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Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 551-555, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986168


Relevant research in recent years has demonstrated that the atrial fibrillation occurrence rate is significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis. The most common indication for long-term anticoagulant therapy is chronic atrial fibrillation. The use of anticoagulant therapy greatly reduces the incidence rate of ischemic stroke. Patients with cirrhosis combined with atrial fibrillation have an elevated risk of bleeding and embolism during anticoagulant therapy due to cirrhotic coagulopathy. At the same time, the liver of such patients will go through varying levels of metabolism and elimination while consuming currently approved anticoagulant drugs, thereby increasing the complexity of anticoagulant therapy. This article summarizes the clinical studies on the risks and benefits of anticoagulant therapy in order to provide a reference for patients with cirrhosis combined with atrial fibrillation.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Risk Factors
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 313-321, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970080


BACKGROUND@#China bears the biggest atrial fibrillation (AF) burden in the world. However, little is known about the incidence and predictors of AF. This study aimed to investigate the current incidence of AF and its electrocardiographic (ECG) predictors in general community individuals aged over 60 years in China.@*METHODS@#This was a prospective cohort study, recruiting subjects who were aged over 60 years and underwent annual health checkups from April to July 2015 in four community health centers in Songjiang District, Shanghai, China. The subjects were then followed up from 2015 to 2019 annually. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and the resting 12-lead ECG were collected. Kaplan-Meier curve was used for showing the trends in AF incidence and calculating the predictors of AF. Associations of ECG abnormalities and AF incidence were examined using Cox proportional hazard models.@*RESULTS@#This study recruited 18,738 subjects, and 351 (1.87%) developed AF. The overall incidence rate of AF was 5.2/1000 person-years during an observation period of 67,704 person-years. Multivariable Cox regression analysis indicated age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.09; P < 0.001), male (HR, 1.30; 95% CI: 1.05-1.62; P = 0.018), a history of hypertension (HR, 1.55; 95% CI: 1.23-1.95; P < 0.001), a history of cardiac diseases (HR, 3.23; 95% CI: 2.34-4.45; P < 0.001), atrial premature complex (APC) (HR, 2.82; 95% CI: 2.17-3.68; P < 0.001), atrial flutter (HR, 18.68; 95% CI: 7.37-47.31; P < 0.001), junctional premature complex (JPC) (HR, 3.57; 95% CI: 1.59-8.02; P = 0.002), junctional rhythm (HR, 18.24; 95% CI: 5.83-57.07; P < 0.001), ventricular premature complex (VPC) (HR, 1.76; 95% CI: 1.13-2.75, P = 0.012), short PR interval (HR, 5.49; 95% CI: 1.36-22.19; P = 0.017), right atrial enlargement (HR, 6.22; 95% CI: 1.54-25.14; P = 0.010), and pacing rhythm (HR, 3.99; 95% CI: 1.57-10.14; P = 0.004) were independently associated with the incidence of AF.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The present incidence of AF was 5.2/1000 person-years in the studied population aged over 60 years in China. Among various ECG abnormalities, only APC, atrial flutter, JPC, junctional rhythm, short PR interval, VPC, right atrial enlargement, and pacing rhythm were independently associated with AF incidence.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Incidence , Atrial Flutter/complications , Risk Factors , China/epidemiology , Electrocardiography
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(3): 373-381, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375643


Abstract Background: Current pacemakers allow for the continuous recording of the occurrence of arrhythmic events. One of the most frequent arrhythmias after implantation of a device is atrial fibrillation (AF), an important risk factor for embolic events. The frequency of this arrhythmia in pacemaker patients has not been widely studied. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, incidence, and predictors of the occurrence of AF in patients with double-chamber pacemakers and without a history of atrial fibrillation prior to implantation. Methods: A dynamic, retrospective, and prospective cohort study was carried out with 186 patients undergoing biannual follow-up of the double-chamber pacemaker, without previous AF, in a single service, between 2016 and 2018. Clinical data were collected from the medical records and the telemetry of the device and the prevalence, incidence rate, relative risk by univariate analysis (by chi-square), and risk ratio were calculated by multivariate analysis (by Cox regression); values of p<0.05 were considered significant. Results: There was a prevalence of 25.3% FA, with an incidence of 5.64 cases / 100 persons-year. The median time for the development of arrhythmia was 27.5 months. Multivariate analysis identified 5 statistically significant predictors: male gender, OR: 2.54 [1.04-6.15]; coronary artery disease, OR: 2.98 [1.20-7.41]; hypothyroidism, OR: 3.63 [1.46-9.07]; prior heart surgery, OR: 2.67 [1.01-7]; and left atrial enlargement, OR: 2.72 [1.25-5.92]. Conclusions: The prevalence and incidence of AF in this population are high. Risk factors for AF were: male gender, coronary artery disease, hypothyroidism, prior heart surgery, and left atrial enlargement.

Humans , Male , Female , Pacemaker, Artificial , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Atrioventricular Node , Cohort Studies , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hypertension
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408668


Introducción: La fibrilación auricular constituye un importante problema de salud, debido al aumento de su incidencia con la edad y a la asociación con otras morbilidades. Los pacientes con fibrilación auricular tienen de 4 a 5 veces mayor riesgo de accidente cerebrovascular y alrededor del doble de riesgo de mortalidad en relación con los que no sufren fibrilación auricular. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes con fibrilación auricular atendidos en el Policlínico de Guanabo. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo descriptivo transversal que incluyó a todos los pacientes adultos ingresados con esta arritmia en el Área Intensiva Municipal Guanabo. Se revisaron 24 meses (10 de 2017 y 2018 y primer cuatrimestre de 2019). Las variables estudiadas fueron: diagnóstico principal al ingreso, estado hemodinámico, letalidad, estrategia terapéutica y conducta final. Resultados: Al ingreso el diagnóstico principal fue fibrilación auricular (52 por ciento), además de presentar otra afección asociada. El resto de los pacientes (44) tuvo otros diagnósticos; 6,5 por ciento llegó con inestabilidad hemodinámica. Fallecieron dos casos para una letalidad de 2,2 por ciento. La cardioversión farmacológica fue usada en 68 casos (75 por ciento. Los medicamentos más usados fueron amiodarona, atenolol y digoxina. La cardioversión eléctrica se aplicó solo en cuatro casos de los seis inestables. El 58 por ciento egresó a domicilio, remitió 39 por ciento, 70 por ciento tuvo una estadía entre dos y tres horas. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico principal al ingreso correspondió a la fibrilación auricular, con estabilidad hemodinámica y letalidad baja. La estrategia terapéutica utilizada fue amiodarona, atenolol y digoxina. El servicio logra alta resolutividad. La estadía promedio fue dos a tres horas(AU)

Introduction: Atrial fibrillation is an important health concerns, due to its increasing incidence with aging and association with other diseases. Patients with atrial fibrillation have 4-5 times the risk of stroke and about twice the risk of death in relation to those without atrial fibrillation. Objective: To characterize patients with atrial fibrillation treated at Guanabo outpatient Polyclinic. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out with all the patients admitted, with the aforementioned arrhythmia, in the municipal intensive care unit of Guanabo (eastern Havana, Cuba). Twenty-four months were reviewed (10 from 2017 and 2018, and the first four-month period of 2019). The variables studied were main diagnosis at admission, hemodynamic status, lethality, therapeutic strategy, and final behavior. Results: Regarding their main diagnosis on admission, fibrillation accounted for 52 percent of cases, another entity plus electrocardiographic findings accounted for the rest; 6.5 percent arrived with hemodynamic instability. Two cases died, which resulted in a case fatality rate of 2.2 percent. Pharmacological cardioversion was used in 68 cases (75 percent). The most commonly used drugs were amiodarone, atenolol and digoxin. Electrical cardioversion was applied in only four of the six unstable cases. Fifty-eight percent were discharged home, 39 percent were remitted, and 70 percent had a stay between two and three hours. Conclusions: The main diagnosis at admission was atrial fibrillation, with hemodynamic stability and low lethality. The therapeutic strategy consisted of amiodarone, atenolol and digoxin. The service showed high solving capacity. The average length of stay was two to three hours(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
São Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 182-187, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366042


Abstract BACKGROUND: Prevention of recurrence of stroke depends on recognition of the underlying mechanism of ischemia. OBJECTIVE: To screen patients who were hospitalized with diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke in terms of atrial fibrillation (AF) with repeated Holter electrocardiography recordings. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study conducted at Konya Education and Research Hospital, Turkey. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke, without atrial fibrillation on electrocardiography (ECG), were evaluated. Their age, gender, histories of previous ischemic attack, occurrences of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) and other risks were assessed during the first week after acute ischemic stroke and one month thereafter. ECG recordings were obtained from 130 patients through 24-hour ambulatory Holter. Patients without PAF attack during the first Holter were re-evaluated. RESULTS: PAF was detected through the first Holter in 33 (25.4%) out of 130 acute ischemic stroke patients. A second Holter was planned for 97 patients: 53 (54.6%) of them could not attend due to COVID-19 pandemic; while 44 (45.3%) patients had the second Holter and, among these, 4 (9.1%) had PAF. The only parameter associated with PAF was older age. Four (10.8%) of the 37 patients with PAF had also symptomatic carotid stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Detecting the presence of PAF by screening patients with no AF in the ECG through Holter ECG examinations is valuable in terms of changing the course of the treatment. It should be kept in mind that the possibility of accompanying PAF cannot be ruled out in the presence of other factors that pose a risk of stroke.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke , COVID-19 , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/adverse effects , Pandemics
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 258-264, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929030


Non-valvular atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia and a major risk factor for cardioembolic stroke. Small cerebral vascular disease is a syndrome of clinical, cognitive, imaging, and pathological manifestations caused by intracranial small vascular lesions. The imaging findings on cranial magnetic resonance usually shows recent subcortical small infarction, vascularised lacunae, white matter hypersignal, perivascular space enlargement, cerebral microhemorrhage, and brain atrophy. It is a major cause of neurological loss and cognitive function decline in the elderly. Current studies suggest that atrial fibrillation may increase the imaging load of cerebral small vessel disease through a series of mechanisms such as microembolization, hypoperfusion, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and lymphoid system dysfunction. The imaging of cerebral small vessel disease with atrial fibrillation has a potential relationship with cognitive function decline and is related to the occurrence and prognosis of stroke, even more has a potential role in suggesting the etiology and secondary prevention strategies of ischemic stroke.

Aged , Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Stroke/etiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 426-434, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339193


Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação ou flutter atrial (FFA) é a arritmia cardíaca sustentada mais comum. Existem poucos dados sobre a epidemiologia da FFA na América do Sul. Objetivo: O presente estudo procurou descrever a epidemiologia clínica da FFA e o uso de anticoagulantes na avaliação da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Métodos: Foram analisados dados de 13.260 participantes do ELSA-Brasil. A FFA foi definida pelo eletrocardiograma ou por autorrelato. Modelos de regressão logística foram construídos para analisar fatores associados à FFA. Este estudo também analisou se idade e sexo estavam associados ao uso de anticoagulantes para evitar acidente vascular cerebral. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: A idade mediana foi de 51 anos, e 7.213 (54,4%) participantes eram mulheres. A FFA foi detectada em 333 (2,5%) participantes. O aumento da idade (razão de chances [RC]:1,05; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%]: 1,04-1,07), hipertensão (RC:1,44; IC95%:1,14-1,81) coronariopatia (RC: 5,11; IC95%:3,85-6,79), insuficiência cardíaca (RC:7,37; IC95%:5,00-10,87) e febre reumática (RC:3,38; IC95%:2,28-5,02) foram associadas à FFA. Dos 185 participantes com FFA e pontuação no CHA2DS2-VASc≥2, apenas 20 (10,8%) usavam anticoagulantes (50,0% entre aqueles com FFA no eletrocardiograma de linha de base). O uso de anticoagulantes nesse grupo foi associado a maior idade (1,8% vs 17,7% naqueles com idade ≤ 54 e ≥ 65 anos, respectivamente; p=0,013). Observou-se uma tendência ao menor uso de anticoagulantes em mulheres (7,1% vs. 16,4% em mulheres e homens, respectivamente; p=0,055). Conclusões: No recrutamento do ELSA-Brasil, 2,5% dos participantes tinham FFA. O baixo uso de anticoagulantes era comum, o que representa um desafio para os cuidados de saúde nesse cenário.

Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation or flutter (AFF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. Limited data can be found on AFF epidemiology in South America. Objective: The present study sought to describe the clinical epidemiology of AFF and the use of stroke prevention medication in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline assessment. Methods: This study analyzed data from 13,260 ELSA-Brasil participants. AFF was defined according to ECG recording or by self-report. Logistic regression models were built to analyze factors associated with AFF. This study also analyzed if age and sex were associated with anticoagulant use for stroke prevention. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: Median age was 51 years and 7,213 (54.4%) participants were women. AFF was present in 333 (2.5%) participants. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR]:1.05; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.04-1.07), hypertension (OR:1.44; 95%CI: 1.14-1.81), coronary heart disease (OR: 5.11; 95%CI: 3.85-6.79), heart failure (OR:7.37; 95%CI: 5.00-10.87), and rheumatic fever (OR:3.38; 95%CI: 2.28-5.02) were associated with AFF. From 185 participants with AFF and a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2, only 20 (10.8%) used anticoagulants (50.0% among those with AFF in the baseline ECG). Stroke prevention in this group was associated with a higher age (1.8% vs 17.7% in those aged ≤ 54 and ≥ 65 years, respectively; p=0.013). A trend towards a reduced anticoagulant use was observed in women (7.1% vs. 16.4% in women and men, respectively; p=0.055). Conclusions: At the ELSA-Brasil baseline, 2.5% of the participants had AFF. The lack of stroke prevention was common, which is an especially challenging point for healthcare in this setting.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Risk Assessment , Electrocardiography , Self Report , Middle Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(1): e36105, abr. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | BNUY, UY-BNMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1248118


Desde época temprana de la cirugía cardíaca (CC), la fibrilación auricular (FA) ha sido un acompañante frecuente del posoperatorio, y no es esperable su abatimiento en el futuro cercano. La interpretación de su significado clínico se ha modificado en los últimos años, tras conocerse su tendencia recurrente y su asociación con serias complicaciones inmediatas y a largo plazo. Esto deja entrever un nuevo desafío, dejando de ser un problema menor y de consideración puntual en el perioperatorio para constituir un tema de preocupación y seguimiento en el futuro alejado, aún con incertidumbres evolutivas y de manejo. La profilaxis efectiva de esta arritmia, una respuesta lógica al problema, es dificultosa por la multiplicidad de factores de riesgo y lo intrincado de su génesis, todavía no completamente dilucidada, sumadas a la edad creciente de los pacientes intervenidos, la complejidad mayor de los procedimientos, los posibles efectos colaterales de los fármacos empleados y la inexistencia de un algoritmo predictivo confiable que permita racionalizar las medidas preventivas. Además, muchas recomendaciones de las guías de práctica clínica actuales se basan en información obtenida en estudios realizados en la FA primaria, por lo que su adopción en el escenario de la CC ha sido menor a la deseable. Todos estos aspectos son objeto de análisis en esta revisión que finaliza con pautas de manejo práctico de la arritmia en el entorno perioperatorio.

Since an early age of heart surgery, atrial fibrillation has been a frequent companion of the postoperative period, and its decline is not to be expected in the near future. The interpretation of its clinical significance has changed in recent years, after knowing its recurrent trend and its association with serious immediate and long-term complications. This fact unveils a new challenge, as it is no longer a minor problem of consideration restricted to the perioperative period and has become a topic of concern and follow-up in the distant future, still with uncertainties as to its evolution and management. The effective prophylaxis of this arrhythmia, a logical response to the problem, has been difficult by the multiplicity of risk factors and the intricate of its genesis, not yet completely elucidated, added to the increasing age of the patients involved, the greater complexity of the procedures, the possible side effects of the drugs used and the absence of a reliable predictive algorithm that could allow to rationalize preventive measures. In addition, many recommendations from current clinical practice guidelines are based on information obtained from studies in primary atrial fibrillation, so their adoption in the heart surgery scenario has been less than desirable. All these aspects are analyzed in this review, which ends with directives for the practical management of the arrhythmia in the perioperative environment.

Desde os primeiros días da cirurgia cardíaca, a fibrilação atrial (FA) tem sido uma companheira frequente para o pós-operatório, e sua reduçao não é esperada em um futuro próximo. A interpretação de sua significância clínica mudou nos últimos anos, tendo conhecido sua tendência recorrente e sua associação com sérias complicações imediatas e de longo prazo. Este fato mostra um novo desafio, pois deixou de ser um pequeno problema e uma consideração oportuna no perioperatório para constituir um tema de preocupação e acompanhamento em um futuro distante, mesmo com incertezas quanto à sua evolução e gestão. A profilaxia efetiva dessa arritmia, uma resposta lógica ao problema, tem sido cercada pela multiplicidade de fatores de risco e pela intrincação de sua gênese ainda não completamente elucidada, juntamente com a idade crescente dos pacientes envolvidos, a maior complexidade dos procedimentos, os possíveis efeitos colaterais dos medicamentos utilizados e a ausência de um algoritmo preditivo confiável para racionalizar as medidas preventivas. Além disso, muitas recomendações das guias atuais de prática clínica são baseadas em informações obtidas em estudos conduzidos em FA primária, de modo que sua adoção no cenário da cirurgia cardíaca tem sido menos do que desejável. Todos esses aspectos são analisados nesta revisão, que termina com diretrizes práticas de gestão para arritmia no ambiente perioperatório.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Incidence , Risk Factors , Case Management , Stroke/etiology
Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires; Comisión Nacional de Evaluación de Tecnologías de Salud; Marzo 2021. 50 p. (Informe de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias N° 9, 9).
Monography in Spanish | BINACIS, ARGMSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1151682


El presente informe es producto del trabajo colaborativo de la Comisión Nacional de Evaluación de Tecnologías de Salud (CONETEC), dependiente del Ministerio de Salud de la Nación y creada por RM N° 623/2018. La CONETEC realiza evaluaciones y emite recomendaciones a la autoridad sanitaria sobre la incorporación, forma de uso, financiamiento y políticas de cobertura de las tecnologías sanitarias desde una perspectiva global del sistema de salud argentino. En sus evaluaciones y recomendaciones, la CONETEC tiene en cuenta criterios de calidad, seguridad, efectividad, eficiencia y equidad, evaluados bajo dimensiones éticas, médicas, económicas y sociales. Sus resultados son consensuados mediante discusiones públicas y ponderados a través de un marco de valor explícito, con la participación de todos los actores involucrados en el proceso de toma de decisiones en salud. Los informes y recomendaciones de esta comisión surgen de este proceso público, transparente y colaborativo, siendo de libre consulta y acceso para toda la sociedad.

Atrial Fibrillation , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Anticoagulants
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 856-865, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941368


Objective: To analyze the current status, trend and predictors of thromboembolism risk assessment in patients hospitalized with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in tertiary hospitals in China. Methods: The study was based on data from the Improving Care for Cardiovascular disease in China (CCC)-Atrial Fibrillation (AF) project. About 10% of the tertiary hospitals in each geographic-economic stratum were recruited. Participating hospitals reported the first 10 to 20 patients with a discharge diagnosis of atrial fibrillation monthly. From February 2015 to December 2019, a total of 49 104 NVAF patients from 151 tertiary hospitals in 30 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions were enrolled. Clinical data of the patients was collected. The proportion of NVAF patients receiving thromboembolism risk assessment, variations in the proportion between different hospitals, the time trend of the application of thromboembolism risk assessment, and the predictors of the application of thromboembolism risk assessment were analyzed. Results: The age of the NVAF patients was (68.7±12.1) years, 27 709 patients (56.4%) were male. Only 17 251 patients (35.1%) received thromboembolism risk assessment. The proportion varied substantially between hospitals with the lowest value of 0 and the highest value of 100%. Among the hospitals, which enrolled more than 30 patients, no patients received thromboembolism risk assessment in 18.4% (26/141) of the hospitals, more than 50% of the patients received thromboembolism risk assessment in 21.3% (30/141) of the hospitals, and all the patients received thromboembolism risk assessment in only 1 hospital. The proportion of NVAF patients receiving thromboembolism risk assessment was 16.2% (220/1 362) in the first quarter of 2015, and significantly increased to 67.1% (1 054/1 572) in the last quarter of 2019 (P<0.001). Patients' characteristics were associated with the application of thromboembolism risk assessment. The odds of receiving thromboembolism risk assessment was lower in male patients compared to female patients(OR=0.94,95%CI 0.89-0.99), lower in patients with acute coronary syndrome or other cardiovascular diseases compared to those with AF as the primary admission reason (OR=0.59, 95%CI 0.55-0.63, OR=0.52, 95%CI 0.45-0.61, respectively), and lower in patients with paroxysmal, persistent and long-standing/permanent AF compared to those with first detected AF (OR=0.62, 95%CI 0.57-0.67, OR=0.72, 95%CI 0.66-0.79, OR=0.57, 95%CI 0.52-0.64, respectively). The odds was higher in patients with a history of hypertension, heart failure, stroke/TIA, and previous anticoagulant therapy compared to those without the above conditions (OR=1.17, 95%CI 1.11-1.23, OR=1.18, 95%CI 1.07-1.30, OR=1.17, 95%CI 1.08-1.27, OR=1.28, 95%CI 1.19-1.37, respectively) (P all<0.05). Conclusion: Thromboembolism risk assessment was underused in patients hospitalized with NVAF in tertiary hospitals in China, and there were substantial variations between hospitals in the application of thromboembolism risk assessment. The application of thromboembolism risk assessment in tertiary hospitals has been improved in recent years, but there is still plenty of room for future improvement. Patients' characteristics could affect the application of thromboembolism risk assessment in China.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stroke , Tertiary Care Centers , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Online) ; 14(4): 228-235, 31-12-2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151608


INTRODUÇÃO: A fibrilação atrial aumenta o risco de eventos cerebrovasculares em cinco vezes. A anticoagulação reduz a incidência e a gravidade desses eventos, entretanto muitos pacientes deixam de receber tromboprofilaxia. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a prevalência de fibrilação atrial em pacientes idosos acompanhados em um hospital universitário e identificar o percentual desses pacientes com prescrição de anticoagulantes. Os objetivos secundários foram identificar as opções terapêuticas, as justificativas para não indicar o uso e os fatores associados à ineficácia e/ou ausência de tratamento. METODOLOGIA: Em estudo transversal, uma amostra consecutiva de 1.630 pacientes do Hospital de Clínicas O de Porto Alegre foi rastreada entre abril e junho de 2017. Fibrilação atrial foi identificada em 220 (13,50%) indivíduos, dos quais 145 foram avaliados com base na revisão de prontuários e questionário telefônico. A associação entre as variáveis e os desfechos foi analisada por meio do Teste U de Mann-Whitney e do teste do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de fibrilação atrial foi de 13,50%. Em 77,93%, havia i-r anticoagulante prescrito. Em 76,11% dos anticoagulados, a opção foi varfarina. Houve tendência de não prescrição para idosos com histórico de sangramento (risco relativo ­ RR = 2,32; índice de confiança de 95% - IC95% 0,95 - 5,64; p = 0,06) e quedas (RR = 2,02; IC95% 0,82 - 5,03; p = 0,08). Houve associação significativa entre maior grau de limitação funcional e maior índice de tratamento no alvo terapêutico (razão de prevalência ­ RP = 022; IC95% 0,06 - 0,87; p = 0,04). CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de fibrilação atrial foi de 13,5% e, em 77,93% dos casos, havia prescrição de anticoagulante. Houve associação entre incapacidade funcional e melhor índice de anticoagulação no alvo terapêutico.

INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation increases five times the risk of stroke. Anticoagulation reduces the incidence of cerebrovascular events. However, many patients do not receive thromboprophylaxis. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the older patients at a Brazilian university hospital and the proportion of anticoagulation prescription. Secondary objectives were to identify the therapeutic options, the main reasons for non-prescription and the factors associated with ineffectiveness or lack of treatment. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 1,630 outpatients selected at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre between April and June of 2017. Atrial fibrillation was identified in 220 (13.50%) individuals. t Medical records from 145 patients were accessed, followed by a telephone interview. The association between variables and " outcomes was checked using the Mann-Whitney's U Test and a chi-squared test. RESULTS: The prevalence of atrial fibrillation was 13.50%. Anticoagulation therapy was prescribed in 77.93% of cases. In 76.11% of patients, warfarin was the chosen drug. < There was a tendency towards no prescription in patients with previous bleeding (RR = 2.32; 95%CI 0.95 - 5.64; p = 0.06) and falls (RR = 2.02; 95%CI 0.82 - 5.03; p = 0.08). We found an association between reduced functional capacity (Barthel's Activities of Daily Living Score < 80) and higher rate of anticoagulation in therapeutic target (RR = 0.22; 95%CI 0.06 - 0.87; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of atrial fibrillation in this population was 13.50% and in 77.93% of cases anticoagulant were prescribed. Functional impairment was associated with a higher rate of anticoagulation in therapeutic target.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cerebral Infarction , Health of the Elderly
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1473-1475, Nov. 2020.
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1143643


SUMMARY Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery, with a prevalence between 15-40% after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Several strategies have been tested for the prevention and management of AF postoperatively. Previous studies and analysis of records have shown higher rates of hospitalization and clinical outcomes associated with this entity, including increased mortality in the short- and long-term. This perspective reviews the topic, and offers recommendations for the management of this arrhythmia in the postoperative period of CABG, with a special focus on anticoagulation strategies.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications , Postoperative Period , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 266-273, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131043


Resumen Objetivo: Se denomina bloqueo interauricular avanzado (BIA) a la existencia de una onda P ≥ 120 ms y bifásica +/- en las derivaciones inferiores (II-III-VF) del electrocardiograma (ECG) de superficie, el cual constituye un factor predictivo significativo del desarrollo de fibrilación auricular. En fecha reciente se han descrito cuatro patrones de BIA atípicos (BIA-At) con base en la morfología y la duración de la onda P, sin conocer si comparten patogenia y características clínicas similares. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo de pacientes, visitados en el Servicio de Cardiología, en ritmo sinusal y con BIA. Las variables analizadas se obtuvieron de la historia clínica informatizada. El análisis de la onda P se efectuó al aumentar el tamaño del electrocardiograma y mediante calipers electrónicos. El análisis estadístico se realizó con SPSS 19.0, con nivel de significación de p < 0.05. Resultados: Se incluyó a 75 pacientes con media de edad de 74.4 ± 11.7 años, con 62.7% de varones. Se compararon los grupos de pacientes con BIA típico (BIA-T) y BIA-At. El primero se relacionó con la existencia de diabetes mellitus (p = 0.001), enfermedad renal crónica estadio ≥ 3 (p = 0.036), bloqueo auriculoventricular (p = 0.006) y una menor fracción de expulsión ventricular media (p = 0.025); no hubo diferencias respecto de la prevalencia de fibrilación auricular/flúter o accidente cerebrovascular. Sólo la diabetes se acompañó de riesgo de ser un BIA-T (OR: 6.4; p = 0.002; IC 95%: 2.0-21.1). Conclusiones: La diabetes mellitus constituye el único factor de riesgo de que un BIA sea típico. Los pacientes con BIA-T y BIA-At presentan similar prevalencia de fibrilación auricular y accidente cerebrovascular, por lo que son objeto de un mismo tratamiento clínico.

Abstract Objective: It is called advanced interatrial block (IAB) to the existence of a P wave ≥ 120 ms and biphasic ± in the lower leads II-III-VF of the surface electrocardiogram (ECG), which constitutes a significant predictive factor for the development of atrial fibrillation. Recently, four patterns of atypical aIAB (At-IAB) have been described based on the morphology and duration of the P wave, but it’s unknown if they share the same pathogenesis and clinical characteristics. Method: An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was performed with patients, visited in cardiology, who have a sinus rhythm and with aIAB. The analyzed variables were obtained from the computerized clinical history. The analysis of the P wave was made by increasing the size of the ECG and by electronic calipers. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0; level of significance: p < 0.05. Results: A total of 75 patients with an average age of 74.4 ± 11.7 years and with a 62.7% males, were included. It was compared the group of patients with typical aIAB (T-aIAB) and with At-aIAB. The first one was associated with the existence of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.001), chronic kidney disease stage ≥ 3 (p = 0.036), atrioventricular block (p = 0.006) and a lower mean ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.025); there were no differences regarding the prevalence of atrial fibrillation/flutter or stroke. Only diabetes was associated with the risk of T-aIAB (odds ratio: 6.4; p = 0.002; 95% confidence interval: 2.0-21.1). Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus is the only risk factor for an aIAB to be typical. Patients with T-aIAB and At-aIAB have a similar prevalence of atrial fibrillation and stroke, so they must follow the same clinical management.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Electrocardiography , Interatrial Block/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Atrioventricular Block/epidemiology , Interatrial Block/complications , Interatrial Block/diagnosis
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(3): 256-261, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137172


Abstract Objective: To observe the effects of preoperative right stellate ganglion block on perioperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing lung lobectomy. Methods: Two hundred patients who underwent a scheduled lobectomy were randomly divided into the S and C groups. The S group was injected with 4 mL of 0.2% ropivacaine under ultrasound guidance, and the C group did not receive stellate ganglion block. The patients underwent continuous ECG monitoring, and the incidences of atrial fibrillation and other types of arrhythmias were recorded from the start of surgery to 24 hours after surgery. Results: The respective incidences of atrial fibrillation in the S group and the C group were 3% and 10% (p = 0.045); other atrial arrhythmias were 20% and 38% (p = 0.005); and ventricular arrhythmia were 28% and 39% (p = 0.09). Conclusions: The results of the study indicated that preoperative right stellate ganglion block can effectively reduce the incidence of intraoperative and postoperative atrial fibrillation.

Resumo Objetivo: Observar os efeitos do bloqueio do gânglio estrelado na fibrilação atrial no período perioperatório em pacientes submetidos a lobectomia pulmonar. Método: Duzentos pacientes programados para lobectomia foram divididos aleatoriamente nos grupos S e C. O grupo S recebeu infusão de 4 mL de ropivacaína a 0,2% orientada por ultrassom e o grupo C não foi submetido a bloqueio do gânglio estrelado. Os pacientes foram submetidos à monitoração contínua de ECG, e as incidências de fibrilação atrial e outros tipos de arritmias foram registradas do início da cirurgia até 24 horas depois da cirurgia. Resultados: As incidências de fibrilação atrial no grupo S e no grupo C foram 3% e 10%, respectivamente (p = 0,045); as de outras arritmias atriais foram 20% e 38% (p = 0,005); e de arritmias ventriculares, 28% e 39% (p = 0,09). Conclusões: Os resultados do estudo indicaram que o bloqueio do gânglio estrelado no pré-operatório pode ser efetivo na redução da incidência de fibrilação atrial nos períodos intra- e pós-operatório.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pneumonectomy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Autonomic Nerve Block/methods , Stellate Ganglion , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Incidence , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Electrocardiography , Intraoperative Complications/diagnosis , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(5): 775-782, maio 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1131230


Resumo Fundamento A ablação da fibrilação atrial (FA) e do flutter atrial dependente de istmo cavo-tricuspídeo (FLA-ICT) pode ser realizada simultaneamente quando as duas arritmias tenham sido registradas antes do procedimento. Entretanto, a melhor abordagem não é clara quando pacientes com FLA-ICT são encaminhados para ablação sem o registro prévio de FA. Objetivos Avaliar a prevalência e identificar os preditores de ocorrência do primeiro episódio de FA após ablação de FLA-ICT em pacientes sem o registro prévio de FA. Métodos Coorte retrospectiva de pacientes submetidos exclusivamente a ablação por cateter para FLA-ICT, sem registro prévio de FA. As características clínicas foram comparadas entre os grupos em que houve ocorrência de FA pós-ablação de FLA-ICT vs. sem ocorrência de FA. O nível de significância estatística adotado foi de 5%. Na análise de preditores, o desfecho primário avaliado foi ocorrência de FA após ablação de FLA-ICT. Resultados De um total de 227 pacientes submetidos a ablação de FLA-ICT (110 com registro de FA e 33 sem seguimento adequado), 84 pacientes foram incluídos, dos quais 45 (53,6%) apresentaram FA pós-ablação. Não houve variáveis preditoras de ocorrência de FA. Os escores HATCH e CHA2DS2-VASC foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. As taxas de recorrência de FLA-ICT e complicações após a ablação foram de 11,5% e 1,2%, respectivamente. Conclusões A ablação de FLA-ICT é eficaz e segura, mas 50% dos pacientes desenvolvem FA após ablação. Entretanto, ainda é incerto o papel da ablação combinada (FLA-ICT e FA) visando prevenção da ocorrência de FA. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

Abstract Background Simultaneous ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) and cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter can be performed when both arrythmias had been recorded before the procedure. However, the best approach has not been defined in case of patients referred for ablation with CTI-dependent atrial flutter, without history of AF. Objectives To assess the prevalence and to identify predictors of the first episode of AF after ablation of CTI-dependent atrial flutter in patients without history of AF. Methods Retrospective cohort of patients with CTI-dependent atrial flutter without history of AF undergoing catheter ablation. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients who developed AF and those who did not have AF after the procedure. Significance level was set at 5%. In the analysis of predicting factors, the primary outcome was occurrence of AF after CTI-dependent atrial flutter ablation. Results Of a total of 227 patients undergoing ablation of CTI-dependent atrial flutter (110 with history of AF and 33 without adequate follow-up), 84 were included, and 45 (53.6%) developed post-ablation AF. The HATCH and CHA2DS2-VASC scores were not different between the groups. Recurrence rate of CTI-dependent atrial flutter and complication rate were 11.5% and 1.2%, respectively, after ablation. Conclusions Although ablation of CTI-dependent atrial flutter is a safe and effective procedure, 50% of the patients developed AF after the procedure. However, the role of combined ablation (CTI-dependent atrial flutter plus AF) aiming at preventing AF is still uncertain. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Atrial Flutter/surgery , Catheter Ablation/adverse effects , Recurrence , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/prevention & control , Atrial Flutter/diagnosis , Atrial Flutter/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Catheter Ablation/methods
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 69-76, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131008


Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent arrhythmia; its prevalence is near 2% in the general population; in Mexico, more than one-half million people are affected. AF needs to be considered as a public health problem. Because AF is an independent risk factor associated with mortality, due to embolic events, heart failure, or sudden death; early diagnosis is of utmost importance. In unstable patients with a recent onset of AF, electrical cardioversion should be practiced. In stable patients, once thromboembolic measures have been taken, it is necessary to assess whether it is reasonable to administer an antiarrhythmic drug to restore sinus rhythm or performed electrical cardioversion. For recidivating cases of paroxysmal and persistent presentation, the most effective strategy is performed pulmonary vein isolation with either radiofrequency or cryoballoon energy. Permanent AF is that in which recovery of sinus rhythm is not possible, the distinguishing feature of this phase is the uncontrollable variability of the ventricular frequency and could be treated pharmacologically with atrioventricular (AV) nodal blockers or with a VVIR pacemaker plus AV nodal ablation. The presence of AF has long been associated with the development of cerebral and systemic (pulmonary, limb, coronary, renal, and visceral) embolism. The prevention of embolisms in “valvular” AF should perform with Vitamin K antagonists (VKA). For patients with AF not associated with mitral stenosis or a mechanical valve prosthesis, a choice can be made between anticoagulant drugs, VKA, or direct oral anticoagulants. Antiplatelet agents have the weakest effect in preventing embolism.

Resumen La fibrilación auricular (FA) es una arritmia frecuente; su prevalencia es cercana al 2% en la población general, en México se ven afectados más de medio millón de personas por eso debe considerarse como un problema de salud pública. Debido a que la FA es un factor de riesgo independiente asociado a mortalidad, por eventos embólicos, insuficiencia cardíaca o muerte súbita, la identificación y diagnóstico temprano es de suma importancia. En el inicio reciente de FA en pacientes inestables, se debe practicar la cardioversión eléctrica. En pacientes estables, una vez que se han tomado medidas tromboembólicas, es necesario evaluar si es razonable administrar un medicamento antiarrítmico para restaurar el ritmo sinusal o realizar una cardioversión eléctrica. Para los casos que recidivan, ya sea paroxística o persistente, la estrategia más efectiva es realizar el aislamiento de la venas pulmonares con radiofrecuencia o crioablación con balón. La FA permanente es aquella en la que no es posible la recuperación del ritmo sinusal, la característica distintiva de esta fase de la FA es la variabilidad incontrolable de la frecuencia ventricular. Puede tratarse farmacológicamente con bloqueadores nodales AV o con un marcapasos VVIR mas ablación del nodo AV. La presencia de FA se ha asociado durante mucho tiempo con el desarrollo de embolia cerebral y sistémica (pulmonar, de extremidades, coronaria, renal y visceral). La prevención de embolias en la FA “valvular” debe realizarse con antagonistas de la vitamina K (AVK). Para los pacientes con FA no asociados con estenosis mitral o una prótesis valvular mecánica, se puede elegir entre medicamentos anticoagulantes, AVK o anticoagulantes orales directos (DOAC). Los agentes antiplaquetarios tienen el efecto más débil para prevenir la embolia.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Risk Factors , Cryosurgery/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Mexico/epidemiology , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 223-227, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941095


Objective: To investigate the relationship between high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level and incidence of left atrial spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (LASEC) in the patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Four hundred and ninety consecutive patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who underwent radiofrequency ablation for the first time from January 1, 2018 to June 30, 2018 in the Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital were enrolled. According to the results of transesophageal echocardiography before radiofrequency ablation, patients were divided into the group without LASEC (n=338) and the group with LASEC (n=152). hs-CRP was determined by latex enhanced immunoturbidimetry. The relationship between hs-CRP and LASEC in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation was investigated by univariate and multivariate logistic analysis. Results: LASEC was detected in 152 (31%) of 490 patients. Significant differences in age, type of atrial fibrillation, previous embolic events, fibrinogen, D-dimer, the left atrial anteroposterior diameter and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores were found between patients with and without LASEC (all P<0.05). Compared with the group without LASEC, the serum hs-CRP level was significantly higher in the group with LASEC (3.16 (1.30, 5.23) mg/L vs. 0.67 (0.37, 1.48) mg/L, P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hs-CRP (OR=1.136, 95%CI 1.060 - 1.217, P<0.001) and D-dimer (OR=1.040, 95%CI 1.011 - 1.070, P=0.007) were independent determinants for LASEC in this patient cohort. Conclusions: hs-CRP is an independent determinant for LASEC in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Inflammation may thus be involved in the formation of prethrombotic state in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

Humans , Atrial Appendage , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , C-Reactive Protein , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Electrocardiography , Heart Atria , Incidence , Risk Factors
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(4): 348-359, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149093


Resumen La fibrilación auricular es la arritmia más frecuente en el periodo posquirúrgico de la cirugía cardíaca. Se relaciona con insuficiencia cardíaca, insuficiencia renal, embolismo sistémico y más días de estancia y mortalidad. La fibrilación auricular en el periodo posquirúrgico de la cirugía cardíaca (FAPCC) suele aparecer en las primeras 48 horas. Los principales mecanismos que producen la aparición y el mantenimiento de la FAPCC son el aumento del tono simpático y la respuesta inflamatoria. Los factores de riesgo adjuntos son la edad avanzada, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, enfermedad renal crónica, cirugía valvular, fracción de expulsión del ventrículo izquierdo menor de 40% e interrupción de fármacos bloqueadores β. Existen instrumentos que han demostrado predecir la aparición de FAPCC. El tratamiento profiláctico con bloqueadores β y amiodarona se relaciona con disminución de la aparición de FAPCC. Dada su naturaleza transitoria, se sugiere que el tratamiento inicial de FAPCC sea el control de la frecuencia cardíaca y sólo en caso de que el tratamiento no consiga el retorno al ritmo sinusal está indicada la cardioversión eléctrica. Se desconoce cuál debe ser el seguimiento a largo plazo y sólo se conocen en escasa medida las complicaciones más allá de este periodo. La FAPCC no es una arritmia benigna ni aislada en los pacientes sometidos a operación cardíaca, por lo que la identificación de los factores de riesgo, su prevención y el seguimiento en el ámbito ambulatorio deben formar parte de las unidades dedicadas a la atención y los cuidados de estos pacientes.

Abstract Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent arrhythmia in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. It is associated with heart failure, renal insufficiency, systemic embolism and increase in days of in-hospital and mortality. Atrial fibrillation in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery (FAPCC) usually appears in the first 48 h after surgery. The main mechanisms involved in the appearance and maintenance of FAPCC are the increase in sympathetic tone and the inflammatory response. The associated risk factors are advanced age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, valve surgery, fraction of ejection of the left ventricle less 40% and the withdrawal of beta-blocker drugs. There are instruments that have been shown to predict the appearance of FAPCC. Prophylactic treatment with beta-blockers and amiodarone, is associated with a decrease in the appearance of FAPCC. Given its transient nature, it is suggested that the initial treatment of FAPCC be the heart rate control and only if the treatment does not achieve a return to sinus rhythm, the use of electrical cardioversion is suggested. It is unknown what should be the long-term follow-up and complications beyond this period are little known. FAPCC is not a benign or isolated arrhythmia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, so the identification of risk factors, their prevention, and follow-up in the outpatient setting, should be part of the units dedicated to the care and care of these patients.

Humans , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Risk Factors , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects