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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1527-1536, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521022

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The 12C6+ heavy ion beam irradiation can cause bystander effects. The inflammatory cytokines, endocrine hormones and apoptotic proteins may be involved in 12C6+ irradiation-induced bystander effects. This study characterized the protective effects and mechanisms of Huangqi decoction (HQD) against 12C6+ radiation induced bystander effects. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation model, and high-dose/medium-dose/low-dose HQD groups. HE staining assessed the pathological changes of brain and kidney. Peripheral blood chemical indicators as well as inflammatory factors and endocrine hormones were detected. Apoptosis was measured with TUNEL. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was determined with real-time PCR and Western blot.Irradiation induced pathological damage to the brain and kidney tissues. After irradiation, the numbers of white blood cells (WBC) and monocyte, and the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and PCNA decreased. The damage was accompanied by increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as well as increased neuronal apoptosis. These effects were indicative of radiation-induced bystander effects. Administration of HQD attenuated the pathological damage to brain and kidney tissues, and increased the numbers of WBC, neutrophils, lymphocyte and monocytes, as well as the expression of IL-2, CRH and PCNA. It also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, CORT and ACTH as well as neuronal apoptosis. HQD exhibits protective effects against 12C6+ radiation-induced bystander effects. The underlying mechanism may involve the promotion of the production of peripheral blood cells, inhibition of inflammatory factors and apoptosis, and regulation of endocrine hormones.


La irradiación con haz de iones pesados 12C6+ puede provocar efectos secundarios. Las citoquinas inflamatorias, las hormonas endocrinas y las proteínas apoptóticas pueden estar involucradas en los efectos secundarios inducidos por la irradiación 12C6+. Este estudio caracterizó los efectos y mecanismos protectores de la decocción de Huangqi (HQD) contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. Las ratas Wistar se dividieron aleatoriamente en grupos control, modelo de irradiación de iones pesados 12C6+ y grupos de dosis alta/media/baja de HQD. La tinción con HE evaluó los cambios patológicos del cerebro y el riñón. Se detectaron indicadores químicos de sangre periférica, así como factores inflamatorios y hormonas endocrinas. La apoptosis se midió con TUNEL. La expresión del antígeno nuclear de células en proliferación (PCNA) se determinó mediante PCR en tiempo real y transferencia Western blot. La irradiación indujo daños patológicos en los tejidos cerebrales y renales. Después de la irradiación, disminuyó el número de glóbulos blancos (WBC) y monocitos, y la expresión de interleucina (IL)-2, hormona liberadora de corticotropina (CRH) y PCNA. El daño estuvo acompañado por una mayor expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterona (CORT) y hormona adrenocorticotrópica (ACTH), así como un aumento de la apoptosis neuronal. Estas alteraciones fueron indicativas de efectos inducidos por la radiación. La administración de HQD atenuó el daño patológico a los tejidos cerebrales y renales, y aumentó el número de leucocitos y monocitos, así como la expresión de IL-2, CRH y PCNA. También disminuyó la expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, CORT y ACTH, así como la apoptosis neuronal. HQD exhibe mecanismos protectores contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. El mecanismo subyacente puede implicar la promoción de la producción de células sanguíneas periféricas, la inhibición de factores inflamatorios y la apoptosis y la regulación de hormonas endocrinas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Heavy Ions/adverse effects , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry , Brain/drug effects , Brain/radiation effects , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Endocrine System/drug effects , Endocrine System/radiation effects , Immunologic Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/radiation effects
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 625-633, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440306

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: One of the reasons for acute kidney damage is renal ischemia. Nevertheless, there are limited protective and therapeutic approaches for this problem. Diacerein is an anti-inflammatory drug characterized by numerous biological activities. We aimed to determine the ameliorative impact of diacerein on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) condition, exploring the underlying mechanisms. Twenty-four male rats were allotted into four groups (n= 6): sham group; Diacerein (DIA) group; I/R group, in which a non-crushing clamp occluded the left renal pedicle for 45 min, and the right kidney was nephrectomized for 5 min before the reperfusion process; I/R + diacerein group, injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg diacerein/kg i.m 30 minutes prior to I/R operation. Ischemia/ reperfusion was found to affect renal function and induce histopathological alterations. The flow cytometry analysis demonstrated an elevated expression of innate and mature dendritic cells in I/R renal tissues. Moreover, upregulation in the expression of the inflammatory genes (TLR4, Myd88, and NLRP3), and overexpression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β), apoptotic (caspase-3) and pyroptotic (caspase-1) markers were observed in I/R-experienced animals. The aforementioned deteriorations were mitigated by pre-I/R diacerein treatment. Diacerein alleviated I/R-induced inflammation and apoptosis. Thus, it could be a promising protective agent against I/R.


La isquemia renal es una de los motivos del daño renal agudo. Sin embargo, los enfoques protectores y terapéuticos para este problema son limitados. La diacereína es un fármaco antiinflamatorio caracterizado por numerosas actividades biológicas. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar el impacto de mejora de la diacereína en la condición de lesión por isquemia/ reperfusión renal (I/R), explorando los mecanismos subyacentes. Veinticuatro ratas macho se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos (n= 6): grupo simulado; grupo de diacereína (DIA); grupo I/R, en el que una pinza no aplastante ocluyó el pedículo renal izquierdo durante 45 min, y el riñón derecho fue nefrectomizado durante 5 min antes del proceso de reperfusión; Grupo I/R + diacereína, inyectado por vía intraperitoneal con 50 mg de diacereína/kg i.m. 30 min antes de la operación I/R. Se encontró que la isquemia/ reperfusión afecta la función renal e induce alteraciones histopatológicas. El análisis de citometría de flujo demostró una expresión elevada de células dendríticas innatas y maduras en tejidos renales I/R. Además, se observó una regulación positiva en la expresión de los genes inflamatorios (TLR4, Myd88 y NLRP3) y una sobreexpresión de las citoquinas proinflamatorias (IL-1β), marcadores apoptóticos (caspasa-3) y piroptóticos (caspasa-1) en animales con experiencia en I/R. Los deterioros antes mencionados fueron mitigados por el tratamiento previo a la diacereína I/R. La diacereína alivió la inflamación y la apoptosis inducidas por I/R. Por lo tanto, podría ser un agente protector prometedor contra I/R.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Anthraquinones/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/immunology , Signal Transduction , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Anthraquinones/immunology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney Diseases/immunology
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 167-174, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430531

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The present study investigated the possible protective effects of melatonin on Bleomycin, Cisplatin and etoposide (BEP) chemotherapy regimens using immunohistochemistry. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of ten as; group 1 as untreated control; group 2 as BEP group which received the three cycles of 21 days' regimen each of 0.5¥ dose levels ofBEP (bleomycin 0.75 mg/kg, etoposide 7.5 mg/kg and cisplatin 1.5 mg/kg). Rats in the group 3 (MEL group) received 10 mg/kg/day melatonin once daily. Group 4 received the melatonin (30 min before the BEP injections) and BEP as in groups 2. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining was used to detect cell proliferation and caspase-3, caspase-9 and Caspase-8 were detected to investigate apoptosis. PCNA immunostaining in alveolar epithelium, alveolar macrophages and bronchus was weak to moderate in BEP group. However, diffuse and strong caspase immunoreactions for caspase-3, caspase 8- and caspase-9 were detected in the bronchioles epithelium, vascular endothelium, alveolar luminal macrophages in the BEP group. PCNA and caspase immunoreactivities in MEL and Mel + BEP groups were close to the control one. The surface are in the BEP group was significantly reduced as compared to the control one ((P0.05). It can be concluded that BEP regimen can affects negatively on lung tissue and melatonin inhibits lung tissue injuries during BEP chemotherapy.


El presente estudio investigó los posibles efectos protectores de la melatonina en los regímenes de quimioterapia con bleomicina, etopósido y cisplatino (BEP) mediante inmunohistoquímica. Cuarenta ratas Wistar macho se dividieron en cuatro grupos de diez: grupo 1, control sin tratar; grupo 2, quimioterapia con una dosis de 0,5x de BEP (0,75 mg/kg de bleomicina, 7,5 mg/ kg de etopósido y 1,5 mg/kg de cisplatino) con tres ciclos de 21 días cada uno. Las ratas del grupo 3 (grupo MEL) recibieron 10 mg/kg/día de melatonina una vez al día. El grupo 4 (Mel + BEP) recibió melatonina (30 minutos antes de las inyecciones de BEP) y BEP, como en los grupos 2. Se usó la tinción del antígeno nuclear de células en proliferación (PCNA) para detectar la proliferación celular y, caspasa- 3, caspasa-9 y caspasa-8 para investigar apoptosis. La inmunotinción de PCNA en el epitelio alveolar, los macrófagos alveolares y los bronquios varió de débil a moderada en el grupo BEP. Sin embargo, se detectaron inmunorreacciones difusas y fuertes para caspasa-3, caspasa 8- y caspasa-9 en el epitelio de los bronquiolos, endotelio vascular y macrófagos luminales alveolares. Las inmunorreactividades de PCNA y caspasa en los grupos MEL y Mel + BEP fueron similares a las del control. El área de superficie en el grupo BEP se redujo significativamente en comparación con el control (P0,05). Se puede concluir que la quimioterapia con BEP puede afectar negativamente al tejido pulmonar y la melatonina inhibe las lesiones durante la quimioterapia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/prevention & control , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Bleomycin/adverse effects , Immunohistochemistry , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Protective Agents , Etoposide/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/chemically induced
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468898

ABSTRACT

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a malignant tumour of Head and Neck Cancer (HNC). The recent therapeutic approaches used to treat cancer have adverse side effects. The natural agents exhibiting anticancer activities are generally considered to have a robust therapeutic potential. Curcuminoids, one of the major active compounds of the turmeric herb, are used as a therapeutic agent for several diseases including cancer. In this study, the cytotoxicity of curcuminoids was investigated against OSCC cell line HNO97. Our data showed that curcuminoids significantly inhibits the proliferation of HNO97 in a time and dose-dependent manner (IC50=35 μM). Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that curcuminoids increased the percentage of G2/M phase cell populations in the treated groups. Treating HNO97 cells with curcuminoids led to cell shrinking and increased detached cells, which are the typical appearance of apoptotic cells. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis revealed that curcuminoids significantly induced apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, as a response to curcuminoids treatment, comet tails were formed in cell nuclei due to the induction of DNA damage. Curcuminoids treatment reduced the colony formation capacity of HNO97 cells and induced morphological changes. Overall, these findings demonstrate that curcuminoids can in vitro inhibit HNC proliferation and metastasis and induce apoptosis.


O carcinoma de células escamosas oral (OSCC) é um tumor maligno do câncer de cabeça e pescoço (HNC). As recentes abordagens terapêuticas usadas para tratar o câncer têm efeitos colaterais adversos. Os agentes naturais que exibem atividades anticâncer são geralmente considerados como tendo um potencial terapêutico robusto. Curcuminoides, um dos principais compostos ativos da erva cúrcuma, são usados como agente terapêutico para várias doenças, incluindo câncer. Neste estudo, a citotoxicidade dos curcuminoides foi investigada contra a linha de células OSCC HNO97. Nossos dados mostraram que os curcuminoides inibem significativamente a proliferação de HNO97 de forma dependente do tempo e da dose (IC50 = 35 μM). A análise do ciclo celular demonstrou que os curcuminoides aumentaram a porcentagem de populações de células da fase G2 / M nos grupos tratados. O tratamento das células HNO97 com curcuminoides levou ao encolhimento celular e ao aumento das células destacadas, que são a aparência típica das células apoptóticas. Além disso, a análise de citometria de fluxo revelou que os curcuminoides induziram significativamente a apoptose de uma maneira dependente do tempo. Além disso, em resposta ao tratamento com curcuminoides, caudas de cometa foram formadas nos núcleos das células devido à indução de danos ao DNA. O tratamento com curcuminoides reduziu a capacidade de formação de colônias das células HNO97 e induziu alterações morfológicas. No geral, esses achados demonstram que os curcuminoides podem inibir in vitro a proliferação e metástase de HNC e induzir apoptose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/drug therapy , Curcuma/cytology , Curcuma/toxicity , Head and Neck Neoplasms/prevention & control
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468924

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers leading to comorbidities and mortalities globally. The rational of current study was to evaluate the combined epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin as a potent antitumor agent as commentary agent for therapeutic protocol. The present study investigated the effect of epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) (150mg) and quercetin (200mg) at different proportions on proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer cells (HCT-116). Cell growth, colonogenic, Annexin V in addition cell cycle were detected in response to phytomolecules. Data obtained showed that, the colony formation was inhibited significantly in CRC starting from the lowest concentration tested of 10 µg/mL resulting in no colonies as visualized by a phase-contrast microscope. Data showed a significant elevation in the annexin V at 100 µg/mL EGCG(25.85%) and 150 µg/mL quercetin (48.35%). Moreover, cell cycle analysis showed that this combination caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase at concentration of 100 µg/mL (72.7%) and 150 µg/mL (75.25%). The combined effect of epigallocatechin Gallate and quercetin exert antiproliferative activity against CRC, it is promising in alternative conventional chemotherapeutic agent.


O câncer colorretal (CCR) é um dos cânceres mais comuns, levando a comorbidades e mortalidade em todo o mundo. O racional do presente estudo foi avaliar a combinação de galato de epigalocatequina e quercetina como um agente antitumoral potente como agente de comentário para protocolo terapêutico. O presente estudo investigou o efeito de galato de epigalocatequina (EGCG) (150 mg) e quercetina (200 mg) em diferentes proporções na proliferação e indução de apoptose em células de câncer de cólon humano (HCT-116). O crescimento celular, colonogênico, anexina V, além do ciclo celular foram detectados em resposta a fitomoléculas. Os dados obtidos mostraram que a formação de colônias foi inibida significativamente no CRC a partir da concentração mais baixa testada de 10 µg/mL, resultando em nenhuma colônia conforme visualizado por um microscópio de contraste de fase. Os dados mostraram uma elevação significativa na anexina V a 100 µg/mL de EGCG (25,85%) e 150 µg/mL de quercetina (48,35%). Além disso, a análise do ciclo celular mostrou que essa combinação causou parada do ciclo celular na fase G1 na concentração de 100 µg/mL (72,7%) e 150 µg/mL (75,25%). O efeito combinado da epigalocatequina galato e quercetina exerce atividade antiproliferativa contra o CCR, é promissor como agente quimioterápico alternativo convencional.


Subject(s)
Humans , /therapeutic use , Apoptosis/drug effects , Catechin/administration & dosage , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Quercetin/administration & dosage
6.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(3): 205-217, sept. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1399287

ABSTRACT

Las catequinas del té verde (Camellia sinensis) (CTV) presentan efectos benéficos para la salud asociados a su potencial antioxidante. Por otra parte, el estrés oxidante es una de las vías de inducción de daño genotóxico. De ahí que, en la presente revisión se realizó un análisis de los efectos antigenotóxicos y genotóxicos de las CTV, haciendo énfasis en las vías implicadas en estos procesos y sus efectos en la salud. Se realizó una revisión de artículos indexados en las bases de datos de PubMed® y Science Direct® (2021) con las palabras clave "green tea" y "green tea catechins". Se delimitaron los estudios utilizando los operadores booleanos "AND", "OR" y "NOT" ("antigenotoxic", "genotoxic", "antioxidant" y "prooxidant"). En su mayoría se consideraron las publicaciones del 2016 al 2021. Se observó que los efectos benéficos en la salud de las CTV están relacionados con: a) su actividad antioxidante mediante la captura, inhibición y prevención de la formación de las especies reactivas de oxígeno; b) la regulación del sistema antioxidante endógeno; c) la activación de los mecanismos de reparación al contribuir en la eliminación del aducto 8-hidroxi-2'-desoxiguanosina; d) la inducción de apoptosis en células con daño al ADN; y e) la inhibición de la inflamación relacionada con su actividad antiapoptótica. Si bien, en algunos de los estudios se reportaron efectos genotóxicos, estos a su vez contribuyeron en la eliminación de células con daño genético, por lo que, no se puede considerar del todo a la actividad genotóxica de las CTV como perjudiciales para la salud(AU)


The green tea catechins (Camellia sinensis) (CTV) have beneficial effects for health associated with their antioxidant potential. Moreover, oxidative stress is one of the pathways for inducing genotoxic damage. Hence, in this review, an analysis of the antigenotoxic and genotoxic effects of CTV was carried out, emphasizing the pathways involved in these processes and their effects on health. A review of articles indexed in the PubMed® and ScienceDirect® (2021) databases with the keywords "green tea" and "green tea catechins" was carried out. Studies were delimited using the Boolean operators "AND", "OR" and "NOT" ("antigenotoxic", "genotoxic", "antioxidant" and "prooxidant"). For the most part, publications from 2016 to 2021 were considered. It was observed that the beneficial health effects of CTVs are related to: a) their antioxidant activity through the capture, inhibition and prevention of the formation of reactive oxygen species; b) the regulation of the endogenous antioxidant system; c) the activation of the repair mechanisms by contributing to the elimination of the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct; d) the induction of apoptosis in cells with DNA damage; and e) the inhibition of inflammation related to its antiapoptotic activity. Although some of the studies reported genotoxic effects, these in turn contributed to the elimination of cells with genetic damage. Therefore, the genotoxic activity of CTV cannot be considered as harmful to health


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Tea/chemistry , Catechin/toxicity , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Genotoxicity , Antioxidants/toxicity , DNA Damage/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species , Apoptosis/drug effects
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 277-286, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385592

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Osteoporosis is a bone condition marked by a loss of bone mass and a disruption of bone microarchitecture. Men lose bone density as they age, resulting in brittle bones. The loss of free testosterone is one of the key factors. The objective of present study was to evaluate Allolobophora caliginosa extract (AcE) for its anti-osteoporotic and antiapoptotic activity in orchiotomized rat model at two different dose levels. Twenty eight male rats were divided into two groups. The first group represented sham operated rats while the second group underwent bilateral orchidectomy (OCX). After one week of recovery from orchidectomy surgery, the second group was randomly subdivided into 3 subgroups. The first OCX subgroup was administered orally distilled water daily for 10 weeks. The other two OCX subgroups were administered AcE (100 or200 mg/kg body weight/day) orally for 10 weeks. Orchiectomy induces remarkable loss of the cortical as well as trabecular bone loss; which, could be counterbalanced by Allolobophora caliginosa extract (AcE) that prevented cortical as well as trabecular bone loss. Allolobophora caliginosa extract (AcE) at Dose 200 mg/kg/day was found to be effective at a highly significant level in osteoporotic bone, as determined by histological images and immunohistochemical study, where Dose (100 mg/kg/day) was found to be moderately significant.In the present study, it is suggested that AcE may inhibit steroid-induced osteoblasts apoptosis, potentially via upregulation of Bcl-2 and downregulation of caspase-3. Allolobophora caliginosa extract demonstrates anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant properties. Therefore, AcE may be used for the prevention of steroid-induced bone damage.


