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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 426-434, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339193

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação ou flutter atrial (FFA) é a arritmia cardíaca sustentada mais comum. Existem poucos dados sobre a epidemiologia da FFA na América do Sul. Objetivo: O presente estudo procurou descrever a epidemiologia clínica da FFA e o uso de anticoagulantes na avaliação da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Métodos: Foram analisados dados de 13.260 participantes do ELSA-Brasil. A FFA foi definida pelo eletrocardiograma ou por autorrelato. Modelos de regressão logística foram construídos para analisar fatores associados à FFA. Este estudo também analisou se idade e sexo estavam associados ao uso de anticoagulantes para evitar acidente vascular cerebral. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: A idade mediana foi de 51 anos, e 7.213 (54,4%) participantes eram mulheres. A FFA foi detectada em 333 (2,5%) participantes. O aumento da idade (razão de chances [RC]:1,05; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%]: 1,04-1,07), hipertensão (RC:1,44; IC95%:1,14-1,81) coronariopatia (RC: 5,11; IC95%:3,85-6,79), insuficiência cardíaca (RC:7,37; IC95%:5,00-10,87) e febre reumática (RC:3,38; IC95%:2,28-5,02) foram associadas à FFA. Dos 185 participantes com FFA e pontuação no CHA2DS2-VASc≥2, apenas 20 (10,8%) usavam anticoagulantes (50,0% entre aqueles com FFA no eletrocardiograma de linha de base). O uso de anticoagulantes nesse grupo foi associado a maior idade (1,8% vs 17,7% naqueles com idade ≤ 54 e ≥ 65 anos, respectivamente; p=0,013). Observou-se uma tendência ao menor uso de anticoagulantes em mulheres (7,1% vs. 16,4% em mulheres e homens, respectivamente; p=0,055). Conclusões: No recrutamento do ELSA-Brasil, 2,5% dos participantes tinham FFA. O baixo uso de anticoagulantes era comum, o que representa um desafio para os cuidados de saúde nesse cenário.


Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation or flutter (AFF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. Limited data can be found on AFF epidemiology in South America. Objective: The present study sought to describe the clinical epidemiology of AFF and the use of stroke prevention medication in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline assessment. Methods: This study analyzed data from 13,260 ELSA-Brasil participants. AFF was defined according to ECG recording or by self-report. Logistic regression models were built to analyze factors associated with AFF. This study also analyzed if age and sex were associated with anticoagulant use for stroke prevention. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: Median age was 51 years and 7,213 (54.4%) participants were women. AFF was present in 333 (2.5%) participants. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR]:1.05; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.04-1.07), hypertension (OR:1.44; 95%CI: 1.14-1.81), coronary heart disease (OR: 5.11; 95%CI: 3.85-6.79), heart failure (OR:7.37; 95%CI: 5.00-10.87), and rheumatic fever (OR:3.38; 95%CI: 2.28-5.02) were associated with AFF. From 185 participants with AFF and a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2, only 20 (10.8%) used anticoagulants (50.0% among those with AFF in the baseline ECG). Stroke prevention in this group was associated with a higher age (1.8% vs 17.7% in those aged ≤ 54 and ≥ 65 years, respectively; p=0.013). A trend towards a reduced anticoagulant use was observed in women (7.1% vs. 16.4% in women and men, respectively; p=0.055). Conclusions: At the ELSA-Brasil baseline, 2.5% of the participants had AFF. The lack of stroke prevention was common, which is an especially challenging point for healthcare in this setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Risk Assessment , Electrocardiography , Self Report , Middle Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(1): e36105, abr. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1248118

ABSTRACT

Desde época temprana de la cirugía cardíaca (CC), la fibrilación auricular (FA) ha sido un acompañante frecuente del posoperatorio, y no es esperable su abatimiento en el futuro cercano. La interpretación de su significado clínico se ha modificado en los últimos años, tras conocerse su tendencia recurrente y su asociación con serias complicaciones inmediatas y a largo plazo. Esto deja entrever un nuevo desafío, dejando de ser un problema menor y de consideración puntual en el perioperatorio para constituir un tema de preocupación y seguimiento en el futuro alejado, aún con incertidumbres evolutivas y de manejo. La profilaxis efectiva de esta arritmia, una respuesta lógica al problema, es dificultosa por la multiplicidad de factores de riesgo y lo intrincado de su génesis, todavía no completamente dilucidada, sumadas a la edad creciente de los pacientes intervenidos, la complejidad mayor de los procedimientos, los posibles efectos colaterales de los fármacos empleados y la inexistencia de un algoritmo predictivo confiable que permita racionalizar las medidas preventivas. Además, muchas recomendaciones de las guías de práctica clínica actuales se basan en información obtenida en estudios realizados en la FA primaria, por lo que su adopción en el escenario de la CC ha sido menor a la deseable. Todos estos aspectos son objeto de análisis en esta revisión que finaliza con pautas de manejo práctico de la arritmia en el entorno perioperatorio.


Since an early age of heart surgery, atrial fibrillation has been a frequent companion of the postoperative period, and its decline is not to be expected in the near future. The interpretation of its clinical significance has changed in recent years, after knowing its recurrent trend and its association with serious immediate and long-term complications. This fact unveils a new challenge, as it is no longer a minor problem of consideration restricted to the perioperative period and has become a topic of concern and follow-up in the distant future, still with uncertainties as to its evolution and management. The effective prophylaxis of this arrhythmia, a logical response to the problem, has been difficult by the multiplicity of risk factors and the intricate of its genesis, not yet completely elucidated, added to the increasing age of the patients involved, the greater complexity of the procedures, the possible side effects of the drugs used and the absence of a reliable predictive algorithm that could allow to rationalize preventive measures. In addition, many recommendations from current clinical practice guidelines are based on information obtained from studies in primary atrial fibrillation, so their adoption in the heart surgery scenario has been less than desirable. All these aspects are analyzed in this review, which ends with directives for the practical management of the arrhythmia in the perioperative environment.


Desde os primeiros días da cirurgia cardíaca, a fibrilação atrial (FA) tem sido uma companheira frequente para o pós-operatório, e sua reduçao não é esperada em um futuro próximo. A interpretação de sua significância clínica mudou nos últimos anos, tendo conhecido sua tendência recorrente e sua associação com sérias complicações imediatas e de longo prazo. Este fato mostra um novo desafio, pois deixou de ser um pequeno problema e uma consideração oportuna no perioperatório para constituir um tema de preocupação e acompanhamento em um futuro distante, mesmo com incertezas quanto à sua evolução e gestão. A profilaxia efetiva dessa arritmia, uma resposta lógica ao problema, tem sido cercada pela multiplicidade de fatores de risco e pela intrincação de sua gênese ainda não completamente elucidada, juntamente com a idade crescente dos pacientes envolvidos, a maior complexidade dos procedimentos, os possíveis efeitos colaterais dos medicamentos utilizados e a ausência de um algoritmo preditivo confiável para racionalizar as medidas preventivas. Além disso, muitas recomendações das guias atuais de prática clínica são baseadas em informações obtidas em estudos conduzidos em FA primária, de modo que sua adoção no cenário da cirurgia cardíaca tem sido menos do que desejável. Todos esses aspectos são analisados nesta revisão, que termina com diretrizes práticas de gestão para arritmia no ambiente perioperatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Incidence , Risk Factors , Case Management , Stroke/etiology
4.
Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires; Comisión Nacional de Evaluación de Tecnologías de Salud; Marzo 2021. 50 p. (Informe de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias N° 9, 9).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1151682

ABSTRACT

El presente informe es producto del trabajo colaborativo de la Comisión Nacional de Evaluación de Tecnologías de Salud (CONETEC), dependiente del Ministerio de Salud de la Nación y creada por RM N° 623/2018. La CONETEC realiza evaluaciones y emite recomendaciones a la autoridad sanitaria sobre la incorporación, forma de uso, financiamiento y políticas de cobertura de las tecnologías sanitarias desde una perspectiva global del sistema de salud argentino. En sus evaluaciones y recomendaciones, la CONETEC tiene en cuenta criterios de calidad, seguridad, efectividad, eficiencia y equidad, evaluados bajo dimensiones éticas, médicas, económicas y sociales. Sus resultados son consensuados mediante discusiones públicas y ponderados a través de un marco de valor explícito, con la participación de todos los actores involucrados en el proceso de toma de decisiones en salud. Los informes y recomendaciones de esta comisión surgen de este proceso público, transparente y colaborativo, siendo de libre consulta y acceso para toda la sociedad.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Anticoagulants
5.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 14(4): 228-235, 31-12-2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151608

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A fibrilação atrial aumenta o risco de eventos cerebrovasculares em cinco vezes. A anticoagulação reduz a incidência e a gravidade desses eventos, entretanto muitos pacientes deixam de receber tromboprofilaxia. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a prevalência de fibrilação atrial em pacientes idosos acompanhados em um hospital universitário e identificar o percentual desses pacientes com prescrição de anticoagulantes. Os objetivos secundários foram identificar as opções terapêuticas, as justificativas para não indicar o uso e os fatores associados à ineficácia e/ou ausência de tratamento. METODOLOGIA: Em estudo transversal, uma amostra consecutiva de 1.630 pacientes do Hospital de Clínicas O de Porto Alegre foi rastreada entre abril e junho de 2017. Fibrilação atrial foi identificada em 220 (13,50%) indivíduos, dos quais 145 foram avaliados com base na revisão de prontuários e questionário telefônico. A associação entre as variáveis e os desfechos foi analisada por meio do Teste U de Mann-Whitney e do teste do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de fibrilação atrial foi de 13,50%. Em 77,93%, havia i-r anticoagulante prescrito. Em 76,11% dos anticoagulados, a opção foi varfarina. Houve tendência de não prescrição para idosos com histórico de sangramento (risco relativo ­ RR = 2,32; índice de confiança de 95% - IC95% 0,95 - 5,64; p = 0,06) e quedas (RR = 2,02; IC95% 0,82 - 5,03; p = 0,08). Houve associação significativa entre maior grau de limitação funcional e maior índice de tratamento no alvo terapêutico (razão de prevalência ­ RP = 022; IC95% 0,06 - 0,87; p = 0,04). CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de fibrilação atrial foi de 13,5% e, em 77,93% dos casos, havia prescrição de anticoagulante. Houve associação entre incapacidade funcional e melhor índice de anticoagulação no alvo terapêutico.


INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation increases five times the risk of stroke. Anticoagulation reduces the incidence of cerebrovascular events. However, many patients do not receive thromboprophylaxis. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the older patients at a Brazilian university hospital and the proportion of anticoagulation prescription. Secondary objectives were to identify the therapeutic options, the main reasons for non-prescription and the factors associated with ineffectiveness or lack of treatment. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 1,630 outpatients selected at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre between April and June of 2017. Atrial fibrillation was identified in 220 (13.50%) individuals. t Medical records from 145 patients were accessed, followed by a telephone interview. The association between variables and " outcomes was checked using the Mann-Whitney's U Test and a chi-squared test. RESULTS: The prevalence of atrial fibrillation was 13.50%. Anticoagulation therapy was prescribed in 77.93% of cases. In 76.11% of patients, warfarin was the chosen drug. < There was a tendency towards no prescription in patients with previous bleeding (RR = 2.32; 95%CI 0.95 - 5.64; p = 0.06) and falls (RR = 2.02; 95%CI 0.82 - 5.03; p = 0.08). We found an association between reduced functional capacity (Barthel's Activities of Daily Living Score < 80) and higher rate of anticoagulation in therapeutic target (RR = 0.22; 95%CI 0.06 - 0.87; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of atrial fibrillation in this population was 13.50% and in 77.93% of cases anticoagulant were prescribed. Functional impairment was associated with a higher rate of anticoagulation in therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cerebral Infarction , Health of the Elderly
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1473-1475, Nov. 2020.
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143643

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery, with a prevalence between 15-40% after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Several strategies have been tested for the prevention and management of AF postoperatively. Previous studies and analysis of records have shown higher rates of hospitalization and clinical outcomes associated with this entity, including increased mortality in the short- and long-term. This perspective reviews the topic, and offers recommendations for the management of this arrhythmia in the postoperative period of CABG, with a special focus on anticoagulation strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications , Postoperative Period , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects
7.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 266-273, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131043

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Se denomina bloqueo interauricular avanzado (BIA) a la existencia de una onda P ≥ 120 ms y bifásica +/- en las derivaciones inferiores (II-III-VF) del electrocardiograma (ECG) de superficie, el cual constituye un factor predictivo significativo del desarrollo de fibrilación auricular. En fecha reciente se han descrito cuatro patrones de BIA atípicos (BIA-At) con base en la morfología y la duración de la onda P, sin conocer si comparten patogenia y características clínicas similares. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo de pacientes, visitados en el Servicio de Cardiología, en ritmo sinusal y con BIA. Las variables analizadas se obtuvieron de la historia clínica informatizada. El análisis de la onda P se efectuó al aumentar el tamaño del electrocardiograma y mediante calipers electrónicos. El análisis estadístico se realizó con SPSS 19.0, con nivel de significación de p < 0.05. Resultados: Se incluyó a 75 pacientes con media de edad de 74.4 ± 11.7 años, con 62.7% de varones. Se compararon los grupos de pacientes con BIA típico (BIA-T) y BIA-At. El primero se relacionó con la existencia de diabetes mellitus (p = 0.001), enfermedad renal crónica estadio ≥ 3 (p = 0.036), bloqueo auriculoventricular (p = 0.006) y una menor fracción de expulsión ventricular media (p = 0.025); no hubo diferencias respecto de la prevalencia de fibrilación auricular/flúter o accidente cerebrovascular. Sólo la diabetes se acompañó de riesgo de ser un BIA-T (OR: 6.4; p = 0.002; IC 95%: 2.0-21.1). Conclusiones: La diabetes mellitus constituye el único factor de riesgo de que un BIA sea típico. Los pacientes con BIA-T y BIA-At presentan similar prevalencia de fibrilación auricular y accidente cerebrovascular, por lo que son objeto de un mismo tratamiento clínico.


Abstract Objective: It is called advanced interatrial block (IAB) to the existence of a P wave ≥ 120 ms and biphasic ± in the lower leads II-III-VF of the surface electrocardiogram (ECG), which constitutes a significant predictive factor for the development of atrial fibrillation. Recently, four patterns of atypical aIAB (At-IAB) have been described based on the morphology and duration of the P wave, but it’s unknown if they share the same pathogenesis and clinical characteristics. Method: An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was performed with patients, visited in cardiology, who have a sinus rhythm and with aIAB. The analyzed variables were obtained from the computerized clinical history. The analysis of the P wave was made by increasing the size of the ECG and by electronic calipers. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0; level of significance: p < 0.05. Results: A total of 75 patients with an average age of 74.4 ± 11.7 years and with a 62.7% males, were included. It was compared the group of patients with typical aIAB (T-aIAB) and with At-aIAB. The first one was associated with the existence of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.001), chronic kidney disease stage ≥ 3 (p = 0.036), atrioventricular block (p = 0.006) and a lower mean ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.025); there were no differences regarding the prevalence of atrial fibrillation/flutter or stroke. Only diabetes was associated with the risk of T-aIAB (odds ratio: 6.4; p = 0.002; 95% confidence interval: 2.0-21.1). Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus is the only risk factor for an aIAB to be typical. Patients with T-aIAB and At-aIAB have a similar prevalence of atrial fibrillation and stroke, so they must follow the same clinical management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Electrocardiography , Interatrial Block/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Atrioventricular Block/epidemiology , Interatrial Block/complications , Interatrial Block/diagnosis
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(3): 256-261, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137172

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To observe the effects of preoperative right stellate ganglion block on perioperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing lung lobectomy. Methods: Two hundred patients who underwent a scheduled lobectomy were randomly divided into the S and C groups. The S group was injected with 4 mL of 0.2% ropivacaine under ultrasound guidance, and the C group did not receive stellate ganglion block. The patients underwent continuous ECG monitoring, and the incidences of atrial fibrillation and other types of arrhythmias were recorded from the start of surgery to 24 hours after surgery. Results: The respective incidences of atrial fibrillation in the S group and the C group were 3% and 10% (p = 0.045); other atrial arrhythmias were 20% and 38% (p = 0.005); and ventricular arrhythmia were 28% and 39% (p = 0.09). Conclusions: The results of the study indicated that preoperative right stellate ganglion block can effectively reduce the incidence of intraoperative and postoperative atrial fibrillation.


Resumo Objetivo: Observar os efeitos do bloqueio do gânglio estrelado na fibrilação atrial no período perioperatório em pacientes submetidos a lobectomia pulmonar. Método: Duzentos pacientes programados para lobectomia foram divididos aleatoriamente nos grupos S e C. O grupo S recebeu infusão de 4 mL de ropivacaína a 0,2% orientada por ultrassom e o grupo C não foi submetido a bloqueio do gânglio estrelado. Os pacientes foram submetidos à monitoração contínua de ECG, e as incidências de fibrilação atrial e outros tipos de arritmias foram registradas do início da cirurgia até 24 horas depois da cirurgia. Resultados: As incidências de fibrilação atrial no grupo S e no grupo C foram 3% e 10%, respectivamente (p = 0,045); as de outras arritmias atriais foram 20% e 38% (p = 0,005); e de arritmias ventriculares, 28% e 39% (p = 0,09). Conclusões: Os resultados do estudo indicaram que o bloqueio do gânglio estrelado no pré-operatório pode ser efetivo na redução da incidência de fibrilação atrial nos períodos intra- e pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pneumonectomy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Autonomic Nerve Block/methods , Stellate Ganglion , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Incidence , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Electrocardiography , Intraoperative Complications/diagnosis , Middle Aged
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(5): 775-782, maio 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131230

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A ablação da fibrilação atrial (FA) e do flutter atrial dependente de istmo cavo-tricuspídeo (FLA-ICT) pode ser realizada simultaneamente quando as duas arritmias tenham sido registradas antes do procedimento. Entretanto, a melhor abordagem não é clara quando pacientes com FLA-ICT são encaminhados para ablação sem o registro prévio de FA. Objetivos Avaliar a prevalência e identificar os preditores de ocorrência do primeiro episódio de FA após ablação de FLA-ICT em pacientes sem o registro prévio de FA. Métodos Coorte retrospectiva de pacientes submetidos exclusivamente a ablação por cateter para FLA-ICT, sem registro prévio de FA. As características clínicas foram comparadas entre os grupos em que houve ocorrência de FA pós-ablação de FLA-ICT vs. sem ocorrência de FA. O nível de significância estatística adotado foi de 5%. Na análise de preditores, o desfecho primário avaliado foi ocorrência de FA após ablação de FLA-ICT. Resultados De um total de 227 pacientes submetidos a ablação de FLA-ICT (110 com registro de FA e 33 sem seguimento adequado), 84 pacientes foram incluídos, dos quais 45 (53,6%) apresentaram FA pós-ablação. Não houve variáveis preditoras de ocorrência de FA. Os escores HATCH e CHA2DS2-VASC foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. As taxas de recorrência de FLA-ICT e complicações após a ablação foram de 11,5% e 1,2%, respectivamente. Conclusões A ablação de FLA-ICT é eficaz e segura, mas 50% dos pacientes desenvolvem FA após ablação. Entretanto, ainda é incerto o papel da ablação combinada (FLA-ICT e FA) visando prevenção da ocorrência de FA. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background Simultaneous ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) and cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter can be performed when both arrythmias had been recorded before the procedure. However, the best approach has not been defined in case of patients referred for ablation with CTI-dependent atrial flutter, without history of AF. Objectives To assess the prevalence and to identify predictors of the first episode of AF after ablation of CTI-dependent atrial flutter in patients without history of AF. Methods Retrospective cohort of patients with CTI-dependent atrial flutter without history of AF undergoing catheter ablation. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients who developed AF and those who did not have AF after the procedure. Significance level was set at 5%. In the analysis of predicting factors, the primary outcome was occurrence of AF after CTI-dependent atrial flutter ablation. Results Of a total of 227 patients undergoing ablation of CTI-dependent atrial flutter (110 with history of AF and 33 without adequate follow-up), 84 were included, and 45 (53.6%) developed post-ablation AF. The HATCH and CHA2DS2-VASC scores were not different between the groups. Recurrence rate of CTI-dependent atrial flutter and complication rate were 11.5% and 1.2%, respectively, after ablation. Conclusions Although ablation of CTI-dependent atrial flutter is a safe and effective procedure, 50% of the patients developed AF after the procedure. However, the role of combined ablation (CTI-dependent atrial flutter plus AF) aiming at preventing AF is still uncertain. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Atrial Flutter/surgery , Catheter Ablation/adverse effects , Recurrence , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/prevention & control , Atrial Flutter/diagnosis , Atrial Flutter/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Catheter Ablation/methods
11.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 69-76, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131008

ABSTRACT

Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent arrhythmia; its prevalence is near 2% in the general population; in Mexico, more than one-half million people are affected. AF needs to be considered as a public health problem. Because AF is an independent risk factor associated with mortality, due to embolic events, heart failure, or sudden death; early diagnosis is of utmost importance. In unstable patients with a recent onset of AF, electrical cardioversion should be practiced. In stable patients, once thromboembolic measures have been taken, it is necessary to assess whether it is reasonable to administer an antiarrhythmic drug to restore sinus rhythm or performed electrical cardioversion. For recidivating cases of paroxysmal and persistent presentation, the most effective strategy is performed pulmonary vein isolation with either radiofrequency or cryoballoon energy. Permanent AF is that in which recovery of sinus rhythm is not possible, the distinguishing feature of this phase is the uncontrollable variability of the ventricular frequency and could be treated pharmacologically with atrioventricular (AV) nodal blockers or with a VVIR pacemaker plus AV nodal ablation. The presence of AF has long been associated with the development of cerebral and systemic (pulmonary, limb, coronary, renal, and visceral) embolism. The prevention of embolisms in “valvular” AF should perform with Vitamin K antagonists (VKA). For patients with AF not associated with mitral stenosis or a mechanical valve prosthesis, a choice can be made between anticoagulant drugs, VKA, or direct oral anticoagulants. Antiplatelet agents have the weakest effect in preventing embolism.


Resumen La fibrilación auricular (FA) es una arritmia frecuente; su prevalencia es cercana al 2% en la población general, en México se ven afectados más de medio millón de personas por eso debe considerarse como un problema de salud pública. Debido a que la FA es un factor de riesgo independiente asociado a mortalidad, por eventos embólicos, insuficiencia cardíaca o muerte súbita, la identificación y diagnóstico temprano es de suma importancia. En el inicio reciente de FA en pacientes inestables, se debe practicar la cardioversión eléctrica. En pacientes estables, una vez que se han tomado medidas tromboembólicas, es necesario evaluar si es razonable administrar un medicamento antiarrítmico para restaurar el ritmo sinusal o realizar una cardioversión eléctrica. Para los casos que recidivan, ya sea paroxística o persistente, la estrategia más efectiva es realizar el aislamiento de la venas pulmonares con radiofrecuencia o crioablación con balón. La FA permanente es aquella en la que no es posible la recuperación del ritmo sinusal, la característica distintiva de esta fase de la FA es la variabilidad incontrolable de la frecuencia ventricular. Puede tratarse farmacológicamente con bloqueadores nodales AV o con un marcapasos VVIR mas ablación del nodo AV. La presencia de FA se ha asociado durante mucho tiempo con el desarrollo de embolia cerebral y sistémica (pulmonar, de extremidades, coronaria, renal y visceral). La prevención de embolias en la FA “valvular” debe realizarse con antagonistas de la vitamina K (AVK). Para los pacientes con FA no asociados con estenosis mitral o una prótesis valvular mecánica, se puede elegir entre medicamentos anticoagulantes, AVK o anticoagulantes orales directos (DOAC). Los agentes antiplaquetarios tienen el efecto más débil para prevenir la embolia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Risk Factors , Cryosurgery/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Mexico/epidemiology , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage
12.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(4): 348-359, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149093

ABSTRACT

Resumen La fibrilación auricular es la arritmia más frecuente en el periodo posquirúrgico de la cirugía cardíaca. Se relaciona con insuficiencia cardíaca, insuficiencia renal, embolismo sistémico y más días de estancia y mortalidad. La fibrilación auricular en el periodo posquirúrgico de la cirugía cardíaca (FAPCC) suele aparecer en las primeras 48 horas. Los principales mecanismos que producen la aparición y el mantenimiento de la FAPCC son el aumento del tono simpático y la respuesta inflamatoria. Los factores de riesgo adjuntos son la edad avanzada, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, enfermedad renal crónica, cirugía valvular, fracción de expulsión del ventrículo izquierdo menor de 40% e interrupción de fármacos bloqueadores β. Existen instrumentos que han demostrado predecir la aparición de FAPCC. El tratamiento profiláctico con bloqueadores β y amiodarona se relaciona con disminución de la aparición de FAPCC. Dada su naturaleza transitoria, se sugiere que el tratamiento inicial de FAPCC sea el control de la frecuencia cardíaca y sólo en caso de que el tratamiento no consiga el retorno al ritmo sinusal está indicada la cardioversión eléctrica. Se desconoce cuál debe ser el seguimiento a largo plazo y sólo se conocen en escasa medida las complicaciones más allá de este periodo. La FAPCC no es una arritmia benigna ni aislada en los pacientes sometidos a operación cardíaca, por lo que la identificación de los factores de riesgo, su prevención y el seguimiento en el ámbito ambulatorio deben formar parte de las unidades dedicadas a la atención y los cuidados de estos pacientes.


Abstract Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent arrhythmia in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. It is associated with heart failure, renal insufficiency, systemic embolism and increase in days of in-hospital and mortality. Atrial fibrillation in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery (FAPCC) usually appears in the first 48 h after surgery. The main mechanisms involved in the appearance and maintenance of FAPCC are the increase in sympathetic tone and the inflammatory response. The associated risk factors are advanced age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, valve surgery, fraction of ejection of the left ventricle less 40% and the withdrawal of beta-blocker drugs. There are instruments that have been shown to predict the appearance of FAPCC. Prophylactic treatment with beta-blockers and amiodarone, is associated with a decrease in the appearance of FAPCC. Given its transient nature, it is suggested that the initial treatment of FAPCC be the heart rate control and only if the treatment does not achieve a return to sinus rhythm, the use of electrical cardioversion is suggested. It is unknown what should be the long-term follow-up and complications beyond this period are little known. FAPCC is not a benign or isolated arrhythmia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, so the identification of risk factors, their prevention, and follow-up in the outpatient setting, should be part of the units dedicated to the care and care of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Risk Factors , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects
13.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(3): 233-241, jul.-sep. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149072

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: Aproximadamente un 49% de los implantes se efectúan a individuos mayores de 80 años; sin embargo, la evidencia científica sobre mortalidad y cambio en la situación funcional de estos pacientes es muy pobre. Objetivo: Diseñamos un estudio prospectivo para analizar la morbimortalidad cardiovascular y la variación de su grado funcional a medio plazo en pacientes ancianos con electroestimulación permanente. Método: Estudio observacional prospectivo, que incluye 308 pacientes ancianos sometidos a implante de marcapasos en un hospital terciario entre 2012 y 2014. Como variables principales se evaluaron eventos cardiovasculares, mortalidad y grado funcional, con una media de seguimiento de 3.5 años. Resultados: El 60% de los pacientes incluidos en nuestro estudio tenían una edad superior a 80 años, y la indicación más frecuente fue el bloqueo auriculoventricular completo (44.3%), seguido de la fibrilación auricular lenta o bloqueada (16.7%). El modo de estimulación más frecuente en la muestra general fue el DDD (38.6%) (VVI en pacientes octogenarios, 38.7%). En el seguimiento, la mortalidad a largo plazo fue mayor en dispositivos ventriculares, especialmente en octogenarios (p = 0.001). El modo de estimulación ventricular (VVI) fue predictor independiente de mortalidad. A largo plazo, no se observó mejoría del índice de Barthel ni del grado funcional tras el implante del marcapasos. Conclusiones: La morbimortalidad cardiovascular en pacientes octogenarios portadores de marcapasos resulta superior a la de la población general, especialmente en dispositivos monocamerales. La electroestimulación permanente no se asocia con mejoría del grado funcional a medio-largo plazo en estos pacientes.


Abstract Background: Nowadays, 49% of patients with pacemakers are older than 80 years old. Nevertheless, mortality and change in functional status after pacemaker implantation are not well documented in elderly patients. Objective: We designed a prospective study to analyze cardiovascular mortality and change in functional status of elderly patients, medium-long term after pacemaker implantation. Methods: Observational study including pacemaker implants in individual older than 70 years old in a single center university hospital between 2012 and 2014. Analysis testing for an association between pacemaker system, medium-long term mortality and functional status after implantation were undertaken. Results: 60% of patients were older than 80 years old. Third-degree atrio-ventricular block (44.3%) and slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation (16.7%) were the most frequent electrocardiogram abnormalities, while bicameral DDD was the sort of pacing our department used the most (38.6%) (VVI in octogenarian patients, 38.7%). Long-term mortality was significantly higher in ventricular devices, especially in octogenarian patients (p = 0.001 respectively). Single-chamber VVI pacing acted as independent predictors of all-cause mortality in these individuals (p = 0.001). We found no significant improvement in Barthel index and functional status in this subgroup of patients, 3 years after pacing. Conclusion: Long-term mortality in individuals older than 80 years old with pacemaker implantation, was significantly higher comparing with general population, especially in ventricular devices. No significant improvement in functional status was detected in this subgroup of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pacemaker, Artificial , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Atrioventricular Block/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/mortality , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Age Factors , Electrocardiography , Atrioventricular Block/mortality , Atrioventricular Block/epidemiology
15.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(2): 166-173, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-959329

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar quais os preditores de fibrilação atrial de novo em doentes de uma unidade de cuidados intensivos não cardíaca. Métodos: Foram analisados 418 doentes internados entre janeiro e setembro de 2016 em uma unidade de cuidados intensivos não cardíaca. Registaram-se as características clínicas, as intervenções efetuadas e os marcadores bioquímicos durante a internação. Avaliaram-se ainda a mortalidade hospitalar e o tempo de internação hospitalar e na unidade de cuidados intensivos. Resultados: Foram incluídos 310 doentes, com média de idades de 61,0 ± 18,3 anos, 49,4% do sexo masculino, 23,5% com fibrilação atrial de novo. O modelo multivariável identificou acidente vascular cerebral prévio (OR de 10,09; p = 0,016) e valores aumentados de proBNP (OR de 1,28 por cada aumento em 1.000pg/mL; p = 0,004) como preditores independentes de fibrilação atrial de novo. A análise por curva Característica de Operação do Receptor do proBNP para predição de fibrilação atrial de novo revelou área sob a curva de 0,816 (p < 0,001), com sensibilidade de 65,2% e especificidade de 82% para proBNP > 5.666pg/mL. Não se verificaram diferenças na mortalidade (p = 0,370), porém a duração da internação hospitalar (p = 0,002) e na unidade de cuidados intensivos (p = 0,031) foi superior nos doentes com fibrilação atrial de novo. Conclusões: História de acidente vascular cerebral prévio e proBNP elevado em internação constituíram preditores independentes de fibrilação atrial de novo na unidade de cuidados intensivos polivalente. O proBNP pode constituir ferramenta útil, de fácil e rápido acesso na estratificação do risco de fibrilação atrial.


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the predictors of de novo atrial fibrillation in patients in a non-cardiac intensive care unit. Methods: A total of 418 hospitalized patients were analyzed between January and September 2016 in a non-cardiac intensive care unit. Clinical characteristics, interventions, and biochemical markers were recorded during hospitalization. In-hospital mortality and length of hospital stay in the intensive care unit were also evaluated. Results: A total of 310 patients were included. The mean age of the patients was 61.0 ± 18.3 years, 49.4% were male, and 23.5% presented de novo atrial fibrillation. The multivariate model identified previous stroke (OR = 10.09; p = 0.016) and elevated levels of pro-B type natriuretic peptide (proBNP, OR = 1.28 for each 1,000pg/mL increment; p = 0.004) as independent predictors of de novo atrial fibrillation. Analysis of the proBNP receiver operating characteristic curve for prediction of de novo atrial fibrillation revealed an area under the curve of 0.816 (p < 0.001), with a sensitivity of 65.2% and a specificity of 82% for proBNP > 5,666pg/mL. There were no differences in mortality (p = 0.370), but the lengths of hospital stay (p = 0.002) and stay in the intensive care unit (p = 0.031) were higher in patients with de novo atrial fibrillation. Conclusions: A history of previous stroke and elevated proBNP during hospitalization were independent predictors of de novo atrial fibrillation in the polyvalent intensive care unit. The proBNP is a useful and easy- and quick-access tool in the stratification of atrial fibrillation risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , Biomarkers/metabolism , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Hospital Mortality , Length of Stay , Middle Aged
16.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(2): 360-370, mar.-abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-902296

ABSTRACT

Introducción: se realizó un estudio observacional transversal en pacientes con fibrilación auricular ingresados con ictus isquémico en la sala de neurología en el Hospital Universitario Comandante Faustino Pérez el año 2017. Objetivo: caracterizar la fibrilación auricular en estos pacientes en relación con edad y sexo, factores de riesgo, tipo de fibrilación y factores de riesgo de embolismo. Materiales y métodos: el universo del estudio fue de 40 pacientes con fibrilación auricular e ictus isquémico. Durante el ingreso a los pacientes y/o sus familiares se les aplicó una encuesta para la obtención de la información. Resultados: predominó el grupo de edades de 75-84 años y el sexo masculino con el 50 % y 70 % respectivamente. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes en los pacientes con fibrilación auricular e ictus isquémico fueron la hipertensión arterial y edad mayor de 75 años con 85 % y la insuficiencia cardiaca con 70 %. La fibrilación auricular más frecuente fue la diagnosticada por primera vez con 55 %. Según la respuesta ventricular predominó la fibrilación auricular con respuesta ventricular rápida con 75 %. Los factores de riesgo de embolismo predominantes fueron la hipertensión arterial y la edad ≥ 75 años con 85 % seguida de la insuficiencia cardiaca con 70 %. Conclusiones: la fibrilación auricular en los pacientes con ictus isquémico predominó en hombres mayores de 75 años, hipertensos con insuficiencia cardiaca y en la mayoría de los pacientes se realizó el diagnóstico de la fibrilación auricular durante el ingreso con ictus isquémico (AU).


Introduction: it was carried out a transversal observational study in the in-patients with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke in the neurology ward of the Faustino Pérez Hospital in 2017. Objective: to characterize the atrial fibrillation in these patients taking into account age, sex, risk factors, fibrillation type and embolic risk. Materials and methods: the universe of the study was 40 patients with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke. During the hospitalization, a survey was applied to patients and/or their relatives for collecting the information. Results: The 75-84 age group predominated and male patients predominated. With 50 % and 70 % respectively. The most frequent risk factors in patients with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke were arterial hypertension and being more than 75 years old with 85 % and heart failure with 70 %. The most frequent atrial fibrillation was the one diagnosed for the first time with 55 %. According to the ventricular answer, atrial fibrillation with fast ventricular answer predominated, with 75 %. The predominant embolic risk factors were arterial hypertension and patients aged ≥ 75 years with 85 %, followed by heart failure with 70 %. Conclusions: atrial fibrillation in in-patients with ischemic stroke was predominant in male hypertensive patients aged 75 years and more with cardiac failure; in most of the patients the atrial fibrillation was made during the hospitalization with ischemic stroke (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Embolism/complications , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Secondary Care , Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Electrocardiography , Observational Studies as Topic
17.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(5): 369-375, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142144

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: El bloqueo interauricular (BIA) es una entidad asociada con un mayor riesgo de presentar fibrilación auricular (FA), constituyendo el denominado síndrome de Bayés. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue definir la prevalencia de BIA en pacientes menores de 65 años sometidos a cirugía cardiaca y determinar si existe una asociación entre la presencia de BIA y la aparición de FA postoperatoria. Método: Se incluyeron un total de 207 pacientes. Se definió BIA parcial como onda P > 120 ms. Se definió BIA avanzado como onda P > 120 ms con morfología bifásica en derivaciones inferiores. Se determinó la frecuencia de aparición de FA postoperatoria y se realizó un análisis comparativo entre los pacientes que presentaron y los que no presentaron esta arritmia. Resultados: La prevalencia de BIA fue del 78.3% (parcial, 66.2%; avanzado, 12.1%). La frecuencia de aparición de FA fue del 28.5% de forma global, siendo mayor en los pacientes con BIA avanzado (44%) comparado con pacientes con BIA parcial (27.7%) y sin BIA (24.4%). Los pacientes que presentaron FA fueron significativamente mayores, con niveles más elevados de NTproBNP y presentaron mayor prevalencia de dilatación auricular y de patología tiroidea. El análisis multivariable demostró una asociación independiente entre BIA avanzado y FA postoperatoria. Conclusiones: El BIA es una entidad frecuente en pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardiaca. En nuestro estudio, el BIA avanzado se asocia de forma independiente con una mayor frecuencia de FA postoperatoria en pacientes menores de 65 años sometidos a cirugía cardiaca.


Abstract Objective: Interatrial block (IAB) is a well-known entity that is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). This association is called Bayes' syndrome. The aim of our study was to define the prevalence of IAB among patients younger than 65 years undergoing cardiac surgery and determine whether there is an association between the presence of interatrial conduction delay and postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). Method: A total of 207 patients were enrolled. Partial IAB was defined as P-wave > 120 ms. Advanced IAB was defined as P-wave > 120 ms + biphasic morphology in the inferior leads. Ocurrence of POAF was assessed and a comparative analysis was conducted between patients that did and did not develop AF. Results: IAB prevalence was 78.3% (partial 66.2%, advanced 12.1%). POAF occurred in 28.5% of all patients, and was more frequent among patients with advanced IAB (44%) compared to 27.7% and 24.4% of POAF among patients with partial IAB and without IAB, respectively. Patients who developed POAF were significantly older, had significantly higher NTproBNP, higher prevalence of atrial enlargement and thyroid disease. After multivariate analysis, advanced IAB was found to be independently associated with POAF. Conclusions: IAB is a frequent finding among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. According to our results, advanced IAB is independently associated with POAF in younger patients (< 65 years) undergoing cardiac surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Interatrial Block/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Peptide Fragments/blood , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Prevalence , Multivariate Analysis , Age Factors , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(8): 963-971, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902573

ABSTRACT

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with high rates of death, ischemic stroke and systemic embolism (SE). There is scarce information about clinical characteristics and use of anti-thrombotic therapies in Chilean patients with non-valvular AF. Aim: To describe the characteristics and 1-year outcomes of patients with recently diagnosed AF recruited in Chile into the prospective global GARFIELD-AF registry. Material and Methods: Between 2011-2016, we prospectively registered information of 971 patients recruited at 15 centers, 85% of them from the public system and 15% from the private sector. Demographics, clinical characteristics and use of antithrombotic therapies were recorded for all patients. Adverse clinical outcomes were analyzed in 711 patients with 1-year follow-up. Results: The mean age was 71.5 years (66-79), 50% were men. Mean CHAD2S2 Vasc and HAS BLED scores for stroke risk were 3.3 (2.0-4.0) and 1.5 (1.0-2.0) respectively. Oral anticoagulants were prescribed in 82% of patients. Seventy percent received Vitamin K antagonists, 10% novel direct anticoagulants or antiplatelet therapy and only 8% did not receive any antithrombotic therapy. Mean time in optimal therapeutic range (an international normalized ratio of 2 to 3), was achieved in only 40.7% (23.0-54.8) of patients receiving Vitamin K antagonists. One year rates of death, stroke/systemic embolism and bleeding were 4.75 (3.36-6.71), 2.40 (1.47-3.92) and 1.64% (0.91-2.97) per 100 person-years. Ischemic stroke occurred in 1.8% and hemorrhagic stroke in 0.8% of patients at 1-year of follow up. Conclusions: Although the use of vitamin K antagonists at baseline was high, the mean time in optimal therapeutic range was low. Mortality and stroke rates are higher than those reported in other contemporary registries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Time Factors , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Chile/epidemiology , Registries , Antithrombins/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(5): 288-294, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838909

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Among ischemic strokes, cardioembolic (CE) stroke has the worst outcome. We measured the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and non-AF related CE strokes, previous anticoagulant use, and the 90-day functional outcome. Using multiple overlapping sources, we included all CE strokes that occurred in 2015 in Joinville, Brazil. Of the 374 ischemic strokes, 23% (84) were CE. The CE age-adjusted incidence, per 1,000 person-years, was 0.14 (0.11–0.17). Of the 26 patients with known prior AF, 73% (19) were not anticoagulated, 77% (20) had a CHA2DS2VASc score ≥ 3 and 81% (21) had a HAS-BLED score < 3. After three months, approximately one third of those 26 patients died or became disabled. The incidence of CE stroke in our sample was lower than in other population-based studies. The opportunity for anticoagulation was missed in one third of cases.


RESUMO Entre todos os subtipos de AVC isquêmico, os eventos cardioembólicos (CE) apresentam os piores prognósticos. Determinamos a incidência de AVC isquêmico CE, associada ou não à fibrilação atrial (FA), o uso prévio de anticoagulantes e os desfechos funcionais em Joinville, Brasil. Utilizando múltiplas e sobrepostas fontes de informação, registramos todos os primeiros eventos CE ocorridos em 2015. Entre 374 eventos isquêmicos, 23% (84) foram CE. A incidência ajustada, para qualquer fonte cardioembólica, foi 0.14 (0.11–0.17) por 1000 pessoas-ano. Entre 26 pacientes com FA previamente conhecida, 73% (19) não estavam anticoagulados, 77% (20) tinham ≥ 3 pontos na escala CHA2DS2VASc e 81 % (21) < 3 pontos na escala HAS-BLED. Após 3 meses, um terço destes 26 pacientes morreram ou ficaram dependentes. A incidência de AVC I CE em Joinville é menor do que em outros estudos de base populacional. Um terço dos casos de AVC I CE com FA previamente conhecida perderam a oportunidade de anticoagulação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Stroke/complications , Intracranial Embolism/complications , Disability Evaluation , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Intracranial Embolism/epidemiology
20.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 30(3): f:189-l:198, mai.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-836644

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: A insuficiência cardíaca é uma doença de alta prevalência, responsável por grande número de hospitalizações e altas taxas de mortalidade em nosso país. O tratamento instituído tem influência nos índices de mortalidade e na qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Objetivo: Identificar e comparar o perfil clínico-epidemiológico e o tratamento instituído entre os pacientes sobreviventes e não sobreviventes internados com insuficiência cardíaca aos dados da literatura internacional. Métodos: Estudo transversal, retrospectivo, de 816 pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca que sobreviveram ou não à internação. Foram registradas características clínicas, epidemiológicas, dados laboratoriais, ecocardiográficos e o tratamento instituído. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes encontrava-se em classe funcional III/IV. A idade média foi de 66,5 ± 13,8 anos. Metade era do sexo masculino e 88,3%, brancos. A mortalidade intra-hospitalar foi de 11,2%. Idade avançada, etnia branca, classe funcional elevada, reinternações, internações prolongadas, presença de doença arterial coronariana, fibrilação atrial crônica, insuficiência mitral grave, disfunção diastólica do tipo restritivo, disfunção renal e peptídeo natriurético elevado tiveram associação com maior mortalidade, assim como pacientes que, durante a internação, apresentaram tromboembolismo pulmonar, síndrome isquêmica aguda, infecção pulmonar ou necessidade de diálise. O uso de inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina ou de bloqueadores dos receptores da angiotensina na admissão hospitalar foi significativamente maior entre os sobreviventes. Conclusão: A mortalidade intra-hospitalar foi elevada quando comparada à média internacional, mas foi semelhante a de outros serviços de referência brasileiros. Vários indicadores de maior gravidade foram observados no grupo não sobrevivente


Background: Heart failure is a highly prevalent disease, responsible for many admissions and high mortality rates in our country. The treatment influences patient's mortality and quality of life. Objective: To identify and compare the clinical and epidemiological survivor's and non-survivor's profiles and treatment of patients hospitalized with heart failure with the international literature. Methods: Cross-sectional, retrospective study of 816 survivors and non-survivors with heart failure. All patients had their clinical and epidemiological, laboratory and echocardiographic data and treatment recorded. Results: Most patients were in functional class III/IV. Mean age was 66.5 ± 13.8 years. Half of the patients were men and 88.3% were Caucasians. In-hospital mortality was 11,2%. Highly mortality was associated with old age, Caucasian ethnicity, high functional class, readmissions, prolonged hospitalization, presence of coronary artery disease, chronic atrial fibrillation, severe mitral regurgitation, restrictive diastolic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and elevated natriuretic peptide levels, as well as with patients who had pulmonary embolism, acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary infection or required dialysis during hospitalization. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers at admission was significantly higher among survivors. Conclusion: In-hospital mortality was high when compared to international averages, but it was similar to other Brazilian referral services. Numerous higher severity indicators were observed in the non-survivor group


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/mortality , Hospitalization , Patients , Tertiary Care Centers/trends , Age Factors , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Echocardiography/methods , Ethnicity and Health , Heart Ventricles , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Statistical Analysis
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