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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1398-1411, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414511

ABSTRACT

Pelas características anatômicas e fisiológicas dos rins, a lesão renal aguda tem sua origem nefrotóxica pela alta circulação local, o que favorece a alta concentração de substâncias tóxicas e seus metabólitos no tecido. A lesão renal aguda é uma complicação comum em internações hospitalares e principalmente em internações em unidades de terapia intensiva. A ciclofosfamida, um quimioterápico utilizado no tratamento de doenças autoimunes e neoplasias sólidas, pode causar nefrotoxicidade com disfunção glomerular e tubular. O uso de plantas medicinais, pelas suas potentes ações antioxidantes, tem sido usado para prevenção ou tratamento de lesões celulares induzidas pelo desequilíbrio entre enzimas antioxidantes e oxidantes. Por esse motivo, o objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o potencial efeito protetor da Echinodorus grandiflorus na prevenção da nefrotoxidade induzida pela ciclofosfamida. Para isso, foi realizado o experimento com a utilização de 35 ratos machos, Wistar, divididos em seis grupos experimentais, sendo administrado a ciclofosfamida na dose de 150mg/kg nos grupos G2 a G6 e diferentes doses da Echinodorus grandiflorus, com posterior análise de parâmetros sanguíneos e histológicos. A administração de ciclofosfamida na dose de 150mg/kg de massa corporal, em dose única, foi capaz de induzir a nefrotoxicidade aguda em todos os ratos. O extrato bruto de Echinodorus grandiflorus apresentou potencial efeito renoprotetor ao uso da ciclofosfamida, na dose de 300mg/kg de massa corporal, sendo possível observar redução dos efeitos nefrotóxicos do quimioterápico, pela redução dos danos tubulares e pela diminuição dos espaços capsulas, nitidamente encontradas alterados no grupo que recebeu apenas ciclofosfamida, denotando resultados promissores para utilização desta planta medicinal na prevenção da nefrotoxicidade induzida pelo fármaco. Contudo, novos estudos dos efeitos renoprotetor do chapéu de couro, poderão elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na ação do extrato bruto do chapéu de couro. A utilização de extrato bruto de plantas medicinais torna-se um adjuvante aos tratamentos pelo baixo custo e pela facilidade de acesso das diferentes populações as plantas desde que devidamente orientados pelos profissionais habilitados.


Due to the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the kidneys, acute kidney injury has its nephrotoxic origin due to the high local circulation, which favors the high concentration of toxic substances and their metabolites in the tissue. Acute kidney injury is a common complication in hospital admissions and especially in intensive care unit admissions. Cyclophosphamide, a chemotherapy drug used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and solid neoplasms, can cause nephrotoxicity with glomerular and tubular dysfunction. The use of medicinal plants, due to their potent antioxidant actions, has been used for the prevention or treatment of cellular injuries induced by the imbalance between antioxidant and oxidant enzymes. For this reason, the aim of the experiment was to evaluate the potential protective effect of Echinodorus grandiflorus in preventing cyclophosphamide-induced nephrotoxicity. For this, the experiment was carried out with the use of 35 male Wistar rats, divided into six experimental groups, being administered cyclophosphamide at a dose of 150mg/kg in groups G2 to G6 and different doses of Echinodorus grandiflorus, with subsequent analysis of parameters blood and histology. The administration of cyclophosphamide at a dose of 150mg/kg of body weight, in a single dose, was able to induce acute nephrotoxicity in all rats. The crude extract of Echinodorus grandiflorus showed a potential renoprotective effect with the use of cyclophosphamide, at a dose of 300mg/kg of body mass, and it was possible to observe a reduction in the nephrotoxic effects of the chemotherapy, due to the reduction of tubular damage and the reduction of capsule spaces, clearly found altered in the group that received only cyclophosphamide, showing promising results for the use of this medicinal plant in the prevention of drug-induced nephrotoxicity. However, further studies of the renoprotective effects of the leather hat may elucidate the mechanisms involved in the action of the crude extract of the leather hat. The use of raw extract of medicinal plants becomes an adjuvant to treatments due to the low cost and ease of access of different populations to plants, provided that they are properly guided by qualified professionals.


Debido a las características anatómicas y fisiológicas de los riñones, la lesión renal aguda tiene su origen nefrotóxico por la elevada circulación local, que favorece la alta concentración de sustancias tóxicas y sus metabolitos en el tejido. La lesión renal aguda es una complicación frecuente en los ingresos hospitalarios y principalmente en las unidades de cuidados intensivos. La ciclofosfamida, un quimioterápico utilizado en el tratamiento de enfermedades autoinmunes y neoplasias sólidas, puede causar nefrotoxicidad con disfunción glomerular y tubular. El uso de plantas medicinales, debido a sus potentes acciones antioxidantes, se ha utilizado para la prevención o el tratamiento de lesiones celulares inducidas por el desequilibrio entre enzimas antioxidantes y oxidantes. Por este motivo, el objetivo del experimento era evaluar el posible efecto protector del Echinodorus grandiflorus en la prevención de la nefrotoxicidad inducida por la ciclofosfamida. Para ello, se realizó el experimento utilizando 35 ratas Wistar macho, divididas en seis grupos experimentales, administrándoseles ciclofosfamida a una dosis de 150mg/kg en los grupos G2 a G6 y diferentes dosis de Echinodorus grandiflorus, con posterior análisis de sangre y parámetros histológicos. La administración de ciclofosfamida a una dosis de 150mg/kg de masa corporal, en dosis única, fue capaz de inducir nefrotoxicidad aguda en todas las ratas. El extracto crudo de Echinodorus grandiflorus presentó un potencial efecto renoprotector al uso de ciclofosfamida, a una dosis de 300mg/kg de masa corporal, siendo posible observar una reducción de los efectos nefrotóxicos de la quimioterapia, por la reducción del daño tubular y por la disminución de los espacios capsulares, encontrándose claramente alterados en el grupo que recibió solamente ciclofosfamida, denotando resultados promisorios para el uso de esta planta medicinal en la prevención de la nefrotoxicidad inducida por el fármaco. Sin embargo, nuevos estudios sobre los efectos renoprotectores del sombrero de cuero podrían dilucidar los mecanismos implicados en la acción del extracto crudo de sombrero de cuero. El uso de extractos crudos de plantas medicinales se convierte en un coadyuvante de los tratamientos por su bajo coste y la facilidad de acceso de las diferentes poblaciones a las plantas desde que son guiadas adecuadamente por profesionales cualificados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cyclophosphamide/analysis , Alismataceae/toxicity , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Mesna/toxicity , Rats, Wistar
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 66-80, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372378

ABSTRACT

Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) extracts have been reported to exert various pharmacological activities including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities. The objective of the present study was to determine the anticarcinogenic activity of its methanol extract (MEMM) against the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced early colon carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n=6) namely normal control, negative control, and treatment (50, 250 or 500 mg/kg of MEMM) groups. Colon tissues were harvested for histopathological analysis and endogenous antioxidant system determination. MEMM was also subjected to HPLC analysis. Findings showed that MEMM significantly (p<0.05) reversed the AOM-induced carcinogenicity by: i) reducing the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in colon tissues, and; ii) enhancing the endogenous antioxidant activity (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, various phenolics has been identified in MEMM. In conclusion, MEMM exerts the in vivo anticarcinogenic activity via the activation of endogenous antioxidant system and synergistic action of phenolics.


Se ha informado que los extractos de Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) ejercen diversas actividades farmacológicas, incluidas actividades antioxidantes, antiinflamatorias y antiproliferativas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la actividad anticancerígena de su extracto de metanol (MEMM) contra la carcinogénesis de colon temprana inducida por azoximetano (AOM) en ratas. Las ratas se asignaron al azar a cinco grupos (n=6), a saber, los grupos de control normal, control negativo y tratamiento (50, 250 o 500 mg/kg de MEMM). Tejidos de colon fueron recolectados para análisis histopatológico y determinación del sistema antioxidante endógeno. MEMM también se sometió a análisis de HPLC. Los hallazgos mostraron que MEMM invirtió significativamente (p<0.05) la carcinogenicidad inducida por AOM al: i) reducir la formación de focos de criptas aberrantes (ACF) en los tejidos del colon, y; ii) potenciar la actividad antioxidante endógena (catalasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión peroxidasa). Además, se han identificado varios fenólicos en MEMM. En conclusión, MEMM ejerce la actividad anticancerígena in vivo mediante la activación del sistema antioxidante endógeno y la acción sinérgica de los fenólicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Anticarcinogenic Agents/administration & dosage , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Melastomataceae/chemistry , Organ Size/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Colon/pathology , Plant Leaves , Methanol , Phenolic Compounds , Aberrant Crypt Foci , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Antioxidants
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(6): 1635-1645, dic. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385530

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Marein is the main active substance of Coreopsis tinctoria nutt. It not only has anti-oxidation and anti-tumor effects, but also can lower blood lipid, prevent high blood glucose, improve insulin resistance, inhibit gluconeogenesis and promote glycogen synthesis. However, the exact mechanism of its action is still unclear. Here, we explored the effect and mechanism of Marein on insulin resistance. The mice were divided into db/m, db/db, metformin+db/db, and marein+db/db groups. The body weight and kidney weight were recorded. Serum biochemical and renal function tests were measured after 8 weeks of continuous administration. Kidney tissues were subjected to HE staining, PAS staining, and Masson staining. The effect of marein on PI3K/Akt signal and autophagy pathway was detected by Western blot. After 8 weeks of Marein intervention, the body weight and kidney weight of mice did not change significantly, but the fasting blood glucose and blood lipid levels were significantly reduced than db/db group. Marein significantly improved the insulin resistance index, increased serum adiponectin and improved glucose and lipid metabolism disorders of db/db mice. Moreover, marein improved the basement membrane thickness of glomeruli and tubules, improved glomerular sclerosis and tubular fibrosis, as well as renal insufficiency, thereby protecting kidney function and delaying the pathological damage. Furthermore, marein increased the expression of PI3K and the phosphorylation of Akt/Akt (Ser473), and promoted the expression of LC3II/I, Beclin1 and ATG5. Additionally, it promoted the expression of FGFR1 in the kidney of db/db mice, and promoted the increase of serum FGF21 and FGF23. Marein has a protective effect on the kidneys of diabetic mice. It protects diabetic nephropathy by regulating the IRS1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to improve insulin resistance. Therefore, marein may be an insulin sensitizer.


RESUMEN: Marein es la principal sustancia activa de Coreopsis tinctoria nutt. No solo tiene efectos antioxidantes y antitumorales, sino que también puede reducir los lípidos en sangre, prevenir la glucemia alta, mejorar la resistencia a la insulina, inhibir la gluconeogénesis y promover la síntesis de glucógeno. Sin embargo, el mecanismo exacto de su acción aún no está claro. Se analizó el efecto y el mecanismo de Marein sobre la resistencia a la insulina. Los ratones se dividieron en grupos db / m, db / db, metformina + db / db y mareína + db / db. Se registró el peso corporal y el peso de los riñones. Se midieron las pruebas de función renal y bioquímica sérica después de 8 semanas de administración continua. Los tejidos renales se sometieron a tinción HE, tinción PAS y tinción Masson. El efecto de la mareína sobre la señal de PI3K / Akt y la vía de autofagia se detectó mediante Western blot. Al término de 8 semanas de tratamiento con mareína, el peso corporal y el peso de los riñones de los ratones no cambiaron significativamente, pero los niveles de glucosa en sangre y lípidos en sangre en ayunas se redujeron significativamente en relación a los del grupo db / db. Marein mejoró significativamente el índice de resistencia a la insulina, aumentó la adiponectina sérica y mejoró los trastornos del metabolismo de la glucosa y los lípidos de los ratones db / db. Además, la mareína mejoró el grosor de la membrana basal de los glomérulos y túbulos, mejoró la esclerosis glomerular y la fibrosis tubular, así como la insuficiencia renal, protegiendo la función renal y retrasando el daño patológico. Además, la mareína aumentó la expresión de PI3K y la fosforilación de Akt / Akt (Ser473), y promovió la expresión de LC3II / I, Beclin1 y ATG5. Además, promovió la expresión de FGFR1 en el riñón de ratones db / db y el aumento de FGF21 y FGF23 en suero. Marein tiene un efecto protector sobre los riñones de ratones diabéticos. Protege la nefropatía diabética regulando la vía de señalización IRS1 / PI3K / Akt para mejorar la resistencia a la insulina. Por tanto, la mareína puede ser un sensibilizador a la insulina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Insulin Resistance , Chalcones/administration & dosage , Diabetic Nephropathies , Autophagy/drug effects , Blood Glucose , Body Weight/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Lipids/blood
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 611-615, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098295

ABSTRACT

El incremento en las cifras de obesidad se debe esencialmente a factores de carácter ambiental asociados al consumo de alimentos con alto contenido de grasas saturadas. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de una dieta alta en grasas sobre parámetros alimentarios y tejido adiposo blanco visceral. Se utilizaron ratas macho Sprague Dawley (n=10), divididas en dos grupos experimentales, el grupo control recibió dieta convencional (DC) y el grupo experimental una dieta alta en grasas (HFD), durante 10 semanas. Se determinó peso corporal, ingesta alimentaria, conversión alimenticia y características de tejido adiposo. El análisis de datos se realizó utilizando software IBM SPSS versión 21; tras evaluación de la normalidad de los datos, se aplicaron pruebas paramétricas T para muestras independientes y ANOVA de dos vías para medidas repetidas en uno de los factores, con ajuste Bonferroni. Se observó que el promedio de peso fue mayor en los animales alimentados con HFD, sin diferencia estadística respecto a DC, no obstante, existen diferencias significativas en el peso de las ratas alimentadas con HFD en distintos tiempos del protocolo, específicamente semanas 1, 5 y 10 (p<0,001). La ingesta alimentaria fue mayor en los animales alimentados con DC (p<0,005), sin embargo el consumo de energía fue mayor en aquellos alimentados con HFD (p=0,016), lo que derivó en una mayor conversión alimenticia (p<0,005). El promedio de diámetro teórico calculado de los adipocitos es estadísticamente mayor en grupo HFD (p<0,005), lo que se relaciona a la hipertrofia clásica generada tras un período de alimentación con elevado contenido de grasas. Conclusión: El protocolo permite establecer que efectivamente, dado la mayor densidad energética, HFD induce hipertrofia de los adipocitos, proceso característico de la obesidad.


The continued increase in obesity statistics is the result of environmental factors associated with the consumption of foods high in saturated fat. The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of a high fat diet on food parameters and visceral white adipose tissue. in Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10) were used, divided into two experimental groups, the control group received conventional diet (DC) and the experimental group a high fat diet (HFD), for 10 weeks. Body weight, food intake, food conversion and adipose tissue characteristics were determined. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 21 software; after evaluating the normality of the data, parametric T tests were applied for independent samples and two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements in one of the factors, with Bonferroni adjustment. It was observed that the average weight was higher in animals fed with HFD, without statistical difference with respect to DC, however, there were significant differences in the weight of rats fed with HFD at different times of the protocol, specifically weeks 1.5 and 10 (p <0.001). Food intake was higher in animals fed DC (p <0.005), however the energy consumption was higher in those fed with HFD (p=0.016), which resulted in a higher feed conversion (p <0.005). The average theoretical diameter calculated for adipocytes is statistically higher in the HFD group (p <0.005), which is related to the classical hypertrophy generated after a period of feeding with high fat content. In conclusion, the protocol allows us to establish that, given the higher energy density, HFD induces adipocyte hypertrophy, a characteristic in the obesity process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Obesity , Body Weight/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Eating
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 755-760, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098316

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The objective of this study was to describe the effects of monosodium glutamate on the collagen of the parotid gland in an obesity model. 18 newborn male Sprague Dawley rats were used (first control group; second group of MSG1: 4 mg/g of monosodium glutamate weight, 5 doses, and third group of MSG2: 4 mg/g of monosodium glutamate, 5 doses, maintained for 8 and 16 weeks respectively). The content and type of collagen were analyzed, in addition to the levels of cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides and uric acid. Monosodium glutamate produced an increase in the obesity rates of the MSG2 group, in addition to an increase in blood cholesterol, glucose and uric acid levels compared to the control group. Type III collagen in the MSG2 group showed a statistically significant increase. Monosodium glutamate induced obesity, in addition to an increase in type III collagen fibers.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue describir los efectos del glutamato monosódico sobre el colágeno de la glándula parótida en un modelo de obesidad. Se utilizaron 18 ratas Sprague Dawley machos recién nacidas (primer grupo control; segundo grupo MSG1: 4 mg/g de peso de glutamato monosódico, 5 dosis, y tercer grupo MSG2: 4 mg/g de glutamato monosódico, 5 dosis, mantenidas durante 8 y 16 semanas respectivamente). Se analizó el contenido y el tipo de colágeno, además de los niveles de colesterol, glucosa, triglicéridos y ácido úrico. El glutamato monosódico produjo un aumento en las tasas de obesidad del grupo MSG2, además de un aumento en los niveles de colesterol en sangre, glucosa y ácido úrico en comparación con el grupo control. El colágeno tipo III en el grupo MSG2 mostró un aumento estadísticamente significativo. La obesidad inducida por glutamato monosódico, además de un aumento en las fibras de colágeno tipo III.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Parotid Gland , Sodium Glutamate/toxicity , Collagen/drug effects , Obesity/chemically induced , Salivary Glands/drug effects , Triglycerides/blood , Uric Acid/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Cholesterol/blood , Collagen/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Animals, Newborn
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 61-68, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056398

ABSTRACT

Fruit purees can be added to diet as alternative sources of bioactive compounds for the prevention and/or improvement of the complications of metabolic syndrome. In this work we evaluated the effect of the intake of low-fat diets enriched with fruit purees (guava-strawberry, guava-blackberry, guava-soursop, guava-passion fruit) on the body weight and biochemical markers in metabolic syndrome analogy (MSA)-induced rats. The rats (n=6 for each treatment) were induced with a high fat diet and were injected with streptozotocin, one dose every week for 4 consecutive weeks after fasting overnight, then healthy rats were fed with standard diet and MS rats were fed with standard diet plus each of the fruit puree, for 4 weeks. As novel findings, the diet enriched with fruit purees was associated with a reduction in body weight (~13-21 %) and a control in the metabolism of glucose by decreasing plasma glucose (~5963 %). Also, there was a reduction in the total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, low-density lipoproteins, and low enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transferase, useful metabolites in the control of inflammatory processes in the liver. A notable improvement in the liver morphology was observed indicating that the treatments had a hepatoprotective effect. The diet enriched with guava-blackberry puree caused the best results on most biochemical markers of MS rats. Therefore, diets enriched with fruit purees can be an alternative for MS individuals for the control and improvement of the complications caused by this syndrome.


Los purés de frutas se pueden agregar a la dieta como fuentes alternativas de compuestos bioactivos para la prevención y / o mejora de las complicaciones del síndrome metabólico. En este trabajo evaluamos el efecto de la ingesta de dietas bajas en grasas, enriquecidas con purés de frutas (guayaba-fresa, guayaba-mora, guayaba-guanábana, guayaba-maracuyá) sobre el peso corporal y los marcadores bioquímicos en el síndrome metabólico (SM) inducido en ratas. Las ratas (n = 6 para cada tratamiento) fueron inducidas con una dieta alta en grasas y se les inyectó estreptozotocina, una dosis cada semana durante 4 semanas consecutivas después de ayunar durante la noche. Luego, las ratas sanas fueron alimentadas con una dieta estándar; y las ratas con SM fueron alimentadas con dieta estándar más cada uno de los purés de frutas, durante 4 semanas. Como hallazgos novedosos, la dieta enriquecida con purés de frutas se asoció con una reducción en el peso corporal (~ 13-21 %) y un control en el metabolismo de la glucosa al disminuir la glucosa en plasma (~ 59-63 %). Además, hubo una reducción en el colesterol total, triacilgliceroles, lipoproteínas de baja densidad, y bajas actividades enzimáticas de alanina aminotransferasa, fosfatasa alcalina y gama-glutamil transferasa, metabolitos útiles en el control de los procesos inflamatorios en el hígado. Se observó una mejora notable en la morfología del hígado, lo que indica que los tratamientos tuvieron un efecto hepatoprotector. La dieta enriquecida con puré de guayaba y mora causó los mejores resultados en la mayoría de los marcadores bioquímicos de las ratas con SM. Por lo tanto, las dietas enriquecidas con purés de frutas pueden ser una alternativa para las personas con SM, para el control y la mejora de las complicaciones causadas por este síndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diet, Fat-Restricted , Metabolic Syndrome , Fruit , Liver/drug effects , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Biomarkers , Albumins/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Hepatoprotector Drugs , Transaminases/analysis , Lipids/analysis , Liver/chemistry
8.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039734

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. Methods Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. Results Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. Conclusion Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar os efeitos da sericina extraída de casulos de Bombyx mori na morfofisiologia de camundongos com obesidade induzida por dieta hiperlipídica. Métodos Camundongos machos C57Bl6, com 9 semanas de idade, foram distribuídos em Grupos Controle e Obeso, que receberam ração padrão para roedores ou dieta hiperlipídica por 10 semanas, respectivamente. Posteriormente, os animais foram redistribuídos em quatro grupos, com sete animais cada: Controle, Controle-Sericina, Obeso e Obeso-Sericina. Os animais permaneceram recebendo ração padrão ou hiperlipídica por 4 semanas, período no qual a sericina foi administrada oralmente na dose de 1.000mg/kg de massa corporal aos Grupos Controle-Sericina e Obeso-Sericina. Parâmetros fisiológicos, como ganho de peso, consumo alimentar, peso das fezes em análise de lipídios fecais, motilidade intestinal e tolerância à glicose foram monitorados. Ao término do experimento, o plasma foi coletado para dosagens bioquímicas e fragmentos de tecido adiposo branco; fígado e jejuno foram processados para análises histológicas, e amostras hepáticas foram usadas para determinação lipídica. Resultados Camundongos obesos apresentaram ganho de peso e acúmulo de gordura significativamente maior que os controles, aumento do colesterol total e glicemia. Houve hipertrofia dos adipócitos retroperitoneais e periepididimais, instalação de esteatose e aumento do colesterol e triglicerídeos hepáticos, bem como alteração morfométrica da parede jejunal. Conclusão O tratamento com sericina não reverteu todas as alterações fisiológicas promovidas pela obesidade, mas restaurou a morfometria jejunal e aumentou a quantidade de lipídios eliminados nas fezes dos camundongos obesos, apresentando-se como potencial tratamento para a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anti-Obesity Agents/therapeutic use , Sericins/therapeutic use , Obesity/drug therapy , Time Factors , Triglycerides/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Transit/drug effects , Weight Gain/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Cholesterol/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology , Sericins/pharmacology , Eating/drug effects , Fatty Liver/pathology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Glucose Tolerance Test , Liver/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/physiopathology
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1058-1066, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012396

ABSTRACT

El consumo de fructosa ha aumentado en los últimos 50 años por la incorporación a la dieta de jarabe de maíz alto en fructosa (JMAF), presente en productos industrializados, como las bebidas azucaradas. Se puede asociar la ingesta de fructosa en altas concentraciones con el aumento de la obesidad y trastornos metabólicos. La fructosa, un azúcar natural que se encuentra en muchas frutas, se consume en cantidades significativas en las dietas occidentales. En cantidades iguales, es más dulce que la glucosa o la sacarosa y, por lo tanto, se usa comúnmente como edulcorante. Debido al incremento de obesidad entre la población joven y general y a los efectos negativos que puede tener a corto y largo plazo es importante considerar de donde provienen las calorías que se ingieren diariamente. Esta revisión describirá la relación entre el consumo de fructosa en altas concentraciones y el riesgo de desarrollar obesidad, resistencia a la insulina, lipogenesis de novo e inflamación.


The consumption of fructose has increased in the last 50 years due to the incorporation into the diet of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), present in industrialized products, such as sugary drinks. The intake of fructose in high concentrations can be associated with the increase of obesity and metabolic disorders. Fructose, a natural sugar found in many fruits, is consumed in significant quantities in Western diets. In equal amounts, it is sweeter than glucose or sucrose and, therefore, is commonly used as a sweetener. Due to the increase of obesity among the young and general population and the negative effects that can have in the short and long term it is important to consider where the calories that are ingested daily come from. This review will describe the relationship between fructose consumption in high concentrations and the risk of developing obesity, insulin resistance, de novo lipogenesis, nonalcoholic fatty liver, inflammation and metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Sweetening Agents/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Fructose/adverse effects , Obesity/chemically induced , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Beverages , Body Weight/drug effects , Lipogenesis/drug effects , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/adverse effects , Inflammation
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 509-514, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002252

ABSTRACT

Cisplatin is an antineoplastic agent with neuropathy as one of its major side effect. However, effective treatment is lacking. Increasing evidence suggests that cisplatin might damage nerve capillaries leading to impaired functions of blood-nerve barrier (BNB) and neuropathy. This study was aimed to examine the effects of cisplatin on pericytes. Rats were either treated with intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin 2 mg/kg twice a week for five continuous weeks. Cisplatin-treated rats showed reduced body weight, thermal hypoalgesia and slow sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity, indicating neuropathy. The density of pericytes in the distal sciatic nerves determined by immunohistochemistry to desmin was significantly reduced in the cisplatin compared with that of the control groups. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated the detachment of pericytes from endothelial cells including the disruption of shared basement membrane in the sciatic nerves from cisplatin-treated rats. These data indicate the pericyte loss and detachment caused by cisplatin. Future studies of the BNB components and functions after cisplatin treatment are needed and will be essential for the development of effective treatments against cisplatin-induced neuropathy.


El cisplatino es un agente antineoplásico y presenta como uno de sus principales efectos secundarios, la neuropatía. Sin embargo, falta un tratamiento eficaz. La creciente evidencia sugiere que el cisplatino podría dañar los capilares nerviosos, lo que puede provocar una alteración de las funciones de la barrera hematoencefálica (BHE) y neuropatía. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar los efectos del cisplatino en los pericitos. Las ratas se trataron con inyección intraperitoneal de cisplatino (2 mg/kg) dos veces por semana durante 5 semanas seguidas. Las ratas tratadas con cisplatino mostraron una reducción del peso corporal, hipoalgesia térmica y una velocidad de conducción del nervio ciático lenta, lo que indicaría neuropatía. La densidad de los pericitos en los nervios ciáticos distales determinada por inmunohistoquímica para desmina se redujo significativamente en el grupo cisplatino en comparación con la de los grupos controles. El análisis al microscopio electrónico demostró el desprendimiento de pericitos de las células endoteliales, incluida la ruptura de la membrana basal compartida en los nervios ciáticos de ratas tratadas con cisplatino. Estos datos indican la pérdida de pericitos y el desprendimiento causado por el cisplatino. Se necesitan estudios futuros de los componentes y funciones del BHE después del tratamiento con cisplatino y serán esenciales para el desarrollo de tratamientos efectivos contra la neuropatía inducida por el cisplatino.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cisplatin/toxicity , Pericytes/drug effects , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Body Weight/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Pericytes/pathology , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced
11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(2): 115-122, abr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002617

ABSTRACT

Both total caloric intake and consumption of free sugars is higher than recommended. This situation contributes, among many other factors, to the increase of overweight and obesity in the population. To maintain the sweet taste of foods and beverages while reducing the caloric content and the amount of free sugars in said products, many people choose to replace sugary products in their diet for options containing non-caloric sweeteners. This change in their dietary choice is accompanied by an increasing number of consultations with health professionals about the effects that non-caloric sweeteners could have on their body weight. Results reported in different scientific publications seem contradictory in relation to this topic: some of them, showing a positive association between the consumption of non-caloric sweeteners and energy intake and body weight, while others reporting that the consumption of these additives -in replacement of sugar- may lead to a reduction in caloric intake and body weight. The main objective of this article is to review the available evidence on the consumption of non-caloric sweeteners in relation to body weight, thus providing another tool for health professionals to make nutritional recommendations based on the best available evidence.


Tanto la ingesta calórica total como el consumo de azúcares libres son mayores a los recomendados. Esta situación contribuye, entre muchos otros factores, al aumento del sobrepeso y la obesidad en la población. Para mantener el sabor dulce de los alimentos y bebidas, y a la vez reducir el contenido calórico y la cantidad de azúcares en los mismos, cada vez más personas optan por reemplazar los productos azucarados en su dieta por edulcorantes no calóricos. Este cambio dietario se acompaña de un creciente número de consultas con profesionales de la salud, sobre los efectos que los edulcorantes no calóricos podrían tener sobre el peso corporal. Resultados comunicados en diversas publicaciones científicas parecen contradictorios con relación a este tema, algunas informan una asociación positiva entre el consumo de edulcorantes no calóricos, la ingesta energética y el peso corporal, y otras muestran que el consumo de estos aditivos -en reemplazo del azúcar- lleva a una reducción de la ingesta calórica y a un descenso de peso. El principal objetivo de este artículo es repasar la evidencia disponible sobre el consumo de edulcorantes no calóricos con relación al peso corporal, brindando así una herramienta más para que los profesionales de la salud puedan hacer recomendaciones nutricionales basadas en la mejor evidencia disponible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Weight/drug effects , Non-Nutritive Sweeteners/pharmacology , Obesity/prevention & control , Energy Intake/drug effects , Weight Loss/drug effects , Body Mass Index , Dietary Sugars/adverse effects
12.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(1): 7-17, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984644

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus infection can result in the early impairment of anthropometric indicators in children and adolescents. However, combined antiretroviral therapy has improved, in addition to the immune response and viral infection, the weight and height development in infected individuals. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the effect of combined antiretroviral on the growth development of human immunodeficiency virus infected children and adolescents. Source of data: A systematic review was performed. In the study, the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) strategy was used as the eligibility criterion. The MEDLINE-PubMed and LILACS databases were searched using these descriptors: HIV, children, growth, antiretroviral therapy. The objective was defined by the population, intervention, comparison/control, and outcome (PICO) technique. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied for study selection. Synthesis of data: Of the 549 studies indexed in MEDLINE-PubMed and LILACS, 73 were read in full, and 44 were included in the review (33 showed a positive impact of combined antiretroviral therapy on weight/height development, ten on weight gain, and one on height gain in children and adolescents infected with human immunodeficiency virus). However, the increase in growth was not enough to normalize the height of infected children when compared to children of the same age and gender without human immunodeficiency virus infection. Conclusions: Combined antiretroviral therapy, which is known to play a role in the improvement of viral and immunological markers, may influence in the weight and height development in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus. The earlier the infection diagnosis and, concomitantly, of malnutrition and the start of combined antiretroviral therapy, the lower the growth impairment when compared to healthy children.


Resumo Objetivos: A infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana pode comprometer, precocemente, os indicadores antropométricos de crianças e adolescentes. No entanto, a terapia antirretroviral combinada tem melhorado, além da resposta imunológica e da infecção viral, o ganho pôndero-estatural dos infectados. Dessa forma, nosso objetivo foi avaliar o efeito da terapia antirretroviral combinada no crescimento, de crianças e adolescentes, infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. Fonte dos dados: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática. No estudo, adotou-se como critério de elegibilidade dos artigos, a estratégia PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses). Foram consultadas as bases de dados MEDLINE-PubMed e LILACS pelos descritores: HIV (vírus da imunodeficiência humana), children, growth, antiretroviral therapy. O objetivo foi definido pela estratégia PICO (population, intervention, comparison/control, outcome). Critérios de inclusão e exclusão foram aplicados na seleção dos estudos. Síntese dos dados: Dos 549 estudos indexados no MEDLINE-PubMed e LILACS, 73 foram lidos na íntegra - 44 incluídos na revisão (33 demonstraram impacto positivo da terapia antirretroviral combinada no ganho pôndero-estatural, dez no ganho de peso e um no de estatura, em crianças e adolescentes, infectados com vírus da imunodeficiência humana). No entanto, o incremento no crescimento não foi o suficiente para normalizar a estatura de crianças infectadas, quando comparado com crianças da mesma idade e sexo, sem infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. Conclusões: A terapia antirretroviral combinada que, conhecidamente, atua na melhora de marcadores virais e imunológicos, pode influenciar no ganho pôndero-estatural de crianças infectadas com vírus da imunodeficiência humana. Quanto mais precoce o diagnóstico da infecção e, concomitante, desnutrição e início da terapia antirretroviral combinada, menores serão os prejuízos no crescimento, quando comparado às crianças saudáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Body Height/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Child Development/drug effects , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Growth/drug effects , HIV Infections/drug therapy
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(7): e201900705, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038115

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: The denervation of the intestine with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) reduces mortality and improves weight gain in rats with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Nevertheless, translating these promising findings from bench to bedside is not feasible because BAC promotes peritonitis and irreversible denervation which may be followed by an uncontrolled dilatation of the viscera. The use of botulinum toxin (BT) instead of BAC to achieve the denervation of the remaining small intestine in SBS could be an interesting option because it leads to a mild and transient denervation of the intestine. Methods: Here we evaluated the effects of the ileal denervation with BT in rats with SBS by verifying the body weight variation and intestinal morphological parameters. Four groups with 6 animals each were submitted to enterectomy with an ileal injection of saline (group E) or BT (group EBT). Control groups were submitted to simulated surgery with an ileal injection of BT (group BT) or saline (group C - control). Results: We observed that the treatment of the remaining ileum with BT completely reversed the weight loss associated to extensive small bowel resection. Conclusion: This may provide a new promising approach to the surgical treatment of SBS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Short Bowel Syndrome/surgery , Botulinum Toxins/pharmacology , Denervation/methods , Ileum/innervation , Short Bowel Syndrome/pathology , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , Body Weight/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Muscle Weakness/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Ileum/pathology , Jejunum/innervation
14.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4635, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012003

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the anti-hyperglycemic effects of Plathymenia reticulata hydroalcoholic extract and related changes in body weight, lipid profile and the pancreas. Methods: Diabetes was induced in 75 adult male Wistar rats via oral gavage of 65mg/Kg of streptozotocin. Rats were allocated to one of 8 groups, as follows: diabetic and control rats treated with water, diabetic and control rats treated with 100mg/kg or 200mg/kg of plant extract, and diabetic and control rats treated with glyburide. Treatment consisted of oral gavage for 30 days. Blood glucose levels and body weight were measured weekly. Animals were sacrificed and lipid profile and pancreatic tissue samples analyzed. Statistical analysis consisted of ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey-Kramer, paired Student's t and χ2 tests; the level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Extract gavage at 100mg/kg led to a decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats in the second, third (198.71±65.27 versus 428.00±15.25) and fourth weeks (253.29±47.37 versus 443.22±42.72), body weight loss (13.22±5.70 versus 109.60±9.95) and lower cholesterol levels (58.75±3.13 versus 80.11±4.01) in control rats. Extract gavage at 200mg/Kg led to a decrease in glucose levels on the fourth week in diabetic rats, body weight loss in the second, third and fourth weeks in control rats, and lower cholesterol levels in diabetic and control rats. Islet hyperplasia (p=0.005) and pancreatic duct dilation (p=0.047) were observed in diabetic and control rats. Conclusion: Plathymenia extract reduced blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, and body weight in control rats, and promoted pancreatic islet hyperplasia in diabetic and control rats.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito anti-hiperglicêmico do extrato hidroalcoólico de Plathymenia reticulata, alterações no peso, lipídeos e efeito sobre o pâncreas. Métodos: O diabetes foi induzido pela administração de estreptozotocina 65mg/kg, em 75 ratos Wistar adultos machos, divididos em 8 grupos diferentes: ratos diabéticos e controle + água, ratos diabéticos e controle + 100mg/kg ou 200mg/kg de extrato, ratos diabéticos e controle + gliburida. O tratamento foi realizado por gavagem (oral) por 30 dias. Níveis de glicose e peso foram verificados semanalmente. Os animais foram sacrificados, e amostras de lipídeos e do pâncreas foram analisadas. A análise estatística incluiu ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey-Kramer, teste t de Student pareado e teste do χ2, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: O extrato 100mg/kg promoveu redução nos níveis de glicose sanguínea em ratos diabéticos na segunda, terceira (198,71±65,27 versus 428,00±15,25) e quarta semanas (253,29±47,37 versus 443,22±42,72), perda de peso (13,22±5,70 versus 109,60±9,95) e diminuição do colesterol (58,75±3,13 versus 80,11±4,01) em ratos controle. Com extrato de 200mg/kg, houve redução dos níveis de glicose na quarta semana, nos ratos diabéticos; de peso na segunda, terceira e quarta semanas, nos ratos controle; e de colesterol nos animais diabéticos e controle. Ocorreram hiperplasia de ilhotas (p=0,005) e dilatação dos ductos pancreáticos (p=0,047) em ratos diabéticos e controles. Conclusão: O extrato de Plathymenia reduziu os níveis de glicose em ratos diabéticos e de peso em ratos controle, além de ter promovido hiperplasia de ilhotas pancreáticas em diabéticos e controles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Fabaceae , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Cholesterol , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Plant Leaves , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Disease Models, Animal , Hyperplasia/pathology , Phytotherapy
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(4): 424-430, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950077

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This analysis compared the efficacy and safety of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, dapagliflozin, and the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor, saxagliptin, both added on to metformin. Materials and methods: This was a post-hoc analysis from a double-blind, randomized, 24-week clinical trial (NCT01606007) of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) inadequately controlled with metformin. We compared the dapagliflozin 10 mg (n = 179) and saxagliptin 5 mg (n = 176) treatment arms. Results: Dapagliflozin showed significantly greater mean reductions versus saxagliptin in HbA1c (difference versus saxagliptin [95% CI]: −0.32% [-0.54, −0.10]; p < 0.005), fasting plasma glucose (-0.98 [-1.42, −0.54] mmol/L; p < 0.0001), body weight (-2.39 [-3.08, −1.71] kg; p < 0.0001) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-3.89 [-6.15, −1.63] mmHg; p < 0.001). More dapagliflozintreated than saxagliptin-treated patients achieved the composite endpoint of HbA1c reduction ≥ 0.5%, weight loss ≥ 2 kg, SBP reduction ≥ 2 mmHg and no major/minor hypoglycemia (24% versus 7%). No major events of hypoglycemia were reported. More patients on dapagliflozin (6%) versus saxagliptin (0.6%) experienced genital infections. Conclusion: Dapagliflozin demonstrated greater glycemic efficacy than saxagliptin with additional benefits on weight and SBP, and the safety profile was consistent with previous studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Adamantane/analogs & derivatives , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dipeptides/therapeutic use , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Adamantane/adverse effects , Adamantane/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Dipeptides/adverse effects , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/therapeutic use , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use
16.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 35(2): 214-220, abr.-jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961881

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto del endospermo de semilla de tara (EST) y polvo de hojas del Agave americana (HAA) sobre el peso corporal y velocidad de tránsito intestinal en ratas Holtzman. Materiales y métodos Veinticinco ratas machos Holtzman distribuidas en cinco grupos y alojadas en jaulas individuales, fueron alimentadas durante 21 días con uno de los siguientes tratamientos: T1, dieta con 6% de alfa celulosa (control); T2, dieta con 6% de EST; T3, dieta con 6% de HAA; T4, dieta con 10% de EST y T5, dieta con 10% de HAA. Se registraron el consumo de alimento, ganancia de peso corporal, digestibilidad aparente de la grasa, características de las heces (contenido de grasa, peso, humedad, volumen y pH) y tiempo de tránsito intestinal. Se realizaron análisis de varianza (ANOVA) de una vía y a través de la comparación múltiple de medias de Tukey. Resultados Dietas con 6% y 10% del EST exhibieron una reducción en el consumo de alimento, digestibilidad aparente de la grasa y pH fecal, cuyos resultados tuvieron efectos en la reducción de la ganancia del peso corporal de 37,0% (p=0,008) y 50,9% (p=0,001) comparados con la dieta control. Dieta con 10% del polvo de HAA redujo el tiempo de tránsito intestinal de 642 min (control) a 532 min (p=0,242). Conclusiones Dietas que contienen EST regulan la ganancia del peso corporal; en cambio, dieta con polvo de HAA, no tuvo efectos sobre la velocidad de tránsito intestinal en ratas.


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effects of endosperm of tara seeds (ETS) and powder of Agave americana leaves (AAL) on body weight and intestinal transit time in Holtzman rats. Materials and Methods Twenty-five male Holtzman rats, individually caged, and distributed into five groups were fed for 21 days with one of the following treatments: T1, diet with 6% alpha cellulose (Control); T2, diet with 6% ETS; T3, diet with 6% AAL; T4, diet with 10% ETS; and T5, Diet with 10% AAL. Feed intake, body weight gain, apparent digestibility of fat, characteristics of feces (fat content, weight, moisture, volume, and pH) and intestinal transit time were recorded. One-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed, as well as Tukey's multiple means comparison. Results Diets with 6% and 10% of ETS resulted in a reduction of feed intake, apparent digestibility of fat, and fecal pH, and said results had an effect in the reduction of body weight gain of 37.0% (p=0.008) and 50.9% (0.001), compared with the control diet. The diet with 10% of AAL powder reduced the intestinal transit time from 642 min (control) to 532 min (p=0.242). Conclusions Diets containing EST regulated body weight gain, while the diet with AAL powder had no effects on the intestinal transit time in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Body Weight/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Transit/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Agave , Caesalpinia , Powders , Seeds , Time Factors , Gastrointestinal Transit/physiology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Plant Leaves , Endosperm
17.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 8(1): 21-26, ene-jun.2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-910512

ABSTRACT

La obesidad es el trastorno metabólico más frecuente, para el tratamiento es fundamental el cambio del tipo alimentación y mantener un estilo de vida saludable. La publicidad engañosa sobre productos denominados milagrosos conlleva a un consumo desmedido, no controlado y sin previa evaluación de los resultados sobre el peso y/o la posible toxicidad de los mismos. Se diseñó una investigación preliminar en ratones, para verificar el efecto del zumo de Aloe barbadensis y un producto comercial sobre el peso de ratones normopesos y obesos inducidos por glutamato monosódico (GMS), después de cuatro semanas de tratamiento. El grupo de ratones inducidos a obesidad con GMS, presentaron un porcentaje de cambio de peso de 160,5±37,5%, mientras que en el grupo de ratones normopesos fue de 59,4±12,1%, esta diferencia resultó significativa (p<0,001). En los ratones obesos que recibieron el zumo de A.barbadensis se logró un descenso no significativo de peso de 2,8% con respecto al peso al inicio de la intervención (p 0,05). En los ratones obesos tratados con el producto comercial se observó un aumento de peso, aunque en menor proporción que los obesos que recibieron agua (3,5% y 4,4%, respectivamente). Los resultados indican que el zumo de Aloe barbadensis induce un descenso de peso mayor en los animales obesos, comparado con el producto comercial, sin embargo, esto no es significativo en el periodo de observación. Palabras claves: Aloe barbadensis, peso corporal, obesidad, glutamato monosódico, ratón.


Obesity is the most frequent metabolic disorder, for the treatment is fundamental to change the type of food and maintain a healthy lifestyle. Misleading advertising of so-called miraculous products leads to excessive, uncontrolled consumption and without prior evaluation of the effect on weight or their possible toxicity. A preliminary investigation was designed in mice, to verify the effect of the juice of Aloe barbadensis and a commercial product on the weight of normal and obesemice induced by monosodium glutamate(MSG),after four weeks of treatment. The group of mice induced to obesity with MSG had a weight change percentage of 160.5 ± 37.5%, while in the group with normal body weight was of 59.4 ± 12.1%, this difference was significant (p<0,001). In the obese mice that received the juice of A. barbadensis, a non-significant weight decrease of 2.8% was achieved when compared with the weight at the beginning of the intervention (p0.05). In obese mice treated with the commercial product,an increase in weight was observed, although in a smaller proportion than the obese ones that received water (3.5% and 4.4%, respectively). The results indicated that Aloe barbadensis juice induced a greater weight loss in obese animals, compared to the commercial product, however, this is not significant in the period considered. Key words: Aloe barbadensis, body weight, obesity, monosodic glutamate, mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Body Weight/drug effects , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Aloe , Obesity
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 85-91, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742500

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ascorbic acid has been reported to have an adipogenic effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, while evidence also suggests that ascorbic acid reduces body weight in humans. In this study, we tested the effects of ascorbic acid on adipogenesis and the balance of lipid accumulation in ovariectomized rats, in addition to long-term culture of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Murine 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and ovariectomized rats were treated with ascorbic acid at various time points. In vitro adipogenesis was analyzed by Oil Red O staining, and in vivo body fat was measured by a body composition analyzer using nuclear magnetic resonance. RESULTS: When ascorbic acid was applied during an early time point in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) in rats, adipogenesis and fat mass gain significantly increased, respectively. However, lipid accumulation in well-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes showed a significant reduction when ascorbic acid was applied after differentiation (10 days after induction). Also, oral ascorbic acid administration 4 weeks after OVX in rats significantly reduced both body weight and subcutaneous fat layer. In comparison to the results of ascorbic acid, which is a well-known cofactor for an enzyme of collagen synthesis, and the antioxidant ramalin, a potent antioxidant but not a cofactor, showed only a lipolytic effect in well-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, not an adipogenic effect. CONCLUSION: Taking these results into account, we concluded that ascorbic acid has both an adipogenic effect as a cofactor of an enzymatic process and a lipolytic effect as an antioxidant.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , 3T3-L1 Cells , Adipocytes/drug effects , Adipocytes/metabolism , Adipogenesis/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Body Composition/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Lipolysis/drug effects , Ovariectomy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(8): e7299, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951744

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease associated with metabolic syndrome and can lead to life-threatening complications like hepatic carcinoma and cirrhosis. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist antidiabetic drug, has the capacity to overcome insulin resistance and attenuate hepatic steatosis but the specific underlying mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of exenatide therapy on NAFLD. We used in vivo and in vitro techniques to investigate the protective effects of exenatide on fatty liver via fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced NAFLD animal model and related cell culture model. Exenatide significantly decreased body weight, serum glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase levels in HF-induced obese rabbits. Histological analysis showed that exenatide significantly reversed HF-induced lipid accumulation and inflammatory changes accompanied by decreased FTO mRNA and protein expression, which were abrogated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002. This study indicated that pharmacological interventions with GLP-1 may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Peptides/pharmacology , Venoms/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/drug effects , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Morpholines/metabolism , Chromones/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Eating/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Fatty Liver/pathology , Diet, High-Fat , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , Exenatide , Insulin/blood , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Obesity/metabolism
20.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(2): eRC3961, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891468

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The height response to the use of growth hormone in short height cases has already been confirmed in the literature. The influence of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH-IGF1) axis components on development, function, regeneration, neuroprotection, cognition, and motor functions has been evaluated in experimental studies and in adults with central nervous system lesions. However, there is still little research on the clinical impact of hormone replacement on neurological and psychomotor development. This report presents the case of a patient with excellent weight-height recovery and, even more surprisingly, neurological and psychomotor development in response to use of growth hormone. The result strengthens the correlation between experimental and clinical findings related to cerebral plasticity response to growth hormone in children. A preterm male patient with multiple health problems during the neonatal and young infancy period, who for six years presented with a relevant deficit in growth, bone maturation, and neurological and psychomotor development. At six years of age, he had low stature (z-score −6.89), low growth rate, and low weight (z-score −7.91). He was incapable of sustaining his axial weight, had not developed fine motor skills or sphincter control, and presented with dysfunctional swallowing and language. Supplementary tests showed low IGF-11 levels, with no changes on the image of the hypothalamus-pituitary region, and bone age consistent with three-year-old children — for a chronological age of six years and one month. Growth hormone replacement therapy had a strong impact on the weight-height recovery as well as on the neurological and psychomotor development of this child.


RESUMO A resposta estatural ao uso de hormônio do crescimento na baixa estatura já está comprovada na literatura. A influência dos componentes do eixo fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina tipo 1 (GH-IGF1) sobre desenvolvimento, função, regeneração, neuroproteção, cognição e funções motoras tem sido avaliada em estudos experimentais e em adultos com lesão de sistema nervoso central. No entanto, ainda são poucas as pesquisas sobre o impacto clínico da reposição hormonal no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. Este relato apresenta o caso de um paciente com excelente recuperação pôndero-estatural e, de forma ainda mais surpreendente, de desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor, em resposta ao uso de hormônio do crescimento. O resultado observado fortalece a correlação entre achados experimentais e clínicos, no que diz respeito à resposta da plasticidade cerebral ao hormônio do crescimento em crianças. Paciente do sexo masculino nasceu pré-termo com múltiplos agravos no período neonatal e de lactente jovem, e que, por 6 anos, apresentou deficit relevante do crescimento, na maturação óssea e do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. Aos 6 anos de idade, apresentava baixa estatura (escore Z de −6,89), baixa velocidade de crescimento e baixo peso (escore Z de −7,91). Era incapaz de sustentar o peso axial, não tinha desenvolvido habilidade motora fina e nem controle esfincteriano, e apresentava também disfunção na deglutição e na linguagem. Exames complementares mostraram IGF1 baixo, sem alterações na imagem da região hipotálamo-hipofisária e idade óssea compatível com 3 anos — para a idade cronológica de 6 anos e 1 mês. A terapia de reposição com hormônio do crescimento promoveu forte impacto na recuperação pôndero-estatural e também do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor desta criança.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Child Development/drug effects , Child Development/physiology , Human Growth Hormone/deficiency , Human Growth Hormone/therapeutic use , Hormone Replacement Therapy/methods , Psychomotor Disorders/drug therapy , Time Factors , Body Height/drug effects , Body Height/physiology , Body Weight/drug effects , Body Weight/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy
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