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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879094

ABSTRACT

This article aims to investigate the ameliorative effect of Linderae Radix ethanol extract on hyperlipidemia rats induced by high-fat diet and to explore its possible mechanism from the perspective of reverse cholesterol transport(RCT). SD rats were divided into normal group, model group, atorvastatin group, Linderae Radix ethanol extract(LREE) of high, medium, low dose groups. Except for the normal group, the other groups were fed with a high-fat diet to establish hyperlipidemia rat models; the normal group and the model group were given pure water, while each administration group was given corresponding drugs by gavage once a day for five weeks. Serum total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-c), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) levels were measured by automatic blood biochemistry analyzer; the contents of TC, TG, total bile acid(TBA) in liver and TC and TBA in feces of rats were detected by enzyme colorimetry. HE staining was used to observe the liver tissue lesions; immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of ATP-binding cassette G8(ABCG8) in small intestine; Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma/aerfa(PPARγ/α), liver X receptor-α(LXRα), ATP-binding cassette A1(ABCA1) pathway protein and scavenger receptor class B type Ⅰ(SR-BⅠ) in liver. The results showed that LREE could effectively reduce serum and liver TC, TG levels, serum LDL-c levels and AST activity, and increase HDL-c levels, but did not significant improve ALT activity and liver index; HE staining results showed that LREE could reduce liver lipid deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. In addition, LREE also increased the contents of fecal TC and TBA, and up-regulated the protein expressions of ABCG8 in small intestine and PPARγ/α, SR-BⅠ, LXRα, and ABCA1 in liver. LREE served as a positive role on hyperlipidemia model rats induced by high-fat diet, which might be related to the regulation of RCT, the promotion of the conversion of cholesterol to the liver and bile acids, and the intestinal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids. RCT regulation might be a potential mechanism of LREE against hyperlipidemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Transport , Cholesterol/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Hyperlipidemias/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Triglycerides/metabolism
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878910

ABSTRACT

ATP-binding cassette(ABC) transporters are one of the largest protein families in organisms, with important effects in regulating plant growth and development, root morphology, transportation of secondary metabolites and resistance of stress. Environmental stress promotes the biosynthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites, which determines the quality of medicinal plants. Therefore, how to improve the accumulation of secondary metabolites has been a hotspot in studying medicinal plants. Many studies have showed that ABC transporters are extremely related to the transportation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants. Recently, with the great development of genomics and transcriptomic sequencing technology, the regulatory mechanisms of ABC transporters on secondary metabolites have attached great attentions in medicinal plants. This paper reviewed the mechanisms of different groups of ABC transporters in transporting secondary metabolites through cell membranes. This paper provided key theoretical basis and technical supports in studying the mechanisms of ABC transporters in medicinal plant, and promoting the accumulation of secondary metabolites, in order to improve the quality of medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/metabolism , Biological Transport , Plant Development , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Stress, Physiological
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 350-360, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777179

ABSTRACT

Facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT) are proteins that mediate glucose transmembrane transport in the form of facilitated diffusion, which play an important role in regulating cell energy metabolism. There are many breakthroughs in researches of facilitative GLUT in recent years. It has been known that there are 14 subtypes of facilitative GLUT with obvious tissue specificity in distribution and physiological function. In the present review, the tissue and cellular distribution, subcellular localization, expression regulation, physiological function and the relationship to diseases of facilitative GLUT subtypes were summarized, in order to further understand their physiological and pathophysiological significances.


Subject(s)
Biological Transport , Disease , Energy Metabolism , Glucose , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Physiology , Humans
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776711

ABSTRACT

Aluminum (Al) is the most abundant metal element in the earth's crust. On acid soils, at pH 5.5 or lower, part of insoluble Al-containing minerals become solubilized into soil solution, with resultant highly toxic effects on plant growth and development. Nevertheless, some plants have developed Al-tolerance mechanisms that enable them to counteract this Al toxicity. One such well-documented mechanism is the Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions, including citrate, malate, and oxalate, from plant roots. Once secreted, these anions chelate external Al ions, thus protecting the secreting plant from Al toxicity. Genes encoding the citrate and malate transporters responsible for secretion have been identified and characterized, and accumulating evidence indicates that regulation of the expression of these transporter genes is critical for plant Al tolerance. In this review, we outline the recent history of research into plant Al-tolerance mechanisms, with special emphasis on the physiology of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions from plant roots. In particular, we summarize the identification of genes encoding organic acid transporters and review current understanding of genes regulating organic acid secretion. We also discuss the possible signaling pathways regulating the expression of organic acid transporter genes.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Toxicity , Anions , Biological Transport , Citric Acid , Metabolism , Malates , Metabolism , Oxalic Acid , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Physiology
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1162-1173, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771812

ABSTRACT

Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptides that can penetrate the cell membrane or tissue barrier. CPPs can deliver a variety of biomacromolecules, such as proteins, RNA and DNA, into cells to produce intracellular functional effects. Endocytosis and direct penetration have been suggested as the two major uptake mechanisms for CPPs-mediated cargo delivery. Compared with other non-natural chemical molecules-based delivery reagents, the CPPs have better biocompatibility, lower cytotoxicity, are easily degraded after cargo delivery, and can be fused and recombined expressed with bioactive proteins. Because of these advantages, the CPPs have become an important potential tool for delivery of developing drugs which targets intracellular factors. As a novel delivery tool, the CPPs also show promising application prospects in biomedical researches. This review summarized recent advances regarding the classification characteristics, the cellular uptake mechanisms and therapeutic application potentials of CPPs.


Subject(s)
Biological Transport , Cell Membrane , Cell-Penetrating Peptides , Metabolism , Endocytosis
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771502

ABSTRACT

To investigate the active fraction from Bletilla striata in Caco-2 cell monolayer,so as to explore its absorption mechanism of oral administration preliminarily.Active fraction from B.striata in Caco-2 cell monolayer was analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF and detected by UPLC-MS/MS,and the effects of different concentrations,pH and P-glycoprotein inhibitors on Caco-2 cells Monolayer were investigated.Six compounds were isolated from the active fraction of B.striata in Caco-2 cell monolayer by UPLC-Q-TOF,and identified as B6,B12,B14,B17,B19 and B23,with concentration dependence.Within the 0-180 min,the uptake of B12 and B14 had a time dependence,while B6,B17,B19 and B23 tended to saturate after 60 min.All of the components had a good absorption in an acidic environment.B6 had a good absorption at pH 6.0,while the other components B12,B14,B17,B19 and B23 had a good absorption at pH4.0.The absorption of the 6 main components of B.striata were not be affected by P-glycoprotein inhibitors(verapamil/cyclosporin A).Compared with the control group,there was no difference in the absorption of B6 and B12,and the absorption of B14,B17,B19 and B23 increased,but with no significant difference.The absorption characteristic of B.striata extract across the Caco-2 cell monolayer is probably passive diffusion,and the absorption process was not affected by P-glycoprotein.


Subject(s)
Biological Transport , Caco-2 Cells , Chromatography, Liquid , Humans , Intestinal Absorption , Orchidaceae , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(8): e8596, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011601

ABSTRACT

The peritoneal equilibration test (PET) is the most widespread method for assessing water and solute transport across the peritoneal membrane. This study compared three methods: traditional PET (t-PET), mini-PET, and modified PET (mod-PET). Non-diabetic adults (n=21) who had been on peritoneal dialysis (PD) for at least three months underwent t-PET (glucose 2.5%-4 h), mini-PET (glucose 3.86%-1 h), and mod-PET (glucose 3.86%-4 h) to determine dialysate-to-plasma concentration ratio (D/P) for creatinine and dialysate-to-baseline dialysate concentration ratio (D/D0) for glucose. Agreement between methods regarding D/P creatinine and D/D0 glucose was assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis. D/P creatinine differed between t-PET and mini-PET (P<0.001) and between mod-PET and mini-PET (P<0.01) but not between t-PET and mod-PET (P=0.746). The correlation of D/P creatinine with t-PET vs mod-PET was significant (r=0.387, P=0.009) but not that of t-PET vs mini-PET (r=0.088, P=0.241). Estimated bias was −0.029 (P=0.201) between t-PET and mod-PET, and 0.206 (P<0.001) between t-PET and mini-PET. D/D0 glucose differed between t-PET and mod-PET (P=0.003) and between mod-PET and mini-PET (P=0.002) but not between t-PET and mini-PET (P=0.885). The correlations of D/D0 glucose in t-PET vs mod-PET (r=−0.017, P=0.421) or t-PET vs mini-PET (r=0.152, P=0.609) were not significant. Estimated bias was 0.122 (P=0.026) between t-PET and mod-PET, and 0.122 (P=0.026) between t-PET and mini-PET. The significant correlation of D/P creatinine between t-PET and mod-PET suggested that the latter is a good alternative to t-PET. There was no such correlation between t-PET and mini-PET.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Peritoneum/metabolism , Biological Transport , Creatinine/blood , Glucose/analysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 630-638, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777221

ABSTRACT

The function of kidney is maintaining water balance of our body through regulation of urine concentration and dilution. The aquaporins are molecular basis of renal urine production and water transport, and their expression and membrane translocation are regulated delicately. Nuclear receptors are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors consisting of 48 members in human. They widely participate in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological regulation including growth and development, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, immunology by regulating target gene transcription and expression. Increasing evidence demonstrates that these receptors are involved in the regulation of aquaporins expression and membrane translocation in kidney, thereby playing a major role in water homeostasis. Here we review the role of nuclear receptors in regulating renal water transport.


Subject(s)
Aquaporins , Physiology , Biological Transport , Homeostasis , Humans , Kidney , Physiology , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear , Physiology , Water
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775367

ABSTRACT

Shuxiong prescription (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizome and Carthami Flos) has the function of activating blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis, activating meridians to stop pain. This paper was mainly aimed to discuss the transport characteristics of Shuxiong prescription across Caco-2 cell monolayer. Safe concentration range of Shuxiong prescription against Caco-2 cell monolayer model was determined by MTT assay. The mechanism of Shuxiong prescription bidirectional transport was investigated by Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The apparent permeability coefficient Papp of digoxin was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The test results showed that the Papp of extract from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizome, Carthami Flos, Chuanxiong Rhizome+Carthami Flos and Shuxiong prescription transport from apical (AP) side to basolateral (BL) side was (3.12±0.73)×10⁻⁶, (2.58±0.41)×10⁻⁶, (4.97±0.64)×10⁻⁶, (4.63±0.57)×10⁻⁶, (5.79±0.68)×10⁻⁶ cm·s⁻¹, respectively, indicating that the transport of digoxin across Caco-2 cell monolayer model was active absorption, and the P-gp protein took part in the process. Chuanxiong Rhizome could significantly decrease the transport of digoxin from BL→AP(<0.01) and increase its transport from AP→BL(<0.05) significantiy. After the addition of Shuxiong prescription, the transport of digoxin from BL→AP was significantly inhibited(<0.01). The results suggested that the extract of safflower had no effect on P-gp transport, nor on the independence diffusion of digoxin. The transport of digoxin could be degraded by the extract of Chuanxiong Rhizome and the extract of Shuxiong prescription from BL→AP(<0.01), significantly; pseudo-ginseng had no effect on the independence diffusion of digoxin; the extract of safflower+Chuanxiong Rhizome had the same experimental result as Chuanxiong Rhizome extract.


Subject(s)
Biological Transport , Caco-2 Cells , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Digoxin , Pharmacokinetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacokinetics , Humans
10.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 108 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916041

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O diabetes mellitus (DM) está associado a complicações que comprometem a qualidade de vida e a sobrevida dos indivíduos. Além disso, acarreta elevados custos para o controle metabólico e o tratamento de suas complicações, sendo assim caracterizado como um problema de saúde pública. A regulação da digestão e da absorção intestinal dos carboidratos, com vista a manter a homeostase da glicose plasmática, constituem importantes estratégias de proteção em condições clínicas como o diabetes tipo 2 (DM2), obesidade e síndrome metabólica. Os compostos fenólicos compreendem um grupo complexo de fitoquímicos bioativos presentes nos vegetais. Estudos in vitro e in vivo têm demonstrado que os compostos fenólicos inibem a atividade de carbohidrases (α-amilase e α-glicosidase) e o transporte intestinal de glicose mediado pelos transportadores SGLT1 e GLUT2. O cerrado brasileiro compreende uma larga biodiversidade, porém, apesar de muitas espécies terem sido identificadas, o seu potencial nutritivo e funcional ainda é pouco conhecido. Dentre estas espécies nativas é destacado o jatobá-do-cerrado. O jatobá-do-cerrado é uma leguminosa nativa brasileira, cuja a polpa farinácea que envolve suas sementes apresenta quantidades significativas de compostos fenólicos, podendo ter um potencial efeito sobre o metabolismo da glicose. Objetivos: Verificar os efeitos dos compostos fenólicos da farinha de jatobá-do-cerrado na digestão de carboidratos e na captação de glicose em células intestinais Caco-2. Metodologia: Os compostos fenólicos da farinha de jatobá foram obtidos por extração sequencial com as soluções de etanol (60%) e acetona (70%). Em seguida, o extrato foi digerido utilizando enzimas (α-amilase, pepsina e pancreatina) em pH fisiológico. Os compostos fenólicos presentes no extrato antes e após a digestão foram identificados por cromatografia líquida de ultra performance - espectrômetro de massas (UPLC-MS/MS). Foi avaliada a capacidade de inibição dos extratos de jatobá digeridos em relação à atividade das enzimas α-amilase e α-glicosidase. Células intestinais Caco-2 foram incubadas com diferentes concentrações (0,05 mg/mL - 0,1 mg/mL) de extratos de farinha de jatobá digeridos em diferentes tempos (30 min, 2h e 12 h) para a avaliação da captação de glicose e da expressão gênica dos transportadores de glicose SGLT1 e GLUT2. Resultados: 44 compostos fenólicos foram identificados, dentre eles, a principal classe presente são os flavonoides. Compostos como o ácido cafeico, o kaempferol, quercetina-3- rutinosideo e a quercetrina estavam presentes no extrato antes da digestão. O conteúdo de compostos fenólicos do extrato foi reduzido após a digestão, entretanto o mesmo ainda apresentou compostos de relevância biológica como o ácido p-cumárico, ácido 3-o-feruloilquinico, theaflavina, crisina e grandinina que já apresentaram efeito positivo sobre o metabolismo da glicose in vitro em outros trabalhos. Os extratos fenólicos de jatobá após a digestão in vitro inibiram significativamente a atividade das enzimas α-amilase (76 e 91%) e α- glicosidase (53 e 77%). Os extratos também demonstraram inibir significativamente tanto a captação de glicose independente de sódio quanto a expressão gênica dos transportadores de glicose SGLT1 e GLUT2 de maneira dose-dependente. Conclusão: Este é o primeiro trabalho que identificou os compostos fenólicos presentes na farinha de jatobá. A partir do exposto, podemos concluir que a farinha de jatobá apresenta potencial benefício a saúde devido ao seu conteúdo de compostos fenólicos e a capacidade destes compostos de regular a digestão e a absorção de carboidratos in vitro


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with complications that decrease the quality of life and survival of individuals. In addition, it entails high costs for metabolic control and treatment of its complications, thus being characterized as a public health problem. The regulation of digestion and intestinal absorption of carbohydrates to maintain plasma glucose homeostasis are important strategies for protection in chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (DM2), obesity and metabolic syndrome. Phenolic compounds are a complex group of chemical substances present in plants. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that phenolic compounds are able to inhibit the activity of carbohydrases (α-amylase and α-glycosidase) and the intestinal transport of glucose mediated by SGLT1 and GLUT2 transporters. Brazilian Cerrado present a large biodiversity, but although many species have been identified, its nutritional and functional potential is still little known. Among these native species is the jatobá-docerrado. Jatobá-do-cerrado is a brazilian native legume, whose farinaceous pulp that surrounds its seeds presents significant amounts of phenolic compounds and may have a potential effect on glucose metabolism. Objectives: To verify the effects of phenolic compounds from jatobá-do-cerrado flour in the digestion of carbohydrates and uptake of glucose in Caco-2 intestinal cells. Methods: Phenolic compounds of jatobá flour were obtained by sequential extraction with olutions of ethanol (60%) and acetone (70%). The extract was digested using enzymes (α-amylase, pepsin and pancreatin) at physiological pH. The phenolic compounds present in the extract before and after the digestion were identified by liquid chromatography of ultra-performance - mass spectrometer (UPLCMS / MS). The ability of inhibition of the extracts of jatobá digested in relation to the activity of α-amylase and α-glycosidase enzymes was evaluated. Caco-2 intestinal cells were incubated with different concentrations of jatobá flour extracts (0.1 mg / mL - 0.05 mg / mL) for different time (30 min, 2 h and 12 h) to the evaluation of facilitated uptake (sodium-free buffer) and gene expression of SGLT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Results: 44 phenolic compounds have been identified, among them a major class present are flavonoids. Compounds such as caffeic acid, quercetin-3-rutinoside and quercetrine were present in the extract before in vitro digestion. The content of phenolic compounds of the extract after digestion was reduced. However, the extract presents compounds with biological activity such as p-coumaric acid, 3-o-feruloylquinic acid , theaflavin, chrysin and grandinine, which already presented positive effects on glucose metabolism in vitro in other studies. Phenolic extracts of jatobá after in vitro digestion inhibited the activity of α-amylase (76 and 91%) and α-glycosidase (53 and 77%). The extracts also shown to inhibit both glucose uptake and gene expression of glucose transporters SGLT1 and GLUT2 in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: This is the first work that identified the phenolic compounds present in jatobá flour. Thus, we can conclude that the jatobá flour presents potential health benefit by modulate digestion and the absorption of carbohydrates in vitro


Subject(s)
Absorption, Physiological/genetics , Caco-2 Cells , Diabetes Mellitus , Fabaceae , Glucose/pharmacology , Phenolic Compounds , Biological Availability , Biological Transport , Digestion , Flour
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2338-2345, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690217

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Objective</b>Endothelial cells (ECs) are important metabolic and endocrinal organs which play a significant role in regulating vascular function. Vascular ECs, located between the blood and vascular tissues, can not only complete the metabolism of blood and interstitial fluid but also synthesize and secrete a variety of biologically active substances to maintain vascular tension and keep a normal flow of blood and long-term patency. Therefore, this article presents a systematic review of common injuries and healing mechanisms for the vascular endothelium.</p><p><b>Data Sources</b>An extensive search in the PubMed database was undertaken, focusing on research published after 2003 with keywords including endothelium, vascular, wounds and injuries, and wound healing.</p><p><b>Study Selection</b>Several types of articles, including original studies and literature reviews, were identified and reviewed to summarize common injury and repair processes of the endothelial lining.</p><p><b>Results</b>Endothelial injury is closely related to the development of multiple cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the mechanism of vascular endothelial injury is not fully understood. Numerous studies have shown that the mechanisms of EC injury mainly involve inflammatory reactions, physical stimulation, chemical poisons, concurrency of related diseases, and molecular changes. Endothelial progenitor cells play an important role during the process of endothelial repair after such injuries. What's more, a variety of restorative cells, changes in cytokines and molecules, chemical drugs, certain RNAs, regulation of blood pressure, and physical fitness training protect the endothelial lining by reducing the inducing factors, inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress reactions, and delaying endothelial caducity.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>ECs are always in the process of being damaged. Several therapeutic targets and drugs were seeked to protect the endothelium and promote repair.</p>


Subject(s)
Biological Transport , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium, Vascular , Wounds and Injuries , Humans , Inflammation , Therapeutics
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 656-670, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889178

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to explore the effects of two siderophore-producing bacterial strains on iron absorption and plant growth of peanut in calcareous soil. Two siderophore-producing bacterial strains, namely, YZ29 and DZ13, isolated from the rhizosphere soil of peanut, were identified as Paenibacillus illinoisensis and Bacillus sp., respectively. In potted experiments, YZ29 and DZ13 enhanced root activity, chlorophyll and active iron content in leaves, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulation of plants and increased the quality of peanut kernels and plant biomass over control. In the field trial, the inoculated treatments performed better than the controls, and the pod yields of the three treatments inoculated with YZ29, DZ13, and YZ29 + DZ13 (1:1) increased by 37.05%, 13.80% and 13.57%, respectively, compared with the control. Based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, YZ29 and DZ13 improved the bacterial community richness and species diversity of soil surrounding the peanut roots. Therefore, YZ29 and DZ13 can be used as candidate bacterial strains to relieve chlorosis of peanut and promote peanut growth. The present study is the first to explore the effect of siderophores produced by P. illinoisensis on iron absorption.


Subject(s)
Arachis/growth & development , Arachis/microbiology , Bacillus/metabolism , Paenibacillus/metabolism , Iron/metabolism , Arachis/metabolism , Arachis/chemistry , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/metabolism , Seeds/microbiology , Seeds/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Biological Transport , Siderophores/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Paenibacillus/isolation & purification , Paenibacillus/classification , Paenibacillus/genetics , Rhizosphere , Agricultural Inoculants/metabolism
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(9): 1099-1105, set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902593

ABSTRACT

Background: It is known that some nutrients play an important role in the development of cholelithiasis. Cholesterol is carried by micelles and vesicles in the bile. During the first stage of gallstone formation, cholesterol crystals derive from thermodynamically unstable vesicles. Aim: To determine the effect of a high fat diet on blood lipids and bile composition, and its implication in the formation of gallstones. Material and Methods: Two groups of 15 BALB/c mice each, coming from the same litter, were treated with a control or with a high-fat diet (64% fat and 0.14% cholesterol). After two months, the animals were sacrificed, blood and bile samples were obtained. Serum glucose and the corresponding lipid profiles were measured. In bile samples, cholesterol and phospholipid levels were analyzed, and cholesterol transporters (vesicles and micelles) were separated by gel filtration chromatography. Results: Treated animals showed an 87% increase in serum total cholesterol (p < 0.01), a 97% increase in HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05) and a 140% increase in LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). No changes in serum triglycerides or glucose were observed. In bile, a 13% increase in biliary cholesterol (p < 0.05) was observed but no change in biliary phospholipids. Also, an increase in biliary vesicular transporters and an increase of cholesterol/phospholipid ratio in vesicular transporters were observed. Conclusions: A high fat diet may contribute to the formation of gallstones in our experimental model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Gallstones/etiology , Gallstones/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Phospholipids/metabolism , Bile/chemistry , Biological Transport , Dietary Fats/analysis , Cholesterol/analysis , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Models, Animal , Gallbladder/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C
14.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 163-174, Jan,-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886642

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) nutrition on arsenic (As) uptake and translocation within the seedlings of rice cultivars. The experiment occurred in three stages: I 5 days of acclimatization (nutritive solution); II 10 days under P (0.0 and 0.09 mM) and As (0.0 and 100 mM) treatments; III 5 days under recovery. The As exposure had significant effect reducing dry weights of shoots or roots, resulted in elevated concentrations of As in shoot tissues. BR-IRGA 409 showed the highest susceptibility to As in biomass production and root system parameters regardless the P level. This cultivar showed contrasting responses of As translocation to shoot tissue dependent on P levels, with the highest As concentration under low P and lowest under normal P levels. P nutrition was most striking on plants recovery for all cultivars under As exposure. Clearer separation of cultivars for phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) occurred at lower shoot P contents, that was, at higher levels of P deficiency stress. IRGA 424 showed higher PUE as compared to the others cultivars. Our results go some way to understanding the role of P nutrition in controlling the effects of As in rice shoots.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus/pharmacology , Arsenic/pharmacokinetics , Oryza/drug effects , Oryza/metabolism , Phosphorus/analysis , Arsenic/analysis , Reference Values , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/metabolism , Time Factors , Biological Transport , Reproducibility of Results , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Roots/metabolism , Hydroponics/methods , Biomass , Fertilizers
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812052

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of Garcinia xanthochymus, a perennial medicinal plant native to Yunnan, China, against HO-induced oxidative damage in rat pheochromacytoma PC12 cells. Preincubation of PC12 cells with fruit EtOAc fraction (fruit-EFr., 12.5-50 µmol·L) of G. xanthochymus for 24 h prior to HO exposure markedly improved cell viability and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and heme oxygenase-1 [HO-1]), prevented lactate dehydrogenase release and lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde production, attenuated the decrease of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), and scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS). Fruit-EFr. also reduced BAX and cytochrome C expression and improved BCL-2 expression, thereby decreasing the ratio of BAX to BCL-2. Fruit-EFr. activated the nuclear translocation of NRF2 to increase HO-1 and induced the phosphorylation of AKT. Its cytoprotective effect was abolished by LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3K. Taken together, the above findings suggested that fruit-EFr.of G. xanthochymus could enhance cellular antioxidant defense capacity, at least in part, through upregulating HO-1 expression and activating the PI3K/AKT pathway and that it could suppress HO-induced oxidative damage via PI3K/AKT and NRF2/HO-1 signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Biological Transport , Cell Survival , Cytochromes c , Metabolism , Fruit , Garcinia , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , PC12 Cells , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Phosphorylation , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Metabolism , Rats , Signal Transduction , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Metabolism
16.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2181-2188, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886776

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to identify thyroid hormones and to examine their putative site of synthesis in Achatina fulica snails. For this purpose, radioimmunoassays were performed for T3 and T4 before and after long starvation with or without hemolymph deproteinization. Sodium/iodide symporter activity in vivo was analyzed through 125I administration with and without KClO4 pretreatment. Only T4 was detected, and its concentration decreased due to starvation or deproteinization. However, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis also showed the presence of T2 and T3 apart from T4, but rT3 was not detected in the A. fulica hemolymph. The sodium/iodide symporter activity was greater in cerebral ganglia than digestive gland, but KClO4 treatment did not inhibit iodide uptake in any of the tissues analyzed. Altogether, our data confirm for the first time the presence of thyroid hormones in A. fulica snails and suggest their participation in the metabolism control in this species, although the putative site of hormone biosynthesis remains to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails/chemistry , Thyroxine/analysis , Thyroxine/metabolism , Biological Transport , Hemolymph , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Sodium Chloride Symporters
17.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 801-810, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756981

ABSTRACT

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The finding that cellular microparticles (MPs) generated by injured cells profoundly impact on pathological courses of TBI has paved the way for new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. MPs are subcellular fragments or organelles that serve as carriers of lipids, adhesive receptors, cytokines, nucleic acids, and tissue-degrading enzymes that are unique to the parental cells. Their sub-micron sizes allow MPs to travel to areas that parental cells are unable to reach to exercise diverse biological functions. In this review, we summarize recent developments in identifying a casual role of MPs in the pathologies of TBI and suggest that MPs serve as a new class of therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of TBI and associated systemic complications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes , Metabolism , Pathology , Biological Transport , Blood Coagulation Factors , Genetics , Metabolism , Brain , Metabolism , Pathology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Cell-Derived Microparticles , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pathology , Cytokines , Blood , Genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Microglia , Metabolism , Pathology , Neurons , Metabolism , Pathology , Signal Transduction
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(9): 1097-1104, set. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762679

ABSTRACT

Background: Plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) are involved in reverse cholesterol transport mediated by the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Nicotinic acid increases HDL cholesterol levels, even though its specific impact on SR-BI dependent-cellular cholesterol transport remains unknown. Aim: To determine the effect of nicotinic acid on HDL particle functionality in cholesterol efflux and uptake mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells in hypoalphalipoproteinemic patients. Material and Methods: In a pilot study, eight patients with low HDL (≤ 40 mg/dL) were treated with extended release nicotinic acid. HDL cholesterol and phospholipid levels, HDL2 and HDL3 fractions and HDL particle sizes were measured at baseline and post-therapy. Before and after nicotinic acid treatment, HDL particles were used for cholesterol transport studies in cells transfected with SR-BI. Results: Nicotinic acid treatment raised total HDL cholesterol and phospholipids, HDL2 levels as well as HDL particle size. Nicotinic acid significantly increased HDL cholesterol efflux and uptake capacity mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells. Conclusions: Nicotinic acid therapy increases SR-BI-dependent HDL cholesterol transport in cultured cells, establishing a new cellular mechanism by which this lipid-lowering drug appears to modulate HDL metabolism in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Hypoalphalipoproteinemias/metabolism , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Niacin/pharmacology , Biological Transport , Cholesterol, HDL/drug effects , Pilot Projects , Phospholipids/blood , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/metabolism
19.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 80-85, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741526

ABSTRACT

Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects up to 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of adult women. It is associated with obesity. Objective The objective of this article is to review the literature to determine which factors best correlate with treatment success in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome treated with a mandibular repositioning appliance. Data Synthesis A search was performed of the PubMed, Cochrane, Lilacs, Scielo, and Web of Science databases of articles published from January 1988 to January 2012. Two review authors independently collected data and assessed trial quality. Sixty-nine articles were selected from PubMed and 1 from Cochrane library. Of these, 42 were excluded based on the title and abstract, and 27 were retrieved for complete reading. A total of 13 articles and 1 systematic review were considered eligible for further review and inclusion in this study: 6 studies evaluated anthropomorphic and physiologic factors, 3 articles addressed cephalometric and anatomic factors, and 4 studies evaluated variables related to mandibular repositioning appliance design and activation. All the studies evaluated had low to moderate methodologic quality and were not able to support evidence on prediction of treatment success. Conclusion Based on this systematic review on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome treatment, it remains unclear which predictive factors can be used with confidence to select patients suitable for treatment with a mandibular repositioning appliance. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Evolution , Carrier Proteins/chemistry , Kinesin/chemistry , Models, Molecular , Microtubules/metabolism , Biological Transport/physiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , COS Cells , Dimerization , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Kinetics , Microscopy, Fluorescence
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(1): 50-55, jan-feb/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742969

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects both humans and animals. Dogs may serve as sentinels and indicators of environmental contamination as well as potential carriers for Leptospira. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence and seroincidence of leptospirosis infection in dogs in an urban low-income community in southern Brazil where human leptospirosis is endemic. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was designed that consisted of sampling at recruitment and four consecutive trimestral follow-up sampling trials. All households in the area were visited, and those that owned dogs were invited to participate in the study. The seroprevalence (MAT titers ≥100) of Leptospira infection in dogs was calculated for each visit, the seroincidence (seroconversion or four-fold increase in serogroup-specific MAT titer) density rate was calculated for each follow-up, and a global seroincidence density rate was calculated for the overall period. RESULTS: A total of 378 dogs and 902.7 dog-trimesters were recruited and followed, respectively. The seroprevalence of infection ranged from 9.3% (95% CI; 6.7 - 12.6) to 19% (14.1 - 25.2), the seroincidence density rate of infection ranged from 6% (3.3 - 10.6) to 15.3% (10.8 - 21.2), and the global seroincidence density rate of infection was 11% (9.1 - 13.2) per dog-trimester. Canicola and Icterohaemorraghiae were the most frequent incident serogroups observed in all follow-ups. CONCLUSIONS: Follow-ups with mean trimester intervals were incapable of detecting any increase in seroprevalence due to seroincident cases of canine leptospirosis, suggesting that antibody titers may fall within three months. Further studies on incident infections, disease burden or risk factors for incident Leptospira cases should take into account the detectable lifespan of the antibody. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Mice , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Glycolysis , Lymphoma/metabolism , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , Biological Transport/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose/pharmacokinetics , Immunoblotting , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , /pharmacology , Lymphoma/genetics , Lymphoma/pathology , Mice, Knockout , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/metabolism , Oxidative Phosphorylation/drug effects , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/genetics , /genetics , /metabolism , Survival Analysis
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