RESUMEN: La osteoporosis es una afección ósea caracterizada por una pérdida de masa ósea y una alteración de la microarquitectura ósea. Los hombres pierden densidad ósea a medida que envejecen, lo que resulta en huesos quebradizos. La pérdida de testosterona libre es factor clave en este proceso. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el extracto de Allolobophora caliginosa (AcE) debido a su actividad antiosteoporótica y antiapoptótica en un modelo de rata orquiectomizadas con dos niveles de dosis diferentes. Se dividieron veintiocho ratas macho en dos grupos. El primer grupo incluyó ratas con operación simulada, mientras que el segundo grupo se sometió a orquidectomía bilateral (OCX). Después de una semana de recuperación de la orquidectomía, el segundo grupo fue subdividido en 3 subgrupos. Al primer subgrupo de OCX se administró diariamente agua destilada por vía oral durante 10 semanas. Los otros dos subgrupos de OCX se administraron por vía oral AcE (100 o 200 mg / kg de peso corporal / día) durante 10 semanas. La orquidectomía induce una pérdida notable del hueso cortical y trabecular; el cual podría ser contrarrestado por el extracto de Allolobophora caliginosa (AcE) que previno la pérdida de hueso tanto cortical como trabecular visualizado en imágenes histológicas y estudio inmuno- histoquímico, donde se encontró que la dosis (100 mg / kg / día) era moderadamente significativa. En el presente estudio, se sugiere que la AcE puede inhibir la apoptosis de los osteoblastos inducida por esteroides, potencialmente a través de la regulación al alza de Bcl 2 y la regulación a la baja de caspasa 3. El extracto de Allolobophora caliginosa demuestra propiedades anti apoptóticas y antioxidantes. Por lo tanto, AcE puede usarse para la prevención del daño óseo inducido por esteroides.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Oligochaeta , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Tissue Extracts/administration & dosage , Orchiectomy/adverse effects , Osteoporosis/etiology , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Tissue Extracts/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1236-1241, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405279

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Statins inhibit cholesterol synthesis, but also have other pleiotropic effects. There are indications that they affect macrophage survival trough the regulation of apoptosis. We analyzed 50 samples of aortic wall, selected based on statins in patients' therapy (n=25, Th-S group) or statin-free therapy (n=25, Th-nonS group). Each group had 5 samples of healthy aortic tissue, 10 samples of mild and 10 samples of severe atherosclerotic changes in aortic wall. Tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical methods (anti-Bcl-2 antibody). Presence of Bcl2-positive macrophages (Bcl-2+ MP) was determined semiquantitatively, and data were processed in Microsoft Excell and IMB SPSS 23 Statistics. 60 % of patients in the Th-S group had a mild increase of Bcl-2+ MP The use of statins leads to a significantly more frequent increase in Bcl2+ macrophages in the intima of the healthy aortic tissue. Analysis of all aortic samples with pathohistological diagnosis showed that statin therapy was statistically significantly more often leading to a markedly increased presence of Bcl-2+ MP. In the media, all samples of the Th-S group have a mild increase of Bcl-2+ MP, and in adventitia 40 % of patients. The use of statins more often leads to a markedly increased presence of Bcl-2+ MP in aortic tissue with diagnosed mild and severe atherosclerosis. In samples of severe atherosclerosis, statins lead to a markedly increased presence of Bcl-2+ MP in the parts of the plaque towards the intima and towards the media. Statins lead to an increased presence of Bcl-2+ macrophages, prolong their life, both in healthy and atherosclerotic altered aortic tissue. This indicates potentiation of inflammation and damage to the aortic wall, and calls into question the positive effect of statins on the aortic wall with atherosclerosis.


RESUMEN: Las estatinas inhiben la síntesis de colesterol, pero también tienen otros efectos pleiotrópicos. Hay indicios de que afectan la supervivencia de los macrófagos a través de la regulación de la apoptosis.Se analizaron 50 muestras de pared aórtica, seleccionadas en base a estatinas en tratamiento de pacientes (n=25, grupo Th-S) o en tratamiento libre de estatinas (n=25, grupo Th- nonS). Cada grupo tenía 5 muestras de tejido aórtico sano, 10 muestras de cambios ateroscleróticos leves y 10 muestras de cambios ateroscleróticos severos en la pared aórtica. El tejido se tiñó con hematoxilina-eosina y métodos inmunohistoquímicos (anticuerpo anti-Bcl-2). La presencia de macrófagos positivos para Bcl2 (Bcl- 2+ MP) se determinó semicuantitativamente y los datos se procesaron en Microsoft Excell e IMB SPSS 23 Statistics. El 60 % de los pacientes del grupo Th-S tuvo un aumento leve de Bcl-2+ MP. El uso de estatinas conduce a un aumento significativamente más frecuente de macrófagos Bcl2+ en la íntima del tejido aórtico sano. El análisis de todas las muestras aórticas con diagnóstico anatomopatológico mostró que la terapia con estatinas fue significativamente más frecuente desde el punto de vista estadístico, lo que condujo a una presencia marcadamente mayor de Bcl-2+ MP. En los medios, todas las muestras del grupo Th-S tienen un leve aumento de Bcl-2+ MP, y en adventicia en el 40 % de los pacientes. El uso de estatinas con mayor frecuencia conduce a una presencia marcadamente mayor de MP Bcl-2+ en el tejido aórtico con aterosclerosis leve y grave diagnosticada. En muestras de aterosclerosis severa, las estatinas conducen a una presencia aumentada de Bcl-2+ MP en las partes de la placa hacia la íntima y hacia la media. Las estatinas conducen a una mayor presencia de macrófagos Bcl-2+, prolongan su vida, tanto en tejido aórtico sano como aterosclerótico alterado. Esto indica la potenciación de la inflamación y el daño a la pared aórtica y pone en duda el efecto positivo de las estatinas en la pared aórtica con aterosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Aorta/drug effects , Risk Factors , Apoptosis/drug effects , Risk Assessment , Genes, bcl-2/physiology , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , bcl-X Protein/metabolism , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Macrophages/drug effects
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(2): 480-488, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385631

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent inducing liver and kidney damage. In this study, we intended to investigate the impact of kefir beverage, an essential probiotic and functional food, on liver and kidney damage induced by cisplatin. Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: Control, Cisplatin (single dose of 7 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), Kefir (2 ml/d, 7 d, oral gavage), and Cisplatin+Kefir (CK). At the end of day 7, animals were euthanized. Blood, kidney, and liver tissue samples were collected. For both tissues, biochemically ALT, AST, Urea, Creatine; histomorphologically, hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's Trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining of caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, were performed. Serum urea and creatinine levels of the Cisplatin group were significantly higher than the Control group (p<0.05). In the CK group, kefir consumption decreased urea and creatinin levels approached to Control and Kefir groups. Cisplatin resulted in higher ALT and AST activities, indicating hepatocellular damage, compared to the Control group (p<0.05). Kefir consumption decreased ALT activities approached to both the Control and Kefir group. Histomorphological observations were in agreement biochemical results. In liver and kidney tissues, structural damage was observed with an increase in collagen fibers in the Cisplatin group, and Caspase-3 activity was immunohistochemically higher than in the other groups. In the CK group, collagen fiber increase, structural damage, and Caspase-3 activities were less than in the Cisplatin group. Kefir consumption alleviated liver and kidney damage. However, more research is required to understand such effect of kefir better.


RESUMEN: El cisplatino es un agente quimioterapéutico que induce daño hepático y renal. En este estudio, intentamos investigar el efecto del kéfir, un alimento funcional y probiótico esencial, en el daño hepático y renal inducido por el cisplatino. Se dividieron ratas albinas Wistar en cuatro grupos: control, cisplatino (dosis única de 7 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), kéfir (2 ml/día, 7 días, sonda oral) y cisplatino + kéfir (CK). Al final del día 7, los animales fueron sacrificados. Se recolectaron muestras de sangre, riñón y tejido hepático. Se determinó ALT, AST, Urea y Creatina; Para el análisis histomorfológico, se realizaron tinciones con hematoxilina-eosina, tricrómico de Masson y para inmunohistoquímica, caspasa-3, un marcador de apoptosis. Los niveles séricos de urea y creatinina del grupo de cisplatino fueron significativamente más altos que los del grupo de control (p<0,05). En el grupo CK, el consumo de kéfir disminuyó los niveles de urea y creatinina acercándose a los grupos Control y Kéfir. El cisplatino resultó en actividades más altas de ALT y AST, lo que indica daño hepatocelular, en comparación con el grupo Control (p<0.05). El consumo de kéfir disminuyó las actividades de ALT tanto en el grupo Control como en el de Kéfir. Las observaciones histomorfológicas coincidieron con los resultados bioquímicos. En tejidos hepáticos y renales se observó daño estructural con aumento de fibras colágenas en el grupo de Cisplatino, y la actividad de Caspasa-3 fue inmunohistoquímicamente mayor que en los otros grupos. En el grupo de CK, el aumento de las fibras colágenas, el daño estructural y las actividades de Caspasa-3 fueron menores que en el grupo Cisplatino. El consumo de kéfir mejoró el daño hepático y renal. Sin embargo, se requiere más investigación para comprender mejor el efecto del kéfir.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cisplatin/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Kefir , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Urea/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Creatinine/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Caspase 3 , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 37(6): e370603, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402964

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To explore the neuroprotective effects of Lutongkeli (LTKL) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and detect the related mechanism. Methods: TBI model was established with LTKL administration (2 and 4 g/kg/d, p.o.). Motor function of rats was examined by Rotarod test. Nissl staining was used to show neuron morphology. Furthermore, the disease-medicine common targets were obtained with the network pharmacology and analyzed with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Lastly, the predicted targets were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: After LTKL administration, neural behavior was significantly improved, and the number of spared neurons in brain was largely increased. Moreover, 68 bioactive compounds were identified, corresponding to 148 LTKL targets; 2,855 genes were closely associated with TBI, of which 87 overlapped with the LTKL targets and were considered to be therapeutically relevant. Functional enrichment analysis suggested LTKL exerted its pharmacological effects in TBI by modulating multiple pathways including apoptosis, inflammation, etc. Lastly, we found LTKL administration could increase the mRNA level of Bcl-2 and decrease the expression of Bax and caspase-3. Conclusions: This study reported the neuroprotective effect of LTKL against TBI is accompanied with anti-apoptosis mechanism, which provides a scientific explanation for the clinical application of LTKL in the treatment of TBI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 37(7): e370705, 2022. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402966

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To explore the mechanism of jatrorrhizine on apoptosis and fibrosis induced by myocardial infarction (MI) in an animal model. Methods: The left anterior descending branch of coronary artery was surgically ligated to duplicate the mouse model of MI. The sham and infarcted mice were treated with normal saline once a day, while mice in experimental groups received low-dose (LD) and high-dose (HD) jatrorrhizine once a day respectively. Two weeks later, cardiac function was detected by echocardiography, and histopathological examination was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson staining. The expressions of p53, TGF-ß1, Smad/2/3, Bax, Bcl-2, collagen I and collagen III were quantified using qRT-PCR and western blot assays. Results: Jatrorrhizine significantly improved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricle end-systolic (LVES) in mice. Histopathological, administration of jatrorrhizine weakened infiltration of inflammatory cells and cardiac fibrosis in myocardium of mice caused by MI. Additionally, jatrorrhizine suppressed cardiomyocyte apoptosis exhibited as its capability to reverse changes of Bax and Bcl-2 levels in myocardium caused by MI. Jatrorrhizine statistically significantly downregulated expression of collagen I and collagen III, as well as TGF-ß1, Smad2/3 and p53. Conclusions: Jatrorrhizine reduce cardiomyocyte apoptosis and fibrosis through inhibiting p53/Bax/Bcl-2 and TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Berberine Alkaloids/analysis , Fibrosis/drug therapy , Apoptosis/drug effects , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy
12.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 515-523, sept. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369061

ABSTRACT

To explore a new underlying molecular mechanism of Huangkui Extract Powder (HKEP) in the alleviation of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Murine immortalized podocytes were divided into (i) normal glucose (NG, 5.6 mM), (ii) NG + HKEP (0.45 g/L), (iii) HG, and (iv) HG + HKEP (0.45 g/L) groups. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to detect the podocyte proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle. Cell viability was inhibited, and apoptosis increased in(iii) HG group compared with (i) NG group (p<0.05). mRNA and protein expression of nephrin and podocin significantly decreased in (iii) HG group compared with (i) NG group (p<0.05). When compared with (iii) HG group, (iv) HG + HKEP group had higher cell viability, lower apoptotic rate and higher mRNA and protein expression of nephrin and podocin (p<0.05). HKEP can attenuate HG-induced podocyte damage, which may be one of the mechanisms of HKEP for attenuating DN.


Explorar un nuevo mecanismo molecular subyacente del extracto del polvo de Huangkui (HKEP) en el alivio de la nefropatía diabética (ND). Los podocitos murinos inmortalizados se dividieron en (i) grupos de glucosa normal (NG, 5,6 mM), (ii) NG + HKEP (0,45 g/L), (iii) HG y (iv) HG + HKEP (0,45 g/L). Se utilizaron el ensayo MTT y la citometría de flujo para detectar la proliferación de podocitos, la apoptosis y el ciclo celular. La viabilidad celular se inhibió y la apoptosis aumentó en el grupo (iii) HG en comparación con el grupo (i) NG (p<0,05). La expresión de ARNm y proteínas de nefrina y podocina disminuyó significativamente en el grupo (iii) HG en comparación con el grupo (i) NG (p<0,05). En comparación con el grupo (iii) HG, el grupo (iv) HG + HKEP tuvo una mayor viabilidad celular, una tasa de apoptosis más baja y una expresión de ARNm y proteínas más altas de nefrina y podocina (p<0,05). HKEP puede atenuar el daño de los podocitos inducido por HG, que puede ser uno de los mecanismos de HKEP para atenuar la DN.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Podocytes/drug effects , Powders , Plant Extracts/genetics , Cell Cycle , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Culture Techniques , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Glucose
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(4): 1123-1131, ago. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385439

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Adriamycin (ADR) is an anthracycline antibiotic used for treatment of many types of cancer. However, its applications may damage to healthy tissues. Chloroquine (CLQ) is an anti-inflammatory agent used in treatment of many inflammation associated diseases such as malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, it is used in the treatment of pneumonia caused by COVID-19. The aim of this study is to determine possible therapeutic effects of Chloroquine on Adriamycin-induced testicular toxicity in rats. We investigated the effect of CLQ on testicular injury caused by ADR. Rats were divided into four groups: Control, ADR, CLQ, ADR+CLQ. After administrations, animals were sacrificed, and testis tissues were extracted from the animals for the further examinations. Histopathological changes in testis tissues were evaluated and TNF-α and IL-6 immunostaining were performed to determine the expression levels of these cytokines. TUNEL method were used for evaluation of apoptotic index. Moreover, serum testosterone levels were measured by ELISA assay. We observed that ADR group showed histopathological deterioration when compared to the Control group and CLQ treatment ameliorated this damage induced by Adriamycin.An increase in TNF-α and IL-6 immunoreactivities and in the number of apoptotic cells and a decrease in serum testosterone levels were determined in the ADR group compared to the Control and CLQ group. Furthermore, our examinations showed an improvement in testicular tissue in ADR+CLQ group in terms of these parameters when compared to the ADR group. We suggest that CLQ can be used as a protective agent to reduce the toxic effects of Adriamycin as a result of its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties.


RESUMEN: La adriamicina (ADR) es un antibiótico de antraciclina que se usa para el tratamiento de muchos tipos de cáncer. Sin embargo, sus aplicaciones pueden dañar los tejidos sanos. La cloroquina (CLQ) es un agente antiinflamatorio que se utiliza en el tratamiento de enfermedades asociadas a la inflamación, tal como la malaria y la artritis reumatoide. También se utiliza en el tratamiento de la neumonía causada por COVID-19. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los posibles efectos terapéuticos de la cloroquina sobre la toxicidad testicular inducida por adriamicina en ratas. Investigamos el efecto de CLQ sobre la lesión testicular causada por ADR. Las ratas se dividieron en cuatro grupos: Control, ADR, CLQ, ADR + CLQ. Después de las administraciones, se sacrificaron los animales y se extrajeron los testículos de los animales para los exámenes adicionales. Se evaluaron los cambios histopatológicos en los tejidos testiculares y se realizó la inmunotinción de TNF-α e IL-6 para determinar los niveles de expresión de estas citocinas. Se utilizó el método TUNEL para la evaluación del índice apoptótico. Además, los niveles de testosterona en suero se midieron mediante un ensayo ELISA. El grupo ADR mostró un deterioro histopatológico en comparación con el grupo Control y observamos que el tratamiento con CLQ mejoró el daño inducido por Adriamicina. Un aumento en las inmunorreactividades de TNF-α e IL-6 y en el número de células apoptóticas además de una disminución en los niveles séricos de testosterona se determinaron en el grupo de ADR en comparación con el grupo de control y CLQ. Además, nuestros exámenes mostraron una mejora en el tejido testicular en el grupo ADR + CLQ en términos de estos parámetros en comparación con el grupo ADR. Sugerimos que CLQ se puede utilizar como agente protector para reducir los efectos tóxicos de la Adriamicina, gracias a sus propiedades antiinflamatorias y antiapoptóticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Testicular Diseases/chemically induced , Testicular Diseases/drug therapy , Doxorubicin/adverse effects , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Inflammation , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/adverse effects
14.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 394-405, jul. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352427

ABSTRACT

In this study, it was aimed to determine the antioxidant and anticancer activities of Sideritis perfoliata methanolic extract (SPE) on cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Different doses (25, 50,100 and 200 µg/mL) of SPE were used to determine proliferation of HeLa cells by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) staining method. Induction of apoptosis was determined by Annexine-V and propidium iodide staining method. Interleukin (IL) 6-8 levels were measured by ELISA method. Antioxidant activities of SPE were determined by DPPH, DNA (plasmid pBR322) protecting and cellular antioxidant activity tests. Some phytochemicals of SPE were also screened by LC-MS-MS. It was determined that SPE reduced the proliferation of HeLa cells and also induced apoptosis. IL6-8 levels importantly decreased at 200 µg/mL. SPE exhibited moderately antioxidant activities in tests used. Among the phenolics identified, vanillic acid had the highest amount. As a result, it was determined to have the anticancer activity of SPE by decreasing cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and decreasing IL6-8 in HeLa cells.


En este estudio, se tuvo como objetivo determinar las actividades antioxidantes y anticancerígenas del extracto metanólico de Sideritis perfoliata (SPE) en las células de cáncer de cuello uterino (HeLa). Se utilizaron diferentes dosis (25, 50, 100 y 200 µg/mL) de SPE para determinar la proliferación de células HeLa mediante el método de tinción con bromuro de 3-[4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il] -2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT). La inducción de apoptosis se determinó mediante el método de tinción con anexina-V y yoduro de propidio. Los niveles de interleucina (IL) 6-8 se midieron mediante el método ELISA. Las actividades antioxidantes de SPE se determinaron mediante pruebas de DPPH, protección de ADN (plásmido pBR322) y actividad antioxidante celular. Algunos fitoquímicos de SPE también se analizaron mediante LC-MS-MS. Se determinó que SPE redujo la proliferación de células HeLa y también indujo apoptosis. Los niveles de IL6-8 disminuyeron de manera importante a 200 µg/mL. SPE mostró actividades moderadamente antioxidantes en las pruebas utilizadas. Entre los fenólicos identificados, el ácido vainílico tuvo la mayor cantidad. Como resultado, se determinó que tenía la actividad anticancerígena de SPE al disminuir la proliferación celular, inducir apoptosis y disminuir la IL6-8 en las células HeLa.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Sideritis/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Survival , Interleukin-8/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Apoptosis/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antineoplastic Agents , Antioxidants/chemistry
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 21-29, July. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) contain a chemotherapeutic drug and are regarded as a promising technique for improving targeted delivery into cancer cells. RESULTS: In this study, the fabrication of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was investigated with loaded Dextran (DEXSPION) using the co-precipitation technique and conjugated by folate (FA). These nanoparticles (NPs) were employed as carriers and anticancer compounds against liver cancer cells in vitro. Structural, magnetic, morphological characterization, size, and drug loading activities of the obtained FA-DEX-5-FUSPION NPs were checked using FTIR, VSM, FESEM, TEM, DLS, and zeta potential techniques. The cellular toxicity effect of FA-DEX-5-FU-SPION NPs was evaluated using the MTT test on liver cancer (SNU-423) and healthy cells (LO2). Furthermore, the apoptosis measurement and the expression levels of NF-1, Her-2/neu, c-Raf-1, and Wnt-1 genes were evaluated post-treatment using flow cytometry and RT-PCR, respectively. The obtained NPs were spherical with a suitable dispersity without noticeable aggregation. The size of the NPs, polydispersity, and zeta were 74 ± 13 nm, 0.080 and 45 mV, respectively. The results of the encapsulation efficiency of the nano-compound showed highly colloidal stability and proper drug maintenance. The results indicated that FA-DEX-5-FU-SPION demonstrated a sustained release profile of 5-FU in both phosphate and citrate buffer solutions separately, with higher cytotoxicity against SNU-423 cells than against other cells types. These findings suggest that FA-DEX-SPION NPs exert synergistic effects for targeting intracellular delivery of 5-FU, apoptosis induction, and gene expression stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings proved that FA-DEX-5-FU-SPION presented remarkable antitumor properties; no adverse subsequences were revealed against normal cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Polymers , Gene Expression/drug effects , Drug Delivery Systems , Apoptosis/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Delayed-Action Preparations , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Magnetite Nanoparticles , Flow Cytometry
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(3): 839-847, jun. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385404

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: A large body of evidence supports the protective role of the flavonol antioxidant compound quercetin in mammals. We tested the hypothesis that quercetin can protect against the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis defect like a reduction in gonadotropins and testicular hormones and abnormal semen analysis induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), possibly via the downregulation of oxidative stress (ROS) and p53-Bax-caspase-3 pathways. Rats were either exposed to a variety of unpredictable stressors daily before being sacrificed after 3 weeks (model group) or were treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight/day) at the same time the CUS were induced (treated group). Harvested testicular tissues were stained with basic histological staining, and testis homogenates were assayed for the tumor suppressor p53, apoptosis regulator Bax, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), caspase-3, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, harvested epididymis tissues were used to assess semen analysis, and blood samples were assayed for the testicular hormone testosterone, the adrenal cortex hormone corticosterone, and the anterior pituitary gonadotropins, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). CUS induced profound testicular damage and significantly (p<0.05) induced p53, Bax, caspase-3, MDA, and corticosterone, which were significantly (p<0.05) inhibited by quercetin except corticosterone. Whereas, quercetin significantly (p<0.05) increased FSH, LH, testosterone, Bcl-2, GPx, and SOD levels that were inhibited by CUS. In addition, CUS induced oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia, which were significantly (p<0.05) protected by quercetin. Thus, Quercetin protects against CUS-induced HPG defects in rats, which is associated with the inhibition of ROS-p53-Bax-caspase-3 axis.


RESUMEN: El papel protector del compuesto antioxidante flavonol quercetina en los mamíferos ha sido ampliamente reportado. Probamos la hipótesis que la quercetina puede proteger contra el defecto del eje hipotálamo-hipofisiario- gonadal (HHG) como una reducción de gonadotropinas y hormonas testiculares y análisis de semen anormal inducido por estrés crónico impredecible (ECI), posiblemente a través de la regulación reducida del estrés oxidativo (REO) y las vías p53- Bax-caspasa-3. Las ratas fueron expuestas a una variedad de fac- tores estresantes impredecibles diariamente antes de ser sacrificadas después de 3 semanas (grupo modelo) o fueron tratadas con quercetina (50 mg / kg de peso corporal / día) al mismo tiempo que se indujo la ECI (grupo tratado). Los tejidos testiculares fueron teñidos con tinción histológica básica y los homogeneizados de testículo se analizaron para determinar el supresor de tumores p53, el regulador de apoptosis Bax, el linfoma de células B 2 (Bcl-2), la caspasa-3, el malondialdehído (MDA), la glutatión peroxidasa (GPx) y superóxido dismutasa (SOD). Además, se utilizaron tejidos del epidídimo recolectados para evaluar el análisis de semen y se analizaron muestras de sangre para determinar la hormona testicular testosterona, la hormona corticosterona de la corteza suprarrenal y las gonadotropinas de la hipófisis anterior, la hormona estimulante folicular (FSH) y la hormona luteinizante (LH). El ECI indujo daño testicular importante e indujo significativamente niveles de (p <0,05) p53, Bax, caspasa-3, MDA y corticosterona, que fueron inhibidos (p <0,05) por la quercetina. La quercetina aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) los niveles de FSH, LH, testosterona, Bcl-2, GPx y SOD que fueron inhibidos por ECI. Además, ECI indujo oligozoospermia, astenozoospermia y teratozoospermia, protegidos de manera significativa (p <0,05) por la quercetina. Por lo tanto, la quercetina protege contra los defectos de HHG inducidos por ECI en ratas, lo que está asociado con la inhibición del eje ROS-p53-Bax-caspasa-3.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Stress, Physiological , Testicular Diseases/etiology , Testis/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Testis/injuries , Chronic Disease , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/antagonists & inhibitors , Reactive Oxygen Species/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Caspase 3/drug effects , Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis/drug effects
17.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-12, jun. 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284445

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Autophagic cell death and apoptosis of tumor cells has become one of the main objectives in cancer treatment, whereas tumor cell lines are mainly used in studies for providing important data for the evaluation of potential anti cancer substances. In this study, our objective was to evaluate morphological and biochemical changes including rate of apoptosis and Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) levels at different concentrations of Carnosic Acid (CA) on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.Materials and methods: Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (7th passage HepG2 cells) Cell lines were cultured on 11 µM D263M schott glass coverslips placed in 12-well plates and were treated with DMSO, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 µM concentrations of CA for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphological and biochemical data were recorded daily including apoptosis rates demonstrated by Caspase 3, Annexin V expressions under inverted light and Immunofluorescence microscopy, then data were analyzed for statistical significance. AFP, albumin and total protein levels were analyzed spectrophotometricaly for biochemical evaluation.Results: Our results showed that CA significantly inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation in a dose and time dependant manner and significantly caused the formation of autophagic vacuoles starting from 5µM and reaching significance at 10 µM concentrations. Significant decrease was observed in AFP when 48 and 72 hours expressions were examined, with the lowest level reached at 72 hours in the 10 µM CA group. Additionally, increase in albumin levels reached significance only in the 48 h group whereas non-significant increases were also observed in 24 h and 72 h groups.Conclusion: Our current study demonstrates significant increase in apoptosis rates by Carnosic Acid mainly at 10µM concentrations, supporting its anticancer effect on HepG2 cells. These findings are also supported by changes in biochemical analyses of Albumin and AFP levels at 10 µM concentrations.


Antecedentes / objetivos: La muerte celular autofágica y la apoptosis de células tumorales se ha convertido en uno de los principales objetivos en el tratamiento del cáncer, mientras que las líneas celulares tumorales se utilizan principalmente en estudios para proporcionar datos importantes para la evaluación de posibles sustancias anticancerígenas. En este estudio, nuestro objetivo fue evaluar los cambios morfológicos y bioquímicos, incluida la tasa de apoptosis y los niveles de alfa fetoproteína (AFP) a diferentes concentraciones de ácido carnósico (CA) en células de carcinoma hepatocelular humano HepG2.Materiales y métodos: Carcinoma hepatocelular humano (HepG2).Las líneas celulares se cultivaron en cubreobjetos de vidrio Schott D263M de 11 µM colocados en placas de 12 pocillos y se trataron con DMSO, concentraciones de CA 1, 2,5, 5 y 10 µM durante 24, 48 y 72 horas. Los datos morfológicos y bioquímicos se registraron diariamente, incluidas las tasas de apoptosis demostradas por Caspasa 3, las expresiones de Anexina V bajo luz invertida y microscopía de inmunofluorescencia, luego se analizaron los datos para determinar la significación estadística. Los niveles de AFP, albúmina y proteínas totales se analizaron espectrofotométricamente para evaluación bioquímica.Resultados: Nuestros resultados mostraron que CA inhibió significativamente la proliferación de células HepG2 de una manera dependiente de la dosis y el tiempo y causó significativamente la formación de vacuolas autofágicas comenzando desde 5 µM y alcanzando significancia a concentraciones de 10 µM. Se observó una disminución significativa en la AFP cuando se examinaron las expresiones de 48 y 72 horas, alcanzando el nivel más bajo a las 72 horas en el grupo de CA 10 µM. Además, el aumento en los niveles de albúmina alcanzó significación solo en el grupo de 48 h, mientras que también se observaron aumentos no significativos en los grupos de 24 hy 72 h.Conclusión: Nuestro estudio demuestra un aumento significativo en las tasas de apoptosis por el ácido carnósico principalmente a concentraciones de 10 µM, lo que respalda su efecto anticancerígeno en las células HepG2. Estos hallazgos también están respaldados por cambios en los análisis bioquímicos de los niveles de albúmina y AFP a concentraciones de 10 µM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Abietanes/administration & dosage , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Apoptosis/drug effects , Microscopy, Fluorescence
18.
Biol. Res ; 54: 7-7, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Leaves of the natural plant lotus are used in traditional Chinese medicine and tea production. They are rich in flavonoids. METHODS: In this study, lotus leaf flavonoids (LLF) were applied to human lung cancer A549 cells and human small cell lung cancer cells H446 in vitro to verify the effect of LLF on apoptosis in these cells through the ROS/p38 MAPK pathway. RESULTS: LLF had no toxic effect on normal cells at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL, but could significantly inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells and H446 cells. Flow cytometry showed that LLF could induce growth in A549 cells. We also found that LLF could increase ROS and MDA levels, and decrease SOD activity in A549 cells. Furthermore, qRT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that LLF could upregulate the expression of p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK), caspase-3, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and Bax and downregulate the expression of Cu/Zn SOD, CAT, Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, and Bcl-2 in A549 cells. Results of HPLC showed that LLF mainly contain five active substances: kaemp-feritrin, hyperoside, astragalin, phloridzin, and quercetin. The apoptosis-inducing effect of LLF on A549 cells came from these naturally active compounds. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown in this study that LLF is a bioactive substance that can induce apoptosis in A549 cells in vitro, and merits further research and development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Lotus/chemistry , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Cell Proliferation , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , A549 Cells , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
19.
Biol. Res ; 54: 40-40, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diosmetin is a bioflavonoid compound naturally abundant in citrus fruits. It is found to perform a variety of activities, while its antitumor property in osteosarcoma, a malignant tumor with unmet clinical treatment, remained unknown. METHODS: Colony formation assay, cell cycle analysis and apoptosis analysis were conducted respectively to observe the effect of diosmetin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells. Western blot and immunoprecipitation were used to detect the expression of apoptotic molecules and activation of STAT3/c-Myc pathway in Saos-2 and U2SO cells. RESULTS: Diosmetin significantly inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and promoted cell apoptosis in both Saos-2 and U2SO cells. Moreover, Diosmetin downregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL while upregulated the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins including cleaved Caspase-3, cleaved-PARP and Bax. Furthermore, diosmetin dose-dependently inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation, reduced the expression of its downstream protein c-Myc and impeded the interaction between STAT3 molecules. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that diosmetin exerts anti-osteosarcoma effects by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via inhibiting the activation of STAT3/c-Myc signaling pathway, which provide the possibility for diosmetin to be a chemotherapeutic candidate for osteosarcoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Osteosarcoma/drug therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , STAT3 Transcription Factor
20.
Clinics ; 76: e3131, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350610

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the molecular mechanism of edaravone (EDA) in improving the post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) dysfunction in learning and memory. METHODS: In vitro and in vivo TBI models were established using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment for hippocampal nerve stem cells (NSCs) and surgery for rats, followed by EDA treatment. WST 1 measurement, methylthiazol tetrazolium assay, and flow cytometry were performed to determine the activity, proliferation, and apoptosis of NSCs, and malondialdehyde (MDA), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection kits were used to analyze the oxides in NSCs. RESULTS: Following EDA pretreatment, NSCs presented with promising resistance to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, whereas NSCs manifested significant increases in activity and proliferation and a decrease in apoptosis. Meanwhile, for NSCs, EDA pretreatment reduced the levels of MDA, LDH, and ROS, with a significant upregulation of Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway, whereas for EDA-treated TBI rats, a significant reduction was observed in the trauma area and injury to the hippocampus, with improvement in memory and learning performance and upregulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: EDA, by regulating the activity of Nrf2/ARE signal pathway, can improve the TBI-induced injury to NSCs and learning and memory dysfunction in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Antioxidant Response Elements , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/physiopathology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/metabolism , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/drug therapy , Edaravone/pharmacology , Learning/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Memory/drug effects
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