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Acta cir. bras ; 37(6): e370603, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402964


Purpose: To explore the neuroprotective effects of Lutongkeli (LTKL) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and detect the related mechanism. Methods: TBI model was established with LTKL administration (2 and 4 g/kg/d, p.o.). Motor function of rats was examined by Rotarod test. Nissl staining was used to show neuron morphology. Furthermore, the disease-medicine common targets were obtained with the network pharmacology and analyzed with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Lastly, the predicted targets were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: After LTKL administration, neural behavior was significantly improved, and the number of spared neurons in brain was largely increased. Moreover, 68 bioactive compounds were identified, corresponding to 148 LTKL targets; 2,855 genes were closely associated with TBI, of which 87 overlapped with the LTKL targets and were considered to be therapeutically relevant. Functional enrichment analysis suggested LTKL exerted its pharmacological effects in TBI by modulating multiple pathways including apoptosis, inflammation, etc. Lastly, we found LTKL administration could increase the mRNA level of Bcl-2 and decrease the expression of Bax and caspase-3. Conclusions: This study reported the neuroprotective effect of LTKL against TBI is accompanied with anti-apoptosis mechanism, which provides a scientific explanation for the clinical application of LTKL in the treatment of TBI.

Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Acta cir. bras ; 37(7): e370705, 2022. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402966


Purpose: To explore the mechanism of jatrorrhizine on apoptosis and fibrosis induced by myocardial infarction (MI) in an animal model. Methods: The left anterior descending branch of coronary artery was surgically ligated to duplicate the mouse model of MI. The sham and infarcted mice were treated with normal saline once a day, while mice in experimental groups received low-dose (LD) and high-dose (HD) jatrorrhizine once a day respectively. Two weeks later, cardiac function was detected by echocardiography, and histopathological examination was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson staining. The expressions of p53, TGF-ß1, Smad/2/3, Bax, Bcl-2, collagen I and collagen III were quantified using qRT-PCR and western blot assays. Results: Jatrorrhizine significantly improved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricle end-systolic (LVES) in mice. Histopathological, administration of jatrorrhizine weakened infiltration of inflammatory cells and cardiac fibrosis in myocardium of mice caused by MI. Additionally, jatrorrhizine suppressed cardiomyocyte apoptosis exhibited as its capability to reverse changes of Bax and Bcl-2 levels in myocardium caused by MI. Jatrorrhizine statistically significantly downregulated expression of collagen I and collagen III, as well as TGF-ß1, Smad2/3 and p53. Conclusions: Jatrorrhizine reduce cardiomyocyte apoptosis and fibrosis through inhibiting p53/Bax/Bcl-2 and TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 signaling pathways.

Animals , Mice , Berberine Alkaloids/analysis , Fibrosis/drug therapy , Apoptosis/drug effects , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1236-1241, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405279


SUMMARY: Statins inhibit cholesterol synthesis, but also have other pleiotropic effects. There are indications that they affect macrophage survival trough the regulation of apoptosis. We analyzed 50 samples of aortic wall, selected based on statins in patients' therapy (n=25, Th-S group) or statin-free therapy (n=25, Th-nonS group). Each group had 5 samples of healthy aortic tissue, 10 samples of mild and 10 samples of severe atherosclerotic changes in aortic wall. Tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical methods (anti-Bcl-2 antibody). Presence of Bcl2-positive macrophages (Bcl-2+ MP) was determined semiquantitatively, and data were processed in Microsoft Excell and IMB SPSS 23 Statistics. 60 % of patients in the Th-S group had a mild increase of Bcl-2+ MP The use of statins leads to a significantly more frequent increase in Bcl2+ macrophages in the intima of the healthy aortic tissue. Analysis of all aortic samples with pathohistological diagnosis showed that statin therapy was statistically significantly more often leading to a markedly increased presence of Bcl-2+ MP. In the media, all samples of the Th-S group have a mild increase of Bcl-2+ MP, and in adventitia 40 % of patients. The use of statins more often leads to a markedly increased presence of Bcl-2+ MP in aortic tissue with diagnosed mild and severe atherosclerosis. In samples of severe atherosclerosis, statins lead to a markedly increased presence of Bcl-2+ MP in the parts of the plaque towards the intima and towards the media. Statins lead to an increased presence of Bcl-2+ macrophages, prolong their life, both in healthy and atherosclerotic altered aortic tissue. This indicates potentiation of inflammation and damage to the aortic wall, and calls into question the positive effect of statins on the aortic wall with atherosclerosis.

RESUMEN: Las estatinas inhiben la síntesis de colesterol, pero también tienen otros efectos pleiotrópicos. Hay indicios de que afectan la supervivencia de los macrófagos a través de la regulación de la apoptosis.Se analizaron 50 muestras de pared aórtica, seleccionadas en base a estatinas en tratamiento de pacientes (n=25, grupo Th-S) o en tratamiento libre de estatinas (n=25, grupo Th- nonS). Cada grupo tenía 5 muestras de tejido aórtico sano, 10 muestras de cambios ateroscleróticos leves y 10 muestras de cambios ateroscleróticos severos en la pared aórtica. El tejido se tiñó con hematoxilina-eosina y métodos inmunohistoquímicos (anticuerpo anti-Bcl-2). La presencia de macrófagos positivos para Bcl2 (Bcl- 2+ MP) se determinó semicuantitativamente y los datos se procesaron en Microsoft Excell e IMB SPSS 23 Statistics. El 60 % de los pacientes del grupo Th-S tuvo un aumento leve de Bcl-2+ MP. El uso de estatinas conduce a un aumento significativamente más frecuente de macrófagos Bcl2+ en la íntima del tejido aórtico sano. El análisis de todas las muestras aórticas con diagnóstico anatomopatológico mostró que la terapia con estatinas fue significativamente más frecuente desde el punto de vista estadístico, lo que condujo a una presencia marcadamente mayor de Bcl-2+ MP. En los medios, todas las muestras del grupo Th-S tienen un leve aumento de Bcl-2+ MP, y en adventicia en el 40 % de los pacientes. El uso de estatinas con mayor frecuencia conduce a una presencia marcadamente mayor de MP Bcl-2+ en el tejido aórtico con aterosclerosis leve y grave diagnosticada. En muestras de aterosclerosis severa, las estatinas conducen a una presencia aumentada de Bcl-2+ MP en las partes de la placa hacia la íntima y hacia la media. Las estatinas conducen a una mayor presencia de macrófagos Bcl-2+, prolongan su vida, tanto en tejido aórtico sano como aterosclerótico alterado. Esto indica la potenciación de la inflamación y el daño a la pared aórtica y pone en duda el efecto positivo de las estatinas en la pared aórtica con aterosclerosis.

Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Aorta/drug effects , Risk Factors , Apoptosis/drug effects , Risk Assessment , Genes, bcl-2/physiology , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , bcl-X Protein/metabolism , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Macrophages/drug effects
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 515-523, sept. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369061


To explore a new underlying molecular mechanism of Huangkui Extract Powder (HKEP) in the alleviation of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Murine immortalized podocytes were divided into (i) normal glucose (NG, 5.6 mM), (ii) NG + HKEP (0.45 g/L), (iii) HG, and (iv) HG + HKEP (0.45 g/L) groups. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to detect the podocyte proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle. Cell viability was inhibited, and apoptosis increased in(iii) HG group compared with (i) NG group (p<0.05). mRNA and protein expression of nephrin and podocin significantly decreased in (iii) HG group compared with (i) NG group (p<0.05). When compared with (iii) HG group, (iv) HG + HKEP group had higher cell viability, lower apoptotic rate and higher mRNA and protein expression of nephrin and podocin (p<0.05). HKEP can attenuate HG-induced podocyte damage, which may be one of the mechanisms of HKEP for attenuating DN.

Explorar un nuevo mecanismo molecular subyacente del extracto del polvo de Huangkui (HKEP) en el alivio de la nefropatía diabética (ND). Los podocitos murinos inmortalizados se dividieron en (i) grupos de glucosa normal (NG, 5,6 mM), (ii) NG + HKEP (0,45 g/L), (iii) HG y (iv) HG + HKEP (0,45 g/L). Se utilizaron el ensayo MTT y la citometría de flujo para detectar la proliferación de podocitos, la apoptosis y el ciclo celular. La viabilidad celular se inhibió y la apoptosis aumentó en el grupo (iii) HG en comparación con el grupo (i) NG (p<0,05). La expresión de ARNm y proteínas de nefrina y podocina disminuyó significativamente en el grupo (iii) HG en comparación con el grupo (i) NG (p<0,05). En comparación con el grupo (iii) HG, el grupo (iv) HG + HKEP tuvo una mayor viabilidad celular, una tasa de apoptosis más baja y una expresión de ARNm y proteínas más altas de nefrina y podocina (p<0,05). HKEP puede atenuar el daño de los podocitos inducido por HG, que puede ser uno de los mecanismos de HKEP para atenuar la DN.

Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Podocytes/drug effects , Powders , Plant Extracts/genetics , Cell Cycle , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Culture Techniques , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Glucose
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 21-29, July. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283484


BACKGROUND: Super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) contain a chemotherapeutic drug and are regarded as a promising technique for improving targeted delivery into cancer cells. RESULTS: In this study, the fabrication of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was investigated with loaded Dextran (DEXSPION) using the co-precipitation technique and conjugated by folate (FA). These nanoparticles (NPs) were employed as carriers and anticancer compounds against liver cancer cells in vitro. Structural, magnetic, morphological characterization, size, and drug loading activities of the obtained FA-DEX-5-FUSPION NPs were checked using FTIR, VSM, FESEM, TEM, DLS, and zeta potential techniques. The cellular toxicity effect of FA-DEX-5-FU-SPION NPs was evaluated using the MTT test on liver cancer (SNU-423) and healthy cells (LO2). Furthermore, the apoptosis measurement and the expression levels of NF-1, Her-2/neu, c-Raf-1, and Wnt-1 genes were evaluated post-treatment using flow cytometry and RT-PCR, respectively. The obtained NPs were spherical with a suitable dispersity without noticeable aggregation. The size of the NPs, polydispersity, and zeta were 74 ± 13 nm, 0.080 and 45 mV, respectively. The results of the encapsulation efficiency of the nano-compound showed highly colloidal stability and proper drug maintenance. The results indicated that FA-DEX-5-FU-SPION demonstrated a sustained release profile of 5-FU in both phosphate and citrate buffer solutions separately, with higher cytotoxicity against SNU-423 cells than against other cells types. These findings suggest that FA-DEX-SPION NPs exert synergistic effects for targeting intracellular delivery of 5-FU, apoptosis induction, and gene expression stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings proved that FA-DEX-5-FU-SPION presented remarkable antitumor properties; no adverse subsequences were revealed against normal cells.

Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Polymers , Gene Expression/drug effects , Drug Delivery Systems , Apoptosis/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Delayed-Action Preparations , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Magnetite Nanoparticles , Flow Cytometry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 394-405, jul. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352427


In this study, it was aimed to determine the antioxidant and anticancer activities of Sideritis perfoliata methanolic extract (SPE) on cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Different doses (25, 50,100 and 200 µg/mL) of SPE were used to determine proliferation of HeLa cells by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) staining method. Induction of apoptosis was determined by Annexine-V and propidium iodide staining method. Interleukin (IL) 6-8 levels were measured by ELISA method. Antioxidant activities of SPE were determined by DPPH, DNA (plasmid pBR322) protecting and cellular antioxidant activity tests. Some phytochemicals of SPE were also screened by LC-MS-MS. It was determined that SPE reduced the proliferation of HeLa cells and also induced apoptosis. IL6-8 levels importantly decreased at 200 µg/mL. SPE exhibited moderately antioxidant activities in tests used. Among the phenolics identified, vanillic acid had the highest amount. As a result, it was determined to have the anticancer activity of SPE by decreasing cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and decreasing IL6-8 in HeLa cells.

En este estudio, se tuvo como objetivo determinar las actividades antioxidantes y anticancerígenas del extracto metanólico de Sideritis perfoliata (SPE) en las células de cáncer de cuello uterino (HeLa). Se utilizaron diferentes dosis (25, 50, 100 y 200 µg/mL) de SPE para determinar la proliferación de células HeLa mediante el método de tinción con bromuro de 3-[4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il] -2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT). La inducción de apoptosis se determinó mediante el método de tinción con anexina-V y yoduro de propidio. Los niveles de interleucina (IL) 6-8 se midieron mediante el método ELISA. Las actividades antioxidantes de SPE se determinaron mediante pruebas de DPPH, protección de ADN (plásmido pBR322) y actividad antioxidante celular. Algunos fitoquímicos de SPE también se analizaron mediante LC-MS-MS. Se determinó que SPE redujo la proliferación de células HeLa y también indujo apoptosis. Los niveles de IL6-8 disminuyeron de manera importante a 200 µg/mL. SPE mostró actividades moderadamente antioxidantes en las pruebas utilizadas. Entre los fenólicos identificados, el ácido vainílico tuvo la mayor cantidad. Como resultado, se determinó que tenía la actividad anticancerígena de SPE al disminuir la proliferación celular, inducir apoptosis y disminuir la IL6-8 en las células HeLa.

Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Sideritis/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Survival , Interleukin-8/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Apoptosis/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antineoplastic Agents , Antioxidants/chemistry
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-12, jun. 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284445


Background/aim: Autophagic cell death and apoptosis of tumor cells has become one of the main objectives in cancer treatment, whereas tumor cell lines are mainly used in studies for providing important data for the evaluation of potential anti cancer substances. In this study, our objective was to evaluate morphological and biochemical changes including rate of apoptosis and Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) levels at different concentrations of Carnosic Acid (CA) on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.Materials and methods: Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (7th passage HepG2 cells) Cell lines were cultured on 11 µM D263M schott glass coverslips placed in 12-well plates and were treated with DMSO, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 µM concentrations of CA for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphological and biochemical data were recorded daily including apoptosis rates demonstrated by Caspase 3, Annexin V expressions under inverted light and Immunofluorescence microscopy, then data were analyzed for statistical significance. AFP, albumin and total protein levels were analyzed spectrophotometricaly for biochemical evaluation.Results: Our results showed that CA significantly inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation in a dose and time dependant manner and significantly caused the formation of autophagic vacuoles starting from 5µM and reaching significance at 10 µM concentrations. Significant decrease was observed in AFP when 48 and 72 hours expressions were examined, with the lowest level reached at 72 hours in the 10 µM CA group. Additionally, increase in albumin levels reached significance only in the 48 h group whereas non-significant increases were also observed in 24 h and 72 h groups.Conclusion: Our current study demonstrates significant increase in apoptosis rates by Carnosic Acid mainly at 10µM concentrations, supporting its anticancer effect on HepG2 cells. These findings are also supported by changes in biochemical analyses of Albumin and AFP levels at 10 µM concentrations.

Antecedentes / objetivos: La muerte celular autofágica y la apoptosis de células tumorales se ha convertido en uno de los principales objetivos en el tratamiento del cáncer, mientras que las líneas celulares tumorales se utilizan principalmente en estudios para proporcionar datos importantes para la evaluación de posibles sustancias anticancerígenas. En este estudio, nuestro objetivo fue evaluar los cambios morfológicos y bioquímicos, incluida la tasa de apoptosis y los niveles de alfa fetoproteína (AFP) a diferentes concentraciones de ácido carnósico (CA) en células de carcinoma hepatocelular humano HepG2.Materiales y métodos: Carcinoma hepatocelular humano (HepG2).Las líneas celulares se cultivaron en cubreobjetos de vidrio Schott D263M de 11 µM colocados en placas de 12 pocillos y se trataron con DMSO, concentraciones de CA 1, 2,5, 5 y 10 µM durante 24, 48 y 72 horas. Los datos morfológicos y bioquímicos se registraron diariamente, incluidas las tasas de apoptosis demostradas por Caspasa 3, las expresiones de Anexina V bajo luz invertida y microscopía de inmunofluorescencia, luego se analizaron los datos para determinar la significación estadística. Los niveles de AFP, albúmina y proteínas totales se analizaron espectrofotométricamente para evaluación bioquímica.Resultados: Nuestros resultados mostraron que CA inhibió significativamente la proliferación de células HepG2 de una manera dependiente de la dosis y el tiempo y causó significativamente la formación de vacuolas autofágicas comenzando desde 5 µM y alcanzando significancia a concentraciones de 10 µM. Se observó una disminución significativa en la AFP cuando se examinaron las expresiones de 48 y 72 horas, alcanzando el nivel más bajo a las 72 horas en el grupo de CA 10 µM. Además, el aumento en los niveles de albúmina alcanzó significación solo en el grupo de 48 h, mientras que también se observaron aumentos no significativos en los grupos de 24 hy 72 h.Conclusión: Nuestro estudio demuestra un aumento significativo en las tasas de apoptosis por el ácido carnósico principalmente a concentraciones de 10 µM, lo que respalda su efecto anticancerígeno en las células HepG2. Estos hallazgos también están respaldados por cambios en los análisis bioquímicos de los niveles de albúmina y AFP a concentraciones de 10 µM.

Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Abietanes/administration & dosage , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Apoptosis/drug effects , Microscopy, Fluorescence
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1056-1064, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888518


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the cytotoxic effect and its mechanism of the micromolecule compound on the leukemia cells.@*METHODS@#The cytotoxic effects of 28 Nilotinib derivatives on K562, KA, KG, HA and 32D cell lines were detected by MTT assays, and the compound Nilo 22 was screen out. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle on leukemia cells were detected by flow cytometry. The effect of compound screened out on leukemogenesis potential of MLL-AF9 leukemia mice GFP@*RESULTS@#Nilo 22 serves as the most outstanding candidate out of 28 Nilotinib derivatives, which impairs leukemia cell lines, but spares normal hematopoietic cell line. Comparing with Nilotinib, Nilo 22 could induce the apoptosis of GFP@*CONCLUSION@#Nilo 22 shows a significant cytotoxic effect on mice and human leukemia cells, especially for drug resistance cells. Nilo 22 is a promising anti-leukemia agent to solve the common clinical problems of drug resistance and relapse of leukemia.

Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Leukemia , Mice , Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein/genetics , Telomerase/metabolism , Telomere/metabolism
Clinics ; 76: e3131, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350610


OBJECTIVES: To investigate the molecular mechanism of edaravone (EDA) in improving the post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) dysfunction in learning and memory. METHODS: In vitro and in vivo TBI models were established using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment for hippocampal nerve stem cells (NSCs) and surgery for rats, followed by EDA treatment. WST 1 measurement, methylthiazol tetrazolium assay, and flow cytometry were performed to determine the activity, proliferation, and apoptosis of NSCs, and malondialdehyde (MDA), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection kits were used to analyze the oxides in NSCs. RESULTS: Following EDA pretreatment, NSCs presented with promising resistance to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, whereas NSCs manifested significant increases in activity and proliferation and a decrease in apoptosis. Meanwhile, for NSCs, EDA pretreatment reduced the levels of MDA, LDH, and ROS, with a significant upregulation of Nrf2/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway, whereas for EDA-treated TBI rats, a significant reduction was observed in the trauma area and injury to the hippocampus, with improvement in memory and learning performance and upregulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: EDA, by regulating the activity of Nrf2/ARE signal pathway, can improve the TBI-induced injury to NSCs and learning and memory dysfunction in rats.

Animals , Rats , Antioxidant Response Elements , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/physiopathology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/metabolism , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/drug therapy , Edaravone/pharmacology , Learning/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Memory/drug effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878319


Objective@#Epidemiological studies reveal that exposure to fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm, PM @*Methods@#EVs were isolated from the serum of healthy subjects, quantified @*Results@#PM @*Conclusions@#EVs treatment promotes cell survival and attenuates PM

A549 Cells , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Serum
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 627-634, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155766


Abstract Background and objectives The mechanisms by which local anesthetics cause neurotoxicity are very complicated. Apoptosis and autophagy are highly coordinated mechanisms that maintain cellular homeostasis against stress. Studies have shown that autophagy activation serves as a protective mechanism in vitro. However, whether it also plays the same role in vivo is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of autophagy in local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity and to elucidate the mechanism of neurotoxicity in an intrathecally injected rat model. Methods Eighteen healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Before receiving an intrathecal injection of 1% bupivacaine, each rat received an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or rapamycin (1 once a day for 3 days. The pathological changes were examined by Haematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining. Apoptosis was analysed by TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labelling (TUNEL) staining. Caspase-3, Beclin1 and LC3 expression was examined by Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Beclin1 and LC3 expression and the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio were detected by western blot analysis. Results After bupivacaine was injected intrathecally, pathological damage occurred in spinal cord neurons, and the levels of apoptosis and caspase-3 increased. Enhancement of autophagy with rapamycin markedly alleviated the pathological changes and decreased the levels of apoptosis and caspase-3 while increasing the expression of LC3 and Beclin1 and the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. Conclusions Enhancement of autophagy decreases caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and improves neuronal survivalin vivo. Activation of autophagy may be a potential therapeutic strategy for local anaesthetic-induced neurotoxicity.

Resumo Introdução e objetivos Os mecanismos de neurotoxicidade dos anestésicos locais são complexos. A apoptose e a autofagia são mecanismos altamente organizados que mantêm a homeostase celular durante o estresse. Estudos revelam que a ativação da autofagia atua como mecanismo de proteção in vitro. Não está claro se a autofagia também desempenha essa função in vivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o papel da autofagia na neurotoxicidade induzida por anestésico local e esclarecer o mecanismo dessa neurotoxicidade utilizando um modelo de injeção intratecal em ratos. Métodos Dezoito ratos Sprague‐Dawley machos adultos saudáveis foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos. Antes de receber a injeção intratecal de bupivacaína a 1%, cada rato recebeu injeção intraperitoneal de veículo ou rapamicina (1‐1) uma vez ao dia durante 3 dias. As alterações patológicas foram examinadas por coloração com Hematoxilina e Eosina (HE). A apoptose foi analisada por coloração com o método dUTP Nick‐End Labeling (TUNEL) mediado por TdT. A expressão de caspase‐3, Beclin1 e LC3 foram examinadas por coloração Imunohistoquímica (IHQ). A expressão de Beclin1 e LC3 e a razão LC3‐II/LC3‐I foram detectadas por análise de western blot. Resultados Após a injeção intratecal de bupivacaína, ocorreu lesão patológica nos neurônios da medula espinhal e os níveis de apoptose e caspase‐3 aumentaram. A ativação da autofagia causada pela rapamicina mitigou de forma expressiva as alterações patológicas e diminuiu os níveis de apoptose e caspase‐3, aumentando a expressão de LC3 e Beclin1 e a razão LC3‐II/LC3‐I. Conclusões O aumento da autofagia diminui a apoptose dependente da caspase‐3 e melhora a sobrevivência neuronal in vivo. A ativação da autofagia pode ser uma estratégia terapêutica potencial para a neurotoxicidade induzida por anestésicos locais.

Animals , Male , Rats , Autophagy/drug effects , Bupivacaine/toxicity , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/prevention & control , Caspase 3/metabolism , Anesthetics, Local/toxicity , Neurons/drug effects , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Autophagy/physiology , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Sirolimus/administration & dosage , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Beclin-1/metabolism , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/pathology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1786-1796, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134512


SUMMARY: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical widely used to make polycarbonate plastics for packaging and epoxy resins. This study sought to examine how selenium (Se) affects BPA toxicity in terms of albino rats' histological structure, antioxidant enzymes and reproductive organs (seminiferous tubules). Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: Group 1: Control; Group 2: Orally administered BPA; Group 3: Orally administered sodium selenite; Group 4: Treated daily with BPA followed by selenium (Se). All experiment done for 4 weeks. BPA exposure caused changes in the testicular histological structure, which consists apoptosis, and led to changes in several biochemical markers: Malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. However, these BPA side effects may be ameliorated in rats treated with BPA-plus-Se. These protective effects of Se may attributable to its ability to remove potentially damaging oxidizing agents in living organisms. The results may confirm that Se countered the oxidant effects and increased the BPA-induced stress response in rats. So, Se promotes the healthy growth and development of mammals by protecting them from oxidative stress. As human are greatly exposed to BPA and it can accumulate in tissues, there is concern about human reproductive functions particularly for occupational workers exposed usually to greater levels of BPA. Thus, the use of BPA in multiple industries must be restricted and the inaccurate usage of plastic containers should be avoided to decrease the health hazards. Administration of Se may protect against the adverse effects of BPA on reproductive functions and structures.

