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1.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(3): 381-401, sept. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127611

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is the most prevalent chronic condition among children, however, in Chile, it is underdiagnosed. This may be due to medical professionals failing to recognize the disease. It is essential to be aware of the symptoms and signs that are suggestive of the disease in order to begin an appropriate treatment to achieve disease control. Asthma must be suspected in school age children who present repeated episodes of bronchial obstruction. The diagnosis should be confirmed with lung function tests that demonstrate variable airflow obstruction with a positive bronchodilator response. Treatment is based on two fundamental pillars: education and pharmacological treatment. Educational activities must include: information about the disease and its treatment, regular monitoring of treatment adherence, teaching and reviewing the correct inhalation technique at every checkup, developing a personalized written action plan and scheduling regular follow-up appointments. The gold standard for treatment is maintenance inhaled corticosteroids, in the lowest possible dose that enables disease control. The goal of the treatment is to eliminate daily symptoms and asthma crisis. Therapy should be increased if control is not achieved, but before starting it, adherence to maintenance treatment, inhalation technique, presence of associated comorbidities and environmental exposure should be evaluated. In the mild patient, who is not receiving maintenance therapy, rescue treatment should be done with bronchodilators, always associated with inhaled corticosteroids. This consensus is a guide to improve the diagnosis, treatment and control of asthma in schoolchildren.


El asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en la infancia. Sin embargo en Chile existe un importante subdiagnóstico. Es fundamental estar atentos a los síntomas y signos que nos hacen sospechar el diagnóstico para iniciar un tratamiento oportuno, que asegure un buen control de la enfermedad. Debemos sospechar asma en todo escolar que presente cuadros repetidos de obstrucción bronquial. El diagnóstico debe confirmarse con pruebas de función pulmonar que demuestren obstrucción variable al flujo aéreo y respuesta broncodilatadora positiva. El tratamiento se basa en dos pilares fundamentales: la educación y el tratamiento farmacológico. Las actividades educativas deben incluir contenidos acerca de la enfermedad y su tratamiento, se debe monitorizar constantemente la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, enseñar la técnica inhalatoria correcta y revisar en cada control, entregar un plan de acción escrito personalizado frente al inicio de una crisis y realizar controles médicos periódicos. Con respecto al tratamiento farmacológico, el estándar de oro es el uso de corticoides inhalados permanentes, en la mínima dosis posible que logre el control de la enfermedad. El objetivo del tratamiento es la supresión de los síntomas diarios y de las crisis. El tratamiento se irá incrementando en la medida que no haya una respuesta adecuada, pero antes de aquello se debe evaluar la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, la técnica inhalatoria, presencia de comorbilidades asociadas y exposición ambiental. En el paciente leve, que esté sin tratamiento permanente, el rescate debe realizarse con broncodilatadores asociados siempre a un corticoide inhalado. Este consenso es una guía de apoyo para mejorar el diagnóstico oportuno, tratamiento y control del asma en el escolar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/classification , Asthma/physiopathology , Status Asthmaticus/etiology , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Chile , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Consensus , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(7): e9271, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132527

ABSTRACT

Montelukast sodium is an effective and well-tolerated anti-asthmatic drug. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the treatment of asthma. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of montelukast sodium on children with cough-variant asthma (CVA) and the role of lncRNA prostate cancer gene expression marker 1 (PCGEM1) in drug efficacy. The efficacy of montelukast sodium was evaluated by assessing the release of inflammatory factors and pulmonary function in CVA children after a 3-month treatment. An ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mouse model was developed to simulate asthmatic conditions. PCGEM1 expression in clinical peripheral blood samples and lung tissues of asthmatic mice was determined. Asthmatic mice experienced nasal inhalation of PCGEM1 overexpression with simultaneous montelukast sodium to investigate the roles of PCGEM1 in asthma treatment. The NF-κB axis after PCGEM1 overexpression was detected to explore the underling mechanisms. Consequently, montelukast sodium contributed to reduced levels of pro-inflammatory factors and improved pulmonary function in CVA children. PCGEM1 was poorly expressed in OVA-sensitized asthmatic mice and highly expressed in CVA children with response to the treatment. PCGEM1 overexpression enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects and promoted effects on pulmonary function of montelukast sodium in CVA children and OVA-sensitized asthmatic mice. Furthermore, PCGEM1 inhibited the activation of the NF-κB axis. This study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and lung-protective effects of montelukast sodium on CVA, which was strengthened by overexpression of PCGEM1. Findings in this study highlighted a potential anti-asthmatic target of montelukast sodium.


Subject(s)
Quinolines/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Cough/drug therapy , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Acetates/therapeutic use , Asthma/blood , Cough/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred BALB C
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(8): e5991, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888980

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a chronic allergic disease characterized by airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), and mucus hypersecretion. T-lymphocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, mediating airway inflammatory reactions by secreting cytokines. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Notch signaling pathways are associated with T cell signaling, proliferation, and differentiation, and are important in the progression of asthma. Thus, compounds that can modulate T cell proliferation and function may be of clinical value. Here, we assessed the effects of tangeretin, a plant-derived flavonoid, in experimental asthma. BALB/c mice at postnatal day (P) 12 were challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Separate groups of mice (n=18/group) were administered tangeretin at 25 or 50 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage. Dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Tangeretin treatment reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and also restored the normal histology of lung tissues. OVA-specific IgE levels in serum and BALF were reduced. AHR, as determined by airway resistance and lung compliance, was normalized. Flow cytometry analyses revealed a reduced Th17 cell population. Tangeretin reduced the levels of Th2 and Th17 cytokines and raised IFN-γ levels. PI3K signaling was inhibited. The expressions of the Notch 1 receptor and its ligands Jagged 1 and 2 were downregulated by tangeretin. Our findings support the possible use of tangeretin for treating allergic asthma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Asthma/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Flavones/therapeutic use , Asthma/immunology , Cytokines/drug effects , Cytokines/immunology , Th2 Cells/drug effects , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/drug effects , Th1 Cells/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/immunology , Th17 Cells/drug effects , Th17 Cells/immunology , Animals, Newborn , Mice, Inbred BALB C
6.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 14(1): 45-49, 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-969317

ABSTRACT

La crisis de asma es el conjunto de síntomas, signos físicos y de laboratorio que apuntan a un aumento de la resistencia al flujo aéreo y como consecuencia la obstrucción bronquial. Es una causa frecuente de consulta y muchas veces la forma como se hace evidente la enfermedad en los pacientes y sus padres. En esta revisión entregamos algunas recomendaciones de cómo reconocer y responder rápidamente a esta situación. Los objetivos primarios al enfrentar una crisis son corregir la hipoxemia, obtener la bronco dilatación y disminuir el riesgo de recaídas. Para lograrlos, debe reconocer rápidamente la hipoxemia y aportar oxígenos suplementario, demostrar la obstrucción de la vía aérea (por clínica y/o laboratorio) y tratarla con broncodilatadores de acción rápida y corticoides sistémicos y una vez manejada la crisis dejar indicaciones suficientes para evitar que esto vuelva a ocurrir.


The asthma crisis is a group of symptoms, with physical and laboratory signs that show an increase in resistance to airflow because of the bronchial obstruction. It is a frequent cause of consultation and It is an often way that the disease becomes evident in patients and their parents. In this review we give some recommendations on how to recognize and have a quickly response to this situation. The primary objectives in facing a crisis are correcting hypoxemia, obtain broncho dilatation and decrease the risk of relapse. In order to achieve this, you should promptly recognize hypoxemia, provide supplemental oxygen, demonstrate airway obstruction (by clinic and / or laboratory) and treat it with rapid-acting bronchodilators and systemic corticosteroids and once the crisis is handled, leave sufficient indications to avoid this to happen again


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma/drug therapy , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 32(3): 160-168, set. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844378

ABSTRACT

This paper presents clinical experience with Omalizumab treatment in 8 pediatric patients in Chile. All children presented difficult to control asthma despite receiving high intensity treatment, with low quality of life. All patients were studied in order to discard errors in asthma diagnosis and to evaluate asthma treatment adherence and inhalation technique. After evaluation, patients proven to have severe therapy resistant asthma were indicated treatment with Omalizumab. Significant clinical improvement was observed, with reduced asthma symptoms and number of exacerbations, as well as an improved quality of life. Omalizumab showed a good safety profile with mild and transient adverse reactions in 6 administrations of a total of 122.


