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1.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 317-321, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981270

ABSTRACT

Blood stream infection (BSI),a blood-borne disease caused by microorganisms such as bacteria,fungi,and viruses,can lead to bacteremia,sepsis,and infectious shock,posing a serious threat to human life and health.Identifying the pathogen is central to the precise treatment of BSI.Traditional blood culture is the gold standard for pathogen identification,while it has limitations in clinical practice due to the long time consumption,production of false negative results,etc.Nanopore sequencing,as a new generation of sequencing technology,can rapidly detect pathogens,drug resistance genes,and virulence genes for the optimization of clinical treatment.This paper reviews the current status of nanopore sequencing technology in the diagnosis of BSI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nanopore Sequencing , Sepsis/diagnosis , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteria , Blood Culture/methods
2.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 56(3): 303-308, set. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1429527

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar el desempeño del panel BCID de FilmArray® y establecer el impacto de estos resultados en el tratamiento antimicrobiano de pacientes con bacteriemia en 11 hospitales de Latinoamérica. Se incluyeron 397 episodios de bacteriemia y se documentaron 551 microorganismos aislados de hemocultivos. La identificación microbiana fue correcta en el 91,4% (504/551) de los aislados y en el 98,6% (504/511) si se consideran solo los microorganismos incluidos en el panel BCID. La sensibilidad en la detección de los genes mecA, vanA/B y blaKPC fue del 100% y la especificidad fue del 97%, 100% y 99,6% respectivamente. La notificación temprana del resultado permitió cambios terapéuticos en 242 episodios (60,9%). El panel BCID es un método confiable y rápido para la detección de mecanismos críticos de resistencia y de los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados de bacteriemias y permite la optimización temprana del tratamiento antimicrobiano.


Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the performance of the BCID panel and to establish the impact of these results on the antimicrobial treatment of patients with bacteremia in 11 hospitals in Latin America. Three hundred and ninety-seven episodes of bacteremia were included and 551 microorganisms isolated from blood cultures were documented. Microbial identification was correct in 91.4% (504/551) of the isolates and in 98.6% (504/511) if only the microorganisms included in the BCID panel are considered. The sensitivity in the detection of the genes mecA, vanA/B and blaKPC was 100% and the specificity was 97%, 100% and 99.6% respectively. Early notification of the outcome allowed therapeutic changes in 242 episodes (60.9%). The BCID panel is a reliable and rapid method for the detection of critical resistance mechanisms and of the microorganisms most frequently isolated from bacteremia and it enables early optimisation of antimicrobial treatment.


Resumo Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar o desempenho do painel BCID do FilmArray® e estabelecer o impacto desses resultados no tratamento antimicrobiano de pacientes com bacteremia em 11 hospitais da América Latina. Trezentos e noventa e sete episódios de bacteremia foram incluídos e 551 microrganismos isolados de hemoculturas foram documentados. A identificação microbiana foi correta em 91,4% (504/551) dos isolados e em 98,6% (504/511) considerando apenas os microrganismos incluídos no painel BCID. A sensibilidade na detecção dos genes mecA, vanA/B e blaKPC foi de 100% e a especificidade foi de 97%, 100% e 99,6% respectivamente. A notificação precoce do desfecho permitiu mudanças terapêuticas em 242 episódios (60,9%). O painel BCID é um método confiável e rápido para a detecção de mecanismos críticos de resistência e dos microrganismos mais frequentemente isolados da bacteremia e permite a otimização precoce do tratamento antimicrobiano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cost Efficiency Analysis , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Blood Culture/methods , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology
4.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(2): e3675, mar.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251797

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Endocarditis infecciosa sigue desafiando a la Medicina moderna a pesar de no ser una entidad frecuente. Objetivo: Se presenta un caso con una lesión valvular previa no diagnosticada antes, y sin síntomas, y que se consideró el diagnóstico tempranamente de endocarditis en el nivel hospitalario. Presentación del caso: Paciente de 20 años, mujer, con antecedentes de salud referidos, fumadora. Ingresa en sala del Servicio de Medicina el 21 de enero de 2020 por fiebres que se mantienen todo el día de 38-38,50 C, con picos que alcanzan los 400 C con escalofríos en determinados momentos. Desde hace un mes presenta esta sintomatología. Ruidos cardiacos rítmicos, taquicárdicos, de buena intensidad. Clic sistólico con arrastre sistólico fuerte de regurgitación IV/VI audible en foco mitral con frémito que se irradia a la axila, anemia, VSG acelerada, leucocitosis con desviación izquierda, hemocultivos negativos y en ecocardiograma prolapso de válvula mitral, valva anterior y posterior, con regurgitación que ocupa toda la aurícula izquierda hasta el techo de la misma. Múltiples vegetaciones en cara auricular de valva posterior de válvula mitral, la mayor de 7 x 3 mm. Conclusiones: El método clínico es fundamental en el proceso diagnóstico en la práctica clínica secundado por los medios diagnósticos como en la enfermedad que nos ocupa(AU)


Introduction: Infective endocarditis continues to be a great challenge for modern medicine although it is not a frequent entity. Objective: We present a case of an undiagnosed previous valve lesion without symptoms. The early diagnosis of endocarditis was made at the hospital level. Case Presentation: A 20-year-old woman, smoker, with previous history of good health was admitted to the medical ward on January 21, 2020. The patient reported continuous fever (38-38,50 C) throughout the day, with spikes up to 400 C and intermittent chills. She has been having these symptoms for a month. Rhythmic heart sounds and high intensity tachycardia and systolic click with strong systolic displacement of regurgitation grade IV/VI audible in mitral area with fremitus radiating to the armpit were heard. Anemia, accelerated ESR, leukocytosis with left deviation, and negative blood cultures were confirmed. The echocardiogram showed a mitral valve prolapse with regurgitation of anterior and posterior valves that occupies all the left atrium until its top. There was multiple vegetation in the atrial side of the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve; the greatest is 7 x 3 mm. Conclusions: The clinical method is essential in the diagnostic process performed in clinical practice supported by diagnostic means, as in the current case(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Mitral Valve Prolapse/diagnosis , Mitral Valve Prolapse/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis , Endocarditis/diagnosis , Blood Culture/methods
5.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 93-103, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1352961

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades infecciosas son un problema de salud que a pesar de los avances médicos siguen cobrando vi-das en todo el mundo; como las septicemias. La presente investigación tuvo por objetivo diseñar, estandarizar e implementar un protocolo inexistente en Guatemala, para el diagnóstico rutinario de hemocultivos positivos dentro de las instalaciones del Laboratorio Clínico del Hospital General San Juan de Dios, lugar en donde se encuentra el único espectrómetro de masas de tipo Maldi-tof (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of flight-mass spectrometry).Se utilizaron 240 muestras de pacientes de los diferentes servicios. El diagnóstico se realizó compa-rando las identificaciones obtenidas a partir de cultivos microbiológicos puros con muestras directas de botellas con caldo BHI(Brain Heart Infusion).Los resultados de las dos metodologías fueron evaluados con el diseño estadístico "apareado o emparejado en grupo". La comparación no evidenció discordancia en las identificaciones; pero sí en los tiempos de respuesta. La reducción de tiempo fue de 42.9 h para bacterias Gram positivo, 45.0 h para bacterias Gram negativo y 126.2 h para levaduras, todos a favor de identificaciones a partir de muestras directas. Con esta investigación se pretende ofrecer una nueva alternativa que permitirá brindar un diagnóstico rápido, confiable y certero a la población guatemalteca. También permitirá reducir la morbimortalidad de los pacientes con septicemias, promover el ahorro de insumos hospitalarios, disminuir el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria, ahorrar el consumo de antibióticos innecesarios y contribuir indirectamente a combatir la resistencia antimicrobiana; un problema actual de gran importancia a nivel mundial.


Infectious diseases are a health problem that despite medical advances in terms of diagnosis continue to take lives worldwide, such is the case of sepsis. The purpose of this research was to design, standardize and implement a non-existent protocol in Guatemala, for the routine diagnosis of positive blood cultures, within the facilities of the clinical laboratory of the San Juan de Dios General Hospital; where the only Maldi-tof (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorp-tion Ionization-Time of flight-mass spectrometry) type mass spectrometer is located. For this, 240 samples of positive blood cultures were used, coming from patients of the different services. The microbiological diagnosis was made by comparing the identification data obtained from pure microbiological cultures and direct samples of BHI broth (Brain Heart Infusion) bottles. The results of the two methodologies were evaluated based on "paired or matched in groups" statistical design. The Maldi-tof technique did not show disagreement regarding identification between the two types of samples; but it did in the response time. The time reduction was 42.9 h for Gram positive bacteria, 45.0 h for Gram negative and 126.2 h for yeasts, supporting identification from direct samples. This research aims to provide a new diagnostic alternative that will allow access to fast, reliable, and accurate results for the Guatemalan population. It will also help to reduce e morbidity and mortality rates of patients with sepsis, to promote hospital supplies savings, decrease the patient length of stay, save unnecessary antibiotics and indirectly contribute to combating antimicrobial resistance; a critical problem faced by the world today.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sepsis/diagnosis , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/instrumentation , Blood Culture/methods , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Sepsis/microbiology , Sepsis/blood , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification
6.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 553-560, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138670

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las infecciones graves son la principal causa de ingreso a cuidados intensivos pediátricos. El panel FilmArray BCID permite identificar rápidamente a microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias. OBJETIVO: evaluar la eficacia de la identificación rápida de microorganismos asociado a un Programa de Uso Racional de Antibióticos (URA) en reducir los tiempos de terapias antibióticas, en un hospital pediátrico. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo, que incluyó 100 pacientes, en su primer episo dio de bacteriemia, divididos en 2 grupos de 50 cada uno: Intervención (FilmArray BCID y programa URA) y Controles históricos pareados para la misma especie del microrganismo identificado (microbiología convencional). Las variables evaluadas fueron los tiempos de identificación microbiana, latencia de la terapia dirigida y de desescalar antibióticos. RESULTADOS: Los grupos fueron comparables en características demográficas, foco de infección y etiología de bacteriemia. El tiempo promedio de identificación de microorganismos fue de 23 h (IC 95% 12,4-26,7) en el grupo intervención, y 70,5 h (IC 95% 65,2-78,6) en el control (p < 0,05), mientras que la latencia de inicio de terapia dirigida fue de 27,9 h (IC 95% 22,3-32,8) y 71,9 h (IC 95% 63,2-77,8) respectivamente (p < 0,05). El tiempo de desescalar o suspender antibióticos fue de 6,4 h (IC 95% 2,76-9,49) y 22 h (IC 95% 6,74-35,6) en los grupos mencionados (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: El panel FilmArray BCID articulado a un programa URA, contribuye a la identificación de los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias en menor tiempo que los métodos convencionales, siendo una herramienta que optimiza las terapias antibióti cas en niños críticamente enfermos.


INTRODUCTION: Severe infections are the leading cause of admission to pediatric intensive care. The FilmArray BCID panel quickly identifies microorganisms that cause bacteremia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the rapid identification of the microorganisms that cause bacteremia, along with a Rational Use of Antibio tics (RUA) Program, allows optimizing the time of antibiotic therapy in a pediatric hospital. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective study which included 100 patients presenting their first episode of bacteremia, divided into 2 groups of 50 each. The first one was Intervention (FilmArray BCID and RUA program) and the second one was Historical Controls (conventional automated ID/AST). The variables evaluated were the time required for microbial identification, duration of appropriate therapy, and antibiotic de-escalation. RESULTS: The groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics, focus of infection, and etiology of bacteremia. The average time of microorganisms' identification of the control group was 70.5 hours (IC 95% 65.2-78.6) and 23.0 hours (IC 95% 12.4 -26.7) in the intervention one (p < 0.05). The average time of targeted therapy onset was shorter in the intervention group (27.9 h [IC 95% 22.3-32.8]) than that of the control one (71.9 h [IC 95% 63.2-77.8]) (p < 0.05). Finally, the time to de-escalate or discontinue antibiotics in the intervention group and the control one was 6.4 hours (IC 95% 2.76-9.49) hours and 22.0 hours (IC 95% 6.74-35.6 h) respectively (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The FilmArray panel along with the RUA Program allows the identification of the microorganisms causing bacteremia faster than conventional methods, which positions it as a tool that optimizes antibiotic therapy of critical patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Molecular Typing/methods , Blood Culture/methods , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
7.
ABCS health sci ; 44(2): 96-102, 11 out 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022342

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A automação laboratorial é cada vez mais utilizada em microbiologia, no entanto, poucos estudos avaliam desfechos clínicos em comparação aos métodos tradicionais. No Brasil, nenhum estudo com esse objetivo foi detectado. OBJETIVO: Analisar os impactos clínicos e microbiológicos após implantação de método fenotípico automatizado em um serviço de microbiologia. MÉTODOS: Realizamos estudo observacional e retrospectivo no laboratório de microbiologia referente a exame de hemocultura de pacientes da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Os dados foram coletados de pacientes internados entre janeiro/2014 a dezembro/2015. Analisou-se o tempo de internação, número de terapias empíricas, óbitos e dados relacionados ao isolamento microbiológico. A amostra foi obtida por conveniência. Para a comparação entre os desfechos foram empregados os testes t de Student e Qui-quadrado de Pearson. O programa empregado foi o Stata release, versão 11, sendo considerados significativos valores de p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 472 pacientes. Não houve redução na prescrição empírica de antimicrobianos (54,7% vs 45,3%; p=0,33), tempo de internação na UTI (14,5 dias vs 15,8 dias p=0,78) e na taxa de óbitos (54,4% vs 45,6%; p=0,36). Similarmente, o perfil de agentes isolados em ambos os métodos não parece ser discrepante, no entanto, houve um aumento de 44,7% no número de isolados microbianos (76 vs 110) com melhor caracterização dos mesmos. CONCLUSÃO: A automação do laboratório de microbiologia não impactou no tempo de internação, mortalidade na UTI e no número de terapias empíricas. No entanto, a identificação e o isolamento de microrganismos melhoraram.


INTRODUCTION: Automation is increasingly used in microbiology laboratory, however, few studies assessed clinical outcomes compared to traditional methods. In Brazil, no studies with this objective were detected. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and microbiological impacts after implantation of an automated phenotypic method in a microbiology service. METHODS: Observational and retrospective study carried out on the microbiology laboratory involving blood culture test from intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Data were collected from hospitalized patients between January 2014 and December 2015. The length of hospitalization, number of empirical therapies, deaths and information related to microbiological isolation were analyzed. The sample was obtained by convenience. Pearson's Chisquare and Student's t-tests were used to compare outcomes. The program used was the Stata release, version 11, being considered significant values of p<0.05. RESULTS: A total of 472 patients were evaluated. There was no reduction in the empirical prescription of antimicrobials (54.7% vs 45.3%; p=0.33), ICU stay (14.5 days vs 15.8 days; p=0.78) and mortality (54.4% vs 45.6%; p=0.36). Similarly, profile of isolated agents in both methods did not appear to be discrepant, however, there was an increase of 44.7% in the number of microbial isolates (76 vs 110) and a better characterization of them. CONCLUSION: The microbiology laboratory automation did not modify the length of stay, ICU mortality and the number of empirical therapies. However, identification and isolation of microorganisms was improved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Automation, Laboratory/instrumentation , Automation, Laboratory/methods , Blood Culture/instrumentation , Blood Culture/methods , Microbiology/instrumentation
8.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(2): 148-152, jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013365

ABSTRACT

Se presentan 2 casos de bacteriemia por Helicobacter cinaedi. El primero se diagnosticó en un varón de 76 años y resultó secundario a la colocación de un acceso vascular; el segundo correspondió a un lactante febril de 37 días de vida, asociado a un cuadro de gastroen-terocolitis aguda. H. cinaedi es un microorganismo que presenta dificultad para desarrollarse en diferentes medios de cultivo y lograr su identificación a nivel de especie. En ambos casos fue fundamental la observación microscópica en fresco de las botellas de hemocultivo, la utilización de la espectrometría de masas y la posterior secuenciación del gen hsp60 para llegar a esa instancia. En los últimos anos se han informado infecciones por H. cinaedi con frecuencia creciente en otras partes del mundo. En este trabajo presentamos los primeros casos de bacteriemia por H. cinaedi documentados en Argentina.


Two cases of bacteremia caused by Helicobacter cinaedi are presented. The first case was diagnosed in a 76-year-old male patient, and was secondary to a vascular access device placement; the second case corresponded to a febrile infant of 37 days of life, and was associated with acute gastroenteritis. H. cinaedi is a microorganism difficult to grow in different culture media and also to identify to species level. In both cases, the microscopic observation of blood culture bottles, the use of mass spectrometry and the subsequent sequencing of the hsp60 gene were essential. In the recent literature, H. cinaedi infections are being reported more frequently. In this report we present the first documented cases of bacteremia caused by H. cinaedi in Argentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Aged , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Argentina/epidemiology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Blood Culture/methods
9.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(1): 22-25, mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041815

ABSTRACT

Las micobacterias de crecimiento rápido son una rara causa de endocarditis bacteriana. Durante las últimas décadas han aumentado las infecciones debido a este tipo de micobacterias, en especial las postraumáticas y las posquirúrgicas. Estas infecciones pueden ser localizadas o diseminadas, y también pueden producir brotes nosocomiales debido a la contaminación del equipamiento médico. Por lo general, las tinciones para bacterias ácido-alcohol resistentes no se emplean de rutina en el procesamiento de hemocultivos positivos. Sin embargo, el microbiólogo debe estar atento al ver un bacilo gram positivo, ya que podría tratarse de una micobacteria de crecimiento rápido. Describimos un caso de endocarditis por de Mycobacterium mageritense en una paciente con parche pericárdico autógeno y un catéter para medir la presión en la aurícula izquierda. La bacteria fue identificada por espectrometría de masas (MALDI-TOF MS), score 2,3, y luego confirmada por secuenciación y análisis del gen ARNr 16s con las bases de datos del NCBI y EzTaxon, con una concordancia del 99,8 y el 100%, respectivamente.


Rapidly growing non-tuberculosis mycobacteria are a rare cause of bacterial endocarditis. During the last decades, there has been an increase in infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria, mainly after trauma and post-surgical procedures, both localized and disseminated, as well as nosocomial outbreaks due to contamination of medical equipment. Routine acid-fast staining for blood culture bottles is not always performed; however, the microbiologist should be aware of potential RGM infections especially when gram positive bacilli are observed. We describe a case of endocarditis caused by Mycobacterium mageritense in a patient with an autologous pericardial patch and a pressure catheter in the left auricle. The bacterial species was identified as Mycobacterium mageritense by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), score 2.3, and confirmed by 16S rRNA analysis with 99.8 and 100% agreement, respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnosis , Mycobacterium/isolation & purification , Mass Spectrometry/methods , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Catheter-Related Infections/therapy , Blood Culture/methods
10.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(1): 126-129, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-985129

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar um caso raro de uma criança com meningite associada a pericardite na doença pneumocócica invasiva. Descrição do caso: Este relato descreve uma evolução clínica desfavorável de um lactente feminino de 6 meses de idade, previamente hígido, que apresentou inicialmente sintomas respiratórios e febre. A radiografia de tórax revelou um aumento da área cardíaca sem alterações radiográficas nos pulmões. Após a identificação do derrame pericárdico, o paciente apresentou convulsões e entrou em coma. Pneumonia foi descartada durante a investigação clínica. Contudo, foi identificado Streptococcus pneumoniae nas culturas de líquor e sangue. O exame neurológico inicial foi compatível com morte encefálica, posteriormente confirmada pelo protocolo. Comentários: A pericardite purulenta tornou-se uma complicação rara da doença pneumocócica invasiva desde o advento da terapia antibiótica. Pacientes com pneumonia extensa são primariamente predispostos e, mesmo com tratamento adequado e precoce, estão sujeitos a altas taxas de mortalidade. A associação de meningite pneumocócica e pericardite é incomum e, portanto, de difícil diagnóstico. Por isso, uma alta suspeição diagnóstica é necessária para instituir o tratamento precoce e aumentar a sobrevida.


ABSTRACT Objective: To report a rare case of a child with invasive pneumococcal disease that presented meningitis associated with pericarditis. Case description: This report describes the unfavorable clinical course of a previously healthy 6-months-old female infant who initially presented symptoms of fever and respiratory problems. A chest X-ray revealed an increased cardiac area with no radiographic changes in the lungs. After identifying a pericardial effusion, the patient experienced seizures and went into coma. Pneumonia was excluded as a possibility during the clinical investigation. However, Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures. An initial neurological examination showed that the patient was brain dead, which was then later confirmed according to protocol. Comments: Purulent pericarditis has become a rare complication of invasive pneumococcal disease since the advent of antibiotic therapy. Patients with extensive pneumonia are primarily predisposed and, even with early and adequate treatment, are prone to high mortality rates. The association of pneumococcal meningitis and pericarditis is uncommon, and therefore difficult to diagnose. As such, diagnostic suspicion must be high in order to institute early treatment and increase survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Pericardial Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Pericarditis/diagnosis , Pericarditis/physiopathology , Pericarditis/microbiology , Pericarditis/therapy , Pneumococcal Infections/diagnosis , Pneumococcal Infections/physiopathology , Pneumococcal Infections/therapy , Echocardiography/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , Fatal Outcome , Blood Culture/methods , Meningitis/diagnosis , Meningitis/physiopathology , Meningitis/microbiology , Meningitis/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification , Neurologic Examination/methods
11.
Clinics ; 74: e837, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report our experience using conventional culture methods (CM) and pediatric blood culture bottles (PBCBs) for vitreous sample culture of acute postoperative endophthalmitis. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital das Clinicas, HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BR, from January 2010 to December 2015, and it included 54 patients with clinically suspected acute postoperative endophthalmitis. Vitreous samples were obtained by vitreous tap or vitrectomy. Samples from January 2010 to December 2011 were cultivated in CM, whereas samples from January 2012 to December 2015 were inoculated in PBCBs. The measured outcome was the yield of positive cultures. RESULTS: Twenty cases were included in the CM group, and 34 cases were included in the PBCB group. The yield of positive cultures in PBCBs (64.7%) was significantly higher than that in conventional CM (35%, p=0.034). Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus viridans were the two most commonly found agents. CONCLUSION: PBCBs can be used successfully in clinically suspected endophthalmitis. The method showed a higher yield of positive cultures than the conventional method. This technique appears to have several advantages over the traditional method: it saves time, as only one medium needs to be inoculated; transportation to a laboratory is easier than in the traditional method, and there is no need to maintain a supply of fresh agar media. The use of PBCBs may be recommended as the primary method for microbiological diagnosis and is especially suitable for office settings and remote clinics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolation & purification , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Culture Media/standards , Viridans Streptococci/isolation & purification , Blood Culture/instrumentation , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Blood Culture/methods
12.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 41(2): 9-13, Dec. 2018. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-988159

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: determinar la sensibilidad y especificidad de la calprotectina fecal (CPF) y la prueba de sangre oculta en heces (SOH) para el diagnóstico de patología orgánica de colon. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio observacional que, incluyó de manera intencionada, 246 pacientes de ambos sexos atendidos en el Instituto Gastroenterológico Boliviano Japonés de Cochabamba, por dolor abdominal, diarrea crónica y pérdida de peso. Se les realizó laboratorios de calprotectina fecal y sangre oculta en heces, además de colonoscopia como estudio de control. RESULTADOS: se determinó que la calprotectina fecal tiene una sensibilidad de 86 %, y especificidad de 98 %, con una asociación de 0,54 y relación de 0,75 según los coeficientes de Pearson y Spearman respectivamente, en relación con la colonoscopía y el diagnóstico de patología orgánica de colon. La prueba de sangre oculta en heces presentó una sensibilidad de 79% pero una especificidad de 58%, la asociación y relación con el estudio de control fue mínima: 0,21 y 0,22 según los coeficientes de Pearson y Spearman. CONCLUSIONES: los resultados muestran que la calprotectina fecal presenta alta sensibilidad y especificidad para el diagnóstico de patología orgánica de colon. Los valores más altos se relacionaron con mayor lesión en la mucosa colónica.


OBJECTIVE: to determine the sensitivity and specificity of fecal calprotectin and fecal occult blood test (FOBT) for the diagnosis of organic colon pathology. METHODS: an observational study was made, which intentionally included 246 patients of both sexes seen at the Japanese Bolivian Gastroenterological Institute of Cochabamba, due to abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea and weight loss. We performed fecal calprotectin and fecal occult blood laboratories, as well as colonoscopy as a control study. RESULTS: it was determined that the fecal calprotectin has a sensitivity of 86%, and specificity of 98%, with an association of 0,54 and a ratio of 0,75 according to the Pearson and Spearman coefficients respectively, in relation to colonoscopy and the diagnosis of organic pathology of colon. The fecal occult blood test showed a sensitivity of 79% but a specificity of 58%, according to the association and relationship with the control minimum of 0,21 and 0,22 according to the Pearson and Spearman coefficients. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that fecal calprotectin presents high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of organic colon pathology. Higher values were associated with greater lesion in the colonic mucosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Culture/methods , Colonoscopy/instrumentation , Diagnosis , Feces
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 117-122, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959420

ABSTRACT

Resumen La solicitud de hemocultivos en la atención médica es frecuente, especialmente en las Unidades de Neonatologia, donde se realiza en forma rutinaria frente a la sospecha de sepsis precoz o tardia. Este documento tiene como objetivo estandarizar la técnica de obtención de muestra con la finalidad de aumentar su rendimiento y establecer criterios de cómo interpretar un hemocultivo positivo.


The request of blood cultures in medical care is frequent, especially in Neonatal Units, where it is performed routinely in case of suspected early or late sepsis. The purpose of this document is to standardize the sampling technique in order to increase its performance and establish criteria to interpret a positive blood culture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/blood , Blood Culture/standards , Specimen Handling , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Sensitivity and Specificity , Infection Control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Sepsis/drug therapy , Blood Culture/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
15.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 37(1): 11-21, ene.-mar. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991087

ABSTRACT

La bacteriemia es una complicación grave de las infecciones bacterianas. Un diagnóstico temprano del microorganismo responsable permite aplicar tratamientos efectivos en menor intervalo de tiempo. Los hemocultivos son diagnosticadores clínicos diseñado para este fin. Objetivo: Realizar un estudio de estabilidad acelerado de un lote del hemocultivo HemoCen Aerobio que permita planificar su diseño en estante en condiciones reales. Métodos: Se formuló un lote del hemocultivo HemoCen Aerobio en el Centro Nacional de Biopreparados, BioCen y se envasó asépticamente en los Laboratorios Biológicos Farmacéuticos, LABIOFAM. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de estabilidad acelerado por el Método de Arrenhius. Los frascos se conservaron durante 120 días a 15 °C, 30 °C y 50 °C. Se realizaron evaluaciones físico-químicas, organolépticas y capacidad de promoción de crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 a los 7, 15, 30, 60 y 120 días. Resultados: El estudio de estabilidad demostró que el pH y el color del medio se deterioran progresivamente en el tiempo cuando las temperaturas aumentan entre 30 °C y 50 °C. La promoción de crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus resultó favorable con índices de recuperación entre 20 y 40 UFC·frasco-1. Discusión: HemoCen Aerobio resulta funcional con un desempeño analítico satisfactorio, cuyos índices de recuperación microbiana se encuentran acorde a los valores reportados en bacteriemias de escasa magnitud. Estos resultados sientan las bases para planificar un estudio de estabilidad en estante en condiciones reales. Conclusión: Se estima un período de validez de 2 años(AU)


Bacteremia is a serious complication of bacterial infections. Early diagnosis of the causative organism allows applying appropriate treatments in a shorter time interval. Hemocultures are clinical diagnosticians designed for this purpose. Objective: Perform an accelerated stability study of a batch of HemoCen Aerobic hemoculture that allows planning its shelf designed in true conditions. Methods: A batch of HemoCen Aerobic hemoculture was formulated at the National Bioproducts Center, BioCen, and aseptically packaged at the Biological Pharmaceutical Laboratories, LABIOFAM. An accelerated stability study was carried out by the Arrenhius Method. The bottles were stored for 120 days at 15 °C, 30 °C and 50 °C. Physicochemical, organoleptic and growth promotion capacity evaluations of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 were realized at 7, 15, 30, 60 and 120 days. Results: The stability study demonstrated that the pH and the color of the medium progressively deteriorate over time as temperatures increase between 30 °C and 50 °C. Growth promotion of Staphylococcus aureus was favorable with recovery rates between 20 and 40 CFU bottle-1. Discussion: HemoCen Aerobic is functional with a satisfactory analytical performance, which recovery rates are consistent with the values reported in bacteremia of low magnitude. These results provide the basis for planning a shelf stability study under real conditions. Conclusion: A durability period of 2 years was estimated(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Blood Culture/methods
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(1): 24-29, Jan.-feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951624

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: Corynebacterium spp. are becoming recognized as pathogens that potentially cause various infections. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics associated with Corynebacterium spp. bacteremia. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all adult patients who had positive blood cultures for Corynebacterium spp. in a single university hospital between January 2014 and December 2016. Patients were divided into a bacteremia group and a contamination group based on microbiological test results and clinical characteristics. Patients' characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated species, antimicrobials administered, and patient outcomes were evaluated. Results: Corynebacterium spp. were isolated from blood samples of 63 patients; Corynebacterium striatum was the predominant isolate. Twenty-eight patients were determined to have bacteremia. Younger age (p = 0.023), shorter time to positivity (p = 0.006), longer hospital stay (p = 0.009), and presence of an indwelling vascular catheter (p = 0.002) were observed more often in the bacteremia group compared to the contamination group. The source of infection in most patients with bacteremia was an intravenous catheter. All tested strains were susceptible to vancomycin. Four of the 27 patients with bacteremia died, despite administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Conclusions: We found that younger age, shorter time to positivity, and presence of an indwelling catheter were related to bacteremia caused by Corynebacterium spp. Appropriate antimicrobials should be administered once Corynebacterium spp. are isolated from the blood and bacteremia is suspected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacteremia/microbiology , Corynebacterium/isolation & purification , Corynebacterium Infections/microbiology , Reference Values , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Statistics, Nonparametric , Corynebacterium/drug effects , Corynebacterium Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Blood Culture/methods , Hospitals, University , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Clin. biomed. res ; 38(2)2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025675

ABSTRACT

This is a report of isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from blood culture. Identification was conducted by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The relevance of this report is related to the site affected, the severity of the infection, and the importance of correct and rapid identification of the causative pathogen for a successful treatment and for reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcus neoformans/pathogenicity , Cryptococcus neoformans/virology , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Blood Culture/methods
18.
Clin. biomed. res ; 38(3): 308-310, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047051

ABSTRACT

Report of Chromobacterium violaceum isolation from blood culture. Identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Relevant report due to the site affected, infection severity, and importance of correct and rapid identification for a successful treatment and lower risk of morbidity and mortality. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Chromobacterium/pathogenicity , Sepsis/diagnosis , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Blood Culture/methods
19.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 4(1): 1109-1114, mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284321

ABSTRACT

Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis (EONS) is a clinical situation resulting from the invasion andproliferation of bacteria, fungi or viruses in the newborn (NB) bloodstream, which occurs within the first 72hours of life. To determine the diagnostic usefulness of laboratory tests performed on infants with suspicion ofearly neonatal sepsis at the Santa Barbara Integrated Hospital, Honduras. A case-control study was carried outduring 2016; the cases were 20 infants with early onset neonatal sepsis, and the controls were 40 infants whowere admitted as potentially septic, but the blood culture result was negative. Sensitivity, specificity, positivepredictive value (PPV) and negative (NPV) of leukocytosis, platelets, initial C-reactive protein (CRP) and controlwere calculated. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 19. It was found that 17 (28.3 %) NB were women and43 (71.7 %) were men. The VPP of the initial PCR was 5 %, increasing to 85 % in the control study. The isolatedmicroorganism was enterobacter in 6 (30 %) of the RNs. Of the 23 (38.3 %) neonates who presentedcomplications; 11 (48 %) had positive blood culture and 12 (52 %) had negative blood cultures. The dischargecondition was medical discharge in 55 (92 %) and referred to a more complex hospital 5 (8 %) of the neonates.The VPP of the C-reactive protein increases considerably when doing a laboratory control,between 24-48 hours.


Sepsis neonatal temprana es aquella situación clínica derivada de la invasión y proliferación de bacterias, hongos o virus en el torrente sanguíneo del recién nacido (RN), que se presenta en las primeras 72 horas de vida. Determinar la utilidad diagnóstica de los exámenes de laboratorio que se realizan a los RN con sospecha de sepsis neonatal temprana, en el Hospital Santa Bárbara Integrado (HSBI), Honduras. Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles, durante el año 2016, los casos fueron 20 RN con sepsisneonatal temprana comprobada por hemocultivo y los controles 40 RN que ingresaron como potencial mentesépticos, pero el resultado de hemocultivo fue negativo. Se calculó sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo (VPP) y negativo (VPN) de leucocitosis, plaquetas, proteína C reactiva (PCR) inicial y la de control. Los datos fueron analizados con el programa SPSS versión 19. Se encontró que 17 (28.3 %) RN eran mujeres y 43(71.7 %) hombres. El VPP de la PCR inicial fue 5 %, aumentando a 85% en el estudio de control. El microorganismo aislado fue enterobacter en 6 (30 %) de los RN. De los 23 (38.3 %) neonatos que presentaron complicación; 11 (48 %) tenían hemocultivo positivo y 12 (52 %) tenían hemocultivo negativo. La condición de egreso fue alta médica en 55 (92 %) y referido a un hospital de mayor complejidad 5 (8 %)de los neonatos. El VPP, de la proteína C reactiva, aumenta considerablemente al hacer un control laboratorial,entre 24-48 horas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Neonatal Sepsis/diagnosis , Blood Culture/methods , Case-Control Studies
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(2): 150-158, abr. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784865

ABSTRACT

Background: Positive blood cultures usually indicate disseminated infection that is associated with a poor prognosis and higher mortality. We seek to develop and validate a predictive model to identify factors associated with positive blood cultures in emergency patients. Methods: Secondary analysis of data from two prospective cohorts (EPISEPSIS: developing cohort, and DISEPSIS: validation cohort) of patients with suspected or confirmed infection, assembled in emergency services in 10 hospitals in four cities in Colombia between September 2007 and February 2008. A logistic multivariable model was fitted to identify clinical and laboratory variables predictive of positive blood culture. Results: We analyzed 719 patients in developing and 467 in validation cohort with 32% and 21% positive blood cultures, respectively. The final predictive model included variables with significant coefficients for both cohorts: temperature > 38° C, Glasgow < 15 and platelet < 150.000 cells/mm³, with calibration (goodness-of-fit H-L) p = 0.0907 and p = 0.7003 and discrimination AUC = 0.68 (95% CI = 0.65-0.72) and 0.65 (95% CI = 0.61-0.70) in EPISEPSIS and DISEPSIS, respectively. Specifically, temperature > 38 °C and platelets < 150.000 cells/mm³ and normal Glasgow; or Glasgow < 15 with normal temperature and platelets exhibit a LR between 1,9 (CI 95% = 1,2-3,1) and 2,3 (CI 95% = 1,7-3,1). Glasgow < 15 with any of low platelets or high temperature shows a LR between 2,2 (CI 95% = 1,1-4,4) and 2,6 (CI 95% = 1,7-4,3). Discussion: Temperature > 38° C, platelet count < 150,000 cells/mm³ and GCS < 15 are variables associated with increased likelihood of having a positive blood culture.


Introducción: Un hemocultivo positivo usualmente indica infección diseminada, la que se asocia con peor pronóstico y mayor mortalidad. Por tanto, buscamos desarrollar y validar un modelo de predicción que permita identificar los factores asociados con la positividad de los hemocultivos en pacientes del servicio de urgencias. Métodos: Análisis secundario de datos de dos cohortes prospectivas (EPISEPSIS: cohorte de desarrollo y DISEPSIS: cohorte de validación) de pacientes con sospecha o confirmación de infección, ensambladas en servicios de urgencias de 10 instituciones hospitalarias en cuatro ciudades de Colombia entre septiembre de 2007 y febrero de 2008. Se ajustó un modelo logístico multivariado para identificar variables clínicas y de laboratorio predictoras de hemocultivos positivos. Resultados: Se analizaron 719 pacientes en la cohorte de desarrollo y 467 en la cohorte de validación, con 32 y 21% de hemocultivos positivos, respectivamente. El modelo predictor final incluyó las variables con coeficientes significativos para ambas cohortes: temperatura ≥ 38 °C, Glasgow < 15 y plaquetas ≤ 150.000 céls/mm³ con calibración (bondad de ajuste de H-L) p = 0,0907 y p = 0,7003 y discriminación AUC: 0,68 (IC 95%: 0,65-0,72) y 0,65 (IC 95%: 0,61-0,70) en EPISEPSIS y DISEPSIS, respectivamente. Temperatura ≥ 38 °C y recuento de plaquetas ≤ 150.000 céls/mm³ con Glasgow normal; o Glasgow < 15 con temperatura y plaquetas normales tiene un LR entre 1,9 (IC 95%: 1,2-3,1) y 2,3 (IC 95%: 1,7-3,1). La escala de Glasgow < 15 puntos junto con cualquiera entre recuento de plaquetas o temperatura alteradas tiene un LR entre 2,2 (IC 95%: 1,1-4,4) y 2,6 (IC 95%: 1,7-4,3). Discusión: La temperatura ≥ 38 °C, el recuento de plaquetas ≤ 150.000 céls/mm³ y la escala de Glasgow < 15 son las variables asociadas con mayor probabilidad de tener un hemocultivo positivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Blood Culture/methods , Reference Values , Blood Cell Count , Body Temperature , Glasgow Coma Scale , Logistic Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Bacteremia/blood , Emergency Service, Hospital
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