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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 394-405, jul. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352427

ABSTRACT

In this study, it was aimed to determine the antioxidant and anticancer activities of Sideritis perfoliata methanolic extract (SPE) on cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Different doses (25, 50,100 and 200 µg/mL) of SPE were used to determine proliferation of HeLa cells by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) staining method. Induction of apoptosis was determined by Annexine-V and propidium iodide staining method. Interleukin (IL) 6-8 levels were measured by ELISA method. Antioxidant activities of SPE were determined by DPPH, DNA (plasmid pBR322) protecting and cellular antioxidant activity tests. Some phytochemicals of SPE were also screened by LC-MS-MS. It was determined that SPE reduced the proliferation of HeLa cells and also induced apoptosis. IL6-8 levels importantly decreased at 200 µg/mL. SPE exhibited moderately antioxidant activities in tests used. Among the phenolics identified, vanillic acid had the highest amount. As a result, it was determined to have the anticancer activity of SPE by decreasing cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and decreasing IL6-8 in HeLa cells.


En este estudio, se tuvo como objetivo determinar las actividades antioxidantes y anticancerígenas del extracto metanólico de Sideritis perfoliata (SPE) en las células de cáncer de cuello uterino (HeLa). Se utilizaron diferentes dosis (25, 50, 100 y 200 µg/mL) de SPE para determinar la proliferación de células HeLa mediante el método de tinción con bromuro de 3-[4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il] -2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT). La inducción de apoptosis se determinó mediante el método de tinción con anexina-V y yoduro de propidio. Los niveles de interleucina (IL) 6-8 se midieron mediante el método ELISA. Las actividades antioxidantes de SPE se determinaron mediante pruebas de DPPH, protección de ADN (plásmido pBR322) y actividad antioxidante celular. Algunos fitoquímicos de SPE también se analizaron mediante LC-MS-MS. Se determinó que SPE redujo la proliferación de células HeLa y también indujo apoptosis. Los niveles de IL6-8 disminuyeron de manera importante a 200 µg/mL. SPE mostró actividades moderadamente antioxidantes en las pruebas utilizadas. Entre los fenólicos identificados, el ácido vainílico tuvo la mayor cantidad. Como resultado, se determinó que tenía la actividad anticancerígena de SPE al disminuir la proliferación celular, inducir apoptosis y disminuir la IL6-8 en las células HeLa.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Sideritis/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Survival , Interleukin-8/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Apoptosis/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antineoplastic Agents , Antioxidants/chemistry
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 226-243, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342815

ABSTRACT

Several species of the Myrcia genus have been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase in the crude extract (EBF) and in the ethyl acetate fraction (FFA) of Myrcia hatschbachii, as well as to identify isolated phenolic compounds and to evaluate the antioxidant property and preliminary in vitro toxicity against Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) and FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) showed inhibitory activity superior to acarbose (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). In addition, they showed inhibitory effects of pancreatic lipase (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL for EBF and 532.68 µg/mL for FFA), antioxidant potential, absence of preliminary toxicity and presence of gallic andellagic acids in FFA. The relevant results in the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase motivate new studies for the development of herbal medicines that assist in the treatment of diabetic patients.


Varias especies del género Myrcia se han utilizado en la medicina popular para tratar la diabetes. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la actividad inhibitoria de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática en el extracto crudo (EBF) y en la fracción de acetato de etilo (FFA) de Myrcia hatschbachii, así como identificar compuestos fenólicos aislados y evaluar la propiedad antioxidante y toxicidad in vitro preliminar contra Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) y FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) mostraron una actividad inhibitoria superior a la acarbosa (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). Además, mostraron efectos inhibitorios de la lipasa pancreática (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL para EBF y 532.68 µg/mL para FFA), potencial antioxidante, ausencia de toxicidad preliminar y presencia de ácidos gálico y elágico en FFA. Los resultados relevantes en la inhibición de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática motivan nuevos estudios para el desarrollo de medicamentos a base de hierbas que ayudan en el tratamiento de pacientes diabéticos.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipase/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Pancreas/enzymology , Phenols/analysis , X-Ray Diffraction , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Complex Mixtures , Ellagic Acid , Gallic Acid , Antioxidants/chemistry
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190253, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153292

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Essential oils from populations of B. dracunculifolia were investigated. β-pinene and (E)-nerolidol were the main compounds in B. dracunculifolia populations. The difference in the chemical profile of the essential oils is quantitative only. There is a negative correlation between the antioxidant activity and spathulenol.


Abstract Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. is a Brazilian native plant, presenting wide chemical diversity and numerous pharmaceutical and industrial applications. This research assessed the yield, antioxidant activity and the chemical similarity of essential oils from 10 populations of B. dracunculifolia in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. The extraction of the volatile compounds was carried out by hydrodistillation, the chemical composition was determined by GC/FID and GC/MS and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH method. The essential oil yield of wild B. dracunculifolia populations ranged from 0.14 to 0.87%. The oils were predominantly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (34.16 - 51.01%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (18.02 - 46.17%) and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (9.60 - 17.70%). The major compounds found in all populations were β-pinene (7.65 - 29.8%) and (E)-nerolidol (9.11 - 21.68%). Essential oil solutions (20%) from different populations presented antioxidant capacity ranging from 27.78 to 91.67%. A negative correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and spathulenol (r = -0.696). Multivariate analyses separated the populations into three groups: (1) low concentrations of α-pinene (2.02 - 2.06%), (2) high concentrations of α-pinene (4.17 - 4.61%) and β-pinene (22.54 - 29.80%), and (3) intermediate concentrations of α-pinene (2.38 - 3.31%), β-pinene (12.77 - 19.03%) and spathulenol (6.02 - 9.06%).


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Baccharis/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Oils/isolation & purification , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190730, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285554

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pyroligneous acid (PA) was obtained by condensation of the vapors produced in the thermal decomposition of culms residues from Guadua angustifolia Kunth (G. angustifolia) cultivated in Colombia, with and without previous preservation treatment with borax salts. Chemical characterization by GC-MS showed that PA extracts has high content of phenolic compounds. Mequinol, isocreosol, 4-ethylphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol were the most abundant substances, identified. The total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH free radical scavenging activity, were investigated. TPC showed a concentration of 1.959 mg GA g-1±0.010 and 3.844 mg GA g-1±0.027 to PAC and PAS samples. These samples also exhibited high DPPH activity of 70.975%±0.921 and, 16.667%±0.298, respectively. The chemical composition, TPC and DPPH results indicate that the PA extracts obtained from G. angustifolia may be used as a raw material in the food industry as natural preservative, in medicine as alternative to antibiotics and in agriculture as insect repellent and foliar fertilizer.


Subject(s)
Mass Spectrometry , Bambusa/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas , Acetic Acid , Antioxidants/chemistry
5.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 366-371, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126133

ABSTRACT

Jatobá (Hymenaea sp.) is an arboreal legume native to the Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado) and its fruit has a high functional potential, but the jatobá-da-mata specie has been poorly explored. This study evaluated the nutritional profile, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of jatobá-da-mata byproducts: pulp flour, fibrous pulp residue and sap. Jatobá fruits were pulped to obtain pulp flour and fibrous pulp residue, and the jatobá tree's sap was obtained in a typical extraction location in the Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah). Fibrous pulp residue and pulp flour had high protein (11 and 12 g/100 g) and dietary fiber (49 and 44 g/100 g) content, respectively, and the fibrous residue showed the highest total and insoluble fibers, ash and vitamin C content. Regarding polyphenols, the fibrous residue showed a high concentration (775 mg GAE/100 g); an intermediate value in pulp flour (462 mg GAE/100 g); and considerable content in sap(181 mg GAE/100 g). Jatobá residue and pulp flour are suitable ingredients for the formulation of functional foods, and the sap is a promising non-caloric product with potential health benefits.


Jatobá (Hymenaea sp.) es una leguminosa arbórea originaria de la sabana brasileña y su fruto tiene un alto potencial funcional, pero la especie jatobá-da-mata ha sido poco explorada. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el perfil nutricional, compuestos bioactivos y capacidad antioxidante de subproductos del jatobá-da-mata: harina de la pulpa, residuo fibroso de la pulpa y la savia. Los frutos fueron despulpados para obtener la harina juntamente con el residuo fibroso de la pulpa, y la savia de la planta fue obtenida en un lugar exclusivo de extracción en el Cerrado (Sábana brasileña). El residuo fibroso y la harina de la pulpa contienen un alto contenido de proteína (11 y 12 g/100 g) y de fibra dietética (49 y 44 g/100 g), respectivamente, y el residuo fibroso mostró el mayor contenido de fibras totales y insolubles, cenizas y vitamina C. En cuanto a los polifenoles, el residuo fibroso presentó alta concentración (775 mg AGE/100 g); la harina de la pulpa, un valor intermedio (462 mg AGE/100 g); y la savia, un contenido considerable (181 mg AGE/100 g). El residuo fibroso y la harina de la pulpa son ingredientes adecuados en la formulación de alimentos funcionales, y la savia es un producto no calórico prometedor con potenciales beneficios a la salud.


Subject(s)
Hymenaea/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phytochemicals , Flour
6.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 238-246, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115494

ABSTRACT

Oryza sativa L. rice has large amounts of proteins and minerals, besides presenting several pigmented varieties. Red rice is distinguishable due to its great nutritional value compared to the regular white variety. Its red pericarp pigmentation is due to the bioactive compounds that are responsible for its health benefits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical-chemical characterization, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive capacity of flours of three different red rice cultures (Rubi, Virgínia and Pequeno). All samples presented specific levels of carbohydrates for cereals with low fat content and excellent levels of protein and resistant starch. In addition, the samples had a high antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive capacity. Antihyperglycemic capacities were measured as percent inhibition for amylase (56.7-76.5%) and glycosidase (81.0-76.6%), respectively, and antihypertensive capacity as the percentage inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (38.4-34.7%). In addition, Pequeno flour presented the best results for antioxidant and antihyperglycemic capacity in comparison to the two flours tested. Thus, all red rice flours can be a source of functional compounds when added to food.


El arroz integral (Oryza sativa L.) posee importantes cantidades de proteínas, vitaminas, minerales y fitoquímicos. El arroz rojo se destaca por su gran valor nutricional. La pigmentación roja del pericarpio está asociado al contenido de compuestos bioactivos, que están directamente relacionados a los beneficios de salud humana. Teniendo en cuenta lo antes expuesto se propuso evaluar las caracteristicas físico-químicas, capacidad antioxidante, anti-hiperglucémica y antihipertensiva de las harinas de tres diferentes cultivos de arroz rojo (Rubí, Virginia y Pequeño). Todas las muestras presentaron niveles específicos de carbohidratos para cereales con bajo contenido de grasa y altos contenidos de proteína y almidón resistente. Además, las muestras presentaron una alta capacidad antioxidante, anti-hiperglucémica y antihipertensiva. La capacidad anti-hiperglicémica se midió en porcentaje de inhibidores de α-amilasa (56.7-76.5%) y α-glucosidasa (81.0-76.6%), respectivamente; y capacidad antihipertensiva como el porcentaje de inhibición de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina (38.4-34.7%). El cultivar Pequeño presentó mayor capacidad antioxidante y anti-hiperglucémica en comparación a los demás cultivares. Así, todas las harinas de arroz rojo pueden ser vehículos de compuestos funcionales en los alimentos.


Subject(s)
Oryza/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Starch , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Edible Grain , Proanthocyanidins/analysis , Glucosidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors
7.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 272-280, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115498

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the antioxidant characteristics and sensory acceptance of Greek yogurt with added whole sorghum flours (WSF) from genotypes BRS305 (tannin) and BR501 (tannin-free). Five formulations were elaborated: 1) Control (without WSF); 2) 2% BR501; 3) 4% BR501; 4) 2% BRS305 and 5) 4% BRS305 and evaluated for antioxidant capacity, total anthocyanins, total phenols, condensed tannins, sensory acceptance and purchase intention. The 4% BRS305 formulation presented higher antioxidant properties, but lower sensory acceptance. No significant difference was observed for: color, flavor and overall acceptability between the control and 2% BR501; nor for texture and overall acceptability between the control and 4% BR501. Principal component analysis explained that all variables associated with antioxidant properties were positively correlated with the first major component (PC1: 82.7%). The 2% and 4% BR501 formulations were more highly correlated with PC1 (92.7%), as well as the control in relation to sensorial characteristics. The addition of WSF BRS305 improved the antioxidant properties of yogurts and the addition of WSF BR501 did not interfere with the sensory acceptance of the formulations. The similarity of the sensory acceptance of the yogurt containing WSF from the BR 501 genotype to the control, opens perspectives for the insertion of sorghum in human food, using dairy products as suitable matrices, adding potential functionality to this type of product.


RESUMEN El trabajo tuvo como propósito desarrollar y evaluar las características antioxidantes y la aceptación sensorial de yogurt griego con adición de harinas integrales de sorgo (HIS) de los genotipos BRS305 (con taninos) y BR501 (sin taninos). Cinco formulaciones fueron elaboradas: 1) Control (sin HIS); 2) 2% BR501; 3) 4% BR501; 4) 2% BRS305 y 5) 4% BRS305. Las formulaciones fueron evaluadas en función de su actividad antioxidante, antocianinas totales, fenólicos totales, taninos condensados, aceptación sensorial e intención de compra. La formulación 4% BRS305 presentó más propiedades antioxidantes, pero menor aceptación sensorial que las otras formulaciones. No se observó diferencia significativa entre el control y el 2% BR501 para el color, sabor e impresión global, ni tampoco para textura e impresión global en relación al 4% BR501. El análisis de componente principal ha explicado que todas las variables asociadas a las propiedades antioxidantes han sido positivamente correlacionadas con el primer componente principal (PC1: 82,7%). Las formulaciones 2% y 4% BR501 se han correlacionado más con el PC1 (92,7%), así como el control con las características sensoriales. La adición de HIS BRS305 ha mejorado las propiedades antioxidantes de los yogurts y la adición de HIS BR501 no ha interferido en la aceptación sensorial de las formulaciones. La similitud de la aceptación sensorial del yogurt que contiene el HIS del genotipo BR501 con el control, abre perspectivas para la inserción del sorgo en la alimentación humana, utilizando productos lácteos como matrices adecuadas, agregando funcionalidad potencial a este tipo de producto.


Subject(s)
Tannins/genetics , Yogurt , Sorghum/chemistry , Flour , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Tannins/analysis , Taste , Dairy Products , Principal Component Analysis , Functional Food , Anthocyanins/analysis
8.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 281-285, abr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115499

ABSTRACT

Synthetic preservatives are widely present in processed foods, but most of them have carcinogenic potential, requiring the development of new natural alternatives such as fruit extracts, for microbial control. The objective of the study was to evaluate the chemical characterization, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the sugar apple pulp (Annona squamosa L.). Physicochemical characteristics were evaluated, an extract was prepared, and its antioxidant activity by DPPH method and antimicrobial by disk diffusion. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration against strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. The physicochemical analysis revealed that sugar apple pulp had 75.0% moisture, 3.0% ash, 4.0% protein, 0.2% lipids, 3.3% fibers, and 14.5% carbohydrates. The antioxidant activity of the extract by the DPPH method was 20.6%. The pulp extract from the sugar apple had inhibition zone for Staphylococcus aureus, satisfactory inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium, but did not present a bactericidal effect. Sugar apple pulp presents adequate levels of nutrients and potential for food application due to its microbiological activity and antioxidant properties.


Los conservantes sintéticos están ampliamente presentes en los alimentos procesados, pero la mayoría tienen potencial carcinogénico, lo que requiere el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas naturales para el control microbiano, como los extractos de frutas. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la caracterización química, la actividad antioxidante y antimicrobiana de la pulpa de manzana de azúcar (Annona squamosa L.). Se evaluaron las características fisicoquímicas, y se evaluó su actividad antioxidante mediante el método DPPH y antimicrobiano por difusión en disco, concentración inhibitoria mínima y concentración bactericida mínima contra cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Staphylococcus aureus. El análisis fisicoquímico reveló que la pulpa de manzana de azúcar tiene 75.0% de humedad, 3.0% de cenizas, 4.0% de proteínas, 0.2% de lípidos, 3.3% de fibras y 14.5% de carbohidratos. La actividad antioxidante del extracto por el método DPPH fue del 20.6%. El extracto de pulpa de la manzana de azúcar tenía zona de inhibición para Staphylococcus aureus, efecto inhibidor satisfactorio contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Salmonella Typhimurium, pero no presenta efecto bactericida. La pulpa de manzana de azúcar presenta niveles adecuados de nutrientes y potencial para la aplicación de alimentos debido a su actividad microbiológica y propiedades antioxidantes.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Annona/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Carbohydrates/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Proteins/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Lipids/analysis , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 161-166, mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104063

ABSTRACT

The methanol extract of the Balkan endemic species Jurinea tzar-ferdinandii Davidov demonstrated weak antioxidant activity against DPPH• and ABTS+• and low inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase (8.3% Inh.) and tyrosinase (IC50 = 208 ± 8 µg/mL) enzymes. Phytochemical investigation of the extract led to isolation and identification of apigenin, luteolin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-4'-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-gentiobioside, luteolin-4'-O-glucoside, rutin, narcissin, chlorogenic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. With exception of apigenin and rutin, all isolated compounds are reported for the first time in the representatives of genus Jurinea. The distribution of flavonoids was discussed from chemotaxonomic point of view.


El extracto de metanol de la especie endémica de los Balcanes Jurinea tzar-ferdinandii Davidov demostró una actividad antioxidante débil contra DPPH• y ABTS+• y un bajo potencial inhibidor contra las enzimas acetilcolinesterasa (8.3% Inh.) tirosinasa (IC50 = 208 ± 8 µg/mL). La investigación fitoquímica del extracto condujo al aislamiento e identificación de apigenina, luteolina, apigenina-7-Oglucósido, apigenina-4'-O-glucósido, apigenina-7-O-gentiobiósido, luteolina-4'-O-glucósido, rutina, narcissin, clorogénico y ácido 1,5- dicafeoilquinico. Con excepción de la apigenina y la rutina, todos los compuestos aislados se informan por primera vez en el género Jurinea. La distribución de flavonoides se discute desde el punto de vista quimiotaxonómico.


Subject(s)
Asteraceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Monophenol Monooxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Methanol , Balkan Peninsula
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 167-178, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104197

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and inhibitory activities of the ethanolic extracts of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) grown in Montenegro, Quindío, Colombia, in three stages of maturation, including the edible (pulp) and inedible parts (pericarp and peduncle). The alcoholic samples were phytochemically characterized by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and by Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR); the antioxidant capacities were also evaluated by the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), in addition to the inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and the total content of phenols and flavonoids. The tests detected phytochemical compounds such as phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones and xanthones, to which the antioxidant activity and the inhibition of AChE presented, can be attributed. In conclusion, the inedible parts of mangosteen contain higher proportions of secondary metabolites, these being the most promising sources for industrial use.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue el de evaluar las actividades antioxidantes e inhibitoria de acetilcolinesterasa de los extractos etanólicos del mangostino (Garcinia mangostana L.) de Montenegro, Quíndio, Colombia, en tres estados de maduración, incluyendo las partes comestibles (pulpa) y no comestibles (pericarpio y pedúnculo). Las muestras alcohólicas fueron caracterizadas fitoquímicamente por Cromatografía de Capa Delgada (CCD), Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Eficiencia (HPLC) y Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier (FT-IR); la capacidad antioxidante fue evaluada también por el método de captación del radical libre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracilo (DPPH• dejar el radical en superíndice) y la Capacidad de Absorción de Radicales de Oxígeno (ORAC), adicionalmente la actividad inhibitoria de la acetilcolinesterasa (AchE) y el contenido total de fenoles y flavonoides. Se detectaron compuestos fitoquímicos como fenoles, flavonoides, alcaloides, quinonas y xantonas, a quienes se les puede atribuir las actividades antioxidantes y de inhibición de la acetilcolinesterasa. En conclusión, las partes no comestibles del mangostino contienen una mayor proporción de metabolitos secundarios, siendo las fuentes más promisorias para uso industrial.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Garcinia mangostana/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Colombia , Clusiaceae , Ethanol , Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 188-206, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104201

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to screen the Rhazya stricta Decne root for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidants potential through invitro assays along with phytochemical and elemental analyses. The crude extract was prepared through maceration and fractionated using solvent-solvent extraction technique. The spectroscopic studies indicated the presence of various phytochemical classes in the extract and its fractions. The antioxidant assays showed notable results along with a good concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Enzyme inhibition assays demonstrated glucose-lowering effects by inhibiting the enzyme activity which could reduce post-prandial blood glucose level. The Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibition assay results showed the novel DPP-IV inhibition activity of the plant extract and all fractions showed noteworthy enzyme inhibition and antihyperglycemic activity. Conclusively, the Rhazya stricta root extract displayed its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic potential due to the presence of various classes of phytochemicals and micro-nutrients.


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar la raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne por su potencial antihiperglicémico y antioxidante a través de ensayos in vitro junto con análisis fitoquímicos y elementales. El extracto crudo se preparó por maceración y se fraccionó usando una técnica de extracción solvente-solvente. Los estudios espectroscópicos indicaron la presencia de varias clases fitoquímicas en el extracto y sus fracciones. Los ensayos antioxidantes mostraron resultados notables junto con una importante concentración de contenido fenólico y flavonoide. Los ensayos de inhibición enzimática demostraron efectos reductores de la glucosa al inhibir la actividad enzimática que podría reducir el nivel de glucosa posprandial en sangre. Los resultados del ensayo de inhibición de Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) mostraron la nueva actividad de inhibición de DPP-IV del extracto de la planta y todas las fracciones mostraron una notable inhibición enzimática y actividad antihiperglicémica. En conclusión, el extracto de raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne mostró su potencial antioxidante y antihiperglicémico debido a la presencia de varias clases de fitoquímicos y micronutrientes.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Flavonoids/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Plant Roots/chemistry , Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Phytochemicals , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
12.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 31-40, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092741

ABSTRACT

It is important to determine the chemical composition of fruits in order to establish their potential health benefits for human nutrition and thus stimulate their cultivation and consumption. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the physical and chemical parameters, vitamin C content, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and carotenoids, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of fruits from different regions of Brazil. We observed that the different regions and fruits studied presented very distinct characteristics. For example, the cupuaçu pit is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, while the genipap and java plum presented high flavonoid content and the butia had a high concentration of carotenoids. Guava was the fruit with the highest antioxidant activity through the ABTS radical, while the yellow mombim presented the best response when the activity was determined by FRAP.


Es importante determinar la composición química de las frutas para establecer sus potenciales beneficios para la salud humana y, por lo tanto, estimular su cultivo y consumo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar parámetros físicos y químicos, el contenido de vitamina C, los compuestos fenólicos, los flavonoides y los carotenoides, el perfil de ácidos grasos y la actividad antioxidante de las frutas de diferentes regiones de Brasil. De los resultados obtenidos en este estudio se pudo observar que las diferentes regiones y frutas estudiadas presentaban características muy distintas, ya que la semilla de cupuaçu es rica en ácidos grasos insaturados, mientras que el genipapo y la ciruela java presentaron un alto contenido de flavonoides y el butia presentó alta concentración de carotenoides. La guayaba fue la fruta con la mayor actividad antioxidante determinada por el radical ABTS, mientras que el mombim amarillo presentó la mejor respuesta cuando la actividad fue determinada por FRAP


Subject(s)
Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Brazil , Carotenoids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis
13.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(6): 800-808, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058144

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La vitamina C es uno de los antioxidantes más conocidos. Su ingesta ha sido asociada a un sinnúmero de beneficios, algunos de los cuales tienen un sustento científico débil o inexistente. En esta revisión se presentan en forma resumida aspectos biológicos que determinan la homeostasis de la vitamina C y se discute la información disponible sobre sus posibles efectos benéficos y su ingesta, en diversos países con especial énfasis en algunos grupos de riesgo. También se presentan sus efectos benéficos en inflamación, cáncer y enfermedades cardiovasculares, así como su acción de inmunomodulador y regulador epigenético. Se revisan también algunas fuentes dietarias de vitamina C y los factores que influyen en su estabilidad. Terminando con un análisis general de los trabajos relacionados con conducta de vida saludable en países latinoamericanos, que reflejan los malos hábitos alimentarios y que podrían dar cuenta de una hipovitaminosis de vitamina C aún no reportada y repercutir en el desarrollo de envejecimiento precoz y enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles.


ABSTRACT Vitamin C is a well-known antioxidant. Its intake has been associated with a number of benefits, some of which lack a scientific basis. This review summarizes important biological aspects that determine vitamin C homeostasis, discusses the available information on its possible beneficial effects and its intake in various countries, with special emphasis on some risk groups. The beneficial effects of this vitamin in inflammation, cancer and cardiovascular disease are also summarized, as well as its role as immuno-modulator and epigenetic regulator. Dietary sources of vitamin C and the factors that influence its stability are also presented. Finally, an overview of the research conducted on healthy lifestyles in Latin-American countries are presented. This research summarized provides evidence of poor eating habits, which could account for a vitamin C hypovitaminosis not yet reported that could be associated with unhealthy ageing and the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/chemistry , Homeostasis , Antioxidants/chemistry
14.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(4): 337-342, nov. 5, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145363

ABSTRACT

Aims: Residual peroxide on the enamel surface and in the interprismatic spaces decreases the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite to bleached enamel. Evidence shows that 10% sodium ascorbate can efficiently neutralize the singlet oxygen generated by the bleaching agents. This study aimed to assess the effect of duration of application of sodium ascorbate on SBS of composite to bleached enamel. Materials and Methods: This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 30 sound human third molars, which were randomly divided into three groups (n=10). In group 1, the teeth were bleached for 45 minutes and were then subjected to immediate bonding and restoration with composite resin. In groups 2 and 3, the teeth were bleached, immersed in 10% sodium ascorbate solution for 5 (group 2) and 10 (group 3) minutes and were then bonded and restored with composite, and the SBS was then measured. Results: The highest SBS (14.02±8.6MPa) was noted in group 3 (immersion in 10% sodium ascorbate for 10 minutes before bonding). The lowest SBS was noted in group 1 (immediate bonding after bleaching) (p<0.05). The difference in SBS of groups 1 and 2 was not significant (p=0.4). Conclusion: Application of 10% sodium ascorbate for 10 minutes increases the SBS of composite to bleached enamel.


Objetivos: el peróxido residual en la superficie del esmalte dental y en los espacios interprismáticos disminuye la resistencia al cizallamiento (R AC) de la resina compuesta al esmalte dental blanqueado. La evidencia muestra que el 10% de ascorbato de sodio puede neutralizar eficientemente el oxígeno singlete generado por los agentes blanqueadores. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la duración de la aplicación de ascorbato de sodio en la R AC de la resina compuesta al esmalte dental blanqueado. Materiales y Metodos: Este estudio experimental in vitro se realizó en 30 terceros molares humanos sanos, que se dividieron aleatoriamente en tres grupos (n=10). En el grupo 1, los dientes se blanquearon durante 45 minutos y luego se sometieron a una unión y restauración inmediata con resina compuesta. En los grupos 2 y 3, los dientes se blanquearon, se sumergieron en una solución de ascorbato de sodio al 10% durante 5 (grupo 2) y 10 (grupo 3) minutos y luego se unieron y restauraron con resina compuesta; luego se midió la R AC. Resultados: La R AC más alta (14,02 ± 8,6 MPa) se observó en el grupo 3 (inmersión en ascorbato de sodio al 10% durante 10 minutos antes de la unión). El valor de R AC más bajo se observó en el grupo 1 (unión inmediata después del blanqueo) (p<0,05). La diferencia en R AC de los grupos 1 y 2 no fue significativa (p=0,40). Conclusión: la aplicación de ascorbato de sodio al 10% durante 10 minutos aumenta la R AC de la resina compuesta al esmalte dental blanqueado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Bleaching , Dental Bonding , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid , In Vitro Techniques , Water/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Enamel , Molar, Third , Antioxidants/chemistry
15.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 577-585, nov. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102645

ABSTRACT

Pineapple peels has several beneficial properties including antioxidant activity. We investigated the antioxidant effect of five different peels of pineapple lyophilized extracts, not adsorbed and adsorbed onto Amberlite. They were examined using total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant effect by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). In addition, we analyzed the chemical composition by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. The main constituents of pineapple peels were tentatively identified as quercetin glycosides and N,N'-diferuloylspermidine. We conclude that the antioxidant activity in pineapple peels from District of Poroto, Province of Trujillo, Region of La Libertad, can be associated with the presence of flavonoid and spermidines.


Las cáscaras de piña tienen varias propiedades beneficiosas, incluida la actividad antioxidante. Investigamos el efecto antioxidante de cinco exfoliaciones diferentes de extracto liofilizado de piña, no adsorbidas y adsorbidas en Amberlita. Se examinaron utilizando los contenidos fenólicos totales (TPC), el efecto antioxidante mediante la eliminación del radical 1,1-difenil-2-picril-hidrazilo (DPPH) y el poder férrico antioxidante reductor (FRAP). Además, analizamos la composición química por HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. Los principales constituyentes de las cáscaras de piña se identificaron tentativamente como glucósidos de quercetina y N,N'- diferuloylspermidina. Concluimos que la actividad antioxidante en las cáscaras de piña del Distrito de Poroto, Provincia de Trujillo, Región de La Libertad, puede estar asociada con la presencia de flavonoides y espermidinas.


Subject(s)
Ananas/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Peru , Phenols/analysis , Picrates , Biphenyl Compounds , Ferric Compounds , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Antioxidants/chemistry
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 1-9, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microalgae are aquatic chlorophyll-containing organisms comprising unicellular microscopic forms, and their biomasses are potential sources of bioactive compounds, biofuels and food-based products. However, the neuroprotective effects of microalgal biomass have not been fully explored. In this study, biomass from two Chlorella species was characterized, and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and anti-amyloidogenic activities were investigated. RESULTS: GC­MS analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of some phenols, sterols, steroids, fatty acids and terpenes. Ethanol extract of Chlorella sorokiniana (14.21 mg GAE/g) and dichloromethane extract of Chlorella minutissima (20.65 mg QE/g) had the highest total phenol and flavonoid contents, respectively. All the extracts scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) and hydroxyl radicals. The highest metal chelating activity of the extracts was observed in the ethanol extracts of C. minutissima (102.60 µg/mL) and C. sorokiniana (107.84 µg/mL). Furthermore, the cholinesterase inhibitory activities of the extracts showed that ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana (13.34 µg/mL) exhibited the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, while dichloromethane extract of C. minutissima (11.78 µg/mL) showed the highest butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Incubation of the ß-amyloid protein increased the aggregation of amyloid fibrils after 96 h. However, ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima inhibited further aggregation of Aß1­42 and caused disaggregation of matured protein fibrils compared to the control. This study reveals the modulatory effects of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima extracts on some mediators of Alzheimer's disease and provides insights into their potential benefits as functional food, nutraceutics or therapeutic agent for the management of this neurodegenerative disease.


Subject(s)
Chlorella/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Steroids/analysis , Sterols/analysis , Terpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Neuroprotective Agents , Biomass , Ethanol , Fatty Acids/analysis , Microalgae , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Amyloid/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antioxidants/chemistry
17.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 22-29, July. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053216

ABSTRACT

Background: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) contains active substances that have desirable properties for industrial and herbal medicine applications, e.g., essential oils (1.5­2.5%), tannins, flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, resins, phytosterols, rosmarinic acid and many others. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of rosemary extract and 20% rapeseed oil substitution for animal fat on storage changes and inhibition of cholinesterases in liver pâté. Results: Preliminary research showed that rosemary extract exhibited antioxidative activity in the system of accelerated Rancimat and Oxidograph tests. Then, rosemary extract was used as an ingredient in liver pâté. During the experiment, meat samples were refrigerated and tested on days 1, 5, 8, 12 and 15 after production. The study proved that the substitution of 20% of animal fat with rapeseed oil decreased the content of saturated acids and increased the content of monoenic fatty acids by approximately 5% and polyene fatty acids by 40%. Conclusions: In addition to antioxidative activity, the rosemary extract affected the health-promoting value of the samples, which inhibited cholinesterase activity during the entire storage period. The extract inhibited AChE more than BChE.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Meat Products , Antioxidants/chemistry , Peroxides , Oils, Volatile , Fat Substitutes , Principal Component Analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Liver , Meat Products/microbiology
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 71-77, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053491

ABSTRACT

Background: Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) is a fructan-rich plant with prebiotic potential. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient enzymatic route to prepare fructooligosaccharides (FOS)-rich and highly antioxidative syrup using burdock root as a raw material. Results: Endo-inulinase significantly improved the yield of FOS 2.4-fold while tannase pretreatment further increased the yield of FOS 2.8-fold. Other enzymes, including endo-polygalacturonase, endo-glucanase and endo-xylanase, were able to increase the yield of total soluble sugar by 11.1% (w/w). By this process, a new enzymatic process for burdock syrup was developed and the yield of burdock syrup increased by 25% (w/w), whereas with FOS, total soluble sugars, total soluble protein and total soluble polyphenols were enhanced to 28.8%, 53.3%, 8.9% and 3.3% (w/w), respectively. Additionally, the scavenging abilities of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, and total antioxidant capacity of the syrup were increased by 23.7%, 51.8% and 35.4%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results could be applied to the development of efficient extraction of valuable products from agricultural materials using enzyme-mediated methods.