Se presenta la experiencia clínica con el uso de Omalizumab en 8 pacientes pediátricos en nuestro país. Todos los pacientes presentaban asma sin control a pesar de recibir terapia de alta intensidad, asociado a una muy deficiente calidad de vida. La totalidad de los pacientes fueron sometidos en cada centro a un estudio exhaustivo para poder descartar error en el diagnóstico y se evaluó la adherencia y la técnica inhalada. Al comprobarse que estos pacientes tenían asma severo resistente a tratamiento se indicó Omalizumab, el cual produjo una mejoría clínica significativa. Se observó una reducción de las exacerbaciones y de los síntomas de asma acompañado de una mejoría de la calidad de vida, asociado a un buen perfil de seguridad. Se observaron reacciones adversas leves y transitorias en 6 administraciones de un total de 122.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Asthma/physiopathology , Chile , Clinical Evolution , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome
8.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 28(2): 167-178, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787733

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A asma é a mais comum das doenças da infância. Embora a maioria das crianças com exacerbações agudas de asma não demanda cuidados críticos, algumas delas não respondem ao tratamento padrão e necessitam de cuidados mais intensos. Crianças com asma crítica ou quase fatal precisam de monitoramento estrito quanto à deterioração e podem requerer estratégias terapêuticas agressivas. Esta revisão examinou as evidências disponíveis que dão suporte a terapias para asma crítica e quase fatal, e resumiu o cuidado clínico atual para essas crianças. O tratamento típico inclui uso parenteral de corticosteroides e fármacos beta-agonistas, por via inalatória ou intravenosa. Para crianças com resposta inadequada ao tratamento padrão, pode-se lançar mão do uso inalatório de brometo de ipratrópio ou intravenoso de sulfato de magnésio, metilxantinas e misturas gasosas com hélio, além de suporte ventilatório mecânico não invasivo. Pacientes com insuficiência respiratória progressiva se beneficiam de ventilação mecânica com uma estratégia que emprega grandes volumes correntes e baixas frequências do ventilador, para minimizar a hiperinsuflação dinâmica, o barotrauma e a hipotensão. Sedativos, analgésicos e bloqueadores neuromusculares são frequentemente necessários na fase inicial do tratamento para facilitar um estado de hipoventilação controlada e hipercapnia permissiva. Pacientes que não conseguem melhorar com a ventilação mecânica podem ser considerados para abordagens menos comuns, como inalação de anestésicos, broncoscopia e suporte extracorpóreo à vida. Esta abordagem atual resultou em taxas de mortalidade extremamente baixas, mesmo em crianças com necessidade de suporte mecânico.


ABSTRACT Asthma is the most common chronic illness in childhood. Although the vast majority of children with acute asthma exacerbations do not require critical care, some fail to respond to standard treatment and require escalation of support. Children with critical or near-fatal asthma require close monitoring for deterioration and may require aggressive treatment strategies. This review examines the available evidence supporting therapies for critical and near-fatal asthma and summarizes the contemporary clinical care of these children. Typical treatment includes parenteral corticosteroids and inhaled or intravenous beta-agonist drugs. For children with an inadequate response to standard therapy, inhaled ipratropium bromide, intravenous magnesium sulfate, methylxanthines, helium-oxygen mixtures, and non-invasive mechanical support can be used. Patients with progressive respiratory failure benefit from mechanical ventilation with a strategy that employs large tidal volumes and low ventilator rates to minimize dynamic hyperinflation, barotrauma, and hypotension. Sedatives, analgesics and a neuromuscular blocker are often necessary in the early phase of treatment to facilitate a state of controlled hypoventilation and permissive hypercapnia. Patients who fail to improve with mechanical ventilation may be considered for less common approaches, such as inhaled anesthetics, bronchoscopy, and extracorporeal life support. This contemporary approach has resulted in extremely low mortality rates, even in children requiring mechanical support.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Asthma/therapy , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/mortality , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease
9.
J. bras. pneumol ; 42(2): 136-142, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780879

