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2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(1): e8883, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055486

ABSTRACT

Opa-interacting protein 5 antisense transcript 1 (OIP5-AS1) is one kind of cytoplasmic long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), which has been demonstrated to play a critical function in multiple cancers. However, the detailed mechanism of OIP5-AS1 in the regulation of cervical cancer progression is still obscure. Here, we demonstrated that lncRNA OIP5-AS1 was upregulated in cervical cancer and was correlated with poor prognosis by bioinformatics studies. OIP5-AS1 depletion inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, we clarified that ROCK1 was the downstream effector of OIP5-AS1 and OIP5-AS1 acted as a molecular sponge of miR-143-3p. Finally, we verified that OIP5-AS1 exerted its function in the regulation of cervical cancer progression via interacting with miR-143-3p to regulate ROCK1 expression. Our study revealed novel mechanisms about how lncRNA OIP5-AS1 executed its function in cervical cancer and thus provided potential therapeutic targets for the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Apoptosis/physiology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/physiology , rho-Associated Kinases/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Up-Regulation , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , MicroRNAs/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , rho-Associated Kinases/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(9): e9693, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132556

ABSTRACT

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. C-type lectin domain family 3 member B (CLEC3B) is a C-type lectin superfamily member and is reported to promote tissue remodeling. The serum levels of CLEC3B are downregulated in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, the molecular mechanisms of CLEC3B in IHD is not well-characterized. Therefore, we overexpressed CLEC3B and silenced CLEC3B in H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes for the first time. We then constructed a model of IHD in vitro through culturing H9c2 cardiomyocytes in serum-free medium under oxygen-deficit conditions. Then, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, and western blot assays were performed to investigate cell viability, apoptosis, and expression levels of CLEC3B, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated PI3K (p-PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and cleaved-caspase 3. We observed that the mRNA expression of CLEC3B was decreased in hypoxic H9c2 cardiomyocytes (P<0.05). Overexpression of CLEC3B increased cell viability (P<0.01), inhibited cell apoptosis (P<0.05), upregulated the levels of p-PI3K/PI3K and p-Akt/Akt (P<0.01 or P<0.05), and downregulated expression of cleaved-caspase 3 (P<0.001) in hypoxic H9c2 cardiomyocytes while silencing of CLEC3B caused the opposite results. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway reversed the protective effect of CLEC3B on hypoxic H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Our study demonstrated that CLEC3B alleviated the injury of hypoxic H9c2 cardiomyocytes via the PI3K/Akt pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Apoptosis/physiology , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Hypoxia
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190357, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Viruses can modulate intracellular signalling pathways to complete their infectious cycle. Among these, the PI3K/Akt pathway allows prolonged survival of infected cells that favours viral replication. GSK3β, a protein kinase downstream of PI3K/Akt, gets inactivated upon activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, and its association with viral infections has been recently established. In this study, the role of GSK3β during Dengue virus-2 (DENV-2) infection was investigated. METHODS GSK3β participation in the DENV-2 replication process was evaluated with pharmacological and genetic inhibition during early [0-12 h post-infection (hpi)], late (12-24 hpi), and 24 hpi in Huh7 and Vero cells. We assessed the viral and cellular processes by calculating the viral titre in the supernatants, In-Cell Western, western blotting and fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS Phosphorylation of GSK3β-Ser9 was observed at the early stages of infection; neither did treatment with small molecule inhibitors nor pre-treatment prior to viral infection of GSK3β reduce viral titres of the supernatant at these time points. However, a decrease in viral titres was observed in cells infected and treated with the inhibitors much later during viral infection. Consistently, the infected cells at this stage displayed plasma membrane damage. Nonetheless, these effects were not elicited with the use of genetic inhibitors of GSK3β. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that GSK3β participates at the late stages of the DENV replication cycle, where viral activation may promote apoptosis and release of viral particles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Virus Replication/physiology , Dengue Virus/enzymology , Glycogen Synthase Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycogen Synthase Kinases/physiology , Phosphorylation/physiology , Signal Transduction , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/physiology , Aedes/cytology , Cell Line, Tumor , Microscopy, Fluorescence
5.
Biol. Res ; 53: 09, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common rheumatic diseases of which clinical symptoms includes swelling, synovitis and inflammatory pain, affect patients' daily life. It was reported that non-coding RNAs play vital roles in OA. However, the regulation mechanism of ncRNA in OA pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: The expression of SNHG7, miR-34a-5p and SYVN1 was detected using qRT-PCR in tissues, serum and cells. The protein expression of SYVN1, PCNA, cleavage-caspase 3, beclinl and LC3 were measured using western blot. The RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), RNA pulldown, and luciferase reporter assays were used to verify the relationship between SNHG7, miR-34a-5p and SYVN1. The MTT and flow cytometry assay was performed to detected cell proliferation and cell apoptosis respectively. RESULTS: In this study, SNHG7 and SYVN1 expression were down-regulated, but miR-34a-5p was up-regulated in OA tissues and IL-1P treated cells compared with normal tissues and chondrocyte. Functional investigation revealed that up-regulated SNHG7 or down-regulated miR-34a-5p could promote cell proliferation and inhibit cell apoptosis and autophagy in OA cells. More than that, RIP, pulldown and luciferase reporter assay was applied to determine that miR-34a-5p was a target miRNA of SNHG7 and SYVN1 was a target mRNA of miR-34-5p. Rescue experiments showed that overexpression of miR-34a reversed high expression of SNHG7-mediated suppression of apoptosis and autophagy as well as promotion of proliferation, while its knockdown inhibited cell apoptosis and autophagy and promoted cell proliferation which could be impaired by silencing SYVN1. In addition, SNHG7 regulated SYVN1 through sponging miR-34a-5p. CONCLUSION: SNHG7 sponged miR-34a-5p to affect cell proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy through targeting SYVN1 which provides a novel sight into the pathogenesis of OA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Autophagy/physiology , Apoptosis/physiology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/genetics , Autophagy/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Down-Regulation , Up-Regulation , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 180-188, Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983821

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: In menopause, there is greater cellular exposure to oxidative stress, related to the decreased antioxidative effects of estrogen. These metabolic changes favor the progression of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Abnormal function of the aorta - the most important artery - is associated with many cardiovascular diseases. Collagen, especially types I and III, is one of the most important aortic wall components and it can be affected by many factors, including menopause. The 8-OHdG is one of the main markers of DNA oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Objective: We aimed to investigate effects of moderate aerobic training on the ascending aorta of LDL-knockout (LDL-KO) and ovariectomized female mice. Methods: A total of 15 C57BL/6 mice and 15 LDL-KO mice were divided into experimental groups. The thickness and volume density of types I and III collagen fibers were performed by morphoquantitative analysis, whereas the MMP-2 and MMP-9 and 8-OHdG were detected by immunohistochemistry and apoptosis was detected by the TUNEL assay. The significance level for all tests was p < 0.05. Results: Exercise causes an increase in the thickness of the aorta in LDL-KO groups, particularly accentuated in the ovariectomized groups. The type I collagen fibers showed an increase in volume density influenced by training in both Control groups and in the LDL-KO group. Type III collagen density decreased in both groups. The MMP-2 showed moderade immunostaining in the tunica media in LDL-KO groups, which did not occur in the control groups and the MMP-9 stained irregularly in all tissues. The marker 8-OhdG was stronger in the exercise training groups. Additionally, the ovariectomy, the exercise training and the LDL-KO treatments increased apoptosis. Conclusion: These results suggest that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in ovariectomized mice associated to an increase in LDL rate possibly increases oxidative stress and apoptosis induction.


Resumo Fundamento: Na menopausa, há maior exposição celular ao estresse oxidativo, relacionada à diminuição dos efeitos antioxidantes do estrogênio. Essas alterações metabólicas favorecem a progressão das doenças cardiovasculares, como a aterosclerose. A função anormal da aorta - a artéria mais importante - está associada a muitas doenças cardiovasculares. O colágeno, especialmente os tipos I e III, é um dos mais importantes componentes da parede da aorta e pode ser afetado por muitos fatores, incluindo a menopausa. Por sua vez, 8-OHdG é um dos principais marcadores de danos oxidativos do DNA induzidos por espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROS). Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos do treinamento aeróbico moderado na aorta ascendente de camundongos fêmeas, nocaute para LDL (LDL-KO) e ovariectomizadas. Métodos: Um total de 15 animais C57BL/6 e 15 animais LDL-KO foram divididos em grupos experimentais. A espessura e a densidade de volume das fibras de colágeno tipos I e III foram realizadas por análise morfoquantitativa; MMP-2 e MMP-9 e 8-OHdG foram detectadas por imunohistoquímica; e a apoptose foi detectada pelo ensaio TUNEL. O nível de significância adotado para todos os testes realizados foi p < 0,05. Resultados: o exercício causa aumento da espessura da aorta em grupos LDL-KO, particularmente acentuada em grupos ovariectomizados. As fibras de colágeno de tipo I mostraram aumento da densidade de volume influenciado pelo treinamento em animais controle e LDL-KO. A densidade do colágeno tipo III diminuiu em ambos os grupos. A MMP-2 mostrou imunomarcação moderada na túnica média em animais LDL-KO; em grupos controle, a MMP-9 marcou irregularmente em todos os tecidos. O marcador 8-OHdG foi mais forte nos grupos de treinamento de exercícios. Além disso, a ovariectomia, o treinamento físico e os tratamentos de LDL-KO aumentaram a apoptose. Conclusão: Esses resultados sugerem que exercícios aeróbicos de intensidade moderada em camundongos ovariectomizados associados ao aumento da taxa de LDL, possivelmente, aumentam o estresse oxidativo e a indução da apoptose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Aorta/metabolism , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Ovariectomy , Collagen/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/analysis , Aorta/pathology , Menopause/metabolism , Receptors, LDL/blood , Immunohistochemistry , Tunica Media/pathology , Apoptosis/physiology , Mice, Knockout , Oxidative Stress/physiology , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Sedentary Behavior
7.
Biol. Res ; 52: 58, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our previous study showed that knockdown of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) attenuated myocardial apoptosis in mouse acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study aims to explore whether MALAT1 enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via autophagy regulation and the underlying mechanisms of MALAT1 regulating autophagy. METHODS: Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal mice and then stimulated with hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury to mimic AMI. The autophagy level was assessed using GFP-LC3 immunofluorescence and western blot analysis of autophagy-related proteins. RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) was performed to analyze the binding of MALAT1 and EZH2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was performed to analyze the binding of TSC2 promoter and EZH2. The cell apoptosis was evaluated using TUNEL staining and western blot analysis of apoptosis-related proteins. RESULTS: H/R injury increased MALAT1 expression in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, MALAT1 overexpression inhibited, whereas MALAT1 knockdown enhanced the autophagy of cardiomyocytes. Moreover, MALAT1 overexpression recruited EZH2 to TSC2 promoter regions to elevate H3K27me3 and epigenetically inhibited TSC2 transcription. Importantly, TSC2 overexpression suppressed mTOR signaling and then activated the autophagy. Further results showed that MALAT1 inhibited proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes through inhibiting TSC2 and autophagy. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the increased MALAT1 expression induced by H/R injury enhances cardiomyocyte apoptosis through autophagy inhibition by regulating TSC2-mTOR signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Autophagy/physiology , Apoptosis/physiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Protein/genetics , Autophagy/genetics , Signal Transduction , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Apoptosis/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chromatin Immunoprecipitation , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Protein/metabolism
8.
Biol. Res ; 52: 32, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNA H19 (H19) plays an important role by regulating protein expression in different tissues and organs of the body. However, whether H19 induces hypoxia/reoxygenation (h/R) injury via increase of autophagy in the hepatoma carcinoma cells is unknown. RESULTS: H19 was expressed in the hepatoma carcinoma cells (Hep G2 and HCCLM3 cells) and its expression was most in 8 h/24R. The knockdown of H19 and 3-MA (an autophagy inhibitor) protected against h/R-induced apoptosis, cell damage, the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9, the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c). The knockdown of H19 and 3-MA also decreased the autophagic vesicles (AVs) and the expression of Beclin-1 and the ration of LC3-II/LC3-I, and increased cell viability, the expression of Bcl-2 and P62 and the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt and mTOR. In addition, chloroquine (CQ, an inhibitor of autophagy flux) markedly decreased formation of autophagy flux (the ration of LC3-II/LC3-I). The results of the knockdown of H19 group were similar to those of the 3-MA (or CQ) group. Rapamycin (a mTOR inhibitor, an autophagy activator) further down-regulated h/R-induced decrease of the phosphorylated PI3K, Akt and mTOR. The knockdown of H19 cancelled the effect of rapamycin. The overexpression of H19 further expanded h/R-induced increase of the ration of LC3-II/LC3-I and decrease of the phosphorylated PI3K, Akt and mTOR. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the long non-coding RNA H19 induces h/R injury by up-regulation of autophagy via activation of PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in the hepatoma carcinoma cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Autophagy/drug effects , Up-Regulation/physiology , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Apoptosis/physiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology
9.
Biol. Res ; 52: 36, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidences indicated that some local anaesthetic agents played a role in inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells; Whether ropivacaine is able to promote apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ropivacaine on the apoptosis of HCC cells. METHODS: In the present study, we treated the HCC cell lines, Bel7402 and HLE with ropivacaine. MTT, DAPI stain, trypan blue exclusion dye assay, flow cytometry, electron microscopy, computational simulation, laser confocal microscope, Western blotting, and enzyme activity analysis of caspase-3 were applied to detect the growth and apoptosis of HCC cells and to explore the role mechanism of ropivacaine. RESULTS: Ropivacaine was able to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of HCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Ropivacaine also has a trait to inhibit the migration of HCC cells; ropivacaine damaged the mitochondria of HCC cells. The results also indicated that ropivacaine was able to interact with caspase-3, promote cytoplasmic caspase-3 migration into the nucleus, stimulate cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP-1, caspase-9 proteins, inhibit the expression of Bcl-2, promote expression of Apaf-1 and mitochondria release cytochrome C, and activate the activity of caspase-3. CONCLUSIONS: Ropivacaine has a novel role in promoting apoptosis of HCC cells; The role mechanism of ropivacaine maybe involve in damaging the function of mitochondria and activating the caspase-3 signalling pathway in HCC cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the local anaesthetic agents in the therapy of HCC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Ropivacaine/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Apoptosis/physiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Microscopy, Confocal , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Mitochondria/drug effects
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(8): e201900802, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038128

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To reveal the function of miR-134 in myocardial ischemia. Methods Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to measure the expression of miR-134, nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and apoptotic-associated proteins. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), Hoechst 33342/PI double staining and flow cytometry assay were implemented in H9c2 cells, respectively. MiR-134 mimic/inhibitor was used to regulate miR-134 expression. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay were utilized to identify the interrelation between miR-134 and NOS3. Rescue experiments exhibited the role of NOS3. The involvement of PI3K/AKT was assessed by western blot analysis. Results MiR-134 was high regulated in the myocardial ischemia model, and miR-134 mimic/inhibitor transfection accelerated/impaired the speed of cell apoptosis and attenuated/exerted the cell proliferative prosperity induced by H/R regulating active status of PI3K/AKT signaling. LDH activity was also changed due to the different treatments. Moreover, miR-134 could target NOS3 directly and simultaneously attenuated the expression of NOS3. Co-transfection miR-134 inhibitor and pcDNA3.1-NOS3 highlighted the inhibitory effects of miR-134 on myocardial H/R injury. Conclusion This present work puts insights into the crucial effects of the miR-134/NOS3 axis in myocardial H/R injury, delivering a potential therapeutic technology in future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/genetics , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/physiology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/therapeutic use , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(4): e7626, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001516

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive chemical species that may cause irreversible tissue damage, and play a critical role in cardiovascular diseases. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gasotransmitter that acts as a ROS scavenger with cardio-protective effects. In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effect of H2S against H2O2-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts were treated with H2S (100 μM) 24 h before challenging with H2O2 (100 μM). Apoptosis was then assessed by annexin V and PI, and mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using a fluorescent probe, JC-1. Our results revealed that H2S improved cell viability, reduced the apoptotic rate, and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential. An increased Bcl-2 to Bax ratio was also seen in myocytes treated with H2S after H2O2-induced stress. Our findings indicated a therapeutic potential for H2S in preventing myocyte death following ischemia/reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Myoblasts, Cardiac/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reference Values , Sulfides/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Apoptosis/physiology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myoblasts, Cardiac/metabolism , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Flow Cytometry/methods , Hydrogen Sulfide/pharmacology
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(4): e7728, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001506

ABSTRACT

Pituitary adenoma is one of the most common tumors in the neuroendocrine system. This study investigated the effects of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) highly up-regulated in liver cancer (HULC) on rat secreting pituitary adenoma GH3 cell viability, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and hormone secretion, as well as the underlying potential mechanisms. Cell transfection and qRT-PCR were used to change and measure the expression levels of HULC, miR-130b, and FOXM1. Cell viability, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were assessed using trypan blue staining assay, MTT assay, two-chamber transwell assay, Guava Nexin assay, and western blotting. The concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) in culture supernatant of GH3 cells were assessed using ELISA. The targeting relationship between miR-130b and FOXM1 was verified using dual luciferase activity. Finally, the expression levels of key factors involved in PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 pathways were evaluated using western blotting. We found that HULC was highly expressed in GH3 cells. Overexpression of HULC promoted GH3 cell viability, migration, invasion, PRL and GH secretion, as well as activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 pathways. Knockdown of HULC had opposite effects and induced cell apoptosis. HULC negatively regulated the expression of miR-130b, and miR-130b participated in the effects of HULC on GH3 cells. FOXM1 was a target gene of miR-130b, which was involved in the regulation of GH3 cell viability, migration, invasion, and apoptosis, as well as PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 pathways. In conclusion, HULC tumor-promoting roles in secreting pituitary adenoma might be via down-regulating miR-130b, up-regulating FOXM1, and activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 pathways.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Pituitary Neoplasms/pathology , Adenoma/pathology , RNA, Long Noncoding/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Transfection , Adenoma/genetics , Adenoma/metabolism , Cell Movement/physiology , Cell Survival/physiology , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/physiology , MicroRNAs/analysis , Cell Line, Tumor , STAT3 Transcription Factor/analysis , Janus Kinase 1/analysis , Janus Kinase 1/metabolism , Cell Migration Assays , Forkhead Box Protein M1/analysis , Forkhead Box Protein M1/metabolism , Luciferases
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(10): 896-903, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973463

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the apoptotic mechanisms in rabbits with blast-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Methods: A total of 40 rabbits were randomly divided into a blank control group (A, n=10) and an experimental group (EXP, n=30). Explosion-induced chest-ALI models were prepared and sampled at different time points (4, 12, and 24h after modeling, T1-T3) to test the lung dry weight/wet weight ratio (W/D) and arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2), apoptosis of lung tissue by the TUNEL assay, and Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 levels by immunohistochemical analysis. Furthermore, lung tissue was sampled to observe pathological morphology by microscopy. Results: Under a light microscope, Group EXP exhibited obvious edema in the pulmonary interstitial substance and alveoli, a large number of red blood cells, inflammatory cells, and serous exudation in the alveolar cavity, as well as thickening of the pulmonary interstitial fluid. Compared to Group A, the W/D ratio was significantly increased in Group EXP (P<0.01), while PaO2 was significantly reduced (P<0.01). The apoptosis index was significantly increased (P<0.01), and caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 levels were increased (P<0.01). Conclusion: Apoptosis plays an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury in rabbits by participating in lung injury and promoting the progression of ALI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Blast Injuries/physiopathology , Apoptosis/physiology , Acute Lung Injury/physiopathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Blast Injuries/pathology , Blast Injuries/blood , Random Allocation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/blood , Disease Models, Animal , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/blood , Caspase 3/blood , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/blood
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(4): 341-353, Apr. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886284

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcome. Methods: The modified Marmarou's weight drop device was used to generate non-lethal moderate TBI rat model, and further developed in vitro astrocytes culturing system. Then, we analyzed the expression changes of interested genes and protein by quantitative PCR and western blot. Results: Multiple HBO treatments significantly reduced the expression of apoptosis promoting genes, such as c-fos, c-jun, Bax and weakened the activation of Caspase-3 in model rats. On the contrary, HBOT alleviated the decrease of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2 and promoted the expression of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), such as NGF, BDNF, GDNF and NT-3 in vivo. As a consequent, the neuropathogenesis was remarkably relied with HBOT. Astrocytes from TBI brain or those cultured with 21% O2 density expressed higher NTFs than that of corresponding controls, from sham brain and cultured with 7% O2, respectively. The NTFs expression was the highest in astrocytes form TBI brain and cultured with 21% O2, suggesting a synergistic effect existed between TBI and the following HBO treatment in astrocytes. Conclusion: Our findings provided evidence for the clinical usage of HBO treating brain damages.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/methods , Time Factors , Blotting, Western , Astrocytes/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Caspase 3/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/pathology , Nerve Growth Factors/analysis
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(3): 223-230, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886270

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the impact of different hypoxia reoxygenation (HR) times on autophagy of rat cardiomyocytes (H9C2). Methods: Rat cardiomyocytes were randomly divided into normal control group (group A), hypoxia group (group B), 2 h HR group (group C), 12 h HR group (group D), and 24 h HR group (group E). LC3 II/LC3 I was determined via western blotting, and cell viabilities of cardiomyocytes were measured using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Results: Cell viabilities in HR model groups were significantly lower than those of group A (P<0.05). LC3 II/LC3 I levels in groups B to D were significantly higher than those of group A (P<0.05), and group D showed the highest LC3 II/LC3 I levels. Cell viabilities in groups B to D were significantly lower than those of group A (P<0.05), with group D showing the lowest cell viabilities (P<0.05). Conclusions: Hypoxia can induce autophagy in rat cardiomyocytes, which can be further activated by reoxygenation; most notable after 12 h. Hypoxia-induced cell injury can be aggravated by reoxygenation. The lowest cell viability was observed at 12 h after reoxygenation; however, cell viability can be recovered after 24 h.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Autophagy/physiology , Cell Hypoxia/physiology , Cell Survival/physiology , Apoptosis/physiology , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/physiology , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Cell Line , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology
16.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 55(1): 50-59, mar. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041727

ABSTRACT

ABSTRAC This article presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of the combined influence of genetic polymorphisms associated with various links of apoptosis regulation (BCL-2, CTLA-4 and APO-1/Fas) on the development of nodular goiter with autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid adenoma in the studied population. The analysis was performed using the Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) method by calculating the prediction potential. Graphic models of gene-gene interaction with the highest cross-validation consistency created by the MDR method showed complex "synergistic or independent" impact of polymorphic loci of the CTLA-4 (+49G/A), Fas (-1377G/A) and BCL-2 (63291411 A>G) genes on the onset of thyroid pathology in general, or its individual types (nodular goiter with autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid adenoma) in the population of Northern Bukovyna.


RESUMEN Este artículo presenta los resultados de un análisis exhaustivo de la influencia combinada de polimorfismos genéticos asociados a diversos enlaces en la regulación de la apoptosis (BCL-2, CTLA-4 y APO-1/FAS) sobre el desarrollo de bocio nodular con tiroiditis autoinmune y adenoma tiroideo en la población estudiada. Para ello, se utilizó el método de reducción de dimensionalidad multifactorial (MDR) mediante el cálculo de los potenciales de predicción. Los modelos gráficos de interacción gen-gen con la mayor consistencia de validación cruzada creada por el método MDR mostraron un complejo impacto «sinérgico o independiente¼ de los loci polimórficos de los genes CTLA-4 (+49G/A), FAS (-1377G/A) y BCL-2 (63291411A>G) en el inicio de la patología tiroidea en general, o sus tipos individuales (bocio nodular con tiroiditis autoinmune y adenoma tiroideo) en la población de Bucovina septentrional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic/physiology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Goiter, Nodular/physiopathology , Goiter, Nodular/genetics , Apoptosis/physiology , fas Receptor/analysis , Genes, bcl-2/genetics , Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction/methods , Abatacept/analysis , Goiter, Nodular/etiology
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(12): e7747, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974262

ABSTRACT

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a critical molecular mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Hence, strategies for alleviating this stress may be essential for preventing cardiovascular injuries under sepsis. Adiponectin is secreted by adipocytes and its levels are decreased in sepsis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of adiponectin treatment on endothelial cells and its mechanism. Male Wistar rats underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) before being treated with adiponectin (72 and 120 μg/kg). The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma, histological structure, and apoptosis of endothelial cells were evaluated. In vitro, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with adiponectin at 10 and 20 μg/mL for 24 h after stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ultrastructure, rate of apoptosis, the expression of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) protein, and its downstream molecules (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and caspase-12) were detected. The results showed that the levels of MDA and ROS induced by CLP or LPS stimulation were increased. Furthermore, endothelial cell apoptosis was increased under sepsis. The IRE1α pathway was initiated, as evidenced by activated IRE1α, increased GRP78, and up-regulated CHOP and caspase-12 in HUVECs. Following treatment with adiponectin, the number of apoptotic endothelial cells was markedly decreased. These findings demonstrated that treatment with adiponectin decreased apoptosis of endothelial cells caused by sepsis by attenuating the ER stress IRE1α pathway activated by oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Umbilical Veins/cytology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Sepsis/pathology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Adiponectin/pharmacology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/physiology , Reference Values , Cells, Cultured , Lipopolysaccharides , Blotting, Western , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/physiology , Microscopy, Confocal , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Flow Cytometry , Malondialdehyde/blood
18.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 227 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-996498

ABSTRACT

A manutenção da célula de ilhotas in vitro aparece como uma estratégia atraente para aumentar o resultado do transplante de ilhotas pancreáticas. Entretanto, o destino das ilhotas em cultura é determinado pelo equilíbrio entre mediadores pró e antiapoptóticos. Nós mostramos anteriormente que os níveis de HSPB1 são aumentados pela prolactina (PRL) tanto nas células beta pancreáticas humanas quanto nas células de insulinoma murino MIN6. Além disso, mostramos que os efeitos pró- sobrevivência induzidos pela prolactina nas células beta pancreáticas são mediados pela HSPB1. Uma vez que o papel da HSPB1 nas células beta não foi estudado diretamente, procuramos explorar os mecanismos moleculares pelos quais a HSPB1 medeia a citoproteção da célula beta induzida pela PRL. Para isso, células MIN6 derivadas de um insulinoma de camundongo e cultura primária de ilhotas pancreáticas murinas (I), silenciadas ou superexpressando HSPB1 foram submetidas à privação de soro e então pré- tratadas na presença ou na ausência de PRL (300 ng / mL) e expostos a ou citocinas (IL-1ß (0,8 ng / mL), IFN-γ (4 ng / mL) e TNF-α (8 ng / mL) por 16 ou 24 h. Após esses períodos de tempo foi avaliada a viabilidade celular. De fato, as células silenciadas para HSPB1 tiveram maiores porcentagens de morte celular em comparação aos controles. No entanto, a superexpressão de HSPB1 sozinha imita os efeitos citoprotectores da Prolactina em ambas as células MIN6 e nas culturas primárias das ilhotas. Estes resultados mostram o papel fundamental da HSPB1 no efeito citoprotetor inibindo a apoptose inducida pelo tratamento com citocinas pró-inflamatórias. Além disso, os lisados de células Min6 tratadas com citocinas na presença ou na ausência de PRL durante 6 h foram sujeitos a imunoprecipitação de HSPB1. Proteínas coimmunoprecipitadas separadaspor SDS-PAGE e posteriormente identificadas por nano-HPLC acoplado à espectrometria de massas. Células pré-tratadas com PRL apresentaram um enriquecimento de proteínas que coprescipitaram com HSPB1 relacionadas em processos de resistência ao estresse oxidativo, degradação proteica e metabolismo de carboidratos. Células MIN6, silenciadas ou superexpressando HSPB1 foram expostas á menadiona e peróxido de hidrogênio e parâmetros oxidativos foram analisados. O silenciamento de HSPB1 promoveu células mais sensíveis ao estresse oxidativo e levou a uma redução da capacidade antioxidante, enquanto que prolactina induziu citoproteção mediada por HSPB1 contra o estresse oxidativo. A superexpressão de HSPB1, no entanto, levou a efeitos opostos. O tratamento com PRL, o silenciamento ou superexpressão de HSPB1 não mudou a expressão de enzimas antioxidantes, mas os níveis proteicos de HSPB1 estão relacionados com a modulação da razão GSH/GSSG e a atividade de G6PD. Dado de estudos recentes reportam que o perfil respiratório das ilhotas prévias ao transplante pode predizer seu desempenho e que não se sabe nada sobre se a PRL poderia modular a função mitocondrial nas células beta; no presente projeto foi investigado se o tratamento hormonal poderia aumentar a eficiência mitocondrial das células beta. Observamos que o tratamento com citocinas pró-inflamatórias produziu uma diminuição na eficiência do consumo de oxigênio mitocondrial estar relacionado à síntese de ATP. Esses resultados foram significativamente revertidos a valores similares ao obtidos nas células submetidas Às condições de máxima viabilidade após o tratamento com PRL. Além disso, os resultados mostraram que os níveis elevados de HSPB1 medeiam este efeito, uma vez que a falta desta proteína anulou significativamente a recuperação da função mitocondrial induzida pelo tratamento hormonal. Visto que as taxas de síntese de ATP mitocondrial são as responsáveis pela elevação na sua concentração intracelular e que esse evento está diretamente relacionado com a secreção de insulina nas células beta, analisamos se diferentes níveis proteicos de HSPB1 poderia modificar a função secretora de células beta. Para isso foram calculados os índices de estímulo da secreção de insulina em resposta ao aumento da concentraçãode glicose no meio de cultura tanto em células parentais MIN6 como em culturas primárias de ilhotas pancreáticas murinas que foram submetidas ou não ao silenciamento ou superexpressão de HSPB1. Nossos resultados mostraram que nem a presença de citocinas, Prolactina, ou a ausência ou superexpressão de HSPB1 nas culturas celulares analisadas apresentaram diferença significativa em relação aos índices de estímulo da secreção e conteúdo de insulina. Esses resultados sugerem que nem a falta, nem a superexpressão de HSPB1 poderia alterar a função de célula beta. Nós mostramos a relevância da HSPB1 em ambos os efeitos pró- sobrevivência da PRL contra a morte da célula beta induzida tanto por citocinas quanto por indução de estresse oxidativo. Este último efeito poderia também estar relacionado com a participação da HSPB1 na recuperação da função mitocondrial observada após o tratamento hormonal corroborando assim parte dos resultados obtidos nos experimentos de immunoprecipitação. Finalmente, nossos resultados destacam a importância de mais estudos visando um entendimento mais profundo das funções da HSPB1 nas células beta, uma vez que elas poderiam levar à mitigação da morte da célula beta através da regulação positiva de uma via de proteção endógena, que não é dependente da modulação do sistema imunológico


The success of islet transplantation has improved lately. Unfortunately, it is still compromised by cell loss. Maintaining islet cell in vitro appears as an attractive strategy to increase the outcome of pancreatic islet transplantation. However, islet fate in culture is determined by the balance between pro- and anti- apoptotic mediators. We have previously shown that Heat Shock Protein B1 (HSPB1) levels are increased by prolactin (PRL) on both human pancreatic beta cells and MIN6 murine insulinoma cells. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the prolactin-induced pro-survival effects on pancreatic beta-cells are mediated by HSPB1. Since HSPB1 role in beta cells has not been directly studied, we set out to explore the molecular mechanisms by which HSPB1 mediates PRL-induced beta cell cytoprotection. For this purpose, MIN6 insulinoma mouse cells and primary culture of murine pancreatic islets (I) wild type, HSPB1 silenced or overexpressing the chaperone were subjected to serum starvation and then pre-treated in the presence or in the absence of PRL (300 ng/mL) and exposed to or cytokines (IL-1ß (0,8 ng/mL), IFN-γ (4 ng/mL) and TNF-α (8 ng/mL)) for 16 or 24h. Then, we analyse cell viability. HSPB1silenced cells presented higher percentages of cell death compared to controls. However, the overexpression of HSPB1, independently of hormonal treatment, was able mimic the cytoprotective effects of Prolactin. These results point at the key role of HSPB1 in the cytoprotective effect against proinflammatory cytokines-induced beta cell death. In addition, lysates from Min6 cells incubated for 6 hours in the presence of a cocktail of cytokines and/or PRL were subjected to HSPB1 immunoprecipitation. Co-precipitated proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE coupled to mass spectrometry. We found an enrichment of proteins relatedto signaling pathways involved in a response against oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress induction. Moreover, we also identified antiapoptotic effects and carbohydrate metabolism related proteins. Indeed, HSPB1 knockdown rendered cells more sensitive to oxidative stress and led to a reduced antioxidant capacity, while prolactin induced an HSPB1- mediated cytoprotection against ROS induced beta-cell apoptosis. One again, HSPB1 overexpression mimic PRL- induced cytoprotection. While hormonal treatment, HSPB1 silencing or overexpression did not change the expression of antioxidant enzymes; this conditions influenced reduced glutathione cell content and G6DP activity. Since recent studies have pointed that islets respiratory profile prior to transplantation may predict their performance; we also investigated whether PRL treatment could increase beta-cell mitochondrial efficiency. We observed a cytokine-induced increase of mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate not related to ATP synthesis, which was significantly decreased upon PRL treatment. HSPB1 was a key mediator of this effect since the lack of this protein significantly abrogated PRL-induced mitochondrial function recovery. The secretory function was then analysed in wild type MIN6 cells as well as in primary cultures of pancreatic islets either HSPB1 silenced or overexpressing the chaperone. Cells were subjected to serum starvation and then pre-treated in the presence or in the absence of PRL and exposed to cytokines for 16 or 24h. We didn´t found significant differences in both glucose induced-insulin secretion and insulin content between the hormonal treatment, HSPB1 silencing or overexpression. These results suggest that neither lack, nor overexpression of HSPB1 could alter beta cell function. Altogether our results have shown the importance of HSPB1 on PRL prosurvival effects as well as on maintenance of mitochondrial efficiency against both cytokine treatment and oxidative-stress-induced beta cell damage. These results are in accordance with the PRL-induced enrichment of HSPB1 interacting proteins displaying functions related to protein degradation, oxidative stress protection or mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism.Finally, our results outline the importance of further studies aiming at a deeper understanding of HSPB1 functions on beta cells, since they could lead to the mitigation of beta cell death through the up-regulation of an endogenous protective pathway, which is not dependent on the modulation of the immune system


Subject(s)
Prolactin , Cytoprotection , Insulin-Secreting Cells/classification , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation/adverse effects , Apoptosis/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis
19.
Biol. Res ; 51: 33, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New evidence demonstrates that aging and dyslipidemia are closely associated with oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in some cells and extravascular tissues. However, in monocytes, which are naturally involved in progression and/or resolution of plaque in atherosclerosis, this concurrence has not yet been fully investigated. In this study, we evaluated the influence of aging and hypercholesterolemia on serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in monocytes from apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice compared with age-matched wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice. Experiments were performed in young (2-months) and in old (18-months) male wild-type (WT) and apoE-/- mice. RESULTS: Besides the expected differences in serum lipid profile and plaque formation, we observed that atherosclerotic mice exhibited a significant increase in monocytosis and in serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to WT mice. Moreover, it was observed that the overproduction of ROS, led to an increased DNA fragmentation and, consequently, apoptosis in monocytes from normocholesterolemic old mice, which was aggravated in age-matched atherosclerotic mice. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we demonstrate that a pro-inflammatory systemic status is associated with an impairment of functionality of monocytes during aging and that these parameters are fundamental extra-arterial contributors to the aggravation of atherosclerosis. The present data open new avenues for the development of future strategies with the purpose of treating atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , DNA Damage/physiology , Aging/physiology , Monocytes/pathology , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Apoptosis/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Atherosclerosis/blood , Aging/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/physiopathology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/blood , Hyperlipidemias/physiopathology , Hyperlipidemias/blood , Mice, Inbred C57BL
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(8): e6896, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951743

ABSTRACT

Excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays can cause damage of the skin and may induce cancer, immunosuppression, photoaging, and inflammation. The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) HOX antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is involved in multiple human biological processes. However, its role in UVB-induced keratinocyte injury is unclear. This study was performed to investigate the effects of HOTAIR in UVB-induced apoptosis and inflammatory injury in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the expression levels of HOTAIR, PKR, TNF-α, and IL-6. Cell viability was measured using trypan blue exclusion method and cell apoptosis using flow cytometry and western blot. ELISA was used to measure the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6. Western blot was used to measure the expression of PKR, apoptosis-related proteins, and PI3K/AKT and NF-κB pathway proteins. UVB induced HaCaT cell injury by inhibiting cell viability and promoting cell apoptosis and expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α. UVB also promoted the expression of HOTAIR. HOTAIR suppression increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis and expression of inflammatory factors in UVB-treated cells. HOTAIR also promoted the expression of PKR. Overexpression of HOTAIR decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis and expression of inflammatory factors in UVB-treated cells by upregulating PKR. Overexpression of PKR decreased cell viability and promoted cell apoptosis in UVB-treated cells. Overexpression of PKR activated PI3K/AKT and NF-κB pathways. Our findings identified an essential role of HOTAIR in promoting UVB-induced apoptosis and inflammatory injury by up-regulating PKR in keratinocytes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Keratinocytes/metabolism , Apoptosis/physiology , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism , Apoptosis Inducing Factor/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Gene Expression , Keratinocytes/radiation effects , Up-Regulation , Cell Survival/physiology , NF-kappa B/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Inflammation/etiology
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