Subject(s)
Oligosaccharides/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Fructose/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Antioxidants/chemistry , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases/metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Hydroxyl Radical , Arctium , Functional Food , Polyphenols , Fructose/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism
19.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(3): 289-324, mayo 2019. tab, ilus, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007996

ABSTRACT

Peru is not only megadiverse in flora and fauna, but also in "native varieties of potatoes" that have been used by pre-Inca civilizations. In this context, "native potatoes" not only have a high nutritional value in antioxidants, but also a high capacity to cure and/or alleviate diseases; providing quality of life that is reflected in the longevity of the Andean population. However, in the absence of documentation and dissemination, many varieties and their ethnobotanical knowledge is being lost. To preserve and disseminate this valuable ancestral knowledge, a taxonomic, phytogeographic and ethnobotanical inventory was carried out, based on periodic botanical explorations during the period 1997-2017. The information obtained was complemented with other researches and reports by other authors. 317 "varieties of native potato" are reported for the North of Peru, of which 86, are "native varieties of colored pulp".


El Perú no sólo es megadiverso en flora y fauna, sino también en "variedades nativas de papas" que han sido utilizadas desde las civilizaciones preincas. En este contexto las "papas nativas" no sólo poseen un elevado valor nutricional en antioxidantes, sino también una alta capacidad de curar y/o aliviar enfermedades; brindando calidad de vida que se refleja en la longevidad de la población andina. Sin embargo, ante la falta de documentación y difusión, muchas variedades y su conocimiento etnobotánico se está perdiendo. Para preservar y difundir este valioso conocimiento ancestral, se llevó a cabo un inventario taxonómico, fitogeográfico y etnobotánico, en base a exploraciones botánicas periódicas durante el período 1997-2017. La información obtenida se complementó con otras investigaciones y reportes de otros autores. Se reportan para el Norte del Perú 317 "variedades de papa nativa", de las cuales 86, son variedades "nativas de pulpa de color".


Subject(s)
Solanum tuberosum/chemistry , Biodiversity , Antioxidants/chemistry , Peru , Andean Ecosystem
20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(3): 336-346, mayo 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008047

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition of Mangifera indica L. cv. "Kent" leaves was determined by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. Polyphenolic compounds characterized as benzophenone derivatives were the main components found in extracts (1, maclurin 3-C-(2-O-galloyl)-D- glucoside isomer; 2, maclurin 3-C---D-glucoside; 3, iriflophenone 3-C---D-glucoside; 5, maclurin 3-C-(2,3-di-O-galloyl)---D-glucoside; 6, iriflophenone 3-C-(2-O-galloyl)---D-glucoside; 7, methyl-iriflophenone 3-C-(2,6-di-O-galloyl)---D-glucoside) and xanthones (4, mangiferin and 8, 6-O-galloyl-mangiferin). The estrogenic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from Mangifera indica L. cv. "Kent" leaves on ovariectomized rats were determined by uterotrophic assay and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in erythrocytes, bone, liver, and stomach. We conclude that the polyphenolic compounds from extracts act as exogenous antioxidant agents against oxidative damage in ovariectomized rats.


La composición química de las hojas de Mangifera indica L. cv. "Kent" se determinó por HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. Compuestos polifenólicos caracterizados como derivados de benzofenona fueron los componentes principales encontrados en los extractos (1, isómero de la maclurina 3-C-(2-O-galoyil)-D-glucósido; 2, maclurina 3-C-ß-D-glucósido; 3, iriflofenona 3-C-ß-D-glucósido; 5, maclurina 3-C-(2,3-di-O-galloíl)-ß-D-glucósido; 6, iriflofenona 3-C-(2-O-galloil)-ß-D-glucósido; 7, metil-iriflofenona 3-C-(2,6-di-O- galloyl)-ß-D-glucósido) y xantonas (4, mangiferina y 8, 6-O-galoyil-mangiferina). Los efectos estrogénicos y antioxidantes de los extractos acuosos de hojas de Mangifera indica L. cv. "Kent" en ratas ovariectomizadas se determinaron mediante ensayo uterotrófico y la medición de los niveles de malondialdehído (MDA) en eritrocitos, huesos, hígado y estómago. Concluimos que los compuestos polifenólicos de los extractos actúan como agentes antioxidantes exógenos contra el daño oxidativo en ratas ovariectomizadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Ovariectomy , Mangifera/chemistry , Estrogens/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Stomach/drug effects , Benzophenones/chemistry , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Reactive Oxygen Species , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Ethanol , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Liver/drug effects , Malondialdehyde , Antioxidants/chemistry
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