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Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533512


Introducción: La alucinosis peduncular (AP) hace referencia a alucinaciones autodiscriminadas, cuyo origen son lesiones en el mesencéfalo y en el puente. Presentación del caso: Paciente 27 años, femenina, con alucinaciones visuales, auditivas autodiscriminadas por ella misma, sin antecedentes previos de importancia y con lesiones en resonancia magnética cerebral y cervical en el pedúnculo cerebeloso superior, tegmento pontino, y en columna cervical con bandas oligoclonales patrón 2, que cumplían criterios de Mc Donalds para esclerosis múltiple. Discusión: La alucinosis peduncular hace referencia a la presencia de alucinaciones visuales, criticadas por el paciente, con la consecuencia de lesiones de las vías inhibitorias por deaferentación y desinhibición mesencéfalotalámicas, y retinogenículo calcarina, descritas como manifestación de múltiples patologías neurológicas como trauma, afectación vascular, tumores y pocos casos de enfermedad desmielinizante, entre otras. Conclusión: La alucinosis peduncular es una forma atípica de presentación de lesiones pontomesencefálicas descritas en varias patologías; se debe tener en cuenta en la localización de la lesión neurológica; se han reportado pocos casos como síntoma de la enfermedad desmielinizante.

Introduction: Peduncular hallucinosis (PA) refers to self-discriminating hallucinations, these are caused by lesions in the midbrain and pons. Presentation of the case: 27-year-old right handed female patient with visual and auditory hallucinations self-discriminated by the patient, with no prior history of importance and with lesions in cerebral and cervical Magnetic Resonance in the superior cerebellar peduncle, pontine tegmentum, and in the cervical spine with pattern 2 oligo clonal bands, which met Mc Donald's criteria for multiple sclerosis. Discussion: Peduncular hallucinosis refers to the presence of visual hallucinations criticized by the patient, consequence of lesions in the inhibitory pathways with deafferentation and disinhibition of the midbrain-thalamic and retinogeniculus-calcarine pathways. Described as a manifestation of multiple neurological pathologies such as trauma, vascular, tumor and few cases of demyelinating among others. Conclusion: Peduncular hallucinosis is an atypical form of presentation of pontomesencephalic lesions described in several pathologies, it must be taken into account when locating the neurological lesion, few cases have been reported as symptom of the demyelinating disease.

Demyelinating Diseases , Diencephalon , Multiple Sclerosis , Visual Perception , Brain Stem
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 373-381, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009368


OBJECTIVES@#To explore the potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of primary brain stem injury (PBSI) by using metabonomics method to observe the changes of metabolites in rats with PBSI caused death.@*METHODS@#PBSI, non-brain stem brain injury and decapitation rat models were established, and metabolic maps of brain stem were obtained by LC-MS metabonomics method and annotated to the HMDB database. Partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and random forest methods were used to screen potential biomarkers associated with PBSI diagnosis.@*RESULTS@#Eighty-six potential metabolic markers associated with PBSI were screened by PLS-DA. They were modeled and predicted by random forest algorithm with an accuracy rate of 83.3%. The 818 metabolic markers annotated to HMDB database were used for random forest modeling and prediction, and the accuracy rate was 88.9%. According to the importance in the identification of cause of death, the most important metabolic markers that were significantly up-regulated in PBSI group were HMDB0038126 (genipinic acid, GA), HMDB0013272 (N-lauroylglycine), HMDB0005199 [(R)-salsolinol] and HMDB0013645 (N,N-dimethylsphingosine).@*CONCLUSIONS@#GA, N-lauroylglycine, (R)-salsolinol and N,N-dimethylsphingosine are expected to be important metabolite indicators in the diagnosis of PBSI caused death, thus providing clues for forensic medicine practice.

Rats , Animals , Metabolomics/methods , Brain Injuries , Biomarkers/metabolism , Brain Stem/metabolism
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 32-38, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988871


Objectives@#Responding to the reality of neonate patients with delayed childhood development due to late diagnosis of and intervention on hearing impairment, this study aims to determine the features based on time-frequency domain of auditory brainstem response (ABR) signals and to test the protocol on ABR signals from PhysioNet. @*Methods@#This is done by pre-processing, performing time-frequency analysis, and characterizing hearing impairment using the dominant features of the ABR. In this study, normal (N) and hearing impaired (HI) ABR adult human signals were acquired from, a publicly available database. Considering its high signal-to-noise ratio, numerous filters and transformations were applied to extract the ABR. Consequently, the features acquired — dominant frequency and bigrams, were used as data classifiers. @*Results@#Initial results using only N classifiers, that is features from the Normal dataset, and bandpass Chebyshev filter with a lower cut-off frequency of 60 Hz show that the tests yielded low to middle sensitivity. Further tests were done to improve the sensitivity that incorporated the HI classifiers, used data filtered with a low cut-off frequency of 300 Hz, and data divided per stimulus intensity level. @*Conclusion@#Conclusions made are 1) data with both N and HI classifiers have higher sensitivity than those using only N classifiers, 2) data with a Chebyshev cut-off frequency of 300 Hz have a higher sensitivity than those with 60 Hz, and 3) data divided per intensity level have a higher sensitivity than data analyzed as a whole, and that features with stimulus intensity in middle ranges have a better distinction between HI and N patients.

Evoked Potentials , Brain Stem , Delayed Diagnosis
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 186-190, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969969


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of moxibustion at "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Dazhui" (GV 14) at different time points on the serum level of β-endorphin (β-EP), substance P (SP) and expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein in brainstem in rats with migraine, and to explore the effect and mechanism of moxibustion in preventing and treating migraine.@*METHODS@#Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a prevention+treatment (PT) group and a treatment group, 10 rats in each group. Except the blank group, the rats in the remaining groups were injected with nitroglycerin subcutaneously to prepare migraine model. The rats in the PT group were treated with moxibustion 7 days before modeling (once a day) and 30 min after modeling, while the rats in the treatment group were treated with moxibustion 30 min after modeling. The "Baihui" (GV 20) and "Dazhui" (GV 14) were taken for 30 minutes each time. The behavioral scores in each group were observed before and after modeling. After intervention, ELISA method was used to detect the serum level of β-EP and SP; the immunohistochemistry method was used to detect the number of positive cells of IL-1β in brainstem; the Western blot method was used to detect the expression of COX-2 protein in brainstem.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the blank group, the behavioral scores in the model group were increased 0-30 min, 60-90 min and 90-120 min after modeling (P<0.01); compared with the model group, in the treatment group and the PT group, the behavioral scores were decreased 60-90 min and 90-120 min after modeling (P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, in the model group, the serum level of β-EP was decreased (P<0.01), while the serum level of SP, the number of positive cells of IL-1β in brainstem and the expression of COX-2 protein were increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, in the PT group and and the treatment group, the serum level of β-EP was increased (P<0.01), while the serum level of SP, the number of positive cells of IL-1β and the expression of COX-2 protein in brainstem were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the treatment group, in the PT group, the serum level of β-EP was increased and COX-2 protein expression was decreased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion could effectively relieve migraine. The mechanism may be related to reduce the serum level of SP, IL-1β and COX-2 protein expression in brainstem, and increase the serum level of β-EP, and the optimal effect is observed in the PT group.

Rats , Male , Animals , Moxibustion , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cyclooxygenase 2 , beta-Endorphin , Substance P , Interleukin-1beta , Migraine Disorders , Brain Stem
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 642-647, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985923


Objective: To investigate the clinical features and genetic features of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 32 (COXPD32) caused by MRPS34 gene variation. Methods: The clinical data and genetic test of a child with COXPD32 hospitalized in the Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics in March 2021 were extracted and analyzed. A literature search was implemented using Wanfang, China biology medicine disc, China national knowledge infrastructure, ClinVar, human gene mutation database (HGMD) and Pubmed databases with the key words "MRPS34" "MRPS34 gene" and "combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 32" (up to February 2023). Clinical and genetic features of COXPD32 were summarized. Results: A boy aged 1 year and 9 months was admitted due to developmental delay. He showed mental and motor retardation, and was below the 3rd percentile for height, weight, and head circumference of children of the same age and gender. He had poor eye contact, esotropia, flat nasal bridge, limbs hypotonia, holding instability and tremors. In addition, Grade Ⅲ/6 systolic murmur were heard at left sternal border. Arterial blood gases suggested that severe metabolic acidosis with lactic acidosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple symmetrical abnormal signals in the bilateral thalamus, midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata. Echocardiography showed atrial septal defect. Genetic testing identified the patient as a compound heterozygous variation of MRPS34 gene, c.580C>T (p.Gln194Ter) and c.94C>T (p.Gln32Ter), with c.580C>T being the first report and a diagnosis of COXPD32. His parents carried a heterozygous variant, respectively. The child improved after treatment with energy support, acidosis correction, and "cocktail" therapy (vitaminB1, vitaminB2, vitaminB6, vitaminC and coenzyme Q10). A total of 8 cases with COXPD32 were collected through 2 English literature reviews and this study. Among the 8 patients, 7 cases had onset during infancy and 1 was unknown, all had developmental delay or regression, 7 cases had feeding difficulty or dysphagia, followed by dystonia, lactic acidosis, ocular symptoms, microcephaly, constipation and dysmorphic facies(mild coarsening of facial features, small forehead, anterior hairline extending onto forehead,high and narrow palate, thick gums, short columella, and synophrys), 2 cases died of respiratory and circulatory failure, and 6 were still alive at the time of reporting, with an age range of 2 to 34 years. Blood and (or) cerebrospinal fluid lactate were elevated in all 8 patients. MRI in 7 cases manifested symmetrical abnormal signals in the brainstem, thalamus, and (or) basal ganglia. Urine organic acid test were all normal but 1 patient had alanine elevation. Five patients underwent respiratory chain enzyme activity testing, and all had varying degrees of enzyme activity reduction. Six variants were identified, 6 patients were homozygous variants, with c.322-10G>A was present in 4 patients from 2 families and 2 compound heterozygous variants. Conclusions: The clinical phenotype of COXPD32 is highly heterogenous and the severity of the disease varies from development delay, feeding difficulty, dystonia, high lactic acid, ocular symptoms and reduced mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity in mild cases, which may survive into adulthood, to rapid death due to respiratory and circulatory failure in severe cases. COXPD32 needs to be considered in cases of unexplained acidosis, hyperlactatemia, feeding difficulties, development delay or regression, ocular symptoms, respiratory and circulatory failure, and symmetrical abnormal signals in the brainstem, thalamus, and (or) basal ganglia, and genetic testing can clarify the diagnosis.

Humans , Male , Infant , Acidosis, Lactic , Brain , Brain Stem , Dystonia , Dystonic Disorders , Mitochondrial Diseases
Edumecentro ; 13(2): 6-18, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286238


RESUMEN Fundamento: el trabajo independiente se fortalece con el uso de medios de enseñanza, entre ellos, los mapas mentales. Objetivo: confeccionar mapas mentales sobre las configuraciones externa e interna del tronco encefálico para contribuir a la dirección del trabajo independiente desde la disciplina Morfofisiología, utilizando la tecnología móvil. Métodos: se realizó una investigación de desarrollo tecnológico en la Facultad de Estomatología de la Universidad Médica de Pinar del Río, durante el curso 2019-2020. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis y abstracción-concreción; y empíricos: cuestionario y análisis documental para la fundamentación y recogida de información. Los mapas mentales fueron diseñados utilizando la aplicación para Android, Mindomo versión 3.0.15. Resultados: se confeccionaron los mapas mentales que permitieron representar gráficamente los contenidos relacionados con la configuración externa e interna del tronco encefálico, constituido por modelos tridimensionales y apoyados en la tecnología móvil. Conclusiones: fueron valorados por criterio de especialistas quienes consideraron como adecuadas su pertinencia, la factibilidad de aplicación del producto, y su utilidad para perfeccionar el trabajo independiente en la disciplina Morfofisiología.

ABSTRACT Background: independent work is strengthened with the use of teaching aids, including mind maps. Objective: to make mental maps on the external and internal configurations of the brain stem to contribute to the direction of independent work from the Morphology-physiology discipline, using mobile technology. Methods: a technological development investigation was carried out at Pinar del Río Faculty of Dentistry of the Medical University, during the 2019-2020 academic year. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis and abstraction-concretion; and empirical ones: questionnaire and documentary analysis for the foundation and collection of information. The mind maps were designed using the Mindomo version 3.0.15 application for Android. Results: mental maps were made that allowed to graphically represent the contents related to the external and internal configuration of the brainstem, made up of three-dimensional models and supported by mobile technology. Conclusions: their relevance, the feasibility of applying the product, and its usefulness to improve independent work in the Morphology-physiology discipline were evaluated by the criteria of specialists who considered them adequate.

Students, Medical , Computer Communication Networks , Medical Informatics Applications , Brain Stem
Acta cir. bras ; 36(12): e361206, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355568


ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate whether the pigeon (Columba livia) is a good model for evaluating the vestibular system involved with postural maintenance during movement. Methods: This study maps the brainstem targets of the horizontal ampullary inputs from the vestibular periphery of the pigeon. We used biotin dextran amine (BDA) injection in horizontal semicircular canal (HSCC), immunohistochemistry for GluR2/3 and GluR4 AMPA and computerized histomorphology reconstruction. Results: Our results show the same distribution pattern with ipsilateral projections to vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) from the HSCC, with the majority of labeled fibers being, long, thin, with few varicosities and many ramifications. Horizontal semicircular canal projections achieve neurons belonging to all nuclei of the VNC with exception of dorsal portion of lateral vestibular nucleus and this area express GluR2/3 and GluR4 AMPA receptors reinforcing the idea of glutamate participation in these connections. Conclusions: Pigeon is an appropriated experimental model to study of projections of HSCC and reinforcing the information that the vestibular system has strong relation with the fast responses necessary for postural control. Moreover, its phylogenetic organization apparently conservation, also seems to be a fundamental characteristic for vertebrates.

Animals , Columbidae , Vestibule, Labyrinth , Phylogeny , Brain Stem , Semicircular Canals , alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid , Vestibular System
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e11335, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285674


Stereotactic biopsies for lesions in the brainstem and deep brain are rare. This study aimed to summarize our 6-year experience in the accurate diagnosis of lesions in the brain stem and deep brain and to discuss the technical note and strategies. From December 2011 to January 2018, 72 cases of intracranial lesions in the brainstem or deep in the lobes undergoing stereotactic biopsy were retrospectively reviewed. An individualized puncture path was designed based on the lesion's location and the image characteristics. The most common biopsy targets were deep in the lobes (43 cases, 59.7%), including frontal lobe (33 cases, 45.8%), temporal lobe (4 cases, 5.6%), parietal lobe (3 cases, 4.2%), and occipital lobe (3 cases, 4.2 %). There were 12 cases (16.7%) of the brainstem, including 8 cases (11.1%) of midbrain, and 4 cases (5.6%) of pons or brachium pontis. Other targets included internal capsule (2 cases, 2.8%), thalamus (3 cases, 4.2%), and basal ganglion (12 cases, 16.7%). As for complications, one patient developed acute intracerebral hemorrhage in the biopsy area at 2 h post-operation, and one patient had delayed intracerebral hemorrhage at 7 days post-operation. The remaining patients recovered well after surgery. There was no surgery-related death. The CT-MRI-guided stereotactic biopsy of lesions in the brainstem or deep in the brain has the advantages of high safety, accurate diagnosis, and low incidence of complications. It plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of atypical, microscopic, diffuse, multiple, and refractory lesions.

Humans , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Stereotaxic Techniques , Biopsy , Brain Stem/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Image-Guided Biopsy
Philippine Journal of Neurology ; : 14-16, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964895


@#We describe a 52-year old woman who developed one- and-a-half syndrome with an ipsilateral trigeminal and facial nerve palsy from a lacunar infarct of the left paramedian pontine area likely involving the median-paramedian perforators of the basilar artery.

Stroke, Lacunar , Brain Stem
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 58(2): 161-170, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115481


Resumen El espectro de Neuromielitis óptica (NMOSD por su sigla en inglés) corresponde a un conjunto de manifestaciones clínicas derivadas de un proceso inflamatorio y desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central, que causa lesiones primariamente en la médula espinal y nervios ópticos, pero también en otras regiones como tronco encefálico, diencéfalo o áreas cerebrales específicas. La mayoría de los pacientes con NMOSD son seropositivos para autoanticuerpos contra AQP4, el principal canal de agua de los astrocitos, sin embargo, existe un porcentaje no despreciable de pacientes, cercano al 25%, quienes son seronegativos para estos anticuerpos y en quienes la presencia de anticuerpos dirigidos contra mielina (anti-MOG) podrían tener un rol patogénico, el cual a la fecha no ha sido bien dilucidado. La evidencia científica actual, ha permitido reconocer que AQP4-IgG es patogénico en NMOSD, probablemente por un mecanismo que involucra citotoxicidad celular dependiente de la activación del complemento, generando infiltración leucocitaria, liberación de citokinas y disrupción de la barrera hemato-encefálica, lo cual lleva a muerte de oligodendrocitos, pérdida de mielina y muerte neuronal. Este artículo presenta una revisión basada en la evidencia, la cual enfatiza los principales aspectos de la patogénesis de NMOSD.

Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders (NMOSD) is a set of clinical manifestations derived from an inflammatory and demyelinating process of the central nervous system that causes lesions primarily in spinal cord and optic nerves but also in other regions such as brainstem, diencephalon or specific brain areas. Most patients with NMOSD are seropositive for autoantibodies against AQP4, the major water channel of astrocytes, however there is a non-negligible percentage of patients, close to 25%, who are seronegative for these antibodies and in whom the presence of antibodies directed against myelin (anti-MOG) could have a pathogenic role that to date has not been well elucidated. Current scientific evidence has allowed recognize that AQP4-IgG is pathogenic in NMOSD, probably by a mechanism involving complement dependent cellular cytotoxicity, causing leucocyte infiltration, cytokine release and blood-brain barrier disruption, which leads to oligodendrocyte death, myelin loss and neuron death. This article presents an evidence-based review, which emphasizes the main aspects in NMOSD pathogenesis.

Humans , Optic Nerve , Brain , Brain Stem , Central Nervous System , Neuromyelitis Optica
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(2): 63-69, Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089001


Abstract Objective: Investigate the auditory pathway in the brainstem of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia submitted to chemotherapy (by intravenous or intrathecal infusion). Methods: Fourteen children aged between 2 and 12 years with diagnosis of acute lymphoid leukemia were evaluated. The following procedures were used: meatoscopy, acoustic immitance measurements, tonal audiometry, vocal audiometry, transient otoacoustic emissions, and auditory brainstem response. Results: From the 14 children with normal auditory thresholds, 35.71% showed an alteration in auditory brainstem response, with a predominance of hearing impairment in the lower brainstem. It was found that 80% of the children with alteration had used intrathecal methotrexate less than 30 days and that 40% had the highest cumulative intravenous methotrexate doses. Conclusion: Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia submitted to chemotherapy, present auditory pathway impairment in the brainstem, with a predominance of a low brainstem.

Resumo Objetivo: Investigar a via auditiva em tronco encefálico de crianças com leucemia linfoide aguda submetidas à quimioterapia (por infusão intravenosa ou por via intratecal). Métodos: Foram avaliadas 14 crianças com idade entre 2 e 12 anos, com diagnóstico de leucemia linfoide aguda. Foram utilizados os seguintes procedimentos: meatoscopia, medidas de imitância acústica, audiometria tonal, audiometria vocal, emissões otoacústicas transientes e potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico. Resultados: Das 14 crianças com limiares auditivos normais, 35,71% demonstraram alteração no Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico, com predomínio de comprometimento de via auditiva em tronco encefálico baixo. Verificou-se que 80% das crianças com alteração haviam feito uso do metotrexato via intratecal a menos de 30 dias e que 40% tinham as maiores doses acumulativas de metotrexato por via endovenosa. Conclusão: Crianças com leucemia linfoide aguda submetidas à quimioterapia apresentam comprometimento na via auditiva em tronco encefálico, com predomínio em tronco encefálico baixo.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Auditory Pathways , Auditory Threshold , Brain Stem , Methotrexate , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(5): e9162, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098111


In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship among miR-22, deep cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and post-stroke depression (PSD) 1 month after ischemic stroke. We consecutively recruited 257 patients with first-ever and recurrent acute cerebral infarction and performed PSD diagnosis in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV criteria for depression. Clinical information, assessments of stroke severity, and imaging data were recorded on admission. We further detected plasma miR-22 using quantitative PCR and analyzed the relationship among miR-22, clinical data, and PSD using SPSS 23.0 software. Logistic regression showed that deep (OR=1.845, 95%CI: 1.006-3.386, P=0.047) and brain stem CMBs (OR=2.652, 95%CI: 1.110-6.921, P=0.040), as well as plasma miR-22 levels (OR=2.094, 95%CI: 1.066-4.115, P=0.032) were independent risk factors for PSD. In addition, there were significant differences in baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (OR=1.881, 95%CI: 1.180-3.011, P=0.007) and Widowhood scores (OR=1.903, 95%CI: 1.182-3.063, P=0.012). Analysis of the receiver operating curve (AUC=0.723, 95%CI: 0.562-0.883, P=0.016) revealed that miR-22 could predict PSD one month after ischemic stroke. Furthermore, plasma miR-22 levels in brainstem and deep CMBs patients showed an upward trend (P=0.028) relative to the others. Patients with acute ischemic stroke, having brainstem and deep cerebral microbleeds, or a higher plasma miR-22 were more likely to develop PSD. These findings indicate that miR-22 might be involved in cerebral microvascular impairment and post-stroke depression.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cerebral Hemorrhage/psychology , Brain Infarction/psychology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Depression/psychology , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Recurrence , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brain Stem/blood supply , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cerebral Hemorrhage/metabolism , Acute Disease , Risk Factors , Depression/metabolism
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 33(4): 195-201, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1152275


Introducción: Las "zonas de entrada seguras" (ZES) al tronco cerebral describen accesos destinados a preservar estructuras críticas. La mayoría de las publicaciones son descripciones anatómicas; existiendo pocas sobre su aplicación. En este escenario, nuestro trabajo puede sumar información para el manejo quirúrgico en casos seleccionados. Material y Métodos: De una serie de 13 pacientes, se presentan 9 que no eran candidatos para biopsia estereotáctica y recibieron microcirugía. Las localizaciones fueron: mesencéfalo (3), tectum (1), protuberancia (2) y bulbo (3). Cinco pacientes tuvieron KPS => 70; y 4, KPS <70. Diferentes ZES fueron utilizadas según la topografía lesional. El grado de resección se basó en la biopsia intraoperatoria y el monitoreo neurofisiológico. Resultados: Los hallazgos patológicos fueron: astrocitoma pilocítico (1), glioma de bajo grado (1), hemangioblastoma (1), subependimoma (1), disgerminoma (1), y lesiones pseudotumorales (3 cavernomas y 1 pseudotumor inflamatorio). El grado de resección fue completo (4), subtotal (3), y biopsia fue considerada suficiente en (2). Un paciente falleció en el postoperatorio. Discusión: Las lesiones del tronco cerebral son infrecuentes en adultos. Las controversias surgen cuando se balancean los beneficios de obtener diagnóstico histopatológico y los riesgos potenciales de procedimientos invasivos. La amplia variedad de hallazgos en esta localización exige una precisa definición histopatológica, que no solamente determinará la terapéutica adecuada, sino que advierte sobre las consecuencias potencialmente catastróficas de los tratamientos empíricos. Las ZES ofrecen un acceso posible y seguro, aunque es más realista considerarlas como áreas para abordar lesiones intrínsecas con baja morbilidad más que como zonas completamente seguras

Introduction: The "safe entry zones" (SEZ) to the brainstem are special entrances described to preserve critical structures. Most publications correspond to anatomic research; few papers report their application in surgery. In this scenario, our report could add information to the surgical management in selected cases. Material and Methods: Out of a series of 13 patients, 9 were non-candidates for stereotactic biopsy and received microsurgery. Localizations of the lesions were: mesencephalus (3), tectal plate (1), pons (2) and medulla oblongata (3). Five patients had KPS => 70; 4, KPS <70. Different SEZ were used according to lesional topography. The extent of resection were based on the frozen pathology findings and neurophysiological monitoring. Results: A variety of pathological findings were found: low-grade glioma (1); pilocytic astrocytoma (1); hemangioblastoma (1); subependimoma (1); disgerminoma (1); pseudotumoral lesions (cavernomas 3 and inflammatory pseudotumor 1). The extent of resection was complete (4), subtotal (3), and biopsy was considered sufficient in 2 cases. One patient died 96-hours-postoperative due to brainstem edema. Discussion: Brainstem structural lesions are uncommon in adults. Controversies arise regarding the need of histologic diagnosis, weighing benefits of a reliable diagnosis and the potential disadvantages of the invasive procedures. The accurate histopathological definition could not only determine an adequate therapy, but also can prevent the disastrous consequences of empiric treatments. The SEZ provides a feasible and safe access, although it is more realistic to consider them as areas to approach intrinsec lesions with less morbidity than to consider them as completely safe entrances

Brain Stem , Pathology , Therapeutics , Mesencephalon , Microsurgery
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 38(4): 263-271, 15/12/2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362489


Lowering of the level of consciousness is a very common presentation at the emergency room, often without any history that helps finding an etiology. This emergency requires quick empirical measures to reduce neuronal mortality, with additional protection against sequelae. According to the Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines, there are current emergency neurological support protocols, such as the Emergency Neurological Life Support (ENLS) created by the Neurocritical Care Society. The present paper shows how to approach unconscious patients, highlighting possible etiologies and proposed treatments.

Brain Stem/physiopathology , Coma/physiopathology , Coma/therapy , Advanced Trauma Life Support Care , Hypothalamus, Posterior/physiopathology , Coma/diagnosis , Coma/ethnology , Trauma, Nervous System , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Clinical Governance
Psychol. av. discip ; 13(2): 67-78, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250598


Resumen El accidente cerebrovascular es una afección clínica que tiene entre uno de sus factores de riesgo la presión arterial alta. En la gestación, la complejidad de esta afección puede desembocar en un cuadro hipertensivo severo, comúnmente conocido como síndrome de HELLP, el cual es una de las variaciones más complejas de la hipertensión gestacional, que conlleva a múltiples alteraciones en la salud de aquellas que lo padecen. La mayoría de los estudios en el área se han enfocado en conocer su etiología, epidemiología y las consecuencias físicas que acarrean este síndrome; sin embargo, poca es la información que se tiene sobre las secuelas cognitivas a largo plazo que produce en la madre un embarazo complicado posterior a un cuadro hipertensivo severo. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el caso de una mujer, quien presentó síndrome de HELLP con una complicación de encefalopatía en tallo cerebral y su posterior perfil cognitivo. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de exploración neuropsicológica y se compararon sus resultados con datos normativos. Entre los resultados se encontraron dificultades en todas las áreas del funcionamiento, además de un déficit cognitivo secundario al cuadro clínico de base. Se concluyó que la hipertensión gestacional es más severa cuando se acompaña de una afectación vascular. Esto afecta la cognición, teniendo un impacto negativo en la vida de la mujer en sus diferentes áreas de ajuste.

Abstract Stroke is a clinical condition that has between one of its risk factors high blood pressure. In gestation, the complexity of this condition can lead to a severe hypertensive picture, commonly known as HELLP syndrome, which is one of the most complex variations of gestational hypertension, which leads to multiple alterations in the Health of those who suffer from it. Most studies in the area have focused on knowing its etiology epidemiology, and physical consequences of this syndrome; however little information exists on long-term cognitive sequel when the mother experiences a complicated pregnancy following a severe hypertensive condition. The present study aimed to analyze the case of a woman with HELLP syndrome with a complication of brain stem encephalopathy and her subsequent cognitive profile. It was performed a descriptive analysis of neuropsychological exploration and compared the results with normative data. Among the results were difficulties in all areas of functioning and cognitive impairment secondary to clinical basis. In conclusion, gestational hypertension is most severe when it´s combined with vascular involvement. This affects cognition, which has a negative impact on the life of the woman in different areas of adjustment.

Brain Diseases , HELLP Syndrome , Stroke , Syndrome , Brain Stem , Adaptation, Psychological , Cognition , Affect , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Cognitive Dysfunction , Arterial Pressure
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(5): 605-608, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057931


Resumo The posterior inferior cerebellar artery usually arises from the intracranial segment (V4) of the vertebral artery. Despite its mean diameter of 2 mm, it usually irrigates important areas of the brain. When occluded, whether due to trauma or surgery, it may cause infarction in the brain stem and cerebellum. The present report describes a case of incidental finding of a posterior inferior cerebellar artery arising from the cervical segment (V3) of the vertebral artery, demonstrated by angiography. The findings were recorded and compared to those of earlier publications. Brief explanations regarding anatomy, vascular anomalies and embryology were provided. A literature review showed that anomalous branches of the cervical segment of the vertebral artery are infrequent andmust be known. A better understanding of anatomy and its variations enables an accurate topographic diagnosis, as well as the planning of the optimal surgical approach and therapy. Knowledge of this anatomical variation is essential because, if it is mistaken for a muscle branch and coagulated, this can cause ischemia and disabling sequelae.

Resumo A artéria cerebelar inferoposterior geralmente nasce do segmento intracraniano (V4) da artéria vertebral. Apesar de ter diâmetro médio de 2 mm, usualmente irriga áreas eloquentes do encéfalo. Quando ocluída, seja por trauma ou cirurgia, pode causar infarto no tronco encefálico e no cerebelo. Apresentamos um caso de artéria cerebelar inferoposterior com origem anômala no segmento cervical (V3) da artéria vertebral, demonstrado por angiografia. Os resultados foram registrados e comparados com os de publicações anteriores. Foram fornecidas breves explicações sobre a anatomia, anomalias vasculares e embriologia. A revisão da literatura mostrou que os ramos anômalos do segmento cervical da artéria vertebral são infrequentes e devem ser conhecidos. Uma melhor compreensão da anatomia e suas variações permite fazer um diagnóstico topográfico preciso, bem como planejar a abordagem e a terapia cirúrgicas ideais. O conhecimento dessa variação anatômica é essencial, pois, se confundida com um ramo muscular e coagulada, pode causar isquemia com sequelas incapacitantes.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vertebral Artery , Lateral Medullary Syndrome , Brain Stem , Cerebral Angiography , Angiography , Anatomic Variation , Intraoperative Complications