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the frequency of popular myths about and features of asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil. Methods: The parents or legal guardians of public school students (8-16 years of age) completed a specific questionnaire regarding their understanding of asthma, asthma control, and treatment characteristics. The sample included parents or legal guardians of students with asthma (n = 127) and healthy controls (n = 124). Results: The study involved 251 parents or legal guardians, of whom 127 (68.5%) were the mothers and 130 (51.8%) were White. The mean age of these participants was 38.47 ± 12.07 years. Of the participants in the asthma and control groups, 37 (29.1%) and 26 (21.0%), respectively, reported being afraid of using asthma medications, whereas 61 (48%) and 56 (45.2%), respectively, believed that using a metered dose inhaler can lead to drug dependence. However, only 17 (13.4%) and 17 (13.7%) of the participants in the asthma and control groups, respectively, reported being afraid of using oral corticosteroids. In the asthma group, 55 students (43.3%) were diagnosed with uncontrolled asthma, only 41 (32.3%) had a prescription or written treatment plan, and 38 (29.9%) used asthma medications regularly. Conclusions: Popular myths about asthma treatment were common in our sample, as were uncontrolled asthma and inappropriate asthma management. Further studies in this field should be conducted in other developing countries, as should evaluations of pediatric asthma treatment programs in public health systems.


Objetivo: Descrever a frequência de mitos populares e as características do tratamento em asma em crianças e adolescentes em uma amostra urbana no sul do Brasil. Métodos: Foi aplicado um questionário específico, contendo perguntas sobre entendimento da doença, controle da asma e características do tratamento a pais/responsáveis de escolares da rede pública (8-16 anos de idade) com diagnóstico de asma (n = 127) e de controles saudáveis (n = 124). Resultados: Participaram do estudo 251 pais/responsáveis, com predomínio de mães como acompanhantes dos escolares (n = 127; 68,5%) e de etnia caucasiana (n = 130; 51,8%), com média de idade de 38,47 ± 12,07 anos. Sobre os mitos, 37 (29,1%) dos participantes do grupo asma e 26 (21,0%) dos do grupo controle relataram possuir receio de utilizar medicamentos para asma, e 61 (48%) e 56 (45,2%), respectivamente, acreditam que os inaladores pressurizados podem levar a dependência ao fármaco. No entanto, apenas 17 (13,4%) dos participantes do grupo asma e 17 (13,7%) dos do grupo controle relataram ter receio de utilizar corticoide oral. A ausência de controle da asma foi detectada em 55 (43,3%) dos escolares no grupo asma, apenas 41 (32,3%) possuíam uma receita ou um plano por escrito de como tratar da asma e 38 (29,9%) fazia uso contínuo de medicamentos para a doença. Conclusões: A presença de mitos populares sobre o tratamento da asma, a falta de controle da doença e seu manejo inadequado mostraram ser elevados nesta amostra. Nossos achados apontam para a necessidade de novos estudos nesse campo em países em desenvolvimento e de uma avaliação dos programas de manejo da asma pediátrica na saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Asthma/therapy , Culture , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Legal Guardians/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Age Factors , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Metered Dose Inhalers/statistics & numerical data , Parents , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 41(6): 496-501, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-769781

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To identify, characterize, and quantify associations of various factors with quality of life (QoL) in patients with asthma, according to the pharmacotherapy employed. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 49 patients (≥ 18 years of age) with severe uncontrolled or refractory asthma treated at a specialized outpatient clinic of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System, regularly using high doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICs) or other medications, and presenting comorbidities. At a single time point, QoL was assessed with the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The overall AQLQ score and those of its domains were correlated with demographic variables (gender and age); Asthma Control Questionnaire score; pharmacotherapy (initial IC dose, inhaler devices, and polytherapy); and comorbidities. RESULTS: Better AQLQ scores were associated with asthma control-overall (OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.004-0.341; p < 0.001), "symptoms" domain (OR = 0.086; 95% CI: 0.016-0.476; p = 0.001), and "emotional function" domain (OR = 0.086; 95% CI: 0.016-0.476; p = 0.001)-and with IC dose ≤ 800 µg-"activity limitation" domain (OR = 0.249; 95% CI: 0.070-0.885; p = 0.029). Worse AQLQ scores were associated with polytherapy-"activity limitation" domain (OR = 3.651; 95% CI: 1.061-12.561; p = 0.036)-and number of comorbidities ≤ 5-"environmental stimuli" domain (OR = 5.042; 95% CI: 1.316-19.317; p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Our results, the importance of this issue, and the lack of studies taking pharmacotherapy into consideration warrant longitudinal studies to establish a causal relationship between the identified factors and QoL in asthma patients.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Identificar, caracterizar e medir a associação de fatores relacionados à qualidade de vida (QV) de pacientes asmáticos sob a perspectiva da farmacoterapia. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal com 49 pacientes (≥ 18 anos) portadores de asma grave não controlada ou asma refratária, atendidos em um ambulatório especializado do Sistema Único de Saúde, em uso regular de altas doses de corticoides inalatórios (CIs) e/ou de diversos medicamentos e com comorbidades. Obtiveram-se as medidas de QV através da aplicação do questionário Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) num único momento. O escore global e dos domínios do AQLQ foram relacionados com variáveis demográficas (gênero e idade), escore do Asthma Control Questionnaire, terapia medicamentosa (dose inicial de CI, dispositivos inalatórios e politerapia) e comorbidades. RESULTADOS: Melhores escores do AQLQ associaram-se com asma controlada - escore global (OR = 0,38; IC95%: 0,004-0,341; p < 0,001) e domínios "sintomas" (OR = 0,086; IC95%: 0,016-0,476; p = 0,001) e "função emocional" (OR = 0,086; IC95%: 0,016-0,476; p = 0,001) - e com dose de CI ≤ 800 µg - domínio "limitação de atividades" (OR = 0,249; IC95%: 0,070-0,885; p = 0,029). Piores escores do AQLQ correlacionaram-se com politerapia - domínio "limitação de atividades" (OR = 3,651; IC95%: 1,061-12,561; p = 0,036) - e com número de comorbidades ≤ 5 - domínio "estímulo ambiental" (OR = 5,042; IC95%: 1,316-19,317; p = 0,015). CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados, a importância do tema, e a escassez de estudos sob a perspectiva da farmacoterapia apontam a necessidade da realização de estudos longitudinais para se estabelecer uma relação de causalidade entre os fatores identificados e a QV em pacientes com asma.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/psychology , Medication Therapy Management , Quality of Life , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
J. bras. pneumol ; 41(4): 343-350, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759331

ABSTRACT

AbstractObjective: To describe the clinical characteristics, lung function, radiological findings, and the inflammatory cell profile in induced sputum in children and adolescents with severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA) treated at a referral center in southern Brazil.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed children and adolescents (3-18 years of age) with uncontrolled STRA treated with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2 agonists. We prospectively collected data on disease control, lung function, skin test reactivity to allergens, the inflammatory cell profile in induced sputum, chest CT findings, and esophageal pH monitoring results.Results: We analyzed 21 patients (mean age, 9.2 ± 2.98 years). Of those, 18 (86%) were atopic. Most had uncontrolled asthma and near-normal baseline lung function. In 4 and 7, induced sputum was found to be eosinophilic and neutrophilic, respectively; the inflammatory cell profile in induced sputum having changed in 67% of those in whom induced sputum analysis was repeated. Of the 8 patients receiving treatment with omalizumab (an anti-IgE antibody), 7 (87.5%) showed significant improvement in quality of life, as well as significant reductions in the numbers of exacerbations and hospitalizations.Conclusions: Children with STRA present with near-normal lung function and a variable airway inflammatory pattern during clinical follow-up, showing a significant clinical response to omalizumab. In children, STRA differs from that seen in adults, further studies being required in order to gain a better understanding of the disease mechanisms.


ResumoObjetivo: Descrever as principais características clínicas, a função pulmonar, as características radiológicas e o perfil inflamatório do escarro induzido de crianças e adolescentes com asma grave resistente a terapia (AGRT) tratados em um centro de referência do sul do Brasil.Métodos: Foram analisadas retrospectivamente crianças e adolescentes de 3-18 anos com diagnóstico de AGRT não controlada acompanhados durante pelo menos 6 meses e tratados com doses elevadas de corticoide inalatório associado a um β2-agonista de longa duração. Foram coletados prospectivamente dados relativos ao controle da doença, função pulmonar, teste cutâneo para alérgenos, perfil inflamatório do escarro induzido, TC de tórax e pHmetria esofágica.Resultados: Foram analisados 21 pacientes (média de idade: 9,2 ± 2,98 anos). Dos 21, 18 (86%) eram atópicos. A maioria apresentava asma não controlada e função pulmonar basal próxima do normal. Em 4 e 7 pacientes, o escarro induzido revelou-se eosinofílico e neutrofílico, respectivamente, e 67% dos pacientes que repetiram o exame apresentaram mudança no perfil inflamatório. Dos 8 pacientes que receberam omalizumabe (um anticorpo anti-IgE), 7 (87,5%) apresentaram melhora importante da qualidade de vida, com redução importante das exacerbações e hospitalizações.Conclusões: Crianças com AGRT apresentam função pulmonar próxima do normal e padrão inflamatório das vias aéreas variável durante o seguimento clínico, com importante resposta clínica ao omalizumabe. A AGRT em crianças difere da AGRT em adultos, e são necessários mais estudos para esclarecer os mecanismos da doença.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Asthma , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma , Brazil , Drug Resistance , Esophageal pH Monitoring , Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Inflammation/diagnosis , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Skin Tests , Sputum/cytology , Treatment Failure
12.
Córdoba; s.n; 2015. 188 p. ilus, tab, mapas.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-831442

ABSTRACT

El asma alérgica ha incrementado su prevalencia, constituyéndose como un problema mundial de salud. Factores ambientales derivados de la vida moderna han sido vinculados a este fenómeno a través de la hipótesis de la higiene; la cual postula que la vida urbana disminuye la potenciación de la inmunidad innata, lograda a través del reconocimiento de estímulos microbianos por los receptores Toll-like (TLRs), conduciendo a la mayor prevalencia de respuestas alérgicas. Las investigaciones en asma en el último siglo han tenido como objetivo la disminución de la respuesta inmune adaptativa Th2 asociada a las alergias; sin embargo han conseguido escasos avances terapéuticos. Actualmente, es creciente el número de evidencias que implican a los componentes estructurales de la vía aérea en el inicio y progresión del asma; no obstante su rol en la prevención de la inflamación alérgica no ha sido suficientemente evaluado. Por lo tanto, el presente trabajo de Tesis Doctoral tuvo como objetivo general el estudio de la interacción de la inmunidad innata del epitelio bronquiolar y la inflamación alérgica del asma.


ABSTRACT: Recently, asthma rates have increased becoming a global health problem. The role of environmental factors in this increase, due to modern lifestyles, has been suggested by the hygiene hypothesis, which postulated that the urban hygienic conditions skip the early exposure to microbes hence that are clue to promote innate immune activation by signalling through the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and thus preventing the allergic responses. Even though many investigations on asthma have been focused on the reduction of the allergic Th2-nflammatory response in the last century, the therapeutic advances have been scarce. Nowadays, there is increasing evidence of the involvement of the airway epithelial cells on the origin and progression of asthma. However, the role of these cells in preventing the triggering of allergic inflammation has not been evaluated. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis was to study the interaction of innate immunity of bronchiolar epithelium and allergic inflammation in asthma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Airway Remodeling , Antigenic Modulation , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/prevention & control , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Hypersensitivity/prevention & control , Antigenic Modulation/immunology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146113

ABSTRACT

Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a bronchiolitis affecting the whole lung fields which can be treated by macrolide. Especially East Asian patients are more susceptible to diffuse panbronchiolitis. As asthma and DPB both can cause airway obstruction, differential diagnosis is important for the 2 diseases. Here we report 5 patients with DPB clinically presenting as severe asthma in Korea, who were well treated by macrolide. Among the 5 patients, 2 could stop their asthma inhalers and the other 3 could reduce asthma medications after diagnosis and treatment of DPB. In conclusion, considering DPB as differential diagnosis for asthmatics in Asian ethnic groups is important.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/diagnosis , Bronchiolitis/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Haemophilus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Macrolides/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30797

ABSTRACT

Many patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have overlapping characteristics of both diseases. By spirometric definition, patients with both fixed airflow obstruction (AO) and bronchodilator reversibility or fixed AO and bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be considered to have asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, patients regarded to have ACOS by spirometric criteria alone are heterogeneous and can be classified by phenotype. Eosinophilic inflammation, a history of allergic disease, and smoke exposure are important components in the classification of ACOS. Each phenotype has a different underlying pathophysiology, set of characteristics, and prognosis. Medical treatment for ACOS should be tailored according to phenotype. A narrower definition of ACOS that includes both spirometric and clinical criteria is needed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/complications , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Risk Factors , Spirometry , Syndrome , Terminology as Topic , Treatment Outcome
15.
J. bras. pneumol ; 40(5): 487-494, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728775

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess asthma patients in Brazil in terms of the level of asthma control, compliance with maintenance treatment, and the use of rescue medication. METHODS: We used data from a Latin American survey of a total of 400 asthma patients in four Brazilian state capitals, all of whom completed a questionnaire regarding asthma control and treatment. RESULTS: In that sample, the prevalence of asthma was 8.8%. Among the 400 patients studied, asthma was classified, in accordance with the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria, as controlled, partially controlled, and uncontrolled in 37 (9.3%), 226 (56.5%), and 137 (34.3%), respectively. In those three groups, the proportion of patients on maintenance therapy in the past four weeks was 5.4%, 19.9%, and 41.6%, respectively. The use of rescue medication was significantly more common in the uncontrolled asthma group (86.9%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that, in accordance with the established international criteria, asthma is uncontrolled in the vast majority of asthma patients in Brazil. Maintenance medications are still underutilized in Brazil, and patients with partially controlled or uncontrolled asthma are more likely to use rescue medications and oral corticosteroids. .


OBJETIVO: Avaliar pacientes asmáticos no Brasil em relação ao grau de controle da asma, a aderência ao tratamento de manutenção e o uso de medicação de alivio em pacientes asmáticos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados os dados de um inquérito latino-americano, obtidos em quatro capitais brasileiras, de 400 pacientes com asma através de um questionário sobre o controle e o tratamento da doença. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de asma nesta amostra foi de 8,8%. Dos 400 pacientes estudados, 37 (9,3%), 226 (56,5%) e 137 (34,3%), respectivamente, foram classificados, segundo critérios da Global Initiative for Asthma, como tendo asma controlada, parcialmente controlada e não controlada. A proporção de pacientes em terapia de manutenção nas últimas quatro semanas naqueles três grupos, respectivamente, foi de 5,4%, 19,9% e 41,6%. O uso de medicação de alivio foi significativamente mais comum nos pacientes com asma não controlada (86,9%; p < 0,001). CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados sugerem que a grande maioria dos pacientes com asma no Brasil não apresenta sua doença controlada segundo critérios internacionais. As medicações de manutenção ainda são subutilizadas no Brasil, e o uso de medicações de alívio e corticoide oral é mais frequente em pacientes com asma parcialmente controlada ou não controlada. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/prevention & control , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/administration & dosage , Asthma/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence
16.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 30(2): 81-90, jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-719128

ABSTRACT

Preschool wheezing is one of the most common presenting symptoms in pediatric practice. The vast majority of these patients present wheeze triggered by viral respiratory infections and only a minority of them will have asthma in school age. The evaluation of these children begin with a detailed clinical history and physical examination and standard laboratory tests to rule out secondary causes of wheezing. The decision for controlling therapy will depend on the frequency and severity of the wheezing episodes, but should always be considered as a treatment trial, avoiding prolonged periods of time. It is recommended to start with low doses of inhaled corticosteroids, evaluating treatment effect with a close follow up. Inhaled bronchodilators remain the treatment of choice in acute exacerbations of wheezing, systemic corticosteroids should be reserved for severe exacerbations in hospitalized patients.


Las sibilancias recurrentes del preescolar es una condición frecuente a la que se ve enfrentado el pediatra. La gran mayoría de estos pacientes presentan sibilancias en relación a infecciones respiratorias virales y sólo una minoría de ellos tendrá diagnóstico de asma en la edad escolar. El enfrentamiento adecuado de estos niños se inicia con una detallada anamnesis y examen físico para descartar causas secundarias, lo que se complementa con algunos exámenes de laboratorio. La decisión de iniciar tratamiento de mantención dependerá principalmente de la frecuencia y gravedad de los episodios de sibilancias. Este tratamiento debe ser considerado como una prueba terapéutica, evitando su mantención por tiempos prolongados. Se recomienda el uso de corticoides inhalados en dosis bajas y realizar un seguimiento estrecho del paciente para objetivar la respuesta. En el caso de los episodios agudos los broncodilatadores son el tratamiento de elección, mientras que los corticoides sistémicos debieran reservarse sólo para los casos severos o que requieren hospitalización.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Asthma/diagnosis , Respiratory Sounds/diagnosis , Recurrence , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Asthma/complications , Asthma/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Chile , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Consensus , Diagnosis, Differential
17.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1170970

ABSTRACT

Beta 2 agonist bronchodilators (ß2A) are very important part in the pharmacotherapy of bronchial asthma, a disease that progresses in the world in an epidemic way. The ß2A are prescribed to millions of people around the world, therefore the safety aspects is of public interest. Short-Acting ß2 Agonists (SABAs), such as albuterol inhaler, according to current evidence, confirming its safety when used as a quick-relief or rescue medication. The long-acting ß2 agonists (LABAs) The long-acting bronchodilators ß2A (Long acting ß2 Agonists or LABAs) are used associated with inhaled corticosteroids as controller drugs for asthma exacerbationsaccess, for safety reasons LABAs are not recommended for use as monotherapy.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-Agonists/therapeutic use , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/adverse effects , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/adverse effects , Chronic Disease , Humans
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147351

ABSTRACT

Beta-2-agonists continue to find a dominant role in all the current guidelines on the management of chronic persistent bronchial asthma. However, the safety of the drugs remains doubtful. Thus, there is a case for review of the “Step up-Step down” approach in the management of chronic persistent bronchial asthma. Based on the currently available experimental and clinical data on bronchial asthma, the authors are of the opinion that chronic persistent bronchial asthma is best managed by a modified “Step I-Step II” approach.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists/therapeutic use , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Humans
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157487

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder characterized by hyper reactive airways, leading to episodic, reversible bronchi constriction, owing to increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to various stimuli1. Specific objectives of the study to compare the clinical efficacy of oral montelukast with metered dose inhaled steroids. The results of the study suggests that metered dose inhaled steroids are superior than oral montelukast in mild persistent childhood asthma.


Subject(s)
Acetates/therapeutic use , Administration, Inhalation , Administration, Oral , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Male , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 72(5): 403-413, oct. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-657537

ABSTRACT

El asma es una de las enfermedades crónicas más frecuentes en los niños. Si bien la mayoría de los niños con asma responden a bajas dosis de corticoides inhalados y/o antagonistas del receptor de leucotrienos, algunos de ellos permanecen sintomáticos independientemente de cualquier esfuerzo terapéutico, presentando una elevada morbilidad e inclusive mortalidad. Aunque la mayoría de los pacientes controlan los síntomas de forma adecuada, existe un grupo importante que presenta síntomas graves de la enfermedad difíciles de controlar (ADC). El objetivo de la presente revisión es discutir los aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos del ACD en los menores de 18 años y su implicancia en la práctica clínica diaria.


Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. While most children with asthma respond to low doses of inhaled corticosteroids and /or leukotriene receptor antagonists, some of them remain symptomatic regardless of any therapeutic effort, showing a high morbidity and even mortality. While most of the patients control symptoms adequately, there is a large group with severe symptoms of the disease and difficult to control. The aim of this review is to discuss the clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment of poorly controlled asthma in children and adolescents and its implications in daily clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity
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