a single tube of anesthesia. Conclusion: There were no significant differences in relation to the academic year completed and the variables studied except for the need for anesthetic reinforcement after a successful anesthetic technique, where 4th year students needed to perform more intraoperative pain control.

Humans , Students, Dental , Anesthesia, Local , Mandibular Nerve/drug effects , Chile
Rev. venez. cir. ortop. traumatol ; 54(2): 96-103, dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1516775


El objetivo de esta investigación es evaluar la utilidad de la Técnica de WALANT en cirugías ambulatorias de mano en pacientes post Covid-19 en el Hospital General del Sur "Dr. Pedro Iturbe", Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, durante el periodo de julio del 2020 a octubre del 2021. Se realizó un estudio pre-experimental, longitudinal y prospectivo. El muestreo fue probabilístico al azar simple. Se aplicó un análisis estadístico de tipo descriptivo. Se incluyeron 50 pacientes con edad promedio de 37,02+/- 14,1(18-64) años, 52% de sexo femenino y 48% masculino. De ocupación 46% comerciante y obrero. Ama de casa y oficinista 44%, otros 10%. Con diagnóstico de dedo en gatillo 20%, síndrome del túnel carpiano 24%. Con la técnica se realizaron procedimientos quirúrgicos tipo neuroadhesiolisis del nervio mediano 24%, exéresis 22%. Tiempo quirúrgico de 5 a 10 minutos de duración en 56,9% de los casos. Se encontró punta de EVA: preoperatorio 56% de 7-10 ptos, Intraoperatorio 64% 0 ptos y postoperatorio 66% 0 ptos. Analgesia de rescate 92%. 88% sin complicaciones. La estancia Hospitalaria en 92% de los casos fue 1 hora. Reintegro a sus actividades 90%. Tiempo de reintegro en 46% de los casos de 1-5 días. 86% de los pacientes se sintieron satisfechos. En conclusión, la Técnica de WALANT en pacientes post Covid-19 es de gran utilidad para la realización de cirugías ambulatorias de bajo riesgo de mano, presentó pocas complicaciones, el tiempo quirurgo fue corto, el reintegro a sus actividades fue rápido y la satisfacción del paciente fue buena(AU)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the WALANT Technique in ambulatory hand surgeries in post- Covid-19 patients at the Hospital General del Sur "Dr. Pedro Iturbe", Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, during the period from July 2020 to October 2021. A pre-experimental, longitudinal and prospective study was made. Sampling was simple random probabilistic. A descriptive statistical analysis was applied. 50 patients were included with an average age of 37,02+/-14,1(18-64) years, 52,0% female and 48,0% male. Occupation 46,0% merchant and worker. Housewife and office 44,0%, others 10,0%. With a diagnosis of trigger finger 20,0%, carpal tunnel syndrome 24,0%. With the technique, 24,0% median nerve neuroadhesiolysistype surgical procedures were performed, 22,0% exeresis. Surgical time from 5 to 10 minutes in 56,9% of cases. A VAS tip was found: preoperative 56,0% 7-10 points, intraoperative 64,0% 0 points and postoperative 66,0% 0 points. Rescue analgesia 92,0%. 88,0% without complications. Hospital stay in 92,0% of cases was 1 hour. Refund to their activities 90,0%. Refund time in 46,0% of cases from 1-5 days. 86,0% of the patients felt satisfied. In conclusion, the WALANT Technique in post-COVID-19 patients is very useful for performing low-risk outpatient hand surgeries, it presented few complications, the surgical time was short, the return to their activities was fast and the satisfaction of the patient. patient was good(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures , COVID-19 , Hand/surgery , Anesthesia, Local , Comorbidity , Upper Extremity , Patient Care , Hypertension , Lidocaine/administration & dosage
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(6): 1070-1073, Nov.-Dec. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423645


Abstract Scaphoid fractures account for 50 to 70% of all carpal bone fractures. Percutaneous scaphoid osteosynthesis can use the dorsal or volar approach, both with good results, and is most commonly performed under general anesthesia or regional nerve block. The wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) technique is already considered a safe and cost-effective technique in hand surgery around the world. Local anesthesia with epinephrine causes vasoconstriction, which obviates the need for tourniquet and, consequently, the need to use patient sedation. Thus, the possibility of testing fixation stability under physiological forces is another great advantage of using local anesthesia. In the technique described in the present paper, active wrist and hand motion can be tested immediately after scaphoid fixation. Wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet has been increasingly used in soft-tissue hand surgery and in the fixation of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures. However, to date, there is no published literature addressing the use of this technique in percutaneous scaphoid osteosynthesis. The purpose of the present technical note is to describe the use of WALANT for both the dorsal and volar approaches in percutaneous scaphoid osteosynthesis.

Resumo As fraturas do escafoide representam entre 50 e 70% de todas as fraturas dos ossos do carpo. A osteossíntese percutânea do escafoide pode usar a abordagem dorsal ou volar, ambas com bons resultados. É mais comumente realizada sob anestesia geral ou bloqueio nervoso regional. A técnica de anestesia local com o paciente totalmente acordado e sem torniquete (WALANT, na sigla em inglês) já é considerada uma técnica segura e eficaz na cirurgia da mão. A anestesia local com epinefrina causa vasoconstrição, o que evita o uso de torniquete e, consequentemente, a necessidade de sedação do paciente. Assim, a possibilidade de testar a estabilidade da fixação sob forças fisiológicas é outra grande vantagem do uso da anestesia local. Na técnica descrita aqui, o movimento ativo do punho e da mão pode ser testado imediatamente após a fixação escafoide. A técnica WALANT tem sido cada vez mais utilizada na cirurgia da mão em partes moles e na fixação de fraturas de metacarpo e falanges. No entanto, até o momento, não há literatura publicada abordando o uso dessa técnica na osteossíntese percutânea do escafoide. O objetivo desta nota técnica é descrever o uso de WALANT tanto para a abordagem dorsal quanto volar na osteossíntese percutânea do escafoide.

Humans , Scaphoid Bone/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Wrist Fractures/surgery , Anesthesia, Local/methods
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(5): 629-636, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420601


Abstract Background and objectives We aimed to investigate the effects of two different anesthetic techniques in our patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods In this study, 303 patients who underwent TAVI procedure with a diagnosis of severe aortic stenosis between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2018 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were divided according to the type of anesthesia given during each procedure as; general anesthesia (GA), local anesthesia (LA). Results LA was preferred in 245 (80.8%) of 303 patients who underwent TAVI, while GA was preferred in 58 patients (19.1%). Median ages ​​of our patients who received LA and GA were 83 and 84, respectively. The procedure and anesthesia durations of the patients in the GA group were longer than the LA group (p< 0.00001, p< 0.00001, respectively). Demographic and pre-operative clinical data were similar in comparison between two groups (p> 0.05) except for peripheral artery disease. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity in both groups. While the number of inotrope use was significantly higher in patients who received GA (p< 0.00001), no significant differences were found between LA and GA patients in terms of major complications and mortality (p> 0.05). Intensive care and hospital stays were significantly shorter in the LA group (p= 0.001, p= 0.023, respectively). Conclusion The anesthetic technique of TAVI procedure did not have a significant effect on outcomes including; complications, mortality and success of the procedure. LA provides shorter duration of procedure and hospital stay.

Humans , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Anesthetics , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/adverse effects , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/methods , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Local
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(5): 1-11, nov. 23, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435336


Purpose: To investigate the anesthetic effectiveness of buccal infiltration (BI) versus buccal plus lingual infiltration (BI+LI) of 4% articaine for intra-alveolar extraction of erupted mandibular molar teeth. Material and Methods: Eighty patients were included in this prospective clinical study. They were randomly divided into 1 of 2 equal groups: the 1st group received BI of 4% articaine 1.8 ml and LI of 0.5 ml, while the 2nd group received 4% articaine 1.8 ml BI plus 0.5 ml LI of normal saline. Another 1.8 ml articaine BI was given if initial anesthesia was inadequate. Outcome variables included pain, which was rated by patients at 3 intervals using visual analogue scale, and lingual anesthesia and patients' satisfaction which were measured using 5-score verbal rating scale. Data analyses used were descriptive statistics, t test, χ2 test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. P-value value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were 46 females and 34 males and the mean age was 35.3 years. All outcome variables were comparable between the two study groups (p˃0.05). Anesthesia was successful in 78% and 88% of cases in the (BI) and (BI+LI) groups respectively with no significant difference (p=0.2392). The mean articaine volume used was 2.5 ml and 2.87 ml respectively without significant difference (p=0.090). Conclusion: The anesthetic efficacy of (BI) alone and (BI+LI) of 4% articaine was comparable. When given in an adequate dose, articaine (BI) alone could be justified as an anesthetic option for the intra-alveolar extraction of mandibular molar teeth.

Objetivo: Investigar la efectividad anestésica de la infiltración bucal (BI) versus la infiltración bucal más lingual (BI+LI) de articaína al 4% para la extracción intraalveolar de molares mandibulares erupcionados. Material y Métodos: Ochenta pacientes fueron incluidos en este estudio clínico prospectivo. Se dividieron aleatoriamente en 1 de 2 grupos iguales: el primer grupo recibió BI de articaína al 4% 1,8 ml y LI de 0,5 ml, mientras que el segundo grupo recibió articaína al 4% 1,8 ml BI más 0,5 ml LI de solución salina normal. Se administró otro BI de articaína de 1,8 ml si la anestesia inicial era inadecuada. Las variables de resultado incluyeron el dolor, que los pacientes calificaron en 3 intervalos mediante una escala analógica visual, y la anestesia lingual y la satisfacción de los pacientes, que se midieron mediante una escala de calificación verbal de 5 puntos. Los análisis de datos utilizados fueron estadística descriptiva, prueba t, prueba χ2 y coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Se consideró significativo el valor del valor de pinferior a 0,05. Resultados: Hubo 46 mujeres y 34 hombres y la edad media fue de 35,3 años. Todas las variables de resultado fueron comparables entre los dos grupos de estudio (p=0,05). La anestesia fue exitosa en el 78% y 88% de los casos en los grupos (BI) y (BI+LI) respectivamente sin diferencia significativa (p=0,2392). El volumen medio de articaína utilizado fue de 2,5 ml y 2,87 ml respectivamente sin diferencia significativa (p=0,090). Conclusión: La eficacia anestésica de (BI) solo y (BI+LI) de articaína al 4% fue comparable. Cuando se administra en una dosis adecuada, la articaína (BI) sola podría estar justificada para la extracción intraalveolar de molares mandibulares.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tooth Extraction , Carticaine/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Dental , Pain Measurement , Iraq/epidemiology , Anesthesia, Local
Rev. cuba. cir ; 61(3)sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441514


Introducción: La cirugía de la hernia inguinal constituye uno de los procederes más comunes a nivel mundial. Se estima que el 80 por ciento son realizados con anestesia regional o general, y un 20 por ciento con local en contra de la recomendación de las sociedades internacionales que aceptan que la mayor parte de los enfermos son candidatos para este método. Objetivos: Describir la técnica de anestésica local aplicada por el propio cirujano, exponiendo sus ventajas y desventajas apoyadas en la evidencia relevante disponible. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión híbrida de tipo narrativa. Se describió el método anestésico empleado por nuestro grupo. Paralelamente, se realizó una búsqueda en las principales bases de datos para la identificación de las investigaciones que sostienen y defienden los aspectos técnicos y decisiones clínicas tomadas. Desarrollo: No existen contraindicaciones absolutas para la selección de la anestesia local, en su mayoría son relativas. El anestésico a emplear es lidocaína, aunque adjuvantes pueden ser tenidos en cuenta. La sedación pre o transoperatoria no se recomienda. El método anestésico involucra la fase subcutánea con una técnica de bloqueo de campo y fase incisional profunda con infiltración tumescente. Conclusiones: El empleo de anestesia local para la cirugía de hernia inguinal por vía anterior puede ser considerado de primera elección. Es más económica y las complicaciones urinarias y cardiovasculares se reducen. Para lograr una cirugía de igual calidad a otro método de anestesia es importante dominar la técnica anestésica(AU)

Introduction: Inguinal hernia surgery is one of the most common procedures worldwide. 80 percent of them are estimated to be performed under regional or general anesthesia; while 20 percent are performed under local anesthesia, contrary to the recommendation of international societies, which accept that most of the patients are candidates for this method. Objectives: To describe the local anesthetic technique applied by the surgeon himself, exposing its advantages and disadvantages supported by the relevant evidence available. Methods: A hybrid narrative review was carried out. The anesthetic method used by our group was described. At the same time, a search was performed in the main databases to identify the research supporting and defending the technical aspects and the taken clinical decisions. Development: There are no absolute contraindications for the selection of local anesthesia; most of them are relative. The anesthetic to be used is lidocaine, although adjuvants can be taken into account. Pre- or intraoperative sedation is not recommended. The anesthetic method involves the subcutaneous phase with a field block technique and the deep incisional phase with tumescent infiltration. Conclusions: The use of local anesthesia for inguinal hernia surgery though an anterior approach can be considered as the first choice; it is more economical, while urinary and cardiovascular complications are reduced. To achieve a surgery of equal quality to another method of anesthesia, it is important to master the anesthetic technique(AU)

Humans , Hernia, Inguinal/surgery , Anesthesia, Local/methods , Lidocaine/administration & dosage
Rev. cuba. ortop. traumatol ; 36(2): e524, abr.-jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409067


La posibilidad de operar a los pacientes con afecciones de la mano bajo anestesia local con la lidocaína y la epinefrina usando la técnica WALANT provocó una revolución en la cirugía de la mano, que facilitó la vida de los pacientes y disminuyó los costos de los servicios hospitalarios. Es necesario que los cirujanos conozcan la técnica y la historia de esta técnica. El objetivo fue identificar los orígenes del auge y la caída del mito y del dogma de la prohibición de la adrenalina en los bloqueos anestésicos de los dedos. Se realizó un análisis crítico de los principales textos de los artículos y los libros sobre el uso de la epinefrina en la anestesia de los dedos. La creación del mito de prohibir el uso de la epinefrina en los bloqueos anestésicos de los dedos se produjo debido a la mala interpretación de los informes de los casos de necrosis ocurridos que, en realidad, no fueron causados por la epinefrina. Ese mito influyó en la aparición de un dogma. La historia del uso de la epinefrina en los bloqueos de los dedos anestésicos demuestra que las interpretaciones superficiales y erróneas de las complicaciones clínicas publicadas como informes de casos pueden generar mitos y dogmas. Solo la ciencia puede prevenir y destruir tales mitos y dogmas médicos(AU)

The possibility of operating patients with hand conditions under local anesthesia, with lidocaine and epinephrine, using WALANT technique caused a revolution in hand surgery, which made life easier for patients and lowered the costs of hospital services. Surgeons need to be aware of the possibilities and history of WALANT technique. The objective was to identify the origins of the rise and fall of the myth and dogma of the prohibition of adrenaline in anesthetic finger blocks. A critical analysis of the main texts of the articles and books on the use of epinephrine in finger anesthesia was carried out. The conception of the myth of banning the use of epinephrine in anesthetic finger blocks occurred due to misinterpretation of reports of necrosis occurring, which were not actually caused by epinephrine. That myth influenced the appearance of a dogma. The history of the use of epinephrine in anesthetic finger blocks demonstrates that superficial and misleading interpretations of clinical complications published as case reports can breed myth and dogma. Only science can prevent and destroy such medical myths and dogmas(AU)

Humans , Epinephrine/history , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Hand/surgery , Anesthesia, Local/methods , Cocaine/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(3): 402-408, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388020


Abstract Objective The present study aimed to compare the effects of intraarticular infiltration of platelet-rich plasma with those of hyaluronic acid infiltration in the treatment of patients with primary knee osteoarthritis. Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 29 patients who received an intraarticular infiltration with hyaluronic acid (control group) or platelet-rich plasma. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the visual analog scale for pain and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire before and after the intervention. In addition, the posttreatment adverse effects were recorded. Categorical variables were analyzed using the chi-square and Fisher exact tests, whereas continuous variables were analyzed using the Student t test, analysis of variance, and the Wilcoxon test; all calculations were performed with the Stats package of the R software. Results An independent analysis of each group revealed a statistical difference within the first months, with improvement in the pain and function scores, but worsening on the 6th month after the procedure. There was no difference in the outcomes between the groups receiving hyaluronic acid or platelet-rich plasma. There was no serious adverse effect or allergic reaction during the entire follow-up period. Conclusion Intraarticular infiltration with hyaluronic acid or platelet-rich plasma in patients with primary knee gonarthrosis resulted in temporary improvement of functional symptoms and pain. There was no difference between interventions.

Resumo Objetivo Comparar o efeito da infiltração intraarticular do plasma rico em plaqueta com a do ácido hialurônico no tratamento de pacientes com osteoartrose primária de joelho. Métodos Realizou-se um ensaio clínico randomizado com 29 pacientes, sendo um grupo submetido à infiltração com ácido hialurônico (controle) e o outro com plasma rico em plaquetas. Os desfechos clínicos avaliados foram a escala visual analógica da dor; o questionário Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), antes e depois da intervenção; e os efeitos adversos após as aplicações. Utilizou-se os testes do qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher para as variáveis categóricas, e o teste t de Student, análise de variância, e Wilcoxon para as variáveis contínuas, através do software R. Resultados A análise independente de cada grupo revelou uma diferença estatística nos meses iniciais, com melhora dos escores de dor e função; porém, com piora no 6° mês após o procedimento. Não houve diferença dos desfechos avaliados entre os grupos que foram submetidos à infiltração com ácido hialurônico ou com plasma rico em plaquetas. Não houve efeito adverso grave ou reação alérgica durante todo o seguimento. Conclusão A infiltração intraarticular com ácido hialurônico ou plasma rico em plaquetas nos joelhos dos pacientes com gonartrose primária apresentou melhora temporária dos sintomas de função e dor. Não houve diferença entre as duas intervenções.

Humans , Osteoarthritis/therapy , Benchmarking , Platelet-Rich Plasma/drug effects , Hyaluronic Acid/therapeutic use , Anesthesia, Local , Knee/pathology