RESUMEN: El bisfenol A (BPA) es un químico industrial ampliamente utilizado para fabricar plásticos de policarbonato para envases y resinas epoxi. Este estudio examinó el efecto de selenio (Se) en la toxicidad del BPA en términos de la estructura histológica, enzimas antioxidantes y los órganos reproductivos (túbulos seminíferos) de ratas albinas. Se dividieron veinticuatro ratas macho adultas en cuatro grupos experimentales: Grupo 1: control; Grupo 2: BPA administrado por vía oral; Grupo 3: BPA administrado por vía oral para; Grupo 4: tratado diariamente con BPA seguido de selenio (Se). El experimento se realizó durante cuatro semanas y se observó que la exposición al BPA provocó cambios en la estructura histológica testicular, incluyendo apoptosis, y alteraciones en varios marcadores bioquímicos:malondialdehído, catalasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión peroxidasa. Sin embargo, estos efectos secundarios del BPA pueden mejorar en ratas tratadas con BPA-plus-Se. Estos efectos protectores del Se pueden ser atribuidos a la capacidad de eliminar agentes oxidantes potencialmente dañinos en organismos vivos. Los resultados indicaron que se contrarrestaron los efectos oxidantes y aumentó la respuesta al estrés inducido por BPA en ratas, y favorece el crecimiento y desarrollo en los mamíferos al protegerlos del estrés oxidativo. Debido a la exposición al BPA en el ser humano, se puede acumular en los tejidos, por lo que existe una preocupación por el daño a las funciones reproductivas en particular de los trabajadores que generalmente están expuestos a niveles más altos de BPA. Por lo tanto, se debe restringir el uso de BPA en las industrias y evitar el uso incorrecto de envases de plástico para así disminuir los riesgos para la salud. La administración correcta de Se puede proteger contra los efectos adversos del BPA en las funciones y estructuras reproductivas.

Animals , Male , Rats , Phenols/toxicity , Selenium/pharmacology , Testis/drug effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Testis/pathology , Benzhydryl Compounds/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers , Catalase/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 17-28, sept. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253006


BACKGROUND: Cichoric acid (CA) is extracted from Echinacea purpurea. It is well known and widely used for its immunological function. However, the effect of CA on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from yaks is still unclear. This study investigated the potential influences of CA on the proliferation, cytokine induction, and apoptosis of PBMCs from Datong yak in vivo, and aimed to provide a basis for exploring the pharmacological activities of CA on yaks. RESULTS: In this study, CA promoted PBMCs proliferation by combining concanavalin A (Con A) and exhibited a dose-dependent effect as demonstrated by a Cell Counting Kit-8. The concentration of 60 µg/ml CA was the best and promoted the transformation from the G0/G1 phase to the S and G2/M phases with Con A. Furthermore, 60 µg/ml CA significantly increased IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ levels and PCNA, CDK4 and Bcl-2 expression levels, but it significantly inhibited the TP53, Bax, and Caspase-3 expression levels. Transcriptome analysis revealed a total of 6807 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the CA treatment and control groups. Of these genes, 3788 were significantly upregulated and 3019 were downregulated. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis revealed that DEGs were enriched in cell proliferation and immune function signaling pathways. The expression level of some transcription factors (BTB, Ras, RRM_1, and zf-C2H2) and genes (CCNF, CCND1, and CDK4) related to PBMCs proliferation in yaks were significantly promoted after CA treatment. By contrast, anti-proliferation-associated genes (TP53 and CDKN1A) were inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, CA could regulate the immune function of yaks by promoting proliferation and inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis of PBMCs.

Animals , Cattle , Succinates/pharmacology , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Echinacea/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Transcription Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Blotting, Western , Cytokines , Apoptosis/drug effects , Concanavalin A/pharmacology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA-Seq
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 83-90, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056402


We sought to determine whether the combined polyphenolic compounds, resveratrol and quercetin can substantially protect against modulation of hepatic biomarkers of apoptosis and survival, p53-Bax axis and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in an animal model of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury via the association of oxidative stress and interleukin-11 (IL-11). The model group of rats received a single dose of acetaminophen (2 g/kg), whereas the protective group of rats was pre-treated for 7 days with combined doses of resveratrol (30 mg/kg) and quercetin (50 mg/kg) before being given a single dose of acetaminophen. All rats were then sacrificed 24 hours post acetaminophen ingestion. Acetaminophen overdose induced acute liver injury as demonstrated by profound liver parenchymal damage and increased levels of the liver injury enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Acetaminophen significantly (p<0.05) modulated malondialdehyde (MDA), p53, apoptosis regulator Bax, Bcl-2, IL-11, interleukin-6 (IL-6), ALT, AST, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which were significantly protected by resveratrol plus quercetin. We further demonstrated a significant (p<0.01) correlation between IL-11 scoring and the levels of p53, Bax, Bcl-2, and MDA. Thus, resveratrol plus quercetin effectively protect against acetaminophen-induced apoptosis, which is associated with the inhibition of oxidative stress and IL-11.

En el estudio se intentó determinar si los compuestos polifenólicos combinados, el resveratrol y la quercetina pueden proteger sustancialmente contra la modulación de los biomarcadores hepáticos de apoptosis y supervivencia, el eje p53-Bax y el linfoma de células B 2 (Bcl-2) en un modelo animal de lesión hepática aguda inducida por acetaminofén, a través de la asociación del estrés oxidativo y la interleucina-11 (IL-11). El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una dosis única de acetaminofén (2 g / kg), mientras que el grupo protector de ratas fue tratado durante 7 días con dosis combinadas de resveratrol (30 mg / kg) y quercetina (50 mg / kg) antes de recibir una dosis única de acetaminofén. Todas los animales fueron sacrificados 24 horas después de la ingestión de acetaminofén. La sobredosis de acetaminofén indujo una lesión hepática aguda, como se observó en el daño profundo del parénquima hepático y el aumento de los niveles de las enzimas en la lesión hepática, alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). Acetaminofén moduló significativamente (p <0.05) malondialdehído (MDA), p53, regulador de apoptosis Bax, Bcl2, IL-11, interleucina-6 (IL-6), ALT, AST, superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y glutatión peroxidasa ( GPx), los que se encontraron significativamente protegidos por el resveratrol y quercetina. Además se determinó una correlación significativa (p <0.01) entre la puntuación de IL-11 y los niveles de p53, Bax, Bcl-2 y MDA. En conclusión, el resveratrol más la quercetina protegen de manera efectiva contra la apoptosis inducida por acetaminofén, asociada con la inhibición del estrés oxidativo y la IL-11.

Animals , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/pathology , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Quercetin/pharmacology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Biomarkers , Interleukin-1 , Oxidative Stress , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/enzymology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(7): e9230, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132534


As a top leading cause of cancer death in many countries, colorectal cancer (CRC) has drawn increasing attention to the study of the pathological mechanism. According to the "cancer stem cell hypothesis", malignancies originate from a small fraction of cancer cells that show self-renewal properties to initiate and sustain tumor growth and tumor metastasis. Therefore, these cancer stem cells (CSC) probably play important roles in tumor recurrence, metastasis, and drug resistance. Previous research reported that lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) maintains cancer stemness through up-regulating stemness markers SOX2 and OCT4. CD133 is believed to be the most robust surface marker for CRC stem cells, however the regulatory effect of LSD1 on stemness of CD133+ CRC has never been reported. In this study, our objectives included: 1) to isolate pure CD133+ and CD133− cells from SW620 cell line; 2) to investigate the effect of LSD1 on the characteristics of CD133+ stem cancer cells by knocking down the target gene. Results suggested that the SW620 cell line had both CD133+ and CD133− subsets. The CD133+ subset exhibited more CSC-like characteristics compared with the CD133− subset with higher viability, colony formation rate, migration and invasion rate, resistance to anti-cancer drugs, and apoptosis in vitro. The CD133+ also induced faster tumor formation and larger tumors in vivo. In the LSD1-knockdown CD133+ cells, the CSC-like characteristics had been all weakened. We conclude that LSD1 was important for CSCs to maintain their "stemness" features, which could be a potential therapeutic target of CRC.

Humans , Animals , Rats , Neoplastic Stem Cells/drug effects , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Movement/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Histone Demethylases/pharmacology , Neoplastic Stem Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Blotting, Western , Colony-Forming Units Assay , Cell Line, Tumor
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e8694, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132522


Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. Ethanol extract of Antrodia cinnamomea (EEA) has been widely studied for its health benefits including anticancer effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of EEA on HNSCC. Cell proliferation, transwell, and wound healing assays were performed. The impact of EEA on tumor growth was investigated using a xenograft model. Expressions of migration-related proteins (MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) and apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP) were determined using western blot analysis. The results indicated that EEA significantly inhibited the capacities of proliferation, invasion, and migration of HNSCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP expressions were increased in cells treated with an increasing concentration of EEA, which suggested that EEA induced apoptosis of HNSCC. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were downregulated when cells were administered EEA, while TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were not affected, which uncovered the mechanisms mediating the EEA-induced inhibition on cell invasion and migration. The animal experiment also suggested that EEA inhibited tumor growth. Our study confirmed the inhibitive effects of EEA on cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of HNSCC in vitro and in vivo, providing the basis for further study of the application of EEA as an effective candidate for cancer treatment.

Humans , Animals , Female , Rabbits , Biological Products/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Antrodia/chemistry , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Time Factors , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Ethanol/isolation & purification , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mice, Inbred BALB C
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e8885, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132519


In this study, we aimed to analyze the anti-cancer effects of β-elemene combined with paclitaxel for ovarian cancer. RT-qPCR, MTT assay, western blot, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects of combined treatment of β-elemene and paclitaxel. The in vitro results showed that β-elemene+paclitaxel treatment markedly inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion compared to either paclitaxel or β-elemene treatment alone. Results demonstrated that β-elemene+paclitaxel induced apoptosis of SKOV3 cells, down-regulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl gene expression and up-regulated pro-apoptotic P53 and Apaf1 gene expression in SKOV3 cells. Administration of β-elemene+paclitaxel arrested SKOV3 cell cycle at S phase and down-regulated CDK1, cyclin-B1, and P27 gene expression and apoptotic-related resistant gene expression of MDR1, LRP, and TS in SKOV3 cells. In vivo experiments showed that treatment with β-elemene+paclitaxel significantly inhibited ovarian tumor growth and prolonged the overall survival of SKOV3-bearing mice. In addition, the treatment inhibited phosphorylated STAT3 and NF-κB expression in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, it inhibited migration and invasion through down-regulation of the STAT-NF-κB signaling pathway in SKOV3 cells. In conclusion, the data suggested that β-elemene+paclitaxel can inhibit ovarian cancer growth via down-regulation of the STAT3-NF-κB signaling pathway, which may be a potential therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer therapy.

Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage , Cell Movement/drug effects , NF-kappa B/adverse effects , Paclitaxel/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Ovarian Neoplasms/metabolism , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Transfection , Signal Transduction , Blotting, Western , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mice, Inbred BALB C
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e9346, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132516


Atherosclerosis (AS) is a common vascular disease, which can cause apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is considered an anti-AS drug. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to play a vital role in cell apoptosis and angiogenesis. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of NGR1 for treating AS through miRNAs. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis rate. The levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β were detected using ELISA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured using corresponding assay kits. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was performed to detect miR-221-3p expression. Dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation assays were carried out to examine the relationship between miR-221-3p and toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4). Also, western blot analysis was performed to determine the levels of TLR4 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway-related proteins. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. NGR1 alleviated the negative effect of ox-LDL through promoting the expression of miR-221-3p in HUVECs. TLR4 was a target of miR-221-3p, and its overexpression could reverse the inhibition effects of miR-221-3p on apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. NGR1 improved miR-221-3p expression to inhibit the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway in ox-LDL-treated HUVECs. NGR1 decreased ox-LDL-induced HUVECs apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress through increasing miR-221-3p expression, thereby inhibiting the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. This study of the mechanism of NGR1 provided a more theoretical basis for the treatment of AS.

Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/adverse effects , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Signal Transduction , Transcriptional Activation , Up-Regulation , Blotting, Western , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Reactive Oxygen Species , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Immunoprecipitation , Toll-Like Receptor 4/antagonists & inhibitors , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942094


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of salinomycin on the proliferation and apoptosis of oral squamous carcinoma cells and to further understand the mechanisms of these effects.@*METHODS@#The human oral squamous carcinoma cell line CAL-27 was cultured in different concentrations of salinomycin and cisplatin. After co-culture with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 μmol/L salinomycin or 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 μmol/L cisplatin for 24 hours and 48 hours, the proliferation of oral squamous carcinoma cells were detected by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) assay. After being exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8 μmol/L salinomycin and 0, 5, 10, 20 μmol/L cisplatin for 48 hours, the cell cycle of oral squamous carcinoma cells was detected by flow cytometry assay, and Western blot analysis was performed to analyze the expressions of cysteine-containing aspartate-specific proteases-3(Caspase-3), cysteine-containing aspartate-specific proteases-9(Caspase-9), poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) protein in oral squamous carcinoma cells.@*RESULTS@#Both salinomycin and cisplatin significantly inhibited the proliferation of oral squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, compared with the first-line chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin, salinomycin showed stronger anti-proliferation activity in oral squamous carcinoma cells than cisp-latin (P < 0.001). After being exposed to 8 μmol/L salinomycin, CAL-27 cells exhibited markedly higher proportion in quiescent/ first gap phases (40.40%±1.99% vs. 64.46%±0.90%, P < 0.05), and had a significantly lower proportion in synthesis phases and second gap / mitosis phases (24.32%±2.30% vs. 18.73%±0.61%, P < 0.05; 35.01%±1.24% vs. 16.54%±1.31%, P < 0.05) compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide control group; moreover cisplatin didn't show cell-cycle specific effect on CAL-27. Western blot proved that salinomycin could up-regulate the expressions of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 cells (P < 0.05). At the same time, the levels of PARP, Akt and p-Akt protein were down-regulated (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with cisplatin, salinomycin has a better inhibitory effect on the proliferation of oral squamous carcinoma cells and blocks the cell cycle process at the quiescent / first gap phase. At the same time, salinomycin could trigger apoptosis of oral squamous carcinoma cells and the mechanism is associated with the Akt/p-Akt signaling pathway.

Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Humans , Mouth Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pyrans
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881036


Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, especially in developing countries. Drug therapy is one of the main ways to treat cardiovascular diseases. Among them, great progress has been made in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases with traditional Chinese medicine. In terms of experimental research, the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases has been thoroughly discussed in vitro and in vivo. In terms of clinical treatment, traditional Chinese medicine with flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids as the main effective components has a definite effect on the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, angina pectoris and myocardial infarction, with high safety and good application prospects. With the further research on the effective ingredients, mechanism and adverse reactions of traditional Chinese medicine, it will be beneficial to the effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine, reduce side effects and promote the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Calycosin and its derivatives, the main bioactive flavonoids in Astragalus membranaceus have multiple biological effects, such as antioxidant, pro-angiogenesis, anti-tumour, and anti-inflammatory effects. Based on the above biological effects, calycosin has been shown to have good potential for cardiovascular protection. The potent antioxidant effect of calycosin may play an important role in the cardiovascular protective potential. For injured cardiac myocytes, calycosin and its derivatives can alleviate the cell damage mainly marked by the release of myocardial enzymes and reduce the death level of cardiac myocytes mainly characterized by apoptosis through various mechanisms. For vascular endothelial cells, calycosin also has multiple effects and multiple mechanisms, such as promoting vascular endothelial cell proliferation, exerting vasodilating effect and directly affecting the synthesis function of endothelial cells. The present review will address the bioactivity of calycosin in cardiovascular diseases such as protective effects on cardiac myocytes and vascular endothelial cells and elucidate main mechanism of calycosin and its derivatives to exert the above biological effects.

Apoptosis/drug effects , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Muscle Cells/drug effects