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Rev. cuba. med ; 60(2): e1666, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280355


Introducción: La atresia bronquial es una patología poco frecuente, generalmente asintomática e incidental en las imágenes del tórax. La aproximación diagnóstica de esta entidad se puede hacer por radiografía y broncoscopia, donde se identifican algunos aspectos claves en el diagnóstico diferencial. De acuerdo las manifestaciones clínicas y posibles complicaciones el tratamiento puede ser desde conservador hasta quirúrgico con resección lobar o segmentaria. Objetivo: Presentar las características de un caso con atresia bronquial. Presentación de caso: Se presenta un caso de atresia bronquial en una paciente de 19 años de edad cuyo tratamiento definitivo fue bilobectomía media-inferior derecha. Conclusiones: La atresia bronquial es una entidad infrecuente que puede cursar de manera asintomática y ser detectada por un hallazgo radiológico en pacientes adultos de manera incidental. El diagnóstico se puede confirmar por broncoscopia y el tratamiento casi siempre es quirúrgico(AU)

Introduction: Bronchial atresia is a rare disease, generally asymptomatic and incidental in chest images. The diagnostic approach of this entity can be done by radiography and bronchoscopy, some key aspects are identified in the differential diagnosis. According to the clinical manifestations and possible complications, the treatment can range from conservative to surgical with lobar or segmental resection. Objective: To describe a case of bronchial atresia. Case report: A case of bronchial atresia is reported in a 19-year-old patient whose definitive treatment was a right-lower-middle bilobectomy. Conclusions: Bronchial atresia is a rare entity that can occur asymptomatically and be detected incidentally by a radiological finding in adult patients. The diagnosis can be confirmed by bronchoscopy, and treatment is almost always surgical(AU)

Humans , Bronchi/abnormalities , Pulmonary Atresia/surgery , Pulmonary Atresia/diagnosis , Mucocele/surgery
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878359


Objective@#This study aimed to use an air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system to simulate the inhalation exposure of motorcycle exhaust particulates (MEPs) and then investigate the benchmark dose (BMD) of MEPs by evaluating cell relative viability (CRV) in lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells.@*Methods@#The MEPs dose was characterized by measuring the number concentration (NC), surface area concentration (SAC), and mass concentration (MC). BEAS-2B cells were exposed to MEPs at different concentrations @*Results@#Our results reveal that BMD of NC and SAC were estimated by the best-fitting Hill model, while MC was estimated by Polynomial model. The BMDL for CRV following ALI exposure to MEPs were as follows: 364.2#/cm @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that MEPs exposure

Benchmarking/statistics & numerical data , Bronchi/physiology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/physiology , Humans , Motorcycles , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(8): 637-646, Aug. 2020. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1135664


The diagnosis of several diseases in chelonians is a challenge in the veterinary clinic, because a detailed physical examination with auscultation and palpation is difficult due the presence of carapace and plastron. Imaging analysis such as radiography and computed tomography (CT) have been shown to be beneficial for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment in numerous animal species. Thus, this study aimed to identify and describe the structures of the lower respiratory tract in red-foot tortoises, by computed tomography, radiography and gross anatomy in twelve red-foot tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonaria), adults and of both sexes. The lower respiratory tract in these animals comprised the larynx, trachea, bronchi and the lungs. The presence of epiglottic cartilage was not observed in the animals studied. CT allowed the observation of the intrapulmonary part of the bronchi, which was accompanied by large intrapulmonary blood vessels. The lungs presented a reticulated parenchyma, without lobulations. Each lung had a small chamber located near the cranial and caudal poles. These structures were identified in CT and 3D CT reconstructions and these could suggest that these chambers could be non-respiratory structures, and could be comparable to the air sacs of birds. This study establishes normal CT anatomy of the lower respiratory tract of the red-foot tortoise; and may be used as a reference in the assessment of respiratory disorders in this tortoise.(AU)

O diagnóstico de diversas afecções em quelônios é um desafio para a clínica veterinária, já que um exame físico detalhado com auscultação e palpação é difícil devido à presença da carapaça e do plastrão. A radiografia e a tomografia computadorizada (TC) tem se mostrado benéficas para o diagnóstico, prognóstico e tratamento em muitas espécies animais. Assim, este estudo teve por objetivo identificar e descrever as estruturas do trato respiratório inferior no jabuti-piranga por meio da tomografia computadorizada, radiografia e anatomia em 12 jabutis-piranga (Chelonoidis carbonara), adultos e de ambos os sexos. Nos animais estudados, o trato respiratório inferior consistiu da laringe, traqueia, brônquios e os pulmões. A cartilagem epiglote não foi observada. A TC permitiu a observação da parte intrapulmonar dos brônquios, a qual estava acompanhada dos vasos sanguíneos intrapulmonares. Os pulmões possuíam um parênquima reticulado, sem lobações. Cada pulmão tinha uma pequena câmara localizada junto aos pólos cranial e caudal. Estas estruturas foram identificadas na TC e na reconstrução 3D a partir da TC e poderiam ser estruturas não-respiratórias, podendo ser comparadas aos sacos aéreos das aves. Este estudo identificou a anatomia normal por meio da TC do trato respiratório inferior do jabuti-piranga, o que pode ser usado como referência para diagnóstico de desordens respiratórias nesta espécie.(AU)

Animals , Trachea/diagnostic imaging , Turtles/anatomy & histology , Bronchi/diagnostic imaging , Larynx/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Radiography/veterinary , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828976


Objective@#To screen the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE) treated with atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM ).@*Methods@#HBE cells were treated with PM samples from Shenzhen and Taiyuan for 24 h. To detect overall protein expression, the Q Exactive mass spectrometer was used. Gene ontology (GO), Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG), and Perseus software were used to screen DEPs.@*Results@#Overall, 67 DEPs were screened in the Shenzhen sample-treated group, of which 46 were upregulated and 21 were downregulated. In total, 252 DEPs were screened in the Taiyuan sample-treated group, of which 134 were upregulated and 118 were downregulated. KEGG analysis demonstrated that DEPs were mainly enriched in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and HIF-1 signal pathways in Shenzhen PM samples-treated group. The GO analysis demonstrated that Shenzhen sample-induced DEPs were mainly involved in the biological process for absorption of various metal ions and cell components. The Taiyuan PM -induced DEPs were mainly involved in biological processes of protein aggregation regulation and molecular function of oxidase activity. Additionally, three important DEPs, including ANXA2, DIABLO, and AIMP1, were screened.@*Conclusion@#Our findings provide a valuable basis for further evaluation of PM -associated carcinogenesis.

Air Pollutants , Bronchi , Metabolism , Computational Biology , Epithelial Cells , Metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Particle Size , Particulate Matter , Proteomics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827259


BACKGROUND@#We previously demonstrated that continuous exposure to nitrous acid gas (HONO) for 4 weeks, at a concentration of 3.6 parts per million (ppm), induced pulmonary emphysema-like alterations in guinea pigs. In addition, we found that HONO affected asthma symptoms, based on the measurement of respiratory function in rats exposed to 5.8 ppm HONO. This study aimed to investigate the dose-response effects of HONO exposure on the histopathological alterations in the respiratory tract of guinea pigs to determine the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of HONO.@*METHODS@#We continuously exposed male Hartley guinea pigs (n = 5) to four different concentrations of HONO (0.0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.7 ppm) for 4 weeks (24 h/day). We performed histopathological analysis by observing lung tissue samples. We examined samples from three guinea pigs in each group under a light microscope and measured the alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) and the thickness of the bronchial smooth muscle layer. We further examined samples from two guinea pigs in each group under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM).@*RESULTS@#We observed the following dose-dependent changes: pulmonary emphysema-like alterations in the centriacinar regions of alveolar ducts, significant increase in Lm in the 1.7 ppm HONO-exposure group, tendency for hyperplasia and pseudostratification of bronchial epithelial cells, and extension of the bronchial epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells in the alveolar duct regions.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These histopathological findings suggest that the LOAEL of HONO is < 0.1 ppm.

Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Animals , Bronchi , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Emphysema , Epithelial Cells , Guinea Pigs , Hyperplasia , Inhalation Exposure , Lung , Pathology , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Nitrous Acid , Toxicity
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880766


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of interleukin (IL) -13 combined with cold stimulation on synthesis and secretion of mucin (MUC) 5AC in human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE and explore the role of transient receptor potential 8 (TRPM8) and anti-apoptotic factor B-cell lymphoblast-2 (Bcl-2) in this process.@*METHODS@#16HBE cells were stimulated with 10 ng/mL IL-13, 1 mmol/L menthol, or both (1 mmol/L menthol was added after 6 days of IL-13 stimulation), and the changes in the expression of MUC5AC, intracellular Ca@*RESULTS@#The mRNA and protein expressions of MUC5AC increased significantly in 16HBE cells following stimulation with IL-13, menthol, and both (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Menthol combined with IL-13 produces a synergistic effect to promote the synthesis and secretion of MUC5AC in 16HBE cells possibly by activating TRPM8 receptor to upregulate the expression of Bcl-2.

Bronchi , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Humans , Interleukin-13 , Menthol/pharmacology , Mucin 5AC
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1252-1257, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040120


Conocer la morfometría en longitud, circunferencia y angulación de los bronquios principales y del bronquio intermedio pueden ser datos relevantes en procedimientos radiológicos, quirúrgicos e inclusive en eventos que amenazan la vida como la broncoaspiración. Existe poca evidencia acerca de la morfometría de los bronquios principales y del bronquio intermedio, es por ello que el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo describir la morfometría de los bronquios principales y del bronquio intermedio en una muestra de población cadavérica colombiana. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo donde se seleccionaron 29 especímenes de Cali, Colombia; 11 correspondieron a cadáveres y 18 a órganos aislados del tracto respiratorio inferior; se incluyeron los cadáveres con las estructuras debidamente disecadas y se excluyeron las muestras con estructuras anatómicas ausentes o dañadas y que afectaran la realización de las mediciones. La media de longitud del bronquio principal derecho fue de 1,69 cm IC 95 % (1,51 - 1,87) la media de la longitud del bronquio intermedio fue de IC 95 % 2,89 cm (2,66 - 3,12), la media de longitud del bronquio principal izquierdo fue de 3,34 cm IC 95 % (3,01 - 3,68); el ángulo interbronquial tiene una media de 80,17º IC 95 % (72,87 - 87,48). Las mediciones del bronquio principal derecho concuerdan con las reportadas en la literatura, lo contrario ocurre con el bronquio principal izquierdo; la medición del ángulo interbronquial muestra diferencias a la reportada por la literatura. Este estudio muestra que a pesar de que existen nomenclaturas y consensos internacionales, estos no han sido implementados correctamente por los profesionales de la salud y el término de bronquio intermedio es utilizado en la práctica diaria, por lo que se hace necesario que las Sociedades de Anatomía y Morfología vuelvan a discutir su importancia y reconocimiento en la nomenclatura.

Knowing morphometry in length, circumference and angulation of the main bronchi and the intermediate bronchus can be relevant data in radiological, surgical procedures and even in life-threatening events such as bronchoaspiration. Evidence is scarce about the morphometry of the main bronchi and the intermediate bronchus, that is why the present study aimed to describe the morphometry of the main bronchi and the intermediate bronchus in a Colombian cadaveric population sample. A descriptive study was carried out where 29 specimens were selected from Cali, Colombia; 11 corresponded to cadavers and 18 to organs isolated from the lower respiratory tract; cadavers with duly dissected structures were included and samples with anatomical structures that were absent or damaged, and that affected the performance of the measurements were excluded. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. The mean length of the right main bronchus was 1.69 cm 95 % CI (1.51-1.87), the mean length of the intermediate bronchus was 2.89 cm 95 % CI (2,663,12), the mean length of the left main bronchus was 3.34 cm 95 % CI (3-3.68); the interbronchial angle had an average of 80.17º 95 % CI (72.87-87.48). The measurements of the right main bronchus agree with those reported in the literature, the opposite occurs with the left main bronchus; interbronchial angle measurement showed differences to that reported by the literature. This study shows that although there are international nomenclatures and consensus, these have not been implemented correctly by health professionals and the term intermediate bronchus is used in daily practice, it is therefore necessary that the Societies of Anatomy and Morphology again discuss their importance and recognition in the nomenclature.

Humans , Male , Bronchi/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Colombia
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 953-958, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012380


La correcta utilización de los términos morfológicos está estandarizada por las terminologías, una de ellas es la Terminologia Histologica (TH). Éstas sugieren la exclusión de los epónimos. Pese a esto, existen estructuras que continúan en esta condición. Específicamente, "Poros de Kohn, Canales de Martin y Canales de Lambert" son términos que componen la ventilación colateral (VC) y son ejemplo de esta situación. Así, el objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar en TH los términos asociados a la VC a fin de proponer denominaciones siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Federación Internacional de Programas de Terminologías Anatómicas (FIPAT). Se buscaron los términos relacionados a la VC en TH, posteriormente, se efectuó el mismo ejercicio en textos de histología, además de esto, en base de datos MedLine a través de su buscador PudMed con el siguiente algoritmo: (lung) AND (alveoli pulmonary) AND (airway) AND (collateral) AND (ventilation). En TH se encontró el término Porus septalis (H3. para referirse al término Poros de Kohn, en seis textos de histología se menciona el término Poros de Kohn, en 21 artículos revisados se menciona la VC, de estos, en diez se utiliza el epónimo Poro de Kohn, para referirse a los poros septales, el epónimo Canales de Lambert fue utilizado en seis artículos y el epónimo Canales de Martin, apareció en cinco artículos. A partir de la información encontrada, su desarrollo histórico, sumado a los lineamientos de la FIPAT, proponemos complementar e incluir en TH los términos Porus septalis alveolaris para los poros de Kohn, Ductus bronchiolaris alveolaris para los Canales de Lambert y Ductus interbronquiolaris para los canales de Martin, respectivamente.

The correct use of morphological terms is standardized by the Terminologies, one of them is the Histological Terminology (HT) For these Terminologies, the exclusion of eponyms is recommended. Despite this, there are structures that remain as eponyms. Three in particular: Pores of Kohn, Martin Channels and Lambert Channels are terms that make up collateral ventilation (CV) and are an example of this. Thus, the objective of the present study was to identify in the HT the terms associated with the CV in order to propose denominations following the recommendations of the Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies (FIPAT). The terms related to CV in the TH were researched, and subsequently, the same exercise was carried out in histology texts. The MedLine database was also used through its PudMed search engine with the following algorithm: (lung) AND (alveoli pulmonary) AND (airway) AND (collateral) AND (ventilation). In HT the term Porus Septalis" (H3. was found to refer to the term "Pores of Kohn, in six histology texts the term Pores of Kohn is mentioned, in 21 reviewed articles the CV is mentioned, of these, in ten the eponymous Pores of Kohn is used, to refer to the Septal Pores, the eponymous Lambert Channels was used in six articles and the eponymous Martin Channels appeared in five articles. From the information found, its historical development, added to the guidelines of the FIPAT, we propose complementing and including in the HT the terms "Porus septalis alveolaris" for pores of Kohn, "Ductus bronchiolaris alveolaris" for the Lambert Channels and "Ductus interbronquiolaris" for the Martin Channels, respectively.

Humans , Pulmonary Alveoli/anatomy & histology , Bronchi/anatomy & histology , Terminology as Topic , Pulmonary Ventilation , Eponyms
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(4): 390-395, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042002


Abstract Background Left double-lumen endotracheal tubes have been widely used in thoracic, esophageal, vascular, and mediastinal procedures to provide lung separation. Lacking clear objective guidelines, anesthesiologists usually select appropriately sized double-lumen endotracheal tubes based on their experience with 35 and 37 Fr double-lumen endotracheal tubes, which are the most commonly used. We hypothesized the patients with a left main bronchus of shorter length (<40 mm) had a greater chance of experiencing desaturation during one lung ventilation, due to obstruction in the orifice of the left upper lobe with the bronchial tube. Methods We included 360 patients with a left double-lumen intubated between September 2014 and August 2015. The patient's age, sex, height, weight, and underlying disease were recorded along with type of surgical procedure and the desaturation episodes. In addition, the width of the trachea and the width and length of the left bronchus were measured using computed tomography. Result Patients with a left main bronchus length of less than 40 mm who underwent intubation with a left double-lumen endotracheal tubes had significantly higher incidence of desaturation (Odds Ratio (OR: 8.087)) during one-lung ventilation. Other related factors of patients identified to be at risk of developing hypoxia were diabetes mellitus (OR: 5.368), right side collapse surgery (OR: 4.933), and BMI (OR: 1.105). Conclusions We identified that patients with a left main bronchus length of less than 40 mm have a great chance of desaturation, especially if other desaturation risk factors are present.

Resumo Justificativa Os tubos endotraqueais de duplo lúmen (Double-lumen tubes - DLTs) para intubação seletiva esquerda têm sido amplamente utilizados em procedimentos torácicos, esofágicos, vasculares e mediastinais para proporcionar a separação dos pulmões. Com a falta de diretrizes claras, os anestesiologistas geralmente selecionam os tubos com base em sua experiência com os tubos endotraqueais de duplo lúmen de 35 e 37 Fr, os mais comumente usados. Nossa hipótese foi que os pacientes com um brônquio principal esquerdo de menor comprimento (< 40 mm) apresentavam uma chance maior de sofrer dessaturação durante a ventilação monopulmonar, devido à obstrução do orifício do lobo superior esquerdo com o tubo brônquico. Métodos No total, 360 pacientes submetidos à intubação seletiva esquerda mediante o uso de tubo de duplo lúmen foram incluídos no estudo entre setembro de 2014 e agosto de 2015. Idade, sexo, altura, peso e doença de base foram registrados, junto do tipo de procedimento cirúrgico e os episódios de dessaturação. Além disso, a largura da traqueia e a largura e comprimento do brônquio esquerdo foram medidos por meio de tomografia computadorizada. Resultados Os pacientes com comprimento do brônquio principal esquerdo inferior a 40 mm, submetidos à intubação seletiva esquerda com tubos endotraqueais de duplo lúmen, tiveram incidência significativamente maior de dessaturação (Odds Ratio - OR: 8,087) durante a ventilação monopulmonar. Outros fatores relacionados aos pacientes e identificados como risco de desenvolver hipoxemia foram diabetes mellitus (OR: 5,368), cirurgia de colapso direito (OR: 4,933) e IMC (OR: 1,105). Conclusões Identificamos que os pacientes com comprimento do brônquio principal esquerdo inferior a 40 mm apresentam grande chance de dessaturação, principalmente se outros fatores de risco para dessaturação estiverem presentes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Bronchi/anatomy & histology , One-Lung Ventilation/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology , Middle Aged
Rev. cuba. med ; 58(2): e1165, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139013


Introducción: El alcance de la maestría en el estudio endoscópico de las vías aéreas debe basarse en un conocimiento de la anatomía bronquial, sus divisiones, nomenclatura y los hallazgos endobronquiales normales. Objetivo: Caracterizar la anatomía del árbol bronquial derecho mediante broncoscopia flexible diagnóstica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal prospectivo, en 2000 pacientes, en un periodo de 12 años, a los que se les realizó una revisión completa de las variantes del árbol bronquial derecho. Resultados: En el bronquio lobar superior la división más frecuente fue la bifurcación con 58,4 por ciento, el bronquio lobar medio siempre se bifurcó. En el segmento B6 predominó la bifurcación 87,7 por ciento y la más frecuente fue el tipo B6 y B6 b+c. El resto de los basales se comportaron de la manera siguiente: el segmento paracardiaco no apareció en un 8,15 por ciento, predominó la bifurcación con 89,15 por ciento y de estas, la división B8 y B9 + B10. En cuanto a las malformaciones congénitas estuvieron presentes 0,65 por ciento de bronquio traqueal, 0,15 por ciento de bronquio cardiaco accesorio y 5,15 por ciento de bronquio subsuperior. Conclusiones: El árbol bronquial derecho en la población cubana tiene características propias(AU)

Introduction: The skill scope in the airways endoscopic study should be based on the bronchial anatomy knowledge, its divisions, nomenclature and the normal endobronchial findings. Objective: To characterize the anatomy of the right bronchial tree using diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. Methods: A descriptive, prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in 2000 patients, over a period of 12 years. A complete review of the right bronchial tree these variants was performed on these patients. Results: The most frequent division was the bifurcation with 58.4%, in the upper lobar bronchus. The middle lobar bronchus always bifurcated. In segment B6, bifurcation predominated (87.7percent), and the most frequent was type B6 and B6 b + c. The rest of the basals behaved as follows: the paracardiac segment did not appear in 8.15 percent, bifurcation predominated (89.15 percent) and out of these, B8 and B9 + B10 division. Regarding congenital malformations, we found 0.65 percent tracheal bronchus, 0.15 percent accessory cardiac bronchus and 5.15 percent subsurface bronchus. Conclusions: The right bronchial tree in the Cuban population has its own characteristics(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Bronchi/anatomy & histology , Bronchi/diagnostic imaging , Bronchoscopy/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776058


Objective To improve our knowledge of primary benign tracheobronchial tumors and increase the early diagnosis rate. Method The clinical and imaging features of 22 patients with benign tracheobronchial tumors were retrospectively analyzed. The lesions were surgically or pathologically confirmed as schwannomas(n=2),lipomas(n=3),hamartomas(n=3),leiomyomas(n=9),inflammatory myofibroblastoma(n=1),and pleomorphic adenomas(n=2).The early symptoms were concealed and atypical,accompanied by misdiagnoses at different time points.The tumors were located at trachea in 5 patients and at bronchus in 17 patients.All lesions manifested as intraluminal growth with mild to moderate enhancement,without thickening of the tracheobronchial wall.They had smooth margins and wide basements.The lesions were cast-shaped and occluded the lumen in 3 cases;in the remaining 19 cases,the lesions appeared as round or oval nodules. Conclusions Primary benign tracheobronchial tumors are rare.Patients with repeated cough and expectoration that respond poorly to treatment should be screened for benign tracheobronchial tumors.On CT,the benign tracheobronchial tumors are small intraluminal nodules with the smooth surface and wide basement,without thickening of the wall.

Bronchi , Diagnostic Imaging , Pathology , Bronchial Neoplasms , Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Trachea , Diagnostic Imaging , Pathology
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759861


Injuries caused by free-fall from heights represent a specific form of blunt trauma that can be difficult to interpret, especially when the impact medium is water. On autopsy practice, the immersed bodies with rib fractures and internal organ injuries were often encountered and many studies have reported that impact with the water surface could cause skeletal fracture and visceral organ rupture. The height of the fall and body orientation on impact are the most important factors determining the severity and range of these injuries. In the present case, the victim was a 69-year-old male who weighed 48 kg. Following were the autopsy findings: numerous pin-point epidermal injuries on the body surface (like those due to nibbling by fish), a massive soft tissue hemorrhage in the left upper chest, multiple rib fractures (3rd–7th left ribs), ballooning of the lungs, froth in the trachea and bronchus, pericardial tearing in the right anterolateral side (7-cm long), intra-pericardial hemorrhage, and focal hemorrhage in the adventitia of the intra-pericardial aorta. No sign of an external wound was observed in the left chest area. The cause of death was drowning, and the manner of death was suicide. Unfortunately, the site and height of fall were not investigated.

Adventitia , Aged , Aorta , Autopsy , Bronchi , Cause of Death , Drowning , Hemorrhage , Humans , Lung , Male , Rib Fractures , Rupture , Suicide , Tears , Thorax , Trachea , Water , Wounds and Injuries
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764391


Mounier-Kuhn syndrome (MKS) is a disease characterized by dilation of the trachea and mainstem bronchi. Due to the risk of airway leakage, pulmonary aspiration, and tracheal damage, MKS can be fatal in patients undergoing tracheal intubation. Moreover, MKS may not be diagnosed preoperatively due to its rarity. In this case, a patient undergoing neurosurgery was incidentally diagnosed with MKS during general anesthesia. During anesthesia induction, difficulties in airway management led the anesthesiologist to suspect MKS. Airway leakage was resolved in this case using oropharyngeal gauze packing. Anesthesiologists should be aware of the possibility of MKS and appropriate management of the airways.

Airway Management , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Bronchi , Humans , Intubation , Intubation, Intratracheal , Neurosurgery , Trachea , Tracheobronchomegaly
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759511


BACKGROUND: Double-lumen tubes (DLT) and endobronchial blockers (EB) are used for one-lung ventilation in thoracic surgery. More complications are seen when using DLT when compared to EB, while major complications are rarely seen. CASE: This case report describes a perforation of the right mainstem bronchus by an EZ-Blocker EB in a patient undergoing a minimally invasive esophagectomy after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. CONCLUSIONS: We advise to insert an EZ-Blocker™ EB with caution and only under direct bronchoscopic visualization, especially in previous irradiated patients.

Bronchi , Esophageal Neoplasms , Esophagectomy , Humans , Intubation , Neoadjuvant Therapy , One-Lung Ventilation , Thoracic Surgery , Video-Assisted Surgery
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759502


BACKGROUND: Compared to an equivalent sized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) double-lumen tube (DLT), a silicone DLT has a shorter endobronchial segment. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of clinically significant displacement of left-sided PVC and silicone DLTs after a positional change to a lateral position from a supine position and determine its effect on the need for DLT repositioning for successful lung separation in patients undergoing thoracic surgery. METHODS: One hundred eight adult patients requiring one-lung ventilation were randomly divided into group P (PVC DLT, n = 54) and group S (Silicone DLT, n = 54). The position of the DLT was observed before and after lateral positioning to assess the effect of the position change. The incidence of clinically significant displacement (>10 mm) of DLT was compared between the groups. RESULTS: DLTs were clinically significantly displaced in group P (17/48, 35.4%) and group S (18/52, 34.6%) after lateral positioning (p = 0.933). A proximal displacement (31.3% [group P] and 25.0% [group S]) was more common than distal displacement (4.2% [group P] and 9.6% [group S]), with no significant intergroup difference (p = 0.494). After lateral positioning, critical malposition of DLT with bronchial herniation to the right main bronchus was 8.3% (group P) and 7.9% (group S, p = 0.906). CONCLUSION: Left-sided PVC and silicone DLTs produced comparable incidences of clinically significant displacement and, consequently, required similar rates of repositioning for successful lung separation after lateral positioning.

Adult , Bronchi , Bronchoscopy , Humans , Incidence , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lung , One-Lung Ventilation , Polyvinyl Chloride , Polyvinyls , Posture , Silicon , Silicones , Supine Position , Thoracic Surgery , Thoracic Surgical Procedures
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741330


Bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is a rare complication after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma. We present a case of BBF that developed 5 months after 11 TACE procedures in a 78-year-old male patient with a 3-month history of a persistent cough and yellowish sputum. BBF was found between the bronchus and the right intrahepatic bile duct (B7) by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. On the initial endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), we failed to approach to the BBF due to severe hilar obstruction. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was performed, and 30-50 mL of bile was drained daily. But the BBF was not resolved until 2 months after PTBD. The patient was treated by placement of a plastic stent to the BBF site during the second ERCP. BBF was resolved 7 days after ERCP on the PTBD tubogram. The patient remained asymptomatic after the stent placement, and there was no recurrence at the 2-month follow-up ERCP.

Aged , Bile , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Bronchi , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance , Cough , Drainage , Fistula , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Plastics , Recurrence , Sputum , Stents
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766186


Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of systemic vasculitides, that are characterized by inflammation in the small vessels, ranging from capillaries to arterioles or venules. AAV is divided into three variants based on the clinical manifestations and histological findings such as microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and eosinophilic GPA (EGPA). MPA often induces rapid progressive necrotising glomerulonephritis, and occasionally induces diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. In contrast, GPA preferentially affects the respiratory tracts from the bronchus to the nasal cavity. GPA can also involve the kidneys, but the frequency of renal involvement is less than MPA. EGPA is based on allergic components such as asthma, peripheral eosinophilia, migratory eosinophilic pneumonia and eosinophil infiltration. Since 1982, when the association between ANCA and systemic vasculitis was first reported, several classification criteria for AAV have been proposed. This review describes the classification criteria for and nomenclature of AAV from the 1990 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria to the 2012 revised Chapel Hill consensus conference (CHCC) nomenclature of Vasculitides. New classification trials for AAV such as AAV based on the ANCA-types (myeloperoxidase-ANCA vasculitis, proteinase 3-ANCA vasculitis and ANCA negative vasculitis) and the ACR/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) 2017 provisional classification criteria for GPA were also introduced. In addition, the histopathological classification of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis and the revised 2017 international consensus on testing of ANCAs in GPA and MPA are also discussed.

Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Arterioles , Asthma , Bronchi , Capillaries , Classification , Consensus , Cytoplasm , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Glomerulonephritis , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Hemorrhage , Inflammation , Kidney , Microscopic Polyangiitis , Nasal Cavity , Pulmonary Eosinophilia , Respiratory System , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Systemic Vasculitis , Vasculitis , Venules
Neonatal Medicine ; : 223-228, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786437


Communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation (CBPFM) is a communication between the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts that can be difficult to differentiate from pulmonary sequestration or H-type tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) because of the similarities in clinical features. A female neonate born at full term had been experiencing respiratory difficulty during feeding from the third day of life. The esophagography performed to rule out H-type TEF revealed that the esophageal bronchus directly communicated with the left lower lobe (LLL) of the lung. Lobectomy of the LLL, fistulectomy of the esophagobronchial fistula, and primary repair of the esophagus were performed. Finally, CBPFM type III with pulmonary sequestration was confirmed on the basis of the postoperative histopathological finding. We report the first newborn case of CBPFM type III with pulmonary sequestration in Korea.

Bronchi , Bronchial Fistula , Bronchopulmonary Sequestration , Esophagus , Female , Fistula , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Korea , Lung , Tracheoesophageal Fistula
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787489


Foreign body aspiration is most likely to occur in children and in adults aged above 60 years, causing a respiratory emergency, such as airway closure. It is diagnosed based on a history of aspiration, presenting symptoms, and radiographic findings. The treatment may include removal of the foreign body via bronchoscopy or surgery. Here, we report a rare case of bronchial aspiration of a foreign body, confirmed with clinical and radiographic examinations, in a 57-year-old patient. The patient was transferred for treatment; however, spontaneous passage of the foreign body to the gastrointestinal tract led to its removal from the bronchus.

Adult , Bronchi , Bronchoscopy , Child , Emergencies , Foreign Bodies , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Middle Aged , Respiratory Aspiration
Rev. argent. cir ; 110(2): 109-110, jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-957904


La incidencia de roturas traqueobronquiales secundarias a un traumatismo torácico cerrado es baja, y la mayoría de estos pacientes no llegan con vida a los centros de atención hospitalaria. La presentación clínica es variable dependiendo de la localización de las lesiones, los daños asociados y si las estructuras peribronquiales permanecen íntegras. Para su diagnóstico temprano se debe tener un alto índice de sospecha clínica y una correcta interpretación de los hallazgos semiológicos y radiológicos, lo que permite su rápida y correcta resolución. La demora en el tratamiento aumenta tanto la mortalidad como las complicaciones tempranas y tardías.

The incidence of tracheobronchial ruptures secondary to blunt thoracic trauma is low and most affected patients do not arrive alive to hospitals. Clinical presentation varies with the location of lesions, associated injuries and whether the peribronchial structures remain intact. Early diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion and a correct interpretation of semiologic and radiologic findings, which allows for a rapid and correct resolution. Delay in treatment increases the mortality as well as early and late complications.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Thoracic Injuries/complications , Bronchi/injuries , Fractures, Avulsion/diagnostic imaging , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Thoracotomy/methods , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema