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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(1): 43-67, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003655

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este estudio organiza toda la información disponible acerca de los patógenos virales y bacterianos de mamíferos silvestres en Chile. Esto fue realizado con el objetivo de identificar patógenos que han sido bien documentados y reconocer aquellos que no han sido apropiadamente estudiados, determinar el número de artículos que han sido publicados anualmente acerca de este tópico e identificar las regiones en Chile que han concentrado el mayor y menor número de estudios relacionados con patógenos virales y bacterianos. Para lograr esto, se seleccionó para revisión un total de 67 artículos científicos publicados en revistas evaluadas por pares desde 1951 al 2018. Los resultados indican que el número de publicaciones ha incrementado por década y hay años en los cuales no se publicaron artículos. La mayoría de los estudios se relacionan con Leptospira, rabia, hantavirus, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) y distémper. Rodentia, Carnivora, Chiroptera y Cetartiodactyla fueron los órdenes de mamíferos más estudiados. Información acerca de la presencia/ausencia de patógenos fue encontrada en 44 especies de mamíferos silvestres. La mayor parte de las investigaciones buscaron patógenos en Chile sur y central y los métodos de diagnóstico más empleados para el diagnóstico de patógenos fueron serología y técnicas moleculares. En general, la investigación en mamíferos silvestres ha sido dirigida a la evaluación de enfermedades zoonóticas, mientras que aquellas enfermedades transmitidas por vectores y enfermedades no zoonóticas han sido mayormente ignoradas por la comunidad científica.


This study organizes all available information about viral and bacterial pathogens of wild mammals in Chile. This was done in order to identify pathogens that have been well-documented and recognize those that have not been properly studied, determine the number of articles that have been published annually about this topic and identify regions in Chile that concentrate the highest and lowest number of studies concerning viral and bacterial pathogens. A total of 67 scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 1951 to 2018 were selected for revision. Results indicate that the number of publications has increased per decade but there are years in which no articles were published. Most studies addressed Leptospira, rabies, hantavirus, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) and distemper. Rodentia, Carnivora, Chiroptera and Cetartiodactyla were the most studied mammal orders. Information about presence/absence of pathogens was found for 44 wild mammal species. Research was mainly carried out in central and southern Chile and the most commonly employed methods for pathogen diagnosis were serology and molecular techniques. Overall, research in Chilean wild mammals has been directed towards the evaluation of zoonotic diseases, while vector-borne and non-zoonotic diseases have been mostly neglected by the scientific community.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Viruses/pathogenicity , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Animals, Wild/virology , Mammals/microbiology , Mammals/virology , Time Factors , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/transmission , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/virology , Zoonoses/microbiology , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Bibliometrics , Chile
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(2): 156-162, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886258

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the concentration of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) levels in a rat pleural effusion obtained by inoculation of intrapleural bacteria or turpentine through thoracentesis. Methods: Thirty-Nine Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Staphylococcus aureus (SA, n = 17); Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP, n = 12); and turpentine (control, n = 10). Pleural fluid was collected through ultrasound-guided thoracentesis 12 h, 24 h, and 36 h after instillation of bacteria or turpentine. Levels of TGFB1 were measured in pleural fluid. Results: At 12 h, mean TGFB1concentrations were 5.3450 pg/mL in the SA group, 5.3449 pg/mL in the SP group, and 5.3450 pg/mL in controls. At 24 h, they were 4.6700 pg/mL in the SA group, 4.6700 pg/mL in the SP group, and 4.6700 pg/mL in controls. At 36 h, they were 4.6699 pg/mL in the SA group and in control. No difference was observed among the groups in mean TGFB1concentration (p = 0.12); however, a significant intragroup reduction in mean TGFB1 was observed between 12 and 24 h (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The transforming growth factor beta 1 concentrations were not useful as a diagnostic tool or an early marker of infected pleural effusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Empyema, Pleural/diagnosis , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/analysis , Pleural Effusion/complications , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/analysis , Empyema, Pleural/complications , Empyema, Pleural/microbiology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
3.
Asunción; Universidad Politécnica y Artística del Paraguay;Universidad Autónoma de Chile; 2018. 53 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-915988

ABSTRACT

Bacterias, ¿Por qué me enferman? Es un libro que pretende acercarnos al diminuto e invisible mundo de los microorganismos con los que convivimos día a día y con quienes interactuamos constantemente, muchas veces sin darnos cuenta. Este texto entrega material exploratorio y de divulgación científica para lectores curiosos de todas las edades, con énfasis en estudiantes y profesores, que pueden encontrar en Bacterias. ¿Por qué me enferman? una herramienta educativa útil, didáctica y visualmente atractiva


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacteria/classification , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity , Microbiota , Immunity, Innate
4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046217

ABSTRACT

Se analiza la importancia de las bacterias acuáticas y su relación con el ambiente humano. Se definen y caracterizan los ríos urbanos, las modificaciones en su calidad y los hallazgos de patógenos transportados por estos cursos. Se discute la evolución y adaptación de los microorganismos al ambiente acuático, con énfasis en el caso particular de los ríos del conurbano bonaerense. Se presenta y discute la posible relación entre el cambio climático y algunos hallazgos recientes de patógenos en estos ríos urbanos


Water microorganisms importance and its relation with human environment are analyzed. So are defined and characterized urban rivers, qualities alterations and finding of pathogens transported by them. Evolution and adaptation of microorganisms are discussed emphasizing its importance in Buenos Aires suburban rivers. Recent pathogen changes detected in this courses and its relationship with climate changes are discussed


Analisa-se a importância das bactérias aquáticas e sua relação com o ambiente humano e os achados de patogênicos transportados por estes cursos. Discute-se a evolução e adaptação dos microorganismos ao ambiente aquático, com ênfase no caso peculiar dos rios do Conurbano Bonaerense. Apresenta-se e discute-se a possível relação entre a mudança climática e alguns achados de patogênicos nestes rios urbanos


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Climate Change , Rivers , Ecology , Environment
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(5): 366-374, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748157

ABSTRACT

Background: Physiological reflexes modulated primarily by the vagus nerve allow the heart to decelerate and accelerate rapidly after a deep inspiration followed by rapid movement of the limbs. This is the physiological and pharmacologically validated basis for the 4-s exercise test (4sET) used to assess the vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. Objective: To present reference data for 4sET in healthy adults. Methods: After applying strict clinical inclusion/exclusion criteria, 1,605 healthy adults (61% men) aged between 18 and 81 years subjected to 4sET were evaluated between 1994 and 2014. Using 4sET, the cardiac vagal index (CVI) was obtained by calculating the ratio between the duration of two RR intervals in the electrocardiogram: 1) after a 4-s rapid and deep breath and immediately before pedaling and 2) at the end of a rapid and resistance-free 4-s pedaling exercise. Results: CVI varied inversely with age (r = -0.33, p < 0.01), and the intercepts and slopes of the linear regressions between CVI and age were similar for men and women (p > 0.05). Considering the heteroscedasticity and the asymmetry of the distribution of the CVI values according to age, we chose to express the reference values in percentiles for eight age groups (years): 18–30, 31–40, 41–45, 46–50, 51–55, 56–60, 61–65, and 66+, obtaining progressively lower median CVI values ranging from 1.63 to 1.24. Conclusion: The availability of CVI percentiles for different age groups should promote the clinical use of 4sET, which is a simple and safe procedure for the evaluation of vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. .


Fundamento: Reflexos fisiológicos modulados primariamente pelo vago permitem que a frequência cardíaca diminua e aumente rapidamente, após uma inspiração profunda seguida da movimentação rápida dos membros. Essa é a base fisiológica e farmacologicamente validada do teste de exercício de 4 segundos (T4s) para a avaliação da modulação vagal sobre o cronotropismo cardíaco. Objetivo: Apresentar os dados de referência do T4s em adultos saudáveis. Métodos: Após aplicação de rígidos critérios clínicos de inclusão/exclusão foram estudados 1.605 adultos saudáveis (61% homens), entre 18 e 81 anos de idade, submetidos ao T4s, entre 1994 e 2014. No T4s, o Índice Vagal Cardíaco (IVC) foi obtido pela razão entre as durações de dois intervalos RR no traçado eletrocardiográfico: 1) após 4 segundos de inspiração rápida e profunda e imediatamente antes da pedalada; e 2) ao final da pedalada livre e rápida de 4 segundos. Resultados: IVC varia inversamente com a idade (r = - 0,33; p < 0,01) e os interceptos e as inclinações das regressões lineares entre IVC e idade são similares para homens e mulheres (p > 0,05). Considerando a heterocedasticidade e a assimetria da distribuição de IVC em função da idade, optou-se por expressar os valores de referência em percentis para oito faixas etárias (anos): 18-30, 31-40, 41-45, 46-50, 51-55, 56-60, 61-65 e 66+, obtendo-se medianas de IVC progressivamente menores de 1,63 a 1,24. Conclusão: A disponibilização dos percentis de IVC por diferentes faixas etárias deverá facilitar a maior utilização clínica do T4s, um procedimento simples e seguro, para a avaliação da modulação vagal do cronotropismo cardíaco. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Bacteria , Caspases , Cytosol/microbiology , Inflammasomes , Bacteria/immunology , Bacteria/pathogenicity
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(5): 409-416, 05/2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: lil-748147

ABSTRACT

Background: Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) is one of the main risk factors for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), in addition to male gender. Differences in coronary artery lesions between hypertensive and normotensive individuals of both genders at the Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) have not been clearly determined. Objective: To Investigate the calcium score (CS), CAD extent and characteristics of coronary plaques at CCTA in men and women with and without SAH. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study of 509 patients undergoing CCTA for CAD diagnosis and risk stratification, from November 2011 to December 2012, at Instituto de Cardiologia Dante Pazzanese. Individuals were stratified according to gender and subdivided according to the presence (HT +) or absence (HT-) of SAH. Results: HT+ women were older (62.3 ± 10.2 vs 57.8 ± 12.8, p = 0.01). As for the assessment of CAD extent, the HT+ individuals of both genders had significant CAD, although multivessel disease is more frequent in HT + men. The regression analysis for significant CAD showed that age and male gender were the determinant factors of multivessel disease and CS ≥ 100. Plaque type analysis showed that SAH was a predictive risk factor for partially calcified plaques (OR = 3.9). Conclusion: Hypertensive men had multivessel disease more often than women. Male gender was a determinant factor of significant CAD, multivessel disease, CS ≥ 100 and calcified and partially calcified plaques, whereas SAH was predictive of partially calcified plaques. .


Fundamento: Doença Arterial Coronariana (DAC) tem como um dos principais fatores de risco a Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica (HAS), além do sexo masculino. As diferenças nas lesões de artérias coronarianas entre hipertensos e normotensos de ambos os sexos pela Angiotomografia Computadorizada Coronariana (ATC) ainda não foram claramente determinadas. Objetivo: Investigar Escore de Cálcio (EC), extensão da DAC e as características de placas coronarianas à ATC em homens e mulheres com e sem HAS. Métodos: Estudo transversal prospectivo com 509 pacientes submetidos a ATC para diagnóstico e estratificação de risco de DAC, de novembro de 2011 a dezembro de 2012, no Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia. Foram estratificados segundo o gênero e subdivididos de acordo com a presença (HT+) ou ausência (HT-) de HAS. Resultados: As mulheres HT+ apresentaram maior idade (62,3 ± 10,2 vs 57,8 ± 12,8, p = 0,01). Quanto à avaliação de extensão da DAC, os HT+ de ambos os sexos apresentaram DAC significativa, porém a doença multiarterial é mais frequente nos homens HT+. A análise da regressão para DAC significativa mostrou que idade e sexo masculino foram fatores determinantes de doença multiarterial e EC ≥ 100. Já a análise para os tipos de placas mostrou que a HAS se comportou como fator de risco preditor para placas parcialmente calcificadas (OR = 3,9). Conclusão: Homens hipertensos apresentaram mais frequentemente doença multiarterial. O sexo masculino foi fator determinante de DAC significativa, doença multiarterial, EC ≥ 100 e placas calcificadas e parcialmente calcificadas. Enquanto a HAS foi preditora de placas parcialmente calcificadas. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Bacteria , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Bacteria/immunology , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections , CRISPR-Cas Systems/immunology , CRISPR-Cas Systems/physiology
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158376

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Pathogenic bacteria often cause life threatening infections especially in immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, rapid and reliable species identification is essential for a successful treatment and disease management. We evaluated a rapid, proteomic based technique for identification of clinical bacterial isolates by protein profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time - of - flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Methods: Freshly grown bacterial isolates were selected from culture plates. Ethanol/formic acid extraction procedure was carried out, followed by charging of MALDI target plate with the extract and overlaying with α-cyano-4 hydroxy-cinnamic acid matrix solution. Identification was performed using the MALDI BioTyper 1.1, software for microbial identification (Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Bremen, Germany). Results: A comparative analysis of 82 clinical bacterial isolates using MALDI -TOF MS and conventional techniques was carried out. Amongst the clinical isolates, the accuracy at the species level for clinical isolates was 98.78%. One out of 82 isolates was not in accordance with the conventional assays because MALDI-TOF MS established it as Streptococcus pneumoniae and conventional methods as Streptococcus viridans. Interpretation & conclusions: MALDI - TOF MS was found to be an accurate, rapid, cost-effective and robust system for identification of clinical bacterial isolates. This innovative approach holds promise for earlier therapeutic intervention leading to better patient care.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/genetics , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Proteomics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(3): 612-622, 8/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723880

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate microbes involved in the nitrogen cycle and potentially pathogenic bacteria from urban and rural sites of the São Pedro stream. Water samples were collected from two sites. A seasonal survey of bacterial abundance was conducted. The dissolved nutrient content was analysed. PCR and FISH analysis were performed to identify and quantify microbes involved in the nitrogen cycle and potentially pathogenic bacteria. The seasonal survey revealed that the bacterial abundance was similar along the year on the rural area but varied on the urban site. Higher concentration of dissolved nutrients in the urban area indicated a eutrophic system. Considering the nitrifying microbes, the genus Nitrobacter was found, especially in the urban area, and may act as the principal bacteria in converting nitrite into nitrate at this site. The molecular markers napA, amoA, and nfrA were more accumulated at the urban site, justifying the higher content of nutrients metabolised by these enzymes. Finally, high intensity of amplicons from Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Bacteroides/Prevotella/Porphyromonas, Salmonella, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and the diarrheagenic lineages of E. coli were observed at the urban site. These results indicate a change in the structure of the microbial community imposed by anthrophic actions. The incidence of pathogenic bacteria in aquatic environments is of particular importance to public health, emphasising the need for sewage treatment to minimise the environmental impacts associated with urbanisation.


Este estudo objetivou investigar os micro-organismos envolvidos no ciclo do nitrogênio e bactérias potencialmente patogênicas das áreas urbanas e rurais do Córrego São Pedro. Amostras de água foram coletadas dos dois locais. Um levantamento sazonal da densidade bacteriana foi realizado. O teor de nutriente dissolvido foi avaliado. As técnicas de PCR e FISH foram realizadas para identificar e quantificar os micro-organismos envolvidos no ciclo do nitrogênio e bactérias potencialmente patogênicas. O levantamento sazonal revelou que a abundância bacteriana foi semelhante ao longo do ano na área rural, porém variou na região urbana. Altas concentrações de nutrientes dissolvidos na área urbana indicaram este como um sistema eutrófico. Considerando os micro-organismos nitrificantes, o gênero Nitrobacter foi encontrado, especialmente na região urbana, e pode estar atuando como a principal bactéria convertendo nitrito em nitrato nessa área. Os marcadores moleculares napA, amoA, e nfrA foram mais acumulados na área urbana, justificando o alto teor dos nutrientes metabolizados por essas enzimas. Finalmente, alta intensidade de amplicons para Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Bacteroides/Prevotella/Porphyromonas, Salmonella, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa e linhagens diarreagênicas de E. coli foram observados na área urbana. Estes resultados indicaram uma mudança na estrutura da comunidade microbiana imposta pelas ações antropogênicas. A incidência de bactérias patogênicas em ambientes aquáticos é de particular importância para a saúde pública, enfatizando a necessidade de tratamentos de esgoto para minimizar os impactos ambientais associados com a urbanização.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Nitrites/metabolism , Sewage/microbiology , Water Pollution , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Colony Count, Microbial , Environmental Monitoring , Rural Population , Seasons , Urban Population
10.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 16(2)jul-dez. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-718778

ABSTRACT

In the Southern Brazilian Plateau, farmers try to compensate the lack of forage from native grasslands cultivating gramineae such as ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). However, soil fertility often limits the productivity of these pastures. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of inoculating diazotrophic bacteria Azospirillum amazonense S22 and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Acaulospora scrobiculata SCR855 on the growth and nutrient uptake of ryegrass and tall fescue. Both AMF and Azospirilum did not increase the dry weight and the nutrient concentration of ryegrass. However, Azospirillum inoculation promoted the growth of tall fescue. Mycorrhizal colonization was not affected by AMF inoculation, but it was increased by Azospirillum inoculation.


No planalto do sul do Brasil, os produtores tentam compensar a falta de forragem das pastagens nativas cultivando gramíneas, como azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) e festuca (Festuca arundinacea). Entretanto, a fertilidade do solo nessas áreas frequentemente limita a produtividade dessas pastagens. Neste estudo, foram investigados os efeitos da inoculação da bactéria diazotrófica Azospirillum amazonense S22 e do fungo micorrízico arbuscular (FMA) Acaulospora scorbiculata SCR855 no crescimento vegetal e absorção de nutrientes de azevém e festuca. Tanto FMA quanto Azospirillum não incrementaram a massa seca e as concentrações de nutrientes do azevém; porém, a inoculação de Azospirillum promoveu o crescimento da festuca. A colonização radicular micorrízica não foi afetada pela inoculação pelo AMF, mas foi aumentada pela inoculação com Azospirillum.


En el altiplano del sur de Brasil, los productores intentan compensar la falta de forraje en pastajes nativas cultivando gramíneas, como raigrás (Lolium multiflorum Lam) y festuca (Festuca arundinacea). Sin embargo, la fertilidad del suelo en esas áreas a menudo limita la productividad de esas pastajes. En este estudio, se investigó los efectos de la inoculación de la bacteria diazotrófica Azospirillum amazonense S22 y del hongo micorrízico arbuscular (HMA), Acaulospora scorbiculata SCR855 en el crecimiento vegetal y absorción de nutrientes de raigrás y festuca. Tanto HMA como Azospirillum no incrementaron la masa seca y las concentraciones de nutrientes del raigrás; pero, la inoculación de Azospirillum promovió el crecimiento de la festuca. La colonización radicular micorrízica no se vio afectada por la inoculación por HMA, pero aumentó por inoculación con Azospirillum.


Subject(s)
Lolium , Poaceae , Bacteria/pathogenicity
11.
Rev. Inst. Nac. Hig ; 44(1): 15-24, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: lil-740428

ABSTRACT

Se estudió la incidencia de histamina y de bacterias indicadoras de manejo higiénico en filetes, ruedas y trozos de diez especies de pescado en estado fresco, (Euthynnus alletteratus; Caranx latus; Ophisthonema oglinum; Alectis crinitus; Sardinella aurita; Thunnus alalunga; Sarda sarda; Scomberomorus cavalla; Coryphaena hippurus y Xyphias gladius), comercializadas en un mercado de pescado de Isla de Margarita (Venezuela). Según normas COVENIN se enumeraron (UFC g-1) aerobios a 25 y 32 °C, coliformes fecales y Escherichia coli (NMP g-1); histamina (mg/100 g) y pH. También recuentos (UFC g-1) de enterobacterias (ICMSF) y bacterias descarboxiladoras de histidina (Niven y otros). Todos los recuentos de aerobios a 25 °C excedieron el valor m (Log10 = 5,70 UFC g-1) fijado por ICMSF (1986). La prueba r de Pearson indicó que los recuentos a 25 y 32 °C estuvieron altamente relacionados (n = 90; r = 0,89; p < 0,01). E. coli superó en el 76% de las muestras el valor m (Log10 = 1,04 NMP g-1). Las mayores cifras de histamina se detectaron en T. alalunga (promedio 43,5 mg/100 g en uno de tres muestreos); seguido por S. aurita (promedios de 23,7 y 28,0 mg/100 g respectivamente, en dos muestreos). Sólo en muestras de T. alalunga se detectaron olores penetrantes y músculos con elasticidad disminuida. Estos datos y la observación de factores adversos, tales como contacto directo con superficies y utensilios sucios, restos de vísceras, desangrado deficiente, presencia de insectos, utilización de agua no potable y la exposición a temperaturas no apropiadas, reflejan que la manipulación del pescado no fue adecuada. Se recomienda que inspectores sanitarios implementen acciones tendentes a corregir estas deficiencias.


The incidence of histamine and of bacteria that indicate hygienic handling of fillets, slices and pieces of ten pelagic fresh fish (Euthynnus alletteratus; Caranx latus; Ophisthonema oglinum; Alectis crinitus; Sardinella aurita; Thunnus alalunga; Sarda sarda; Scomberomorus cavalla; Coryphaena hippurus and Xyphias gladius), sold in a fish market at Margarita Island (Venezuela) was assessed. According to COVENIN´s norms, total aerobic plate count (FCU g-1) at 25 and 32 °C; fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli (MPN g-1); histamine (mg/100 g) and pH were measured. Also, members of the Enterobacteriaceae family (FCU g-1) and histamine producing bacteria were counted, according to ICMSF and Niven et al respectively. All total aerobic plate count at 25 °C surpassed the m number (Log10 = 5.70 CFU g-1) established by ICMSF (1986). The Pearson test (r) showed that bacteria total counts at 25 and 32 °C were highly related (n = 90; r = 0.89; p < 0.01). E. coli exceeded in 76% of samples the number (Log10 = 1.04 MPN g-1). Histamine biggest numbers were detected in T. alalunga (average 43.5 mg/100 g in one of three samplings), followed by S. aurita (averages of 23.7 and 28.0 mg/100 g respectively, in two samplings). Only in T. alalunga samples were penetrating odors detected and muscles with reduced elasticity. This data and the adverse factors observed, such as: fish in direct contact with dirty areas and utensils, leftover viscera, faulty bleeding, presence of insects, use of non potable water and the exposition of fish at inappropriate temperatures, revealed the handling of fish was not suitable. It is recommended that sanitary officers carry out actions necessary to correct these deficiencies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Histamine/analysis , Aerobiosis , Coliforms , Fishes , Quality Control , Public Health , Escherichia coli
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 31(1): 254-263, mar. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-676166

ABSTRACT

En los últimos años el estudio de las infecciones de transmisión sexual ha cobrado gran importancia debido principalmente al incremento de estas en parejas heterosexuales y hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. En mujeres existe mucha información de epidemiología y patogénesis de estas infecciones, sin embargo, en hombres la información es muy escasa debido a que la mayoría no presenta sintomatología. En los últimos años se ha evidenciado un creciente interés en el estudio del semen como vía de transmisión, debido principalmente a la afinidad de algunos patógenos con los espermatozoides. Dentro de los principales microorganismos infectantes en semen se encuentran Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mollicutes, Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana tipos 1 y 2, Virus Herpes Simplex 1 y 2, Virus Papiloma Humano, Virus de la Hepatitis B y C, Citomegalovirus, Virus Epstein-Barr y Trichomonas vaginalis.


Sexually transmitted infections study has become an important issue in these days, mainly due to the increment of heterosexual and men have sex with men partners of people. In women, there is a lot information about epidemiology and pathogenesis of these infections. However, the information is very limited in men, because most infected men are asymptomatic. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in study of semen as a transmission way, due to the affinity of some pathogens to sperm. The most prevalent microorganisms infecting semen are: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mollicutes, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Types 1 and 2 Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2, Human Papillomavirus, Hepatitis B and C virus, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr and Trichomonas vaginalis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Semen/microbiology , Spermatozoa/parasitology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/transmission , Semen/parasitology , Spermatozoa/microbiology , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Trichomonas vaginalis , Viruses/pathogenicity , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/microbiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/parasitology , Chlamydia trachomatis , Hepatitis B virus , HIV , Simplexvirus , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Cytomegalovirus , Disease Vectors , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
13.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 35(1): 81-87, Mar. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670478

ABSTRACT

Invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) by microorganisms is a severe and frequently fatal event during the course of many infectious diseases. It may lead to deafness, blindness, cerebral palsy, hydrocephalus, cognitive impairment or permanent neurological dysfunction in survivors. Pathogens can cross the blood-brain barrier by transcellular migration, paracellular migration and in infected macrophages. Pathogens may breach the blood-brain barrier and be recognized by antigen-presenting cells through the binding of Toll-like receptors. This induces the activation of nuclear factor kappa B or mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and subsequently induces leukocyte infiltration and proliferation and the expression of numerous proteins involved in inflammation and the immune response. Many brain cells can produce cytokines, chemokines and other pro-inflammatory molecules in response to bacteria stimuli; as a consequence, polymorphonuclear cells are attracted and activated, and release large amounts of superoxide anion and nitric oxide, leading to peroxynitrite formation and oxidative stress. This cascade leads to lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial damage and blood-brain barrier breakdown, contributing to cellular injury during neuronal infection. Current evidence suggests that bacterial CNS infections can play a role in the etiopathogenesis of behavioral disorders by increasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and bacterial virulence factors. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the relevant pathophysiologic steps in CNS infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections/complications , Mental Disorders/etiology , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Cell Death , Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections/physiopathology , Central Nervous System/immunology , Cytokines/physiology , Immune System/physiopathology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Mental Disorders/physiopathology , Neurons
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(1): 47-54, fev. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-667535

ABSTRACT

The bumblefoot or pododermatitis is among the diseases with the highest morbidity in Magellanic penguins, sometimes evolving to septicemia and death. Therefore, this study aimed to relate the main species involved in the disorder, as well as the in vitro susceptibility profile of the microorganisms against routine antimicrobial usage in Veterinary Medicine. During two years in vivo material was harvested from 200 footpads (n=100 animals) for microbiological analysis and in vitro susceptibility tests against the Antibiotic enrofloxacin, streptomycin, penicillin and cephalosporin. Bacteria have been identified both as part of permanent and transient microbiota, also being associated to 100% of the pododermatitis cases. The most prevalent genus were Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. The antibiograms of all the isolated bacteria resulted in greater susceptibility of the strains facing cephalosporin, followed by enrofloxacin, streptomycin and penicillin.


O bumblefoot ou pododermatite está entre as afecções de maior morbidade em pinguins-de-magalhães, podendo evoluir para septicemia e óbito. Portanto, o presente estudo objetivou relacionar as principais espécies bacterianas envolvidas na afecção, bem como o perfil de susceptibilidade in vitro destes microrganismos frente a antimicrobianos de uso rotineiro em medicina veterinária. Durante o período de dois anos, foi realizada colheita de material in vivo de 200 coxins plantares (n=100 animais) para análise microbiológica e testes de susceptibilidade in vitro frente aos antibióticos enrofloxacina, estreptomicina, penicilina e cefalosporina. Bactérias foram identificadas tanto como parte da microbiota permanente quanto da transitória, bem como estiveram associadas a 100% dos casos de pododermatite. Os gêneros mais prevalentes foram Staphylococcus e Corynebacterium. Os antibiogramas de todas as bactérias isoladas resultaram em maior sensibilidade das cepas frente à cefalosporina, seguida de enrofloxacina, estreptomicina e penicilina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteria/growth & development , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Sepsis/pathology , Sepsis/veterinary , Spheniscidae/abnormalities , Spheniscidae/growth & development , Spheniscidae/injuries
15.
Neumol. pediátr ; 8(2): 53-65, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-701690

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infections of lower respiratory tract remain a major cause of mortality in young children worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP), the infectious etiology pneumonia acquired by a previously healthy individual outside a hospital. In 2012, WHO stated that S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae type b (Hib) are the first and second most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in children, respectively, whereas Respiratory Syncytial Virus is the most frequent cause of viral pneumonia. The assessment and treatment of a child with a respiratory infection of lower airways becomes a challenge as not only the clinical manifestations of infection by viruses, bacteria or atypical bacteria may overlap, but also coinfections occur frequently. The etiological agents of pneumonia in children can be divided into three groups: common bacteria(S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. aureus, M. catarrhalis, S. pyogenes, B. pertussis, M. tuberculosis, among others),respiratory viruses (RSV, Influenza A and B, Parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3, Adenovirus, Rhinovirus, Coronavirus, Metapneumovirus, Bocavirus, Enterovirus, Varicella Zoster, among others) and atypical pathogens (M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, L. pneumophila, C. burnetii, among others). The etiological diagnosis of CAP in pediatric patients is supported by laboratory tests that generate direct or indirect evidence of the causal germ. The search for the causing agent becomes a challenge, primarily due to the limitation in obtaining appropriate samples and the difficulty to identify the etiological agent and differentiate between colonization and infection. With the available methods, a specific germ is expected to be detected from 16 to 85 percent of the cases, making it difficult to determine the true incidence of these infections. In addition, the variety of diagnostic techniques used in clinical trials and interpretation of the results in the absence...


Las infecciones respiratorias de vías aéreas inferiores siguen siendo una de las principales causas de mortalidad en niños pequeños alrededor del mundo, particularmente en países en desarrollo. La Neumonía Adquirida en la Comunidad (NAC), es la neumonía de etiología infecciosa que adquiere un individuo previamente sano, fuera de un hospital. En el 2012, la OMS, establece que S. pneumoniae y H. influenzae tipo b (Hib) son la primera y segunda causa más común de etiología bacteriana en niños, respectivamente; mientras que el Virus Sincitial Respiratorio es la causa más frecuente de neumonía viral. La evaluación y el manejo de un niño con una infección respiratoria de vías aéreas inferiores, se convierte un reto ya que no sólo las manifestaciones clínicas de las infecciones por virus, bacterias o bacterias atípicas pueden solaparse, sino que también ocurren frecuentemente coinfecciones. Los agentes etiológicos de las neumonías en niños se pueden dividir en 3 grupos: bacterias comunes (S. pneumoniae, H. influenza, S. aureus, M. catarrhalis, S. pyogenes, B. pertussis, M. tuberculosis, entre otros), virus respiratorios (VSR, Influenza A y B, Parainfluenza 1, 2 y 3, Adenovirus, Rhinovirus, Coronavirus, Metapneumovirus, Bocavirus,Enterovirus, Varicela, entre otros) y gérmenes atípicos (M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, L. pneumophila, Coxiella burnetii, entre otros). El diagnóstico etiológico de NAC en el paciente pediátrico se apoya en pruebas de laboratorio que generan una evidencia directa o indirecta del germen causal. La búsqueda del agente causal se convierte en un reto debido principalmente a la limitación para obtener muestras adecuadas y a la dificultad de identificar el agente etiológico y diferenciar entre colonización e infección. Con los métodos disponibles se estima que se puede detectar un germen específico entre el 16 al 85 por ciento de los casos; lo cual dificulta la determinación de la incidencia real de estas infecciones...


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/etiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Seasons , Viruses/pathogenicity
16.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 72(3): 239-243, 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: lil-742467

ABSTRACT

Although finger food is convenient, it may be easily contaminated from the stage of preparation to themoment of consumption. This study aimed at evaluating the microbiological quality of finger food and sandwiches sold in Botucatu – SP, Brazil, by following the standards established by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, ANVISA. The analysis was conducted according to APHA. A hundred and twenty two samples of meat, chicken, shrimp, cheese, and vegetable finger food and sandwiches were tested fromAugust 2008 to March 2009. Seventeen (13.9 %) samples of meat, cheese, vegetables and chicken were indisagreement with the ANVISA standards — some of them in more than one parameter. High counting of thermotolerant coliforms and coagulase-positive staphylococci were found in ten (8.2 %) and eight(6.5 %) samples, respectively. Salmonella spp. was detected in two samples (1.6 %). No Bacillus cereus andsulfite-reducing clostridia were isolated. Although only 10 samples (8.2 %) showed pathogenic bacteriacontamination, these results are relevant, since they indicate that the population is generally exposedto risks of acquiring foodborne diseases. Thus, the sanitary authorities might implement actions forsupervising the quality of the food sold in Botucatu, and to strengthen the food sellers to improve thehygienic conditions and be aware of the risks of food contamination.


Neste trabalho foi avaliada a qualidade microbiológica de salgados e sanduíches comercializados emBotucatu-SP, seguindo-se a legislação em vigor. As análises foram realizadas de acordo com APHA. Foramanalisadas 122 amostras de salgados de carne, frango, camarão, queijo e vegetais, e sanduíches no períodode agosto/2008 a março/2009. Dezessete (13,9 %) amostras de carne, queijo, vegetais e frango, e em algumasem mais de um parâmetro, estavam em desacordo com a legislação em vigor. Foram detectadas elevadascontagens de coliformes termotolerantes e estafilococos coagulase-positiva, respectivamente, em dez (8,2 %)e oito (6,5 %) amostras. Salmonella spp. foi isolada em duas amostras (1,6 %). As contagens de Bacillus cereuse de Clostrídio Sulfito Redutor não ultrapassaram os padrões da legislação. A maioria dos salgados mostrouresultados dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação. A presença de bactérias patogênicas comoS. aureus e Salmonella spp. foi demonstrada em 10 amostras (8,2 %); e este resultado é relevante, pois indicaque a população está exposta a riscos de doenças veiculadas por alimentos. Torna-se necessário colocarem prática a vigilância dos alimentos comercializados em Botucatu, incentivar a melhoria de condiçõesde higiene pelos comerciantes, e ter ciência dos riscos e das implicações da contaminação microbiológicados alimentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Street Food , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Fast Foods/microbiology , Food Microbiology , Food Quality , Brazil , Coliforms
17.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 19(4): 350-352, sept. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-702211

ABSTRACT

El intestino humano alberga un ecosistema complejo constituido por más de 500 especies bacterianas distintas, con determinadas características genéticas y metabólicas, generalmente denominado microbiota. La composición cuantitativa y cualitativa de la flora intestinal y su interacción con la mucosa intestinal se ha asociado en forma variable con condiciones fisiológicas y patológicas. En este contexto, las relaciones entre la microbiota y el cáncer de colon son controvertidas. Se analizarán y discutirán los principales temas en este campo de investigación, los posibles problemas y las perspectivas futuras. Se propone un modelo hipotético en el que el equilibrio de la microflora del hospedero representa un factor importante para el control de los trastornos proliferativos de la mucosa colónica, sobre la base de datos recientemente publicados. El estudio del papel de la microbiota en la aparición del cáncer de colon puede representar un enfoque novedoso y fascinante de esta neoplasia maligna frecuente y compleja.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/growth & development , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/etiology , Colonic Neoplasms/complications , Colonic Neoplasms/etiology
19.
Arch. venez. farmacol. ter ; 31(2): 23-31, 2012. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-699609

ABSTRACT

En 1861 Semmelweis demostró que las bacteriasse trasmiten a los pacientes a través de manos contaminadasde los trabajadores de la salud. En 1978 Cozanitis y cols., describen la contaminación bacterianade teléfonos en cuidados intensivos. Un estudio de Dial-a-Phone del Reino Unido, asegura, que los teléfonos son portadores de un sinnúmero de bacterias. Se vió que había más suciedad en un teléfono celular que la manija de una puerta, un teclado de computadora, la suela de un zapato e incluso el asiento de un baño público. Karabay y cols., aislaron bacterias asociadas a infecciones hospitalarias que fueron Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, y Klebsiella pneumoniae. Identificar los géneros o especies bacterianas patógenas aerobias de los teléfonos celulares del personal y alumnos de la CLIMUZAC de la UAO/UAZ. 1) Aplicación de encuestas sobre medidas de aseo de celulares y recolección de muestras. 2)Procesamiento bacteriológico en medios de cultivo, pruebas fisiológicas, morfológicas, tintoriales y bioquímicas para la identificación. El 63% de los encuestados no efectúa limpieza del teléfono. El uso en el área de trabajo clínico es de 81%. Las bacterias identificadas fueron: Staphylococcus sp. 16.7%, Staphylococcus aureus 38.7%, Klebsiella sp. 11.6%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 0.6%, Shigella sp. 10.3%, Streptococcus sp. 8.3%, Streptococcus pneumoniae 1.2%, Micrococcus sp. 0.6%, Pseudomonas sp. 1.9%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 0.6%, Enterococcus sp. 0.6%, Enterococcus faecalis 3.2%, Salmonella sp. 1.9%, Bacteroides vulgaris 0.6%, Escherichia coli 1.9%. La totalidad de los muestreados son portadoresde bacterias patógenas. Lo que justifica la importancia de la restricción de los celulares en áreas de trabajo clínico o en cualquier área prestadora de salud, para así poder contribuir a la prevención de infecciones cruzadas por el uso de teléfonos, que sirven como depósito y vector de bacterias patógenas


In 1861 Senneleweis showed that bacteria are being transmitted to patients through contaminated hands of workers in the health. In 1871 Cozanitis and coworkers described the bacterial contamination of telephones in intensive care. A study of Dial A. Phone of the United Kingdom, ensures that the phones are carriers of a myriad of bacteria. They saw that he had more dirt in a cell phone that the handle and a door, a computer keyboard, the sole sole of a shoe and even the seat of a public bath. Karabay and coworkers, isolated bacteria associated with hospital infections that were Escherichia Coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia. Identify the genres or species bacterial pathogens aerobic of cellular telephones of staff and students of CLIMUZAC of the UAO/UAZ. 1) Implementation of surveys on measures of groomingcellular and collection of samples. 2) Processing in bacteriological culture media, physiological tests, morphological, tintoriales and biochemical for identification. The 63 percent of respondents makes no cleaning of the phone. The use in the area of clinical work is 81 percent. The bacteria identified were: Staphylococcus sp. 16.7%, Staphylococcus Aureus 38.7%, Klebsiella sp. 11.6%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 0.6%, Shigella sp. 10.3%, Streptococcus sp. 8.3%, Steptoccocuspneumoniae 0.6%, Microccocus sp. 0.6%, Pseudomonas sp. 1.9%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 0.6%, Enteroccocus faecalis 3.2%, Salmonella sp. 1.9%, Bacteroides Vulgaris 0.6%, Escherichia coli 1.9%. The totalities of the sampled are carriers of pathogenic bacteria. What justifies the importance of the restriction of the cell phones in areas of clinical work or in any area providers of health, so as to contribute to the prevention of cross-infection by the use of phones, which serve as a deposit and vector of pathogenic bacteria


Subject(s)
Female , Bacteria , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Cross Infection/pathology , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Cell Phone , Dental Offices/trends , Mexico/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
20.
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 13(4): 730-734, out.-dez. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-693790

ABSTRACT

O estudo objetivou determinar a prevalência de bastonetes Gram-negativos (BGN) isolados da saliva de trabalhadores de saúde de um hospital universitário em Goiânia-Goiás e caracterizar o perfil dos colonizados. De agosto⁄2005 a julho⁄2006, participaram do estudo 278 trabalhadores de saúde responsáveis pelos cuidados assistenciais aos clientes atendidos na instituição. A taxa de portadores foi de 69,4%, destes 44% foram considerados portadores persistentes e 49,2% multicolonizados. Foram isolados 319 BGN, sendo 208 (65,2%) enterobactérias e 111 (34,8%) não-fermentadores. As principais espécies identificadas foram: Enterobacter aerogenes (17,9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (16,3%), Enterobacter agglomerans (8,8%). No grupo dos BGN não-fermentadores, foram isoladas 25 (7,8%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Elevada prevalência de trabalhadores colonizados por BGN foi observada. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo são de grande relevância, pois BGN assumem fundamental importância na etiologia e patogênese de infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde de pacientes críticos, submetidos a procedimentos invasivos e com permanência prolongada no ambiente nosocomial.


The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Gram-negative (GNB) isolated from the saliva of health workers in a school hospital in Goiânia-Goiás, and to characterize the profile of the colonized individuals. From August/2005 to July/2006, 278 health care workers participated of the study. The GNB carrier rate was 69.4%, being 44% of them persistent carriers, and 49.2% multicolonized carriers. 319 BGN were isolated, of which 208 (65.2%) were Enterobacteriaceae and 111 (34.8%) non-fermenters. The main species identified were Enterobacter aerogenes (17.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.3%), and Enterobacter agglomerans (8.8%). In the group of non-fermenting GNB were isolated 25 (7.8%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. High prevalence of colonization by GNB was observed. The results of this study are of great importance because BGN are important in the etiology and pathogenesis of infections associated with health care of critically ill patients, undergoing invasive procedures and prolonged stay in the nosocomial environment.


El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de bacterias Gram-negativas (BGN) aislado de la saliva de trabajadores de salud en un hospital universitario en Goiânia-Goiás y caracterizar el perfil de los colonizados. Participaron del estudio realizado entre Agosto/2005 a Julio/2006, 278 profesionales 278 responsables por asistencia sanitaria a los clientes. La tasa de portadores fue 69,4%, siendo de estos 44% persistente y 49,2% multicolónias. 319 BGN fueron aislados, 208 (65,2%) enterobacterias y 111 (34,8%) no fermentadores. Principales especies identificadas fueron Enterobacter aerogenes (17,9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (16,3%), Enterobacter agglomerans (8,8%). En el grupo de los no fermentadores fueron aisladas 25 (7,8%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Alta prevalencia de colonización por los trabajadores GNB se observó. Los resultados de este estudio son de gran pertinencia, porque BGN son de fundamental importancia en la etiología y patogénesis de las infecciones relacionadas con el cuidado de salud de los pacientes enfermos, sometidos a procedimientos invasivos y estancia prolongada en ambiente hospitalario.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Health Personnel , Saliva
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