Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.604
Filter
1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(1): 1-13, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365754

ABSTRACT

Abstract Skeletal muscle tissue has the largest mass in the human body, accounting for 45% of the total weight. Muscle injuries can be caused by bruising, stretching or laceration. The current classification divides these injuries into mild, moderate and severe. The signs and symptoms of grade I lesions are edema and discomfort; grade II, loss of function, gaps and possible ecchymosis; and grade III, complete rupture, severe pain and extensive hematoma. The diagnosis can be confirmed by ultrasound, which is dynamic and cheap, but examiner dependent; and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provides better anatomical definition. The initial phase of the treatment consists in protection, rest, optimal use of the affected limb, and cryotherapy. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ultrasound therapy, strengthening and stretching after the initial phase and range of motion without pain are used in the clinical treatment. On the other hand, surgery has precise indications: hematoma drainage and muscle-tendon reinsertion and reinforcement.


Resumo O tecido muscular esquelético possui a maior massa do corpo humano, correspondendo a 45% do peso total. As lesões musculares podem ser causadas por contusões, estiramentos ou lacerações. A atual classificação separa as lesões entre leves, moderadas e graves. Os sinais e sintomas das lesões grau I são edema e desconforto; grau II, perda de função, gap e equimose eventual; grau III, rotura completa, dor intensa e hematoma extenso. O diagnóstico pode ser confirmado por ultrassom (dinâmico e barato, porém examinador-dependente); e ressonância magnética (RM) (maior definição anatômica). A fase inicial do tratamento se resume à proteção, ao repouso, ao uso otimizado do membro afetado e crioterapia. Anti-inflamatórios não hormonais (AINHs), ultrassom terapêutico, fortalecimento e alongamento após a fase inicial e amplitudes de movimento sem dor são utilizados no tratamento clínico. Já o cirúrgico possui indicações precisas: drenagem do hematoma, reinserção e reforço musculotendíneos.


Subject(s)
Athletic Injuries , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Musculoskeletal System/surgery , Musculoskeletal System/physiopathology , Musculoskeletal System/injuries
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240359, 2022. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285603

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hymenaea martiana is a species popularly known in Northeastern Brazil as "jatobá" and used in folk medicine to treat pain and inflammation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of H. martiana. In the present study, we carried out an investigation about the effects of the crude ethanolic extract (Hm-EtOH) and the ethyl acetate fraction (Hm-AcOEt) in models of nociception and inflammation in mice. Chemical (acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin) and thermal stimuli (hot plate) were used for the evaluation of antinociceptive activity, while for the anti-inflammatory profile paw edema induced by carrageenan was used, along with leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity. The presence of the flavonoid astilbin in the samples was characterized through HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt (100, 200 and 400 mg.kg-1, i.p.) significantly reduced the number of abdominal contortions and decreased the paw licking time in the formalin test. In the hot plate, the extract increased the latency time of animals. Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt inhibited significantly the increase in the edema after the administration of carrageenan. Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt inhibited leukocyte migration in the peritonitis test. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt revealed the presence of the flavonoid astilbin in the samples. According to the results of this study, both Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be related with the presence of flavonoid in the extracts. The results reinforce the popular use of this plant.


Resumo Hymenaea martiana é uma espécie popularmente conhecida no Nordeste do Brasil como "jatobá" e usada na medicina popular para tratar a dor e a inflamação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antinociceptiva e anti-inflamatória de H. martiana. No presente estudo, foram avaliados os efeitos do extrato etanólico bruto (Hm-EtOH) e da fração acetato de etila (Hm-AcOEt) em modelos de nocicepção e inflamação em camundongos. Foram utilizados estímulos químicos (contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético e teste da formalina) e estímulo térmico (teste da placa quente) para avaliação da atividade antinociceptiva, enquanto no perfil anti-inflamatório foi utilizado o teste do edema de pata induzido por carragenina e migração de leucócitos para a cavidade peritoneal. A presença do flavonoide astilbina nas amostras foi caracterizada através de análise por CLAE-DAD-EM. Hm-EtOH e o Hm-AcOEt (100, 200 e 400 mg.kg-1, i.p.) reduziram significativamente o número de contorções abdominais e diminuíram o tempo de lambida da pata no teste da formalina. No teste da placa quente, houve aumento do tempo de latência dos animais. Hm-EtOH e Hm-AcOEt inibiram significativamente o aumento do edema após a administração de carragenina, bem como inibiram a migração de leucócitos no teste de peritonite. A análise por CLAE-DAD-EM de Hm-EtOH e Hm-AcOEt revelou a presença do flavonoide astilbina nas amostras. De acordo com os resultados deste estudo, tanto Hm-EtOH quanto o Hm-AcOEt possuem atividades antinociceptiva e anti-inflamatória, o que pode estar relacionado à presença do flavonoide. Os resultados reforçam o uso popular desta planta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Hymenaea , Fabaceae , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Carrageenan , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18373, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364428

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial activities of Alchemilla mollis, Alchemilla persica as well as ellagic acid and miquelianin against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans by using microbroth dilution method and anti-inflammatory activity by using human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method. Microbroth dilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activities. Extracts possessed activity having MIC values of 2.5-5-10mg/ mL, compounds possessed activity having MIC values of 1.25-2.5-4-5mg/mL. A.mollis aerial parts displayed the highest anti-inflammatory activity (IC50=1.22±0.07mg/mL). Ellagic acid and miquelianin were also determined as anti-inflammatory agents with 0.57±0.01mg/mL and 1.23±0.02mg/mL IC50 values, respectively. Total phenolic content and tannin content of the A.mollis and A.persica were determined as 357.00±75.80mg, 282.50±28.70mg PGE/g plant material and 18.02%, 18.63% respectively according to the method described by European Pharmacopoeia. Ellagic acid, miquelianin and catechin were analyzed by HPLC. The highest catechin content was detected in A.persica roots (6.69±0.05g/100g plant material). A.mollis aerial parts contain higher miquelianin (0.39±0.02g/plant material) and ellagic acid (1.56±0.01g/ plant material) than A.persica.


Subject(s)
Alchemilla/classification , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis , Candida albicans , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Dilution/methods , Ellagic Acid/pharmacology , Membranes , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S123-S158, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281031

ABSTRACT

En 1995 se publicó en Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría la primera "Guía de diagnóstico y tratamiento: asma bronquial en niños". En 2007 y 2016 se realizaron actualizaciones. Luego de 5 años se presentan los nuevos contenidos. Las modificaciones más relevantes, aunque no las únicas, se observan en las estrategias terapéuticas. En esta versión se estratifica el tratamiento en "niveles" (1 a 5). El paradigma de cambio en el tratamiento crónico del asma consiste en erradicar la prescripción de broncodilatadores (salbutamol) a demanda, por un lado, y por otro, aparece la opción de tratamiento combinado intermitente con corticoides inhalados y broncodilatadores acción prolongada (LABA) para las formas más leves (niveles 1 y 2), en niños de 12 años o mayores. Aún no se dispone de suficiente evidencia que avale estas opciones en menores de 12 años, por lo que se mantienen las normativas previas vigentes en este grupo. Para más detalles, sugerimos la lectura del documento completo


In 1995, the first Guideline on Diagnosis and Treatment for Childhood Asthma was published in Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría. Updates were made in 2007 and 2016. After 5 years, the new contents are presented. The most relevant modifications, although not the only ones, are observed in therapeutic strategies. In this version, treatment is stratified into "levels" (1 to 5). The current paradigm of change in chronic asthma treatment consists in eradicating the prescription of bronchodilators (salbutamol) on demand. Besides that, the option of intermittent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting bronchodilators (LABA) appears for milder forms (levels 1 and 2) in children > 12 years old. There is still not enough evidence to support these options in < 12 years old maintaining the previous recommendations in this group. For more details we suggest reading the full document.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Infectio ; 25(2): 120-129, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250078

ABSTRACT

Abstract Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic inflammatory disease that that is difficult to manage and with a high impact on the individual's quality of life. Besides, it is a multifactorial entity that typically occurs as an inflammatory response to Malassezia species, along with specific triggers that contribute to its pathophysiology. Sin ce the primary underlying pathogenic mechanisms include Malassezia proliferation and skin inflammation, the most common treatment includes topical antifungal keratolytics and anti-inflammatory agents. However, the consequences of eliminating the yeast population from the skin, the resistance profiles of Malassezia spp. and the effectivity among different groups of medications are unknown. Thus, in this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the disease´s pathophysio logy and the role of Malassezia sp. on it, as well as, the different antifungal treatment alternatives, including topical and oral treatment in the management of SD.


Resumen La dermatitis seborreica (DS) es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica, con un elevado impacto en la calidad de vida del individuo. Además, DS es una entidad multifactorial que ocurre como respuesta inflamatoria a las levaduras del género Malassezia spp., junto con factores desencadenantes que contribuyen a la fisio patología de la enfermedad. Dado que el mecanismo patogénico principal involucra la proliferación e inflamación generada por Malassezia spp., el tratamiento más usado son los agentes tópicos antifúngicos y antiinflamatorios. Sin embargo, se desconocen las consecuencias de eliminar la población de levaduras de la piel, los perfiles de resistencia de Malassezia spp. y la efectividad entre grupos diferentes de medicamentos. Por tanto, en esta revisión de la literatura, resumimos el conocimiento actual sobre la fisiopatología de la enfermedad y el papel de Malassezia sp., así como de las diferentes alternativas de tratamiento antifúngico tanto tópico como oral en el manejo de la DS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dermatitis, Seborrheic , Malassezia , Skin , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Inflammation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
8.
Infectio ; 25(2): 94-100, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250074

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por SARS-CoV-2 es hoy el principal problema de salud pública en el mundo. No es claro el papel de las citoquinas en la fisiopatología del COVID-19,que en algunos individuos presenta una progresión rápida, severa y mortal asociada con proinflamación sistémicos relacionada con coagulopatías y fallas multiorgánicas. En este estudio, evaluamos los niveles séricos de citoquinas y su correlación con IgM, IgG e IgA, en 24 muestras de individuos positivos y 8 muestras de individuos negativos, para SARS-CoV-2. Hallamos concentraciones significativamente menores de IFN-g, TNF, IL-2 e IL-4 y un aumento significativo de IL-6 en el grupo de infectados hospitalizados respecto a los no infectados, así como una tendencia significativa al aumento, para IgG e IgA en el mismo grupo de individuos, respecto a infectados asintomáticos. Nuestros datos soportan el papel de la IL-6 en la severidad de la enfermedad destacando su potencial papel como biomarcador en la prognosis de esta patología. También, soportan la hipótesis sobre la función de los anticuerpos en el control efectivo del patógeno; se observa una respuesta inmune humoral más débil, frente a la proteína de la nucleocápside viral, en individuos con un mejor curso de la enfermedad.


Abstract The emergency caused by the infection in humans of SARS-COV-2 and the clinical syndrome resulting from the infection (COVID-19) is a major public health crisis with global repercussions. Currently, the role of different cytokine profiles in the infection pathophysiology and its outcome remains unclear despite the coordina ted efforts of the scientific community. COVID-19 shows a rapid progression where the disease severity and mortality are linked to systemic pro-inflammatory pro cesses associated to a dysregulation in the cytokine production balance, resulting in blood clothing disorders and multiorgan failure. Here we evaluate the serum concentration for a cytokine panel as well as the antibody titers of IgM, IgG and IgA from 24 individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR (divided into three separate groups according to disease severity) and eight RT-PCR-negative controls. Significantly lower concentrations of IFN-g, TNF, IL-2 and IL-4, and a higher production of IL-6 were observed in hospitalized COVID-19 patients when compared to SARS-CoV-2-negative individuals. Furthermore, a significant and sustained increase in the levels of IgG and IgA was found for the group of hospitalized patients compared to asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. Our data support previous findings on the role of cytokines like IL-6 in the severity of the disease and highlight their potential use as biomarkers for the prognosis of COVID-19. Finally, we provide evidence supporting the potential function of the antibody response in the effective control of the virus, showing that a somehow weaker humoral immune response can be associated to milder forms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cytokines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Colombia , Immunity , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 282-296, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248965

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This review is intended to describe the therapeutic approaches for corneal blindness, detailing the steps and elements involved in corneal wound healing. It also presents the limitations of the actual surgical and pharmacological strategies used to restore and maintain corneal transparency in terms of long-term survival and geographic coverage. In addition, we critically review the perspectives of anabolic agents, including vitamin A, hormones, growth factors, and novel promitotic and anti-inflammatory modulators, to assist corneal wound healing. We discuss the studies involving nanotechnology, gene therapy, and tissue reengineering as potential future strategies to work solely or in combination with corneal surgery to prevent or revert corneal blindness.(AU)


RESUMO O presente trabalho traz uma revisão das abordagens terapêuticas para a cegueira da córnea. O estudo detalha as etapas e os elementos envolvidos na cicatrização da córnea. Ele mostra as limitações das estratégias cirúrgicas e farmacológicas usadas para restaurar e manter a transparência da córnea em termos de sobrevida a longo prazo e alcance geográfico. As perspectivas dos agentes anabólicos, incluindo vitamina A, hormônios, fatores de crescimento e novos moduladores pró-mitóticos e anti-inflamatórios para auxiliar a cicatrização da ferida na córnea, são revisadas criticamente. Aqui, apresentamos estudos envolvendo nanotecnologia, terapia gênica e reengenharia de tecidos como possíveis estratégias futuras para atuar de maneira isolada ou combinada com a cirurgia da córnea para prevenir ou reverter a cegueira corneana.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Blindness/prevention & control , Blindness/therapy , Corneal Injuries/prevention & control , Corneal Injuries/therapy , Stem Cells , Vitamin A/therapeutic use , Genetic Therapy/instrumentation , Nanotechnology/instrumentation , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/therapeutic use , Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(3): 299-306, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288669

ABSTRACT

Abstract Adverse reactions to vaccine injections are usually mild and incredibly rare in nature, but multiple cases of shoulder events including bursitis, generalized pain or decreased range of motion have been reported following routine vaccine administrations. These events are known as Shoulder Injury Related to Vaccine Administration or SIRVA. A systematic review of literature was performed to identify all published accounts of SIRVA. Twenty-seven papers reporting one or more accounts of SIRVA were identified. The most common vaccination involved was the Influenza vaccine. The most common symptoms were pain that began in 48 hours or less and loss of shoulder range of motion. The most common treatment modalities were physical therapy, corticosteroid injections and anti-inflammatory medication; but in some patients, surgery was required. Regardless of intervention, the vast majority of outcomes demonstrated improved pain and functional except in the occasions of nerve injury. The etiology of SIRVA injuries has multiple possibilities including needle length, mechanical injury from needle overpenetration and the possibility of an immune inflammatory response from the vaccine components, but a unique definitive test or quantifiably result does not yet exist.


Resumo As reações adversas às injeções de vacina tendem a ser brandas e são incrivelmente raras. No entanto, vários casos de eventos em ombros, como bursite, dor generalizada ou diminuição da amplitude de movimento, foram relatados após vacinações de rotina. Esses eventos são conhecidos como lesões em ombro relacionadas à administração de vacina (SIRVA, do inglês shoulder injury related to vaccine administration). Uma revisão sistemática da literatura foi realizada para identificar todos os relatos publicados de SIRVA. Vinte e sete artigos que relataram um ou mais casos de SIRVA foram encontrados. A vacina mais comumente citada foi a vacina contra influenza. Os sintomas mais comuns foram dor com início em até 48 horas e perda da amplitude de movimento do ombro. As modalidades de tratamento mais comuns foram fisioterapia, injeções de corticosteroides e administração de medicamentos anti-inflamatórios; alguns pacientes, porém, precisaram de cirurgia. Independentemente da intervenção, a grande maioria dos casos apresentou melhora da dor e da função, à exceção dos pacientes com lesão nervosa. A SIRVA tem múltiplas possíveis etiologias, inclusive comprimento da agulha, lesão mecânica por penetração excessiva da agulha e resposta inflamatória aos componentes da vacina; no entanto, ainda não há um exame definitivo ou resultado quantificável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bursitis , Influenza Vaccines , Shoulder Impingement Syndrome , Shoulder Pain , Shoulder Injuries , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200179, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153293

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS L. duriusculum n-BuOH extract reduces inflammatory responses both in vitro and in vivo. L. duriusculum n-BuOH extract inhibits NF-κB-dependent transcriptional responses. L. duriusculum n-BuOH extract decreases the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 genes.


Abstract Limonium duriusculum is used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders and has gained attention due to its richness in apigenin. The present investigation was performed to evaluate and confirm its anti-inflammatory properties, in cell lines and animal models. The potential anti-inflammatory properties of n-butanol (n-BuOH) extract of L. duriusculum (BEL) and isolated apigenins were examined on NF-κB transcriptional activity in TNFα- or LPS-stimulated cells, and on in vivo acute inflammatory models (carrageenan induced paw edema and peritonitis). BEL treatment was able to inhibit the activity of an NF-κB reporter gene in HCT116 cells both in the absence and in the presence of exogenous TNFα, used as NF-κB pathway inducer. This anti-inflammatory effect was even more potent compared to Apigenin (APG1) and was confirmed using monocyte-derived THP-1 cells treated with LPS to stimulate NF-κB-dependent transcription of IL-6 and TNFα mRNAs. Apigenin7-O-β-(6''-methylglucuronide) (APG2) was instead inactive both in HCT116 and THP-1 cells. BEL (oral, 200 mg/kg) led to paw swelling inhibition, vascular permeability and peritoneal leukocyte and PN migration diminution. Apigenins (intraperitoneal, APG1, APG2: 20 mg/kg) also evoked a significant anti-edema effect, early vascular permeability and leukocyte influx reduction. Collectively, this study demonstrates for the first time the effectiveness of L. duriusculum to inhibit NF-κB-dependent transcriptional responses in HCT116 and THP-1 cells. In vivo studies also established that L. duriusculum possesses a potential anti-inflammatory effect, confirm its traditional, empirical use, that could be attributed to its richness in apigenin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plumbaginaceae/chemistry , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , THP-1 Cells
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e10782, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249333

ABSTRACT

We explored the cascade effects of a high fat-carbohydrate diet (HFCD) and pioglitazone (an anti-diabetic therapy used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)) on lipid profiles, oxidative stress/antioxidant, insulin, and inflammatory biomarkers in a rat model of insulin resistance. Sixty albino rats (80-90 g) were randomly divided into three dietary groups; 1) standard diet; 2) HFCD diet for 12 weeks to induce an in vivo model of insulin resistance; and 3) HFCD diet plus pioglitazone. Blood and tissue samples were taken to assess hepatic function, lipid profiles, oxidative biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, antioxidant defense biomarkers, including reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrotic factor (TNF-α). HFCD-fed rats had significantly (P≤0.05) increased serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), alanine transaminase (ALT), and bilirubin levels, but decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels compared with the normal group. Moreover, serum leptin, resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were increased significantly in HFCD animals compared with controls. Similarly, HFCD-induced insulin resistance caused antioxidant and cytokine disturbances, which are important therapy targets for pioglitazone. Importantly, administration of this drug ameliorated these changes, normalized leptin and resistin and inflammatory markers by reducing TNF-α levels. Metabolic cascades of elevated lipid profiles, oxidative stress, insulin, and inflammatory biomarkers are implicated in insulin resistance progression. HFCD induced metabolic cascades comprising hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, obesity-associated hormones, and inflammatory biomarkers may be alleviated using pioglitazone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Insulin Resistance , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Carbohydrates/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Diet, High-Fat , Pioglitazone/metabolism , Pioglitazone/pharmacology , Insulin/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e10841, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249329

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanisms and effective components of Polygonum hydropiper in ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions. The ethanol extract was purified on an AB-8 macroporous resin column and eluted with 60% ethanol and was then injected into the HPLC system for quantitative analysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally pretreated with P. hydropiper extract (PHLE; 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) for 5 days and then absolute ethanol was administered to induce gastric mucosal damage. One hour after ethanol ingestion, the rats were euthanized and stomach samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Antioxidant enzymes and anti-inflammatory cytokines were quantified. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of proteins. Cell proliferation was assayed by CCK-8 assays. The proportion of total flavonoids in the final extract of P. hydropiper was 50.05%, which contained three major bioactive flavonoid constituents, including rutin, quercitrin, and quercetin. PHLE significantly increased cell viability and effectively protected human gastric epithelial cells-1 against alcohol-induced damage in vitro. PHLE pretreatment attenuated gastric mucosal injuries in a dose-dependent manner in rats, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione, and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in gastric tissue. Pretreatment with PHLE also reduced the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in gastric tissue by downregulating the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B. PHLE exerted protective effects against gastric injury through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. Flavonoids might be the main effective components of P. hydropiper against gastric mucosal injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Polygonum , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ethanol/toxicity , Gastric Mucosa , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(7): e10520, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249321

ABSTRACT

Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has brought attention to flap failure in reconstructive surgery. To improve the prognosis of skin transplantation, we performed experimental IRI by surgical obstruction of blood flow and used sodium ferulate (SF) to prevent IRI in rats. After SF treatment, the morphological and histological changes of the skin flaps were observed by H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. We also detected the expression levels of COX-1, HO-1, and Ki67 by immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. Moreover, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify the content of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) in peripheral blood and skin tissue. Compared with the model group, SF treatment significantly improved the recovered flap area (%) and promoted collagen synthesis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression was significantly inhibited by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction after SF treatment. Furthermore, SF significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α in peripheral blood, MPO and MDA in the skin tissue, and the increased synthesis of NO. Our results showed the protective effects of SF on IRI after flap transplantation and we believe that the protective effects of SF was closely related to the alleviation of the inflammatory response and the inhibition of the oxidative stress injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress , Coumaric Acids/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881088

ABSTRACT

Huashi Baidu prescription (HSBDF), recommended in the Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia (On Trials, the Seventh Edition), was clinically used to treat severe corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with cough, blood-stained sputum, inhibited defecation, red tongue etc. symptoms. This study was aimed to elucidate and profile the knowledge on its chemical constituents and the potential anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. In the study, the chemical constituents in extract of HSBDF were characterized by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS in both negative and positive modes, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to determine the effects of HSBDF in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that a total of 217 chemical constituents were tentativedly characterized in HSBDF. Moreover, HSBDF could alleviate the expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the cell models, indicating that the antiviral effects of HSBDF might be associated with regulation of the inflammatory cytokines production in RAW264.7 cells. We hope that the results could be served as the basic data for further study of HSBDF on anti-COVID-19 effect.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
18.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 162-176, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145966

ABSTRACT

Lippia pedunculosa Hayek (EOLp) presenta efectos tripanocidas y amebicidas. En este trabajo se estudia su aceite esencial en modelos experimentales de analgesia e inflamación una vez que la prevalencia del dolor en la población genera un gran sufrimiento y discapacidad, y los medicamentos que se usan con mayor frecuencia tienen efectos secundarios indeseables. También se evalúa si la formulación del complejo de inclusión EOLp/ß-ciclodextrina (ß-CD) fue capaz de mejorar la actividad antinociceptiva de la EOLp sola. Los datos se evaluaron mediante análisis de varianza (ANOVA), seguido de la prueba de Tukey. Las diferencias se consideraron significativas si p<0,05. EOLp presentó un mejor efecto antinociceptivo en comparación con el complejo de inclusión EOLp/ß-CD. De esta manera, las ciclodextrinas parecen no ser eficientes para aceites esenciales con sustancias de peróxido. Sin embargo, en peritonitis, EOLp redujo la migración total de leucocitos y los niveles de IL-1ß en el líquido peritoneal, lo que confirma su efecto antiinflamatorio. Los efectos observados sugieren que EOLp es una buena y prometedora opción para el tratamiento de la inflamación y los trastornos relacionados con el dolor.


Lippia pedunculosa Hayek (EOLp) presents tripanocid and amebicid effects. However essential oil needs to be further studied in experimental models of analgesia and inflammation once the prevalence of pain in the population generates great suffering and disability and the drugs most often used have undesirable side effects. We also evaluated whether the inclusion complex formulation EOLp/ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) was able to improve the antinociceptive activity of the EOLp alone. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey's test. Differences were considered significant if p<0.05. EOLp presented better antinociceptive effect when compared to the EOLp/ß-CD inclusion complex. Thus, cyclodextrins appear not to be efficient for essential oils with peroxide substances. However, in peritonitis, EOLp reduced total leucocyte migration and IL-1ß levels in the peritoneal fluid, which confirmed its anti-inflammatory effect. The observed effects suggest that EOLp is the best promising option for the treatment of inflammation and pain-related disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Lippia/chemistry , Analgesics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Plants, Medicinal , Brazil , Cyclodextrins , Medicine, Traditional
19.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200179, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279402

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils play a pivotal role in innate immunity and in the inflammatory response. Neutrophils are very motile cells that are rapidly recruited to the inflammatory site as the body first line of defense. Their bactericidal activity is due to the release into the phagocytic vacuole, called phagosome, of several toxic molecules directed against microbes. Neutrophil stimulation induces release of this arsenal into the phagosome and induces the assembly at the membrane of subunits of the NAPDH oxidase, the enzyme responsible for the production of superoxide anion that gives rise to other reactive oxygen species (ROS), a process called respiratory burst. Altogether, they are responsible for the bactericidal activity of the neutrophils. Excessive activation of neutrophils can lead to extensive release of these toxic agents, inducing tissue injury and the inflammatory reaction. Envenomation, caused by different animal species (bees, wasps, scorpions, snakes etc.), is well known to induce a local and acute inflammatory reaction, characterized by recruitment and activation of leukocytes and the release of several inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandins and cytokines. Venoms contain several molecules such as enzymes (phospholipase A2, L-amino acid oxidase and proteases, among others) and peptides (disintegrins, mastoporan, parabutoporin etc.). These molecules are able to stimulate or inhibit ROS production by neutrophils. The present review article gives a general overview of the main neutrophil functions focusing on ROS production and summarizes how venoms and venom molecules can affect this function.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poisons/administration & dosage , Reactive Oxygen Species , NADPH Oxidases , L-Amino Acid Oxidase , Neutrophils , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06533, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279531

ABSTRACT

Excessive infection and inflammation are the most common complications associated with castration. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of flunixin meglumine (FM), meloxicam (MX), or firocoxib (FX) for inflammation control after castration in horses using acute-phase proteins (APP) as markers of inflammation. Thirty healthy, unbroken, mixed-breed horses (body weight 358.62±45.57kg and age 4.99±2.63 years) were randomly (n=10 animals/group) allocated to receive one of three different post-castration anti-inflammatory medicines: Group 1 (FM 1.1mg/kg bwt, IV, s.i.d for 5 days); Group 2 (MX 0.6mg/kg bwt, IV, s.i.d for 5 days); and Group 3 (FX 0.1mg/kg bwt, IV, s.i.d for 5 days). All horses were castrated in standing position, using the open technique. Serum and peritoneal APP concentrations were measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and determined before castration (0), and 3, 5, 24, 48, 72, 120 and 168 hours after castration. The results were submitted to analysis of variance using the SAS statistical program, and means were compared by the Student-Newman-Keuls test (p<0.05). Three animals from the MX group developed hyperthermia (with rectal temperatures of 39.8, 39.3 and 38.9°C on day 4, 5 and 6, respectively) and showed local clinical signs of inflammation (inguinal and excessive scrotal edema) and reluctance to walk, as well as a rigid gait of the hind limbs. The same complications were observed in one FX horse. No complications were observed among the FM animals. The castration resulted in significant changes in serum and peritoneal values of total proteins, ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf), albumin (Alb), haptoglobin (Hp) and α1-acid glycoprotein (Gp) in animals of all experimental groups. However, the animals of the MX and FX groups presented more intense acute phase response compared to the animals of the FM group. Changes in the APP were associated with the surgical trauma of castration, but the differences between groups were associated with the ability of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug to control the inflammation. In conclusion, and based on the findings of acute phase proteins, flunixin is more efficient to control the magnitude of inflammation following castration as compared to meloxicam and firocoxib.(AU)


Infecção e inflamação excessivas são as complicações mais comuns associadas à castração. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia do flunixin meglumine (FM), meloxicam (MX) ou firocoxib (FX) no controle da inflamação após a castração em cavalos usando proteínas da fase aguda (APP) como marcadores de inflamação. Trinta equinos saudáveis (358,62±45,57kg; 4,99±2,63 anos) foram em função dos anti-inflamatórios utilizados após as castrações aleatoriamente (n= 10 animais/grupo) alocados em três diferentes grupos: Grupo 1 (FM 1,1mg/kg de peso, IV, sid por 5 dias); Grupo 2 (MX 0,6mg/kg de peso, IV, s.i.d por 5 dias); e Grupo 3 (FX 0,1mg/kg de peso, IV, s.i.d por 5 dias). Todos os cavalos foram castrados em posição quadrupedal, utilizando a técnica aberta. As concentrações de APP sérica e peritoneal foram separadas por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (PAGE) com dodecil-sulfato de sódio (SDS) e determinadas no momento 0 (antes da castração) e com 3, 5, 24, 48, 72, 120 e 168 horas após a castração. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo programa estatístico SAS e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Student-Newman-Keuls (p<0,05). Três animais do grupo MX desenvolveram hipertermia (com temperatura retal de 39,8, 39,3 e 38,9° C nos dias 4, 5 e 6, respectivamente) e mostraram sinais clínicos locais de inflamação (edema inguinal e escrotal excessivo) e relutância em andar, bem como marcha rígida dos membros posteriores. As mesmas complicações foram observadas em um cavalo do FX. Não foram observadas complicações entre os animais do FM. Independente do grupo, a castração resultou em alterações significativas nos valores séricos e peritoneais de proteínas totais, ceruloplasmina (Cp), transferrina (Tf), albumina (Alb), haptoglobina (Hp) e glicoproteína ácida α1 (Gp). No entanto, os animais dos grupos MX e FX apresentaram resposta de fase aguda mais intensa quando comparados aos animais do FM. Alterações na resposta de fase aguda deveram-se ao trauma cirúrgico da castração, mas as diferenças entre os grupos foram associadas à capacidade do anti-inflamatório em controlar a inflamação. Em conclusão, baseado da resposta de fase aguda, o flunixin em comparação com o meloxicam e o firocoxib é mais eficiente no controle da inflamação após a castração em equinos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acute-Phase Proteins , Castration , Meloxicam , Horses/surgery , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Body Weight , Orchiectomy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL