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Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(1): 41-50, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286171


ABSTRACT. Clinical trials of the effects of physical activity have reported improvements in symptoms and quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Additionally, morphological brain changes after exercising were reported in PD animal models. However, these lifestyle-related changes were not evaluated in postmortem brain tissue. Objective: We aimed to evaluate, by immunohistochemistry, astrocytes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and structural proteins expression (neurofilaments and microtubules — MAP2) changes in postmortem brain samples of individuals with Lewy body pathology. Methods: Braak PD stage≥III samples, classified by neuropathology analysis, from The Biobank for Aging Studies were classified into active (n=12) and non-active (n=12) groups, according to physical activity lifestyle, and paired by age, sex and Braak staging. Substantia nigra and basal ganglia were evaluated. Results: Groups were not different in terms of age or gender and had similar PD neuropathological burden (p=1.00). We observed higher TH expression in the active group in the substantia nigra and the basal ganglia (p=0.04). Astrocytes was greater in the non-active subjects in the midbrain (p=0.03) and basal ganglia (p=0.0004). MAP2 levels were higher for non-active participants in the basal ganglia (p=0.003) and similar between groups in the substantia nigra (p=0.46). Neurofilament levels for non-active participants were higher in the substantia nigra (p=0.006) but not in the basal ganglia (p=0.24). Conclusion: Active lifestyle seems to promote positive effects on brain by maintaining dopamine synthesis and structural protein expression in the nigrostriatal system and decrease astrogliosis in subjects with the same PD neuropathology burden.

RESUMO. Estudos dos efeitos da atividade física relataram melhora nos sintomas e na qualidade de vida de pacientes com doença de Parkinson (DP). Além disso, alterações morfológicas do cérebro após o exercício físico foram relatadas em modelos animais da DP. No entanto, essas mudanças relacionadas ao estilo de vida não foram avaliadas em tecido cerebral post-mortem. Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão de astrócitos, tirosina hidroxilase (TH) e a expressão de proteínas estruturais (neurofilamentos e microtúbulos — MAP2) por imuno-histoquímica, em amostras cerebrais post-mortem de indivíduos com corpos de Lewy. Métodos: Amostras com estágio de Braak para DP≥III, classificação neuropatológica, fornecidas pelo biobanco de estudos do envelhecimento foram classificadas em grupos ativos (n=12) e não ativos (n=12), de acordo com o estilo de vida (atividade física), e pareados por idade, sexo e estadiamento de Braak. Analisou-se a substância negra e gânglios da base. Resultados: Idade, sexo e classificação para DP foram semelhantes (p=1,00). Observou-se maior expressão de TH no grupo ativo (p=0,04). Amostras de não ativos revelaram maior expressão de astrócitos no mesencéfalo (p=0,03) e nos gânglios da base (p=0,0004); MAP2 nos gânglios da base (p=0,003); os níveis de neurofilamentos foram maiores na substância negra (p=0,006). Conclusão: O estilo de vida ativo parece promover efeitos positivos no cérebro, mantendo a síntese de dopamina e a expressão estrutural de proteínas no sistema nigrostriatal e com diminuição da ativação de astrócitos em indivíduos com a mesma classificação neuropatológica para a DP.

Humans , Parkinson Disease , Lewy Bodies , Autopsy , Aging , Dopamine , Astrocytes , Life Style
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10107, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142578


Ketamine (KET) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist with rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects, but how the drug shows its sustained effects is still a matter of controversy. The objectives were to evaluate the mechanisms for KET rapid (30 min) and long-lasting (15 and 30 days after) antidepressant effects in mice. A single dose of KET (2, 5, or 10 mg/kg, po) was administered to male Swiss mice and the forced swim test (FST) was performed 30 min, 15, or 30 days later. Imipramine (IMI, 30 mg/kg, ip), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, was used as reference. The mice were euthanized, separated into two time-point groups (D1, first day after KET injection; D30, 30 days later), and brain sections were processed for glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), histone deacetylase (HDAC), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical assays. KET (5 and 10 mg/kg) presented rapid and long-lasting antidepressant-like effects. As expected, the immunoreactivities for brain GSK-3 and HDAC decreased compared to control groups in all areas (striatum, DG, CA1, CA3, and mainly pre-frontal cortex, PFC) after KET injection. Increases in BDNF immunostaining were demonstrated in the PFC, DG, CA1, and CA3 areas at D1 and D30 time-points. GFAP immunoreactivity was also increased in the PFC and striatum at both time-points. In conclusion, KET changed brain BDNF and GFAP expressions 30 days after a single administration. Although neuroplasticity could be involved in the observed effects of KET, more studies are needed to explain the mechanisms for the drug's sustained antidepressant-like effects.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Ketamine/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Astrocytes , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Disease Models, Animal , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Histone Deacetylases
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878318


Objective@#Antimony (Sb) has recently been identified as a novel nerve poison, although the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its neurotoxicity remain unclear. This study aimed to assess the effects of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway on antimony-induced astrocyte activation.@*Methods@#Protein expression levels were detected by Western blotting. Immunofluorescence, cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions separation were used to assess the distribution of p65. The expression of protein in brain tissue sections was detected by immunohistochemistry. The levels of mRNAs were detected by Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).@*Results@#Antimony exposure triggered astrocyte proliferation and increased the expression of two critical protein markers of reactive astrogliosis, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), indicating that antimony induced astrocyte activation @*Conclusion@#Antimony activated astrocytes by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway.

Animals , Antimony/toxicity , Astrocytes/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases , Male , Mice, Inbred ICR , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Rats , Signal Transduction/drug effects
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 1-9, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878229


Astrocytes are a heterogenous group of macroglia present in all regions of the brain and play critical roles in many aspects of brain development, function and disease. Previous studies suggest that the B-cell lymphoma-2 associated X protein (BAX)-dependent apoptosis plays essential roles in regulating neuronal number and achieving optimal excitation/inhibition ratio. The aim of the present paper was to study whether BAX regulates astrocyte distribution in a region-specific manner. Immunofluorescence staining of SOX9 was used to analyze and compare astrocyte density in primary somatosensory cortex, motor cortex, retrosplenial cortex and hippocampus in heterozygous and homozygous BAX knockout mice at age of six weeks when cortical development has finished and glia development has reached a relatively steady state. The results showed that astrocyte density varied significantly among different cortical subdivisions and between cortex and hippocampus. In contrast to the significant increase in GABAergic interneurons, the overall and region-specific astrocyte density remained unchanged in the cortex when BAX was absent. Interestingly, a significant reduction of astrocyte density was observed in the hippocampus of BAX knockout mice. These data suggest that BAX differentially regulates neurons and astrocytes in cortex as well as astrocytes in different brain regions during development. This study provided important information about the regional heterogeneity of astrocyte distribution and the potential contribution of BAX gene during development.

Animals , Astrocytes , Hippocampus , Interneurons , Mice , Neurons , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/genetics
Rev. méd. Panamá ; 40(1): 14-20, ene.2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099573


Introducción: Los gliomas son tumores malignos altamente celulares del sistema ner­ vioso central. Su grado histológico preoperatorio es de utilidad en el manejo quirúrgico, por lo que la resonancia magnética con secuencias avanzadas intenta brindar mayor información tumoral. Objetivo: Relacionar el coeficiente aparente de difusión (CAD) y celularidad de los gliomas de pacientes entre enero 2015 a diciembre 2017. Metodo­ logía: Retrospectivamente se obtuvieron de archivos clínicos la edad, sexo, tipo, grado histológico y sitio anatómico. Se calculó el CAD en 5mm 2 en los estudios de resonancia magnética preoperatorias y se utilizó las laminillas para conteo de celularidad en 5mm 2 digitalmente. Se utilizó análisis estadísticos descriptivos y coeficiente de correlación entre CDA con celularidad. Se utilizaron valores de p < 0.05 para significancia estadís­ tica. Resultados: 46 casos fueron incluidos, 56.5% fueron hombres. El rango de 41­64 años fueron los más afectados. El glioblastoma fue el tipo histológico más frecuente (47.8%), así como los gliomas de alto grado (73.9%). El 95.7% fueron supratentoriales. La celularidad promedio fue de 3970 ± 2900 vs 2436 ± 948 núcleos/5mm 2 (p = 0.13), con valores promedio de CDA mínimo de 0.813 x 10­3 ± 0.229 mm 2 /s vs 1.052 x 10­3 ± 0.196 mm 2 /s (p = 0.002), para los gliomas de alto y bajo grado respectivamente. La co­ rrelación entre CDA y celularidad fue débil (R = ­ 0.13, p = 0.37). Conclusión: Existe co­ rrelación débil inversamente proporcional entre el CDA y la celularidad con distinción de gliomas de bajo y alto grado con valores de CDA mínimos

Introduction: Gliomas are highly cellular malignant tumors of the central nervous sys­ tem. Its preoperative histological grade is useful in surgical management, so magnetic resonance imaging with advanced sequences tries to provide more tumor information. Objective: Correlate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cellularity of gliomas of patients between January 2015 to December 2017. Methodology: Data of age, sex, ty­ pe, histologic grade and anatomic site were retrospectively obtained from clinical archi­ ves. The preoperative magnetic resonance ADC was calculated in a 5 mm 2 region of interest and the microscope slides were used for the cellularity digitally count in 5 mm 2 . Descriptive statistical analysis and correlation coefficient between ADC and cellularity were used. Values of p <0.05 were used for statistical significance. Results: 46 cases were included, 56.5% were men. The 41­64 years ranges were the most affected. Glio­ blastoma was the most frequent histological type (47.8%), as well as high grade glio­ mas (73.9%). 95.7% were supratentorial. The average cellularity was 3970 ± 2900 vs 2436 ± 948 nuclei/ 5mm 2 (p = 0.13), with average minimum ADC values of 0.813 x 10­3 ± 0.229 mm 2 /s vs 1052 x 10­3 ± 0.196 mm 2 /s (p = 0.002), for high­ and low­grade glio­ mas, respectively. The correlation between ADC and cellularity was weak (R = ­ 0.13, p = 0.37). Conclusions: There is a weak inversely proportional correlation between ADC and cellularity. With distinction of low­ and high­grade gliomas with minimum ADC values

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Astrocytes/pathology , Glioma/epidemiology , Oligodendroglioma/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Glioblastoma/physiopathology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e8604, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100926


Maraba virus is a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the Rhabdoviridae family that was isolated in 1983 from sandflies captured in the municipality of Maraba, state of Pará, Amazônia, Brazil. Despite 30 years having passed since its isolation, little is known about the neuropathology induced by the Maraba virus. Accordingly, in this study the histopathological features, inflammatory glial changes, cytokine concentrations, and nitric oxide activity in the encephalon of adult mice subjected to Maraba virus nostril infection were evaluated. The results showed that 6 days after intranasal inoculation, severe neuropathological-associated disease signs appeared, including edema, necrosis and pyknosis of neurons, generalized congestion of encephalic vessels, and intra- and perivascular meningeal lymphocytic infiltrates in several brain regions. Immunolabeling of viral antigens was observed in almost all central nervous system (CNS) areas and this was associated with intense microglial activation and astrogliosis. Compared to control animals, infected mice showed significant increases in interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (INF)-γ, MCP-1, nitric oxide, and encephalic cytokine levels. We suggest that an exacerbated inflammatory response in several regions of the CNS of adult BALB/c mice might be responsible for their deaths.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Vesicular Stomatitis/complications , Meningoencephalitis/complications , Brazil , Astrocytes/metabolism , Cytokines/analysis , Vesiculovirus , Microglia/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Vesicular Stomatitis/pathology , Flow Cytometry , Meningoencephalitis/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitric Oxide/analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880820


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the protective effect of SBi4211 (heptamidine), an inhibitor of S100B, against central nervous system injury induced by HIV-1 envelope protein gp120.@*METHODS@#In an @*RESULTS@#In the cell co-culture system, SBi4211 treatment significantly inhibited gp120-induced expression of S100B, RAGE and GFAP in U251 cells (@*CONCLUSIONS@#SBi4211 can protect neurons from gp120-induced neurotoxicity possibly by inhibiting the S100B/ RAGE-mediated signaling pathway.

Animals , Astrocytes , Blotting, Western , Central Nervous System , HIV Envelope Protein gp120 , Mice , Neurons , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit , Signal Transduction
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2437-2443, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877835


BACKGROUND@#Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is strongly linked with tumor invasion and metastasis, which performs a vital role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) expression are closely associated to EMT by regulating targeted genes. MiR542 has been found to be involved in the EMT program and bound up with various cancers. However, the functions of miR542 and its underlying mechanism in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remain largely unknown. In the current study, we investigated the effect of astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) on U251 cells aggressiveness, proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle.@*METHODS@#The screening of targeted miRNAs was performed, as well as the functional roles and mechanisms of miR542 were explored.@*RESULTS@#MiR542 was selected as the target because of the most significantly differential expression and this high level of expression negatively correlated with cell migration and proliferation, which suggested that miR542 could be a novel tumor suppressor. Moreover, we confirmed that AEG-1 was a direct targeted gene of miR542 by luciferase activity assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting analysis. Furthermore, miR542 suppressed the expression of AEG-1, which upgraded the level of E-cadherin and degraded Vimentin expression contributing to retraining EMT.@*CONCLUSION@#The in vitro findings demonstrated that miR542 inhibited the migration and proliferation of U251 cells and suppressed EMT through targeting AEG-1, indicating that miR542 may be a potential anti-cancer target for GBM.

Astrocytes , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Glioblastoma/genetics , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neoplasm Invasiveness/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827414


OBJECTIVES@#To observe the electrophysiological changes of astrocytes in the process of hyperoxia induced apoptosis and analyze the relationship between electrophysiological characteristics and morphological changes.@*METHODS@#Astrocytes were exposed to 90% hyperoxia for 12-72 h. The electrophysiological characteristics of astrocytes in each group were detected by patch clamp technique, and the morphological characteristics of astrocytes were observed at the same time. Then the same batch of astrocytes were collected, and the expression levels of caspase-1, caspase-3, gasdermin D (GSDMD) and gasdermin E (GSDME) were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#From 12 h to 72 h after hyperoxia exposure, the inward current was significantly lower than that of the control group (0.05). At each time point, the morphology of cells changed correspondingly. Western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-1 was increased significantly at 24 h and decreased significantly at 72 h after hyperoxia exposure (0.05), but began to decrease at 48 h (<0.05); GSDME increased gradually at 24 h after hyperoxia exposure (<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Under hyperoxia exposure, the ion channels of astrocytes are damaged, which can maintain the dysfunction of ion homeostasis, activate GSDME, induce the damaged cells to break away from the apoptotic pathway, and mediate the pyroptosis.

Apoptosis , Astrocytes , Caspase 1 , Humans , Hyperoxia , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Neoplasm Proteins , Phosphate-Binding Proteins , Pyroptosis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787136


Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) can be induced by an intracellular calcium increase and oxidative stress, which are characteristic features of temporal lobe epilepsy. Thus, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression and cellular localization of RCAN1 protein and mRNA in the mouse hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Male C57BL/6 mice were given pilocarpine hydrochloride (280 mg/kg, i.p.) and allowed to develop 2 h of SE. Then the animals were given diazepam (10 mg/kg, i.p.) to stop the seizures and sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14, or 28 day after SE. Cresyl violet staining showed that pilocarpine-induced SE resulted in cell death in the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus from 3 day after SE. RCAN1 immunoreactivity showed that RCAN1 was mainly expressed in neurons in the shammanipulated hippocampi. At 1 day after SE, RCAN1 expression became detected in hippocampal neuropils. However, RCAN1 signals were markedly enhanced in cells with stellate morphology at 3 and 7 day after SE, which were confirmed to be reactive astrocytes, but not microglia by double immunofluorescence. In addition, real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction showed a significant upregulation of RCAN1 isoform 4 (RCAN1-4) mRNA in the SE-induced hippocampi. Finally, in situ hybridization with immunohistochemistry revealed astrocytic expression of RCAN1-4 after SE. These results demonstrate astrocytic upregulation of RCAN1 and RCAN1-4 in the mouse hippocampus in the acute and subacute phases of epileptogenesis, providing foundational information for the potential role of RCAN1 in reactive astrocytes during epileptogenesis.

Animals , Astrocytes , Calcineurin , Calcium , Cell Death , Diazepam , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Male , Mice , Microglia , Neurons , Neuropil , Oxidative Stress , Pilocarpine , RNA, Messenger , Seizures , Status Epilepticus , Up-Regulation , Viola
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(9): 1174-1180, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041070


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The study aims to explore the relationship between preoperative anxiety and chronic postoperative pain. METHODS A total of forty rats were divided into four groups, control, single-prolonged stress alone, Hysterectomy alone, and SPS+ Hysterectomy. The paw withdrawal mechanical thresholds (PWMT) were examined. qRT-PCR and western blotting assay were performed to detect the GFAP expression in astrocytes isolated from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) region. In addition, the long-term potentiation (LTP) in ACC was examined. RESULTS Rats in the SPS group or the Hysterectomy alone group had no significant effect on chronic pain formation, but SPS can significantly induce chronic pain after surgery. Astrocytes were still active, and the LTP was significantly increased three days after modeling in the SPS+Hysterectomy group. CONCLUSIONS anxiety can induce chronic pain by activating astrocytes in the ACC region.

RESUMO OBJETIVO O objetivo deste estudo é explorar a relação entre a ansiedade no pré-operatório e a dor crônica no pós-operatório. MÉTODOS Um total de 40 ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle, estresse prolongado (SPS), histerectomia e SPS + histerectomia. Os limiares de retirada da pata em resposta a estímulo mecânico (PWMT) foram examinados. Ensaios qRT-PCR e imunoenzimáticos (western blotting) foram realizados para detectar a expressão de GFAP em astrócitos isolados da região do córtex cingulado anterior (CCA). Além disso, a potenciação de longa duração (LTP) no CCA também foi examinada. RESULTADOS Os ratos no grupo de estresse prolongado e no grupo de histerectomia não apresentaram nenhum efeito significativo na formação de dor crônica. Porém, o estresse prolongado foi capaz de induzir dor crônica significativamente após a cirurgia. Três dias após o modelo, o grupo de SPS + histerectomia ainda apresentava astrócitos ativos e LTP significativamente maior. CONCLUSÃO A ansiedade pode provocar dor crônica através da ativação de astrócitos na região do CCA.

Animals , Female , Anxiety/complications , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Astrocytes/metabolism , Chronic Pain/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Pain Threshold/physiology , Long-Term Potentiation/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Preoperative Period , Chronic Pain/psychology , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , Gyrus Cinguli/metabolism , Hindlimb , Hysterectomy
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 800-804, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012356


El glioblastoma multiforme es el subtipo de gliomas más frecuente en adultos, con una pobre sobrevida promedio posterior al diagnóstico incluso si se aplica el tratamiento óptimo. Se ha estudiado marcadores tumorales de buen pronóstico, siendo controversial la expresión del homólogo de fosfatasa y tensina. Se estudió muestras parafinadas obtenidas de pacientes con glioblastoma multiforme en el Hospital Carlos Van Buren de Valparaíso, Chile, entre 2010 y 2014. Se realizó análisis inmunohistoquímico para expresión de homólogo de fosfatasa y tensina, estudiándose la intensidad y el patrón de expresión en astrocitos y células epiteliales, además de revisión de datos clínicos. Análisis estadístico utilizando SPSS v20. Se estudió la expresión de PTEN en 21 pacientes. Un 52,4 % presentó una baja expresión en núcleos de astrocitos, con un promedio de sobrevida de 14,2 meses comparado con 10,2 meses del grupo con alta expresión (p=0,33). Se encontró una intensa expresión endotelial en tejido tumoral, comparado con tejido cerebral sin tumor. Se encontró una relación entre la expresión nuclear en astrocitos con diferencias en el tiempo de sobrevida, aunque no estadísticamente significativa, requiriéndose nuevos estudios para corroborarlo. La intensa expresión endotelial observada en tejido tumoral debe ser analizada de forma dirigida.

Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent glioma subtype in adults, with poor survival rate after diagnosis even applying the optimal treatment. Tumoural markers have been studied looking for good prognosis, being the phosphatase and tensin homologue controversial. Paraffined samples were used from Carlos Van Buren Hospital in Valparaíso, Chile, between 2010 and 2014. An immunohistochemical analysis was performed looking for phosphatase and tensing homologue expression, studying the intensity and expression pattern in astrocytes and epithelial cells, in addition to clinical data. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v20. It was studied the phosphatase and tensin homologue expression in 21 patients. In the study, 52,4 % presented low expression in astrocytic glial cell nuclei, with a survival mean of 14.2 months in comparison to 10.2 months in the high expression group (p=0.33). A very intense endothelial expression was found in tumoural tissue, in comparison to the tissue without tumor. A relation between nuclear expression in astrocytes and survival rate was found, although no statistically significant. The intense endothelial expression seen in tumoural tissue must be studied directly.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Glioblastoma/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Survival Analysis , Astrocytes/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/metabolism
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(9): 601-608, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038743


ABSTRACT Objective: Hypothalamic inflammation and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) overexpression in astrocytes are well described in obese animals, as are some cognitive and memory deficits. As the hippocampus plays important roles in the consolidation of information, this investigation aimed to observe the memory function and the astrocyte expression of GFAP in the hippocampus of rats that received either a hypercaloric or a normocaloric diet. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats received a high-fat (cafeteria) or a standard diet for 60 days. On the 61st day, the rats were submitted to the novel object recognition (NOR) test at three and 24 hours after the first contact with objects, to assess short-term and long-term memory, respectively. Thereafter, the rats were euthanized and their brains were collected for GFAP immunohistochemical investigation in the hippocampus (CA1, CA2, CA3 areas) and hypothalamus (periventricular and arcuate nuclei). Astrocytic reactivity was assessed by morphometry. Different white adipose tissue depots and brown adipose tissue were weighed to calculate the adiposity index. Results: The hypercaloric diet increased body weight gain, adiposity index, white adipose tissue weight (epididymal, subcutaneous and retroperitoneal) and brown adipose tissue weight. Rats fed with the hypercaloric diet showed short-term and long-term memory impairments in the NOR test, as well as increased GFAP expression in astrocytes from all analyzed hypothalamic and hippocampal areas. Conclusion: This astrogliosis suggests that the neuroinflammatory response also occurs in the hippocampus and may be involved in the memory losses observed in obese/overweight animals.

RESUMO Objetivo: A inflamação hipotalâmica e a superexpressão da proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP) em astrócitos são bem descritas em animais obesos, assim como déficits cognitivos e de memória. Como o hipocampo desempenha importante papel na consolidação de informações, esta investigação teve como objetivo observar a função da memória e a expressão astrocitária da GFAP no hipocampo de ratos que receberam dieta hipercalórica ou normocalórica. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos adultos receberam dieta rica em gordura (cafeteria) ou dieta padrão por 60 dias. No 61º dia, os ratos foram submetidos ao teste de reconhecimento de objetos (NOR) 3 e 24 horas após o primeiro contato com os objetos, para avaliação da memória de curto e de longo prazo, respectivamente. Após, os ratos foram eutanasiados e os encéfalos coletados para pesquisa imuno-histoquímica da expressão astrocitária de GFAP no hipocampo (áreas CA1, CA2 e CA3) e no hipotálamo (núcleos periventricular e arqueado). A reatividade astrocitária foi avaliada por morfometria. Diferentes depósitos de tecido adiposo branco e marrom foram pesados para calcular o índice de adiposidade. Resultados: A dieta hipercalórica aumentou o ganho de peso corporal, o índice de adiposidade, o peso do tecido adiposo branco (epididimal, subcutâneo e retroperitoneal) e marrom. Ratos alimentados com dieta hipercalórica apresentaram prejuízos na memória de curto e longo prazo no teste NOR e aumento da expressão de GFAP em astrócitos de todas as áreas hipotalâmicas e hipocampais analisadas. Conclusão: Esta astrogliose sugere que a resposta neuroinflamatória também ocorre no hipocampo, podendo estar envolvida nas perdas de memória observadas em animais obesos/com sobrepeso.

Animals , Male , Astrocytes/chemistry , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/analysis , Hippocampus/cytology , Memory Disorders/etiology , Obesity/complications , Reference Values , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , Memory Disorders/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776646


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the anti-neuroinflammation effect of extract of Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (EFSC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 cells and the possible involved mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Primary cortical neurons were isolated from embryonic (E17-18) cortices of Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse fetuses. Primary microglia and astroglia were isolated from the frontal cortices of newborn ICR mouse. Different cells were cultured in specific culture medium. Cells were divided into 5 groups: control group, LPS group (treated with 1 μg/mL LPS only) and EFSC groups (treated with 1 μg/mL LPS and 100, 200 or 400 mg/mL EFSC, respectively). The effect of EFSC on cells viability was tested by methylthiazolyldiphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. EFSC-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitrite oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were quantified and neuron-protection effect against microglia-mediated inflammation injury was tested by hoechst 33258 apoptosis assay and crystal violet staining assay. The expression of pro-inflammatory marker proteins was evaluated by Western blot analysis or immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#EFSC (200 and 400 mg/mL) reduced NO, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-induced BV-2 cells (P<0.01 or P<0.05). EFSC (200 and 400 mg/mL) reduced the expression of NO in LPS-induced primary microglia and astroglia (P<0.01). In addition, EFSC alleviated cell apoptosis and inflammation injury in neurons exposed to microglia-conditioned medium (P<0.01). The mechanistic studies indicated EFSC could suppress nuclear factor (NF)-?B phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation (P<0.01). The anti-inflammatory effect of EFSC occurred through suppressed activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway (P<0.01 or P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EFSC acted as an anti-inflammatory agent in LPS-induced glia cells. These effects might be realized through blocking of NF-κB activity and inhibition of MAPK signaling pathways.

Animals , Astrocytes , Metabolism , Pathology , Cell Line , Cell Nucleus , Metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Down-Regulation , Inflammation , Pathology , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice, Inbred ICR , Microglia , Metabolism , Pathology , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Nervous System , Pathology , Neurons , Metabolism , Pathology , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Schisandra , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773395


OBJECTIVE@#The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a persistent organic pollutant, is harmful to the nervous system, but its effects on the brain are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of TCDD on astrocytes proliferation and underlying molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#The cell proliferation was measured by EdU-based proliferation assay and PI staining by flow cytometry. Protein expression levels were detected by Western blotting. Immunofluorescence, cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions separation were used to assess the distribution of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3).@*RESULTS@#C6 cells treated with 10 and 50 nmol/L TCDD for 24 h showed significant promotion of the proliferation of. The exposure to TCDD resulted in the upregulation in the expression levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), phosphorylated STAT3, and cyclin D1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The inhibition of Akt expression with LY294002 or STAT3 expression with AG490 abolished the TCDD-induced cyclin D1 upregulation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, LY294002 suppressed the activation of STAT3. Finally, TCDD promoted the translocation of STAT3 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and LY294002 treatment blocked this effect.@*CONCLUSION@#TCDD exposure promotes the proliferation of astrocyte cells via the Akt/STAT3/cyclin D1 pathway, leading to astrogliosis.

Animals , Animals, Newborn , Astrocytes , Cell Proliferation , Cyclin D1 , Metabolism , Environmental Pollutants , Toxicity , Neurotoxins , Toxicity , Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins , Toxicity , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776508


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the expressions of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) in hippocampus of epileptic rats and to investigate the pathogenesis of SphK1 and S1PR2 in epilepsy.@*METHODS@#One hundred and eight male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control group (n=48) and pilocarpine (PILO) group (n=60). A robust convulsive status epilepticus (SE) was induced in PILO group rats by the application of pilocarpine. Control group rats were injected with respective of physiological saline. Pilocarpine group was randomly divided into 6 subgroups (n=8): acute group (E6 h, E1 d, E3 d), latent group (E7 d) and chronic group (E30 d, E56 d). Each subgroup has 8 control rats and 8 epileptic rats. Hippocampal tissue and brain slices were obtained from control rats and rats subjected to the Li-PILO model of epilepsy at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d,7 d,30 d and 56 d after status epilepticus (SE). Western blot technique was used to determine the expressions of SphK1 and S1PR2 in hippocampus at different point of time after pilocarpine treatment. Immunofluorescence was applied to detect the activation and proliferation of hippocampal astrocytes and the localization of SphK1 and S1PR2 in rat hippocampal astrocytes.@*RESULTS@#Compared with control group, the levels of SphK1 in acute phase (E3 d), latent phase (E7 d) and chronic phase (E30 d, E56 d) were significantly increased while the expressions of S1PR2 were decreased in acute phase (E3 d), latent phase (E7 d) and chronic phase (E30 d, E56 d)(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Immunofluorescence results showed astrocyte activation and proliferation in hippocampus of epileptic (E7 d) rats (P<0.05). Confocal microscopy confirmed the preferential expressions of SphK1 and S1PR2 in epileptic rat(E7 d)hippocampal astrocytes.@*CONCLUSION@#The results indicate that SphK1 and S1PR2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy by regulating the activation and proliferation of hippocampal astrocytes and altering neuronal excitability.

Animals , Astrocytes , Epilepsy , Hippocampus , Cell Biology , Male , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) , Metabolism , Pilocarpine , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Lysosphingolipid , Metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776000


To compare the biological functions of astrocytes cultured by two methods. Methods The primary astrocytes were cultured from rodent neonatal brain,whereas the differentiated astrocytes were prepared by differentiating neural stem cells with fetal bovine serum.The morphologies of these two different types of astrocytes were observed under microscope and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP),an astrocyte-specific marker,was detected by immunofluorescence staining after treatment with 10 cytokines.Changes in GFAP,glutamate synthetase(GS),glutamate-aspartic acid transporter(xCT),neuregulin-1(NRG),N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor(NMDA),lipoprotein lipase(LPL)were detected and compared. Results The morphologies and GFAP expression differed between these two astrocyte types.Microarray showed that the expressions of GFAP,GS,xCT,NRG,NMDA,and LPL were significantly higher in primary astrocytes than in differentiated astrocytes.None of these 10 cytokines increased the expression of GFAP in primary astrocytes,whereas treatment with transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β)significantly increased the expression of GFAP in the differentiated astrocytes. Conclusion Compared with the differentiated astrocytes,the primary astrocytes are more similar to reactive astrocytes,and TGF-β can promote the transition of differentiated cells to reactive cells.

Animals , Animals, Newborn , Astrocytes , Cell Biology , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Metabolism , Neural Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Rodentia , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Pharmacology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775934


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of acupuncture at "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) on the ultrastructure of hippocampal dentate gyrus in rats with Alzheimer's disease.@*METHODS@#Forty SPF Wistar male rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a sham operation group, a model group and an acupuncture group, 10 rats in each one. The rats in the model group and the acupuncture group were treated with injection of 5 μL Aβ at bilateral hippocampus, while the rats in the sham operation group were treated with injection of 5 μL 0.9% NaCl. Three days after modeling, the rats in the acupuncture group were treated with acupuncture at "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) for 20 min, once a day, six treatments constituted a course, and totally two courses were given with an interval of 1 day between courses. The rats in the other groups received normal diet and no treatment was given. Before modeling, four days after modeling and after treatment, water maze test was performed to observe the escape latency and the number of crossing platforms. The hippocampal dentate gyrus was collected and transmission electron microscope was applied to observe the ultrastructure changes of neurons and astrocytes.@*RESULTS@#①Four days after modeling, compared with the normal group and the sham operation group, the escape latency was significantly prolonged and the number of crossing platforms was reduced in the model group (all <0.01); after treatment, compared with the model group, the escape latency was significantly reduced and the number of crossing platforms was increased in the acupuncture group (both <0.01). ②In the normal group and the sham operation group, the morphology of neurons and astrocytes was intact, the nuclear and membrane structure were clear, and the morphology of organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes was normal. In the model group, the morphology of neurons was irregular, the nucleus was severely constricted with edema in the cytoplasm, the color of heterochromatin was deepened, the endoplasmic reticulum was expanded, the granulation was removed and the number of mitochondria was decreased, even with malformed-like change in mitochondrial cristae; there was severe edema around astrocytes, few organelles in the cytoplasm, severe swelling of mitochondria and mild expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum. In the acupuncture group, the edema of the neuron and astrocytes was still evident, and the mitochondrial was mildly swollen but relieved compared with that in the model group, and there were no obvious abnormalities in neuronal endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes.@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture could improve the ultrastructure of neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in rats with Alzheimer's disease induced by Aβ.

Acupuncture Therapy , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Animals , Astrocytes , Dentate Gyrus , Hippocampus , Male , Neurons , Peptide Fragments , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar