Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 629
Filter
1.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 684-690, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980779

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupuncture at "Feishu" (BL 13) + "Dingchuan" (EX-B 1) and "Kongzui" (LU 6) + "Yuji" (LU 10) for the airway remodeling in asthma rats based on the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/ Smad family member 3 (Smad3) signaling pathway; and explore the efficacy difference between the two acupoint combinations.@*METHODS@#Forty SPF male SD rats, aged 4 weeks, were randomly divided into a blank group (n = 10) and a modeling group (n = 30). The ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization method was used to establish asthma model in the modeling group. After successful model preparation, the rats of the modeling group were randomized into a model group, an acupuncture at "Feishu" (BL 13) + "Dingchuan" (EX-B 1) (AAF) group, and acupuncture at "Kongzui" (LU 6)+"Yuji" (LU 10) (AAK) group, with 10 rats in each one. Starting from day 15 of the experiment, 5 min after motivating, acupuncture was applied to "Feishu" (BL 13) + "Dingchuan" (EX-B 1) and "Kongzui" (LU 6)+"Yuji" (LU 10) in the AAF group and the AAK group respectively. The intervention was delivered for 30 min each time, once daily, lasting 3 weeks consecutively. Using lung function detector, the airway resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) of the lungs were detected. The histomorphology of lung tissues was detected with HE staining and Masson staining, and the mRNA and protein expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 in lung tissues was detected with the real-time PCR and Western blot methods.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the blank group, RL was increased and Cdyn was decreased in the rats of the model group (P<0.01); and RL was reduced and Cdyn was increased in the AAF group and the AAK group when compared with those in the model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The rats of the model group had bronchial lumen stenosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen fibre hyperplasia and thickened smooth muscle in the lung tissues when compared with those in the blank group; and in comparison with the model group, all of the above morphological changes were attenuated in the AAF group and the AAK group. Besides, these morphological changes of the lung tissues were more alleviated in the AAF group when compared with those in the AAK group. In comparison with the blank group, the mRNA and protein expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 of the lung tissues was increased in the model group (P<0.01), and it was reduced in the AAF group and the AAK group when compared with that in the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). The mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 was lower in the AAF group when compared with that in the AAK group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture at either "Feishu" (BL 13)+"Dingchuan" (EX-B 1) or "Kongzui" (LU 6)+"Yuji" (LU 10) reduces the airway remodeling in the rats with asthma, which may be related to the down-regulation of mRNA and protein expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3. The better efficacy is obtained with acupuncture at "Feishu" (BL 13)+"Dingchuan" (EX-B 1).


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics , Airway Remodeling , Acupuncture Therapy , Signal Transduction , Asthma/therapy , Constriction, Pathologic , Anti-Asthmatic Agents
2.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 18(3): 73-82, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1517019

ABSTRACT

Las sibilancias recurrentes del preescolar son un problema prevalente. 50% de todos los niños tiene al menos un episodio de sibilancias en los primeros 6 años. Sin embargo, solo 4 % de los menores de 4 años tiene diagnóstico de asma. Por este motivo es fundamental realizar una adecuada anamnesis y examen físico tendientes a descartar causas secundarias, lo que debe ser complementado con exámenes de laboratorio de acuerdo con la orientación clínica. En la actualidad se recomienda indicar tratamiento de mantención con corticoides inhalados en aquellos niños que tengan episodios repetidos de obstrucción bronquial y que tengan una alta probabilidad de respuesta favorable a esta terapia. Se ha demostrado que aquellos pacientes que tienen un recuento de eosinófilos en sangre > 300 células por mm3 o aquellos que presentan una prueba cutánea positiva o IgE específicas positivas para alérgenos inhalados, responderán adecuadamente al tratamiento con esteroides inhalados.


Recurrent wheezing in preschoolers has a high prevalence. 50% of all children have at least one wheezing episode in the first six years of life. However, only 4% of children under four years of age are diagnosed with asthma. Therefore, it is essential to carry out an adequate medical history and physical examination to rule out secondary causes, which must be complemented with laboratory tests in accordance with clinical guidance. It is recommended to indicate maintenance treatment with inhaled corticosteroids to those children who have repeated episodes of wheezing and who have a high probability of a good response to this therapy. It has been demonstrated that those patients who have blood eosinophil count > 300 cells per mm3 or those who have a positive skin test or positive specific IgE for inhaled allergens will have a good response to inhaled corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Phenotype , Recurrence , Administration, Inhalation , Immunoglobulin E , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Eosinophils
3.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 24(2): e1009, mayo.-ago. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409214

ABSTRACT

El asma bronquial es una enfermedad respiratoria crónica que genera elevados índices de discapacidad, sobre todo en la población infantil. La aplicación de fisioterapia respiratoria constituye un coadyuvante en los esquemas terapéuticos de la enfermedad; en este sentido el entrenamiento muscular inspiratorio y el método Buteyko constituyen técnicas respiratorias que han sido reportadas como útiles en el tratamiento del asma bronquial. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo describir las ventajas que ofrecen ambos métodos como esquemas terapéuticos de niños con asma bronquial. Como principales resultados se describen una serie de estudios que muestran las ventajas de la implementación de estos métodos para mejorar distintos componentes de la patogenia y manifestaciones clínicas del asma bronquial. Estos estudios muestran que la aplicación indistinta de uno o ambos métodos mejora diversos aspectos entre los que sobresalen mejorar volúmenes y capacidades pulmonares, función pulmonar, fuerza muscular ventilatoria y la mecánica respiratoria. Adicionalmente, mejoran algunos elementos relacionados con la mecánica respiratoria como es el uso de la respiración bucal. Se concluye que la realización de la fisioterapia respiratoria en niños con asma bronquial constituye una alternativa viable y eficaz en el mejoramiento de varios parámetros relacionados con esta enfermedad. Diversos estudios demuestran que la aplicación de estas técnicas respiratorias mejora la capacidad respiratoria, el tono y trofismo de músculos respiratorios y la mecánica respiratoria. Los resultados positivos evidencian la necesidad de aumentar la implementación del entrenamiento muscular inspiratorio y el método Buteyko como esquema terapéutico en niños con asma bronquial en unidades de atención pública y privada(AU)


Bronchial asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that generates high rates of disability, especially in children. The application of respiratory physiotherapy constitutes an adjunct in the therapeutic schemes of the disease; in this sense, inspiratory muscle training and the Buteyko method constitute respiratory techniques that have been reported as useful in the treatment of bronchial asthma. The present investigation aimed to describe the advantages offered by both methods as therapeutic regimens for children with bronchial asthma. The main results are a series of studies that show the advantages of the implementation of these methods to improve different components of the etiopathogenesis and clinical manifestations of bronchial asthma. These studies show that the indistinct application of one or both methods improves different aspects, among which the improvement of lung volumes and capacities, lung function, ventilatory muscle strength and respiratory mechanics stand out. Additionally, they improve some elements related to respiratory mechanics such as the use of mouth breathing. It is concluded that the performance of respiratory physiotherapy in children with bronchial asthma constitutes a viable and effective alternative in the improvement of various parameters related to this disease. Several studies show that the use of these respiratory techniques improves respiratory capacity, tone and trophism of respiratory muscles, and respiratory mechanics. The positive results demonstrate the need to increase the implementation of inspiratory muscle training and the Buteyko method as a therapeutic scheme in children with bronchial asthma in public and private care units(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Asthma/therapy , Physical Therapy Modalities/education , Respiratory Mechanics/ethics
4.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 21(3): e3749, mayo.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409480

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Actualmente existen aproximadamente 300 millones de personas a nivel mundial con diagnóstico de asma y con una mortalidad de 250 mil cada año. Cuba no está ajena a esta realidad. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la exacerbación del asma, y su relación con la edad y la estacionalidad en niños asistidos en el Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital Pediátrico Juan Manuel Márquez, desde enero a diciembre de 2018. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y transversal en pacientes con exacerbación del asma bronquial atendidos en el Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital Pediátrico Juan Manuel Márquez, desde enero a diciembre de 2018. Resultados: El mayor porciento se obtuvo en el sexo masculino con 53 por ciento, el grupo de edad de 5 a 9 años 46,3 por ciento. Dentro de los factores de riesgo que predominaron en el estudio fueron las infecciones virales 51,3 por ciento, los cambios de temperatura 58,2 por ciento y la no adherencia al tratamiento 45,5 por ciento . Las crisis de asma fueron frecuentes en los meses de octubre a diciembre 38,3 por ciento, con frecuencia entre 3 a 6 episodios por año 67,7 por ciento. El grado de severidad fue leve 82,0 por ciento. Conclusiones: Las exacerbaciones de asma bronquial son frecuentes en los servicios de urgencias pediátricos(AU)


Introduction: In these times, there are about 300 million people with the diagnosis of bronchial asthma worldwide and there is a mortality of 250 thousand per year. Cuba is not unaware of this reality. Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of the exacerbation of bronchial asthma in children assisted in the emergency service of Juan Manuel Márquez Pediatric University Hospital from January to December 2018. Material and Methods: A descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on 600 children from 1 to 18 years of age that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. These children were assisted in the emergency service of Juan Manuel Márquez Pediatric University Hospital from January to December 2018. Results: The highest percentage of patients were males (53 percent) and from the age group 5 to 9 years (46,3 percent). Among the risk factors that predominated in the study, viral infections (51,3 percent), weather changes (58,2 percent), and non-adherence to treatment (45,5 percent) were observed. The asthma crises were frequent from October to December (38,3 percent), and from 3 to 6 episodes occurred annually (67,7 percent). The degree of severity was mild (82,0 percent). Conclusions: Exacerbations of bronchial asthma are frequent in pediatric emergency services(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Seasons , Symptom Flare Up , Asthma/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Age and Sex Distribution , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
5.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 291-296, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935689

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the factors affecting the efficacy of mite subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in allergic asthma patients aged 5-18 years, and to find the best predictive model for the curative effect. Methods: The data of 688 patients aged 5-18 years with allergic asthma who completed more than 3 years of mite SCIT from December 2006 to November 2021 in the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Children's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University were retrospectively analyzed. Male, results of skin prick test (SPT), age, daily medication score (DMS), visual analogue scale (VAS) score, and enrollment season were defined as independent variables. R language models, including Logistic regression model, random forest model and extreme gradient boosting (XGboost) model, were used to analyze the impact of these independent variables on the outcomes. The receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to compare the predictive ability of the models. Hypothesis testing of the area under curve (AUC) of the 3 models was performed using DeLong test. Results: There were 435 males and 253 females in the 688 patients. There were 349 patients aged 5-<8 years, 240 patients aged 8-<11 years, and 99 patients aged 11-18 years. SPT showed that 429 cases (62.4%) were only allergic to mite, and 259 cases (37.7%) were also allergic to other allergens. According to the efficacy after 3 years of SCIT, 351 cases (51.0%) discontinued the treatment and 337 cases (49.0%) required continued treatment. The DMS was 4 (3, 6) at initiation, 3 (2, 5) at 3 months, 3 (2, 5) at 4 months, 2 (1, 3) at 12 months, and 0 (0, 1) at 3 years of SCIT treatment. The VAS was 3.5 (2.5, 5.2) at initiation, 3.2 (2.2, 4.8) at 3 months, 2.6 (1.4, 4.1) at 4 months, 1.0 (0.6, 1.8) at 12 months, and 0.5 (0, 1.2) at 3 years of treatment. At 3, 4, and 12 months, the rate of decline in DMS was 0 (0, 20%), 16.7% (0, 33.3%), and 50.0% (31.0%, 75.0%), respectively; and the VAS decreased by 7.1% (3.2%,13.8%), 27.6% (16.7%,44.4%), and 70.2% (56.1%, 82.3%), respectively. Regarding the enrollment season, 99 cases were in spring, 230 cases in summer, 171 cases in autumn, and 188 cases in winter. The R language Logistic regression model found that DMS>3 points at 3 months (OR=-3.5, 95%CI:-4.3--2.7, P<0.01), male (OR=-1.7, 95%CI:-2.3--1.0), P<0.01), DMS decline rate>16.7% at 4 months (OR=-1.6, 95%CI:-2.3--0.8, P<0.01) and DMS decline rate>0 at 3 months (OR=-0.7, 95%CI:-1.3--0.2, P<0.05) had higher possibility of drug discontinuation; whereas, the decline rate of DMS at 12 months>50.0% (OR=0.7, 95%CI: 0.1-1.3, P<0.05), VAS at 12 months>1.0 points (OR=0.9, 95%CI: 0.3-1.6, P<0.05), and initial VAS<4.0 points (OR=1.0, 95%CI: 0.4-1.6, P<0.01) had lower possibility of drug discontinuation. Both the random forest model and the XGboost model showed that DMS>3 points at 3 months (mean decrease accuracy=30.9, importance=0.45) had the greatest impact on drug discontinuation. The AUC of the random forest model was the largest at 0.900, with an accuracy of 78.2% and a sensitivity of 84.5%. Logistic regression model had AUC of 0.891, accuracy of 80.0%, and sensitivity of 80.0%; XGboost model had AUC of 0.886, accuracy of 76.9%, and sensitivity of 84.5%. The AUC of the pairwise comparison model by DeLong test found that all three models could be used for the prediction of this data set (all P>0.05). Conclusions: The more drugs used to control the primary disease, and the more careful reduction of the control medicine after starting SCIT treatment, the more favorable it is to stop all drugs after 3 years. The random forest model is the best predictive model for the efficacy of mite SCIT in asthmatic children.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Allergens , Asthma/therapy , Desensitization, Immunologic/methods , Immunotherapy/methods , Injections, Subcutaneous , Mites , Retrospective Studies
6.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 102-122, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929043

ABSTRACT

Molecular hydrogen exerts biological effects on nearly all organs. It has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aging effects and contributes to the regulation of autophagy and cell death. As the primary organ for gas exchange, the lungs are constantly exposed to various harmful environmental irritants. Short- or long-term exposure to these harmful substances often results in lung injury, causing respiratory and lung diseases. Acute and chronic respiratory diseases have high rates of morbidity and mortality and have become a major public health concern worldwide. For example, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic. An increasing number of studies have revealed that hydrogen may protect the lungs from diverse diseases, including acute lung injury, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we highlight the multiple functions of hydrogen and the mechanisms underlying its protective effects in various lung diseases, with a focus on its roles in disease pathogenesis and clinical significance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Acute Lung Injury , Aging , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants/chemistry , Asthma/therapy , Autophagy , COVID-19/therapy , Hydrogen/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy , Inflammation , Lung Diseases/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Oxidative Stress , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Pyroptosis , Reactive Oxygen Species
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S123-S158, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281031

ABSTRACT

En 1995 se publicó en Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría la primera "Guía de diagnóstico y tratamiento: asma bronquial en niños". En 2007 y 2016 se realizaron actualizaciones. Luego de 5 años se presentan los nuevos contenidos. Las modificaciones más relevantes, aunque no las únicas, se observan en las estrategias terapéuticas. En esta versión se estratifica el tratamiento en "niveles" (1 a 5). El paradigma de cambio en el tratamiento crónico del asma consiste en erradicar la prescripción de broncodilatadores (salbutamol) a demanda, por un lado, y por otro, aparece la opción de tratamiento combinado intermitente con corticoides inhalados y broncodilatadores acción prolongada (LABA) para las formas más leves (niveles 1 y 2), en niños de 12 años o mayores. Aún no se dispone de suficiente evidencia que avale estas opciones en menores de 12 años, por lo que se mantienen las normativas previas vigentes en este grupo. Para más detalles, sugerimos la lectura del documento completo


In 1995, the first Guideline on Diagnosis and Treatment for Childhood Asthma was published in Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría. Updates were made in 2007 and 2016. After 5 years, the new contents are presented. The most relevant modifications, although not the only ones, are observed in therapeutic strategies. In this version, treatment is stratified into "levels" (1 to 5). The current paradigm of change in chronic asthma treatment consists in eradicating the prescription of bronchodilators (salbutamol) on demand. Besides that, the option of intermittent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting bronchodilators (LABA) appears for milder forms (levels 1 and 2) in children > 12 years old. There is still not enough evidence to support these options in < 12 years old maintaining the previous recommendations in this group. For more details we suggest reading the full document.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 645-649, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879907

ABSTRACT

Peak expiratory flow (PEF) is a portable, reliable, and inexpensive method for lung function assessment. PEF can reflect expiratory airflow limitation and its variability can document reversibility, which provides an objective basis for the diagnosis of asthma in children. Short-term PEF monitoring can be an important aid in the management of acute asthma exacerbations, identification of possible triggers, and assessment of response to treatment. Long-term PEF monitoring can assist in the assessment of asthma control and warning of acute exacerbations, and this is useful for children with severe asthma. This article reviews the measurements, influencing factors, interpretation, and application of PEF, and its role in the diagnosis and management of asthma in children, to provide references for the clinical application of PEF in children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Asthma/therapy , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Respiratory Function Tests
9.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1221-1224, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921036

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the therapeutic effect on bronchial asthma between presence of skin reaction and the absence of skin reaction after acupoint application.@*METHODS@#Sixty-one patients with bronchial asthma were treated with acupoint application during the hottest periods of summer ("dog days"). The acupoints included Dingchuan (EX-B 1), Feishu (BL 13), Xinshu (BL 15), Pishu (BL 20) and Shenshu (BL 23). The treatment was given once every 7 days, with the herbal plaster remained for 6 h each time, and 4 treatments were required totally. According to the local skin reaction after acupoint application, a skin reaction group (30 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a non-skin reaction group (31 cases) were divided. Separately, before treatment and 1 year after treatment, using chronic disease management platform of asthma, the number of asthma attacks, the score of asthma control test (ACT) and the score of asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ) were recorded online. Besides, the therapeutic effect was observed in the two groups 1 year after treatment.@*RESULTS@#One year after treatment, the number of asthma attacks was reduced as compared with that before treatment in the patients of either group (@*CONCLUSION@#In treatment of acupoint application for bronchial asthma, the clinical therapeutic effect is better in the patients with local skin reaction after acupoint application. The chronic disease management platform of asthma is convenient for online evaluation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Asthma/therapy , Disease Management , Quality of Life
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(6): 710-713, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250299

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome de asma crítico es una emergencia médica que amenaza la vida y de no instaurar un tratamiento urgente, progresa a un estado de hipoxia irreversible o paro cardiorrespiratorio. La ventilación mecánica invasiva constituye uno de los pilares terapéuticos, sin embargo, también puede desarrollar injuria pulmonar por barotrauma. En ese contexto, el uso de oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea (ECMO) supone una estrategia adicional para mejorar el intercambio gaseoso y reducir el daño inducido por la ventilación mecánica. Se presenta el caso de una paciente con síndrome de asma crítico que requirió ECMO por barotrauma grave.


Abstract Critical asthma syndrome is a life-threatening medical condition that can lead to irreversible hypoxia or cardiorespiratory arrest. Invasive mechanical ventilation is one of the therapeutic pillars, however, it can also develop ventilator-induced lung injury. For this reason, the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) could be an additional strategy to improve gas exchange and reduce damage induced by mechanical ventilation. We present the case of a patient with critical asthma syndrome who required ECMO due to severe barotrauma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Asthma/complications , Asthma/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiration, Artificial
11.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(3): 381-401, sept. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127611

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is the most prevalent chronic condition among children, however, in Chile, it is underdiagnosed. This may be due to medical professionals failing to recognize the disease. It is essential to be aware of the symptoms and signs that are suggestive of the disease in order to begin an appropriate treatment to achieve disease control. Asthma must be suspected in school age children who present repeated episodes of bronchial obstruction. The diagnosis should be confirmed with lung function tests that demonstrate variable airflow obstruction with a positive bronchodilator response. Treatment is based on two fundamental pillars: education and pharmacological treatment. Educational activities must include: information about the disease and its treatment, regular monitoring of treatment adherence, teaching and reviewing the correct inhalation technique at every checkup, developing a personalized written action plan and scheduling regular follow-up appointments. The gold standard for treatment is maintenance inhaled corticosteroids, in the lowest possible dose that enables disease control. The goal of the treatment is to eliminate daily symptoms and asthma crisis. Therapy should be increased if control is not achieved, but before starting it, adherence to maintenance treatment, inhalation technique, presence of associated comorbidities and environmental exposure should be evaluated. In the mild patient, who is not receiving maintenance therapy, rescue treatment should be done with bronchodilators, always associated with inhaled corticosteroids. This consensus is a guide to improve the diagnosis, treatment and control of asthma in schoolchildren.


El asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en la infancia. Sin embargo en Chile existe un importante subdiagnóstico. Es fundamental estar atentos a los síntomas y signos que nos hacen sospechar el diagnóstico para iniciar un tratamiento oportuno, que asegure un buen control de la enfermedad. Debemos sospechar asma en todo escolar que presente cuadros repetidos de obstrucción bronquial. El diagnóstico debe confirmarse con pruebas de función pulmonar que demuestren obstrucción variable al flujo aéreo y respuesta broncodilatadora positiva. El tratamiento se basa en dos pilares fundamentales: la educación y el tratamiento farmacológico. Las actividades educativas deben incluir contenidos acerca de la enfermedad y su tratamiento, se debe monitorizar constantemente la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, enseñar la técnica inhalatoria correcta y revisar en cada control, entregar un plan de acción escrito personalizado frente al inicio de una crisis y realizar controles médicos periódicos. Con respecto al tratamiento farmacológico, el estándar de oro es el uso de corticoides inhalados permanentes, en la mínima dosis posible que logre el control de la enfermedad. El objetivo del tratamiento es la supresión de los síntomas diarios y de las crisis. El tratamiento se irá incrementando en la medida que no haya una respuesta adecuada, pero antes de aquello se debe evaluar la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, la técnica inhalatoria, presencia de comorbilidades asociadas y exposición ambiental. En el paciente leve, que esté sin tratamiento permanente, el rescate debe realizarse con broncodilatadores asociados siempre a un corticoide inhalado. Este consenso es una guía de apoyo para mejorar el diagnóstico oportuno, tratamiento y control del asma en el escolar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/classification , Asthma/physiopathology , Status Asthmaticus/etiology , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Chile , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Consensus , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
12.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 169-175, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138551

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La cantidad de pacientes asmáticos que asisten al sistema público de salud es cada vez mayor, no obstante, la tasa de adherencia al tratamiento es muy baja, siendo los adolescentes quienes presentan mayor porcentaje de abandono al tratamiento, inasistencia a sus controles y gran conflicto decisional (CD). El OBJETIVO de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de consejerías sobre el CD en relación al tratamiento del asma y el nivel de control de su enfermedad. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio pre-experimental que reclutó a 32 niños asmáticos entre 10 a 14 años de edad del policlínico respiratorio infantil del hospital Carlos Van Buren de Valparaíso. Solo 15 niños estuvieron dispuestos a participar en el estudio quienes completaron la totalidad de las sesiones de consejería. Para determinar el grado de CD de su patología, se aplicó la Escala de Conflicto Decisional de Ottawa; y para el nivel del control del asma, se usó la Escala Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). RESULTADOS: La edad media del grupo de niños fue de 12,06 ± 1,16 años. Finalizada la intervención, el nivel de control de asma se mantuvo y la media del CD disminuyó de 34,05 ± 4,59 a 18,02 ± 3,01 puntos (p < 0,05; t de Student para muestras pareadas). Un 73,3% de los pacientes disminuyó su nivel de conflicto decisional. CONCLUSIÓN: Las consejerías de apoyo decisional demostraron tener efectos positivos en la población estudiada.


INTRODUCTION: The number of asthmatic patients attending the public health system is increasing. However, the rate of adherence to treatment is very low. Adolescents have the largest percentage of abandonment to treatment, lack of control and a great decisional conflict (DC). The OBJECTIVE of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of counseling on the DC in relation to asthma treatment and the level of control of their disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pre-experimental study that recruited 32 asthmatic children from 10 to 14 years-old, from the children's respiratory outpatients clinic of Carlos Van Buren hospital in Valparaíso, Chile. Only 15 children were willing to participate in the study and completed all of the counseling sessions. To determine the degree of DC of its pathology, the Ottawa Decision Conflict Scale was applied; and for the Asthma Control level, the Global Initiative for Asthma Scale (GINA) was used. RESULTS: Mean children age was 12.06 ± 1.16 years-old. After the intervention, the level of Asthma Control was maintained and the mean of the DC decrease from 34.05 ± 4.59 to 18.02 ± 3.01 points (p < 0.05; paired Student's t-test). 73.3% of the patients lowered their level of decisional conflict. CONCLUSION: The counseling of decision support proved to have positive effects on the population studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/psychology , Conflict, Psychological , Counseling/methods , Decision Making , Outpatients , Patient Participation/psychology , Asthma/therapy , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
13.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 176-201, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138552

ABSTRACT

El asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en la infancia. Sin embargo, en Chile existe un importante subdiagnóstico. Es fundamental estar atentos a los síntomas y signos que nos hacen sospechar el diagnóstico para iniciar un tratamiento oportuno, que asegure un buen control de la enfermedad. Debemos sospechar asma en todo escolar que presente cuadros repetidos de obstrucción bronquial. El diagnóstico debe confirmarse con pruebas de función pulmonar que demuestren obstrucción variable al flujo aéreo y respuesta broncodilatadora positiva. El tratamiento se basa en dos pilares fundamentales: la educación y el tratamiento farmacológico. Las actividades educativas deben incluir contenidos acerca de la enfermedad y su tratamiento, se debe monitorizar constantemente la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, enseñar la técnica inhalatoria correcta y revisar en cada control, entregar un plan de acción escrito personalizado frente al inicio de una crisis y realizar controles médicos periódicos. Con respecto al tratamiento farmacológico, el estándar de oro es el uso de corticoides inhalados permanentes, en la mínima dosis posible que logre el control de la enfermedad. El objetivo del tratamiento es la supresión de los síntomas diarios y de las crisis. El tratamiento se irá incrementando en la medida que no haya una respuesta adecuada, pero antes de aquello se debe evaluar la adherencia al tratamiento de mantención, la técnica inhalatoria, presencia de comorbilidades asociadas y exposición ambiental. En el paciente leve, que esté sin tratamiento permanente, el rescate debe realizarse con broncodilatadores asociados siempre a un corticoide inhalado. Este consenso es una guía de apoyo para mejorar el diagnóstico oportuno, tratamiento y control del asma en el escolar.


Bronchial asthma is the most prevalent chronic condition among children, however, in Chile, it is underdiagnosed. This may be due to medical professionals failing to recognize the disease. It is essential to be aware of the symptoms and signs that are suggestive of the disease in order to begin an appropriate treatment to achieve disease control. Asthma must be suspected in school age children who present repeated episodes of bronchial obstruction. The diagnosis should be confirmed with lung function tests that demonstrate variable airflow obstruction with a positive bronchodilator response. Treatment is based on two fundamental pillars: education and pharmacological treatment. Educational activities must include: information about the disease and its treatment, regular monitoring of treatment adherence, teaching and reviewing the correct inhalation technique at every checkup, developing a personalized written action plan and scheduling regular follow-up appointments. The gold standard for treatment is maintenance inhaled corticosteroids, in the lowest possible dose that enables disease control. The goal of the treatment is to eliminate daily symptoms and asthma crisis. Therapy should be increased if control is not achieved, but before starting it, adherence to maintenance treatment, inhalation technique, presence of associated comorbidities and environmental exposure should be evaluated. In the mild patient, who is not receiving maintenance therapy, rescue treatment should be done with bronchodilators, always associated with inhaled corticosteroids. This consensus is a guide to improve the diagnosis, treatment and control of asthma in schoolchildren


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Function Tests , Asthma/classification , Asthma/drug therapy , Vitamin D/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Radiography, Thoracic , Precipitating Factors , Chile , Consensus , Diagnosis, Differential
14.
Brasília; Fiocruz Brasília;Instituto de Saúde de São Paulo; ago. 11, 2020. 35 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | MTYCI, PIE, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1118192

ABSTRACT

A acupuntura se caracteriza pela estimulação de pontos cutâneos específicos por meio do uso de agulhas. A auriculoterapia consiste na estimulação mecânica de pontos específicos do pavilhão auricular com esferas de aço, ouro, prata, plástico, agulhas ou sementes de mostarda. A acupuntura é recomendada para promoção, manutenção e recuperação da saúde, bem como prevenção de agravos e doenças. Além disso, parece propiciar a liberação de neurotransmissores e outras substâncias responsáveis pela promoção da analgesia. A auriculoterapia promove a regulação psíquico orgânica do indivíduo. Ambas as prá ticas foram incorporadas no SUS mediante Portaria nº 971, de 03 de maio de 2006. Qual é a eficácia e a segurança da acupuntura e da auriculoterapia para o tratamento de asma em adultos e/ou idosos? As buscas foram realizadas em sete bases de dados sem restrição de ano de publicação. Os critérios de inclusão foram: revisões sistemáticas em inglês, português e espanhol que avaliaram os efeitos da acupuntura e auriculoterapia no tratamento de asma na população adulta e idosa. A avaliação da qualidade metodológica foi realizada por meio da ferramenta AMSTAR 2, feita por uma pesquisadora e revisada por outra. Nesta revisão rápida, produzida em cinco dias, foram utilizados atalhos metodológicos, de maneira que apenas o processo de seleção foi realizado em duplicidade e de forma independente. De 142 relatos recuperados nas bases de dados, foram incluídas cinco revisões sistemáticas que atenderam aos critérios de elegibilidade. A pergunta de pesquisa incluiu acupuntura e auriculoterapia, o que orientou as buscas de evidências. No entanto, não foram identificados estudos sobre auriculoterapia e a maioria das revisões analisou um tipo específico de acupuntura, denominada farmacopuntura, uma técnica que combina acupuntura com injeção de ervas medicinais. De maneira geral, a farmacopuntura combinada ou não a outros tratamentos, mostrou melhores resultados, em relação a seus comparadores, nos seguin tes desfechos: taxa de resposta e melhora dos sintomas de adultos com asma, melhora da Capacidade Vital Forçada (CVF), do Volume Expiratório Forçado em 1 segundo (VEF1), da relação VEF1/CVF e no Pico de Fluxo Expiratório (PFE). Os resultados sobre acupuntura foram melhores com relação a taxa de melhora dos sintomas de asma e do VEF1. Duas revisões avaliaram a segurança das intervenções, com relatos sobre ocorrência de eventos adversosleves com o uso da farmacopuntura. Esta revisão identificou alguns benefícios da acupuntura e farmacopuntura como tratamento adjuvante em pessoas com asma. No entanto, é necessário interpretar estes resultados com cautela, devido à diversidade de terapias utilizadas nos estudos primários e à qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas, avaliadas como de confiança baixa ou criticamente baixa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Asthma/therapy , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome , Acupuncture/methods
15.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 507-511, ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138664

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En los últimos años se ha observado un aumento significativo de la tasa de hospitalización por asma en niños. En la actualidad se desconocen las tasas regionales y la tasa de mortalidad. OBJETIVO: Conocer las tasas regionales de hospitalización por asma en niños y determinar la mortalidad en este grupo etario. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Se calculó la tasa de hospitalización por asma en las 15 regiones del país existentes al momento de realizar el estudio, entre el año 2008 y 2014, en base al número de egresos hospitalarios por región y de las poblaciones expuestas al riesgo de hospitalización. La tasa de mor talidad se obtuvo calculando el cociente entre el número de defunciones por asma en niños de 5 a 15 años y la población expuesta. RESULTADOS: La tasa más alta de hospitalización la presentó la V región con 7,6 por 10.000 habitantes. La tasa media de hospitalización en las distintas regiones fue similar a la de la Región Metropolitana, con la excepción de 4 regiones. La tasa global de mortalidad por asma en niños de 5 a 15 años para el periodo analizado es de 0,37 por 100.000 habitantes. CONCLUSIONES: La mayoría de las regiones del país presentan tasas de hospitalización similares a la Región Metropolitana. La V Región presenta la tasa más alta de hospitalización. La tasa global de mortalidad por asma en niños de 5 a 15 años es de 0,37 por 100.000 habitantes.


INTRODUCTION: In recent years, there has been a significant increase in asthma hospitalization rates in children, however, regional and mortality rates are yet unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine regional asth ma hospitalization rates in children and the global mortality rate in this age group. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We determined asthma hospitalization rates in the 15 regions of the country existing at the time of the study, between 2008 and 2014, based on the number of hospital discharges in each region and the population at risk of hospitalization. The mortality rate was obtained using the ratio between deaths due to asthma in children aged 5 to 15 and the exposed population. RESULTS: the 5th region presented the highest hospitalization rate (7.6 per 10,000 inhabitants). Except for 4 regions, the median hospitalization rates of the different regions were similar to those found in the Metropolitan Region. The overall mortality rate due to asthma in 5 to 15-year-old children was 0.37 per 100,000 inhabitants in the analyzed period. CONCLUSIONS: most regions of the country have similar hospitalization rates to the Metropolitan Region and the 5th region presents the highest hospitali zation rate due to asthma. The global mortality rate in children between 5 and 15 years old is 0.37 per 100,000 inhabitants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/mortality , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Asthma/therapy , Poisson Distribution , Chile/epidemiology , Registries
16.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1217-1222, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877589

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of moxa-cone moxibustion at lung's back-@*METHODS@#Sixty SPF-grade healthy male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, an LY294002 group (LY group), an electroacupuncture (EA) group and a moxibustion group, 12 mice in each group. Asthma model was replicated by using ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization. Except the mice in the normal group, all the mice were intraperitoneally injected with sensitization solution (containing 15 μg of OVA and 30 mg of aluminum hydroxide) on the 1st day, 7th day and 14th day, 0.5 mL per mice; from the 15th day, 1% OVA solution was atomized for 20 min, once a day for 2 weeks; the mice in the normal group was treated with identical operations but with 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The mice in the LY group were treated with injection of LY294002 at tail vein on the 13th day, 14th day and 15th day. At the beginning of the 15th day, The mice in the EA group were treated with EA at "Feishu" (BL 13) and "Zhongfu" (LU 1) with disperse-dense wave, frequency of 2 Hz/20 Hz, intensity of 1 mA, 15 min each time, once a day for 2 weeks. The mice in the moxibustion group was treated with moxa-cone moxibustion at "Feishu" (BL 13) and "Zhongfu" (LU 1) from the 15th day, three moxa-cones per acupoint, once a day for 2 weeks. On the 16th day, 18th day and 22nd day, the incubation period of asthma was recorded. On the 29th day, all the samples were collected. The expressions of IL-17 and IL-10 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected by ELISA method. The pathological changes of lung tissue were observed by HE staining. The percentage of Th17, Treg and Th17/Treg ratio in spleen tissue were detected by flow cytometry method.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal group, the incubation period of asthma in the model group was significantly shortened (@*CONCLUSION@#The Th17/Treg is imbalanced in asthmatic body. The moxibustion at lung's back-


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Asthma/therapy , Lung , Moxibustion , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Th17 Cells
18.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 32, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094411

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association among characteristics of primary health care center (PHCC) with hospitalizations for primary care sensitive conditions (PCSC) in Brazil. METHOD In this study, a cross-sectional ecological study was performed. This study analyzed the 27 capitals of Brazil's federative units. Data were aggregated from the following open access databases: National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, the Hospital Information System of Brazilian Unified Health System and Annual Population Census conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Associations were estimated among characteristics of primary care with the number of three PCSC as the leading causes of hospitalization in children under-5 population in Brazil: asthma, diarrhea, and pneumonia. RESULTS In general, PHCC showed limited structural adequacy (37.3%) for pediatric care in Brazil. The capitals in South and Southeast regions had the best structure whereas the North and Northeast had the worst. Fewer PCSC hospitalizations were significantly associated with PHCC which presented appropriate equipment (RR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.97-0.99), structural conditions (RR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.97-0.99), and signage/identification of professionals and facilities (RR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.97-0.99). Higher PCSC hospitalizations were significantly associated with PHCC with more physicians (RR: 1.23, 95%CI: 1.02-1.48), it forms (RR: 1.01, 95%CI: 1.01-1.02), and more medications (RR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01-1.03) CONCLUSION Infrastructural adequacy of PHCC was associated with less PCSC hospitalizations, while availability medical professional and medications were associated with higher PCSC hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Asthma/therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Diarrhea/therapy , Diarrhea/epidemiology
19.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 54: e003538, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1091965

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of home visits in a group of children and adolescents with severe asthma by using the inhalation technique score and adherence rates to drug treatment. Method: A 12-month randomized controlled trial involving patients aged between three and 17 years under regular follow-up treatment at a pediatric pulmonology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in southeastern Brazil. A group of patients received only outpatient consultations and the other group received home visits from nurses in addition to outpatient consultations. The differences between groups were analyzed through the outcomes of inhalation technique scores and treatment adherence rate. Results: Participation of 29 patients. In the intervention group, there was a statistically significant increase in inhalation technique scores (p<0.05) and elimination of critical errors between the first and the second evaluation, and results were maintained in the third evaluation. In the control group, there were no significant changes in inhalation technique scores. Rates of adherence to drug treatment in both groups did not rise. Conclusion: Home visits were effective for improving inhalation technique scores in patients with severe asthma. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-8GZWZP.


Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de la visita domiciliaria en un grupo de niños y adolescentes con asma severa, utilizando el score de la técnica inhalatoria y las tasas de adhesión al tratamiento medicamentoso. Método: Estudio experimental randomizado controlado, con duración de 12 meses, que incluyó a pacientes con edades entre tres y 17 años, acompañados regularmente en un ambulatorio de neumología pediátrica de un hospital universitario de la región Sureste de Brasil. Un grupo de pacientes recibió solo consultas ambulatorias y el otro grupo, además de las consultas ambulatorias, recibió visitas de la enfermera en el hogar. Fueron analizadas las diferencias entre los grupos en los resultados: scores de la técnica inhalatoria y tasa de adhesión al tratamiento. Resultados: Participaron 29 pacientes. En el grupo intervención, hubo aumento estadísticamente significativo de los scores de la técnica inhalatoria (p<0,05) y eliminación de errores críticos de la primera a la segunda evaluación, resultados que se mantuvieron en la tercera. No hubo modificaciones significativas en la técnica inhalatoria del grupo de control. Las tasas de adhesión al tratamiento medicamentoso en ambos grupos no se elevaron. Conclusión: La visita domiciliaria fue eficaz en mejorar los scores de técnica inhalatoria en pacientes con asma severa. Registro Brasileño de Ensayos Clínicos: RBR-8GZWZP


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia da visita domiciliar, em um grupo de crianças e adolescentes com asma grave, utilizando o escore da técnica inalatória e as taxas de adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso. Método: Estudo experimental randomizado controlado, com duração de 12 meses, envolvendo pacientes, com idades entre três e 17 anos, acompanhados regularmente em um ambulatório de pneumologia pediátrica de um hospital universitário da região Sudeste do Brasil. Um grupo de pacientes recebeu apenas consultas ambulatoriais e o outro grupo, além das consultas ambulatoriais, recebeu visitas da enfermeira no domicílio. Foram analisadas as diferenças entre os grupos nos desfechos: escores da técnica inalatória e taxa de adesão ao tratamento. Resultados: Participaram 29 pacientes. No grupo-intervenção, houve aumento estatisticamente significante dos escores da técnica inalatória (p<0,05) e eliminação de erros críticos da primeira para a segunda avaliação, resultados que foram mantidos na terceira. Não houve alterações significativas na técnica inalatória do grupo-controle. As taxas de adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso em ambos os grupos não se elevaram. Conclusão: A visita domiciliar foi eficaz em melhorar os escores de técnica inalatória em pacientes com asma grave. Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos: RBR-8GZWZP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/therapy , Inhalation , Medication Adherence , House Calls
20.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(4): 205-209, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087949

ABSTRACT

The main source of Vitamin D is the bioconversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholecalciferol, however, the level of sun exposition has been drastically reduced during the last decades, so it is not unusual to find a high deficit of Vitamin D in the population. There is evidence to suggest that the deficit of Vitamin D is associated with a worse evolution of asthma and a greater risk of serious exacerbations. Possibly prenatal Vitamin D supplementation to pregnant mothers reduces the risk of wheezing and asthma in the offspring, and supplementation to asthmatic children could improve the evolution of the disease.


La principal fuente de Vitamina D es la bioconversión del 7-dehidrocolesterol a colecalciferol, sin embargo, el nivel de exposición solar se ha reducido drásticamente durante las últimas décadas, por lo que no es extraño encontrar un déficit elevado de Vitamina D en la población. Existe evidencia que sugiere que el déficit de Vitamina D se asocia a peor evolución del asma y mayor riesgo de exacerbaciones graves. Posiblemente la suplementación prenatal de Vitamina D a madres embarazadas reduzca el riesgo de sibilancias y asma en los hijos que nacerán, y la suplementación a niños asmáticos podría mejorar la evolución de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma/therapy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/prevention & control , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Dietary Supplements
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL