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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 95-100, nov. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An efficient regeneration protocol is a priority for the successful application of plant biotechnology. Grape nodal explants were used to develop a micropropagation protocol for Thompson Seedless and Taify cvs. Explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with Kinetin or benzylaminopurine (BA) and indolebutyric acid (IBA). RESULTS: For both cultivars, axillary buds were grown, only, on a medium enriched with kinetin, moreover, shoot tip necrosis and callus formation were observed on Thompson Seedless cv. cultures grown on a medium with BA. Supplementing the growth medium with 100 mM (boron) B and 2.5 mM (calcium) Ca successfully help overcome these phenomena. The highest regenerated shoot numbers (14 and 6.2 explant 1 ) for Taify and Thompson Seedless cvs., respectively, were on media supplemented with 13.2 mM BA + 4.9 mM IBA and BA 13.2 mM + 5.8 mM IBA, respectively. Moreover, these media supported the developing shoots to have the heaviest dry weights (1.46 and 0.72 mg explant 1 ) for Taify and Thompson Seedless cvs., respectively. Thompson Seedless cv. regenerated shoot numbers and their dry weights were significantly increased by increasing the MS medium PO4 concentration. However, these two parameters were significantly decreased for Taify cv. Developing shoots were elongated and rooted on MS medium enriched with 4.9 mM, IBA 100 mM B and 2.5 mM Ca. Plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to the greenhouse conditions. CONCLUSIONS: A novel promising protocol for Thomson Seedless and Taify cvs. micropropagation using single nodes has been developed.


Subject(s)
Phosphates/chemistry , Boron/chemistry , Calcium/chemistry , Vitis/growth & development , Regeneration , Biotechnology , Plant Shoots , Necrosis/prevention & control
2.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e015, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989477

ABSTRACT

Abstract We assessed the effect of a new coating material based on resin-modified glass-ionomer with calcium (Ca) in inhibiting the demineralization of underlying and adjacent areas surrounding caries-like lesions in enamel. The measures used were surface hardness (SH) and cross-sectional hardness (CSH). Thirty-six bovine enamel specimens (3 × 6 × 2 mm) were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 12): No treatment (NT); resin-modified glass-ionomer with Ca (Clinpro XT Varnish, 3M ESPE) (CL), and fluoride varnish (Duraphat, Colgate) (DU). The specimens were subjected to alternated immersions in demineralizing (6 h) and remineralizing solutions (18 h) for 7 days. SH measurements were conducted at standard distances of 150, 300, and 450 µm from the treatment area. CSH evaluated the mean hardness profile over the depth of the enamel surface and at standard distances from the materials. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis was conducted to evaluate the demineralization bands created on the sublayer by % of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and fluoride (F). Ca/P weight ratio was also calculated. Based on SH and CSH measurements, there was no difference between groups at the distances 150 µm (p = 0.882), 300 µm (p = 0.995), and 450 µm (p = 0.998). Up to 50 µm depth (at 150 µm from the treatment area), CL showed better performance than DU ( p< 0.05). NT presented higher loss of Ca and P than CL and DU (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the % of F ion among the three groups. The new coating material was similar to F varnish in attenuating enamel demineralization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Calcium/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Sodium Fluoride/chemistry , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Random Allocation , Fluorides, Topical/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170589, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954496

ABSTRACT

Abstract High concentrations of hydrogen peroxide can cause adverse effects on composition and structure of teeth. However, the addition of calcium and fluoride in bleaching agents may reduce enamel demineralization. Objective: To evaluate chemical changes of sound and demineralized enamels submitted to high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide containing fluoride (F) or calcium (Ca). Material and Methods: Enamel blocks of bovine incisors with standard dimensions were obtained and half of them were submitted to pH-cycling to promote initial enamel caries lesions. Sound and demineralized enamel samples were divided into (n=10): (C) Control (no whitening treatment); (HP) 35% hydrogen peroxide; and two experimental groups: (HPF) 35% HP+0.2% F and (HPC) 35% HP+0.2% Ca. Experimental groups were submitted to two in-office bleaching sessions and agents were applied 3 times for 15 min to each session. The control group was kept in remineralizing solution at 37°C during the bleaching treatment. The surface mineral content of sound and demineralized enamels was determined through Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), Energy dispersive Micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-EDXRF); and the subsurface, through cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH). In addition, polarized light microscopy (PLM) images of enamel subsurface were observed. Results: According to three-way (FT-Raman and μ-EDXRF analyses) or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (CSMH) and Tukey test (α=5%), the calcium or fluoride added to high-concentrated bleaching agents increased phosphate and carbonate concentrations on sound and demineralized enamels (p<0.05). However, HPC and HPF were unable to completely reverse the subsurface mineral loss promoted by bleaching on sound and demineralized enamels. The calcium/ phosphate (Ca/P) ratio of sound enamel decreased after HP treatment (p<0.001). Conclusion: Even though experimental bleaching agents with Ca or F reduced mineral loss for both sound and demineralized enamel surfaces, these agents were unable to reverse the enamel subsurface demineralization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Calcium/chemistry , Tooth Demineralization/chemically induced , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Fluorides/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Phosphates/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Materials Testing , Carbonates/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching Agents/adverse effects , Hardness Tests , Microscopy, Polarization
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e2017115, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893690

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study aimed to analyze the following physicochemical properties: radiopacity, final setting time, calcium release, pH change, solubility, water sorption, porosity, surface morphology, and apatite-forming ability of two calcium silicate-based materials. Material and methods We tested MTA Repair HP and MTA Vitalcem in comparison with conventional MTA, analyzing radiopacity and final setting time. Water absorption, interconnected pores and apparent porosity were measured after 24-h immersion in deionized water at 37°C. Calcium and pH were tested up to 28 d in deionized water. We analyzed data using two-way ANOVA with Student-Newman-Keuls tests (p<0.05). We performed morphological and chemical analyses of the material surfaces using ESEM/EDX after 28 d in HBSS. Results MTA Repair HP showed similar radiopacity to that of conventional MTA. All materials showed a marked alkalinizing activity within 3 h, which continued for 28 d. MTA Repair HP showed the highest calcium release at 28 d (p<0.05). MTA Vitalcem showed statistically higher water sorption and solubility values (p<0.05). All materials showed the ability to nucleate calcium phosphate on their surface after 28 d in HBSS. Conclusions MTA Repair HP and MTA Vitalcem had extended alkalinizing activity and calcium release that favored calcium phosphate nucleation. The presence of the plasticizer in MTA HP might increase its solubility and porosity. The radiopacifier calcium tungstate can be used to replace bismuth oxide.


Subject(s)
Oxides/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Reference Values , Solubility/drug effects , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Calcium Phosphates/chemistry , Water/chemistry , Calcium/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Porosity/drug effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Drug Combinations , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 16-21, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839173

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to measure soil microbial biomass and soil surface fauna in undisturbed and disturbed Cerrado sensu stricto (Css) from Sete Cidades National Park, Northeast Brazil. The following sites were sampled under Cerrado sensu stricto (Css) at the park: undisturbed and disturbed Css (slash-and-burn agricultural practices). Total organic and microbial biomass C were higher in undisturbed than in disturbed sites in both seasons. However, microbial biomass C was higher in the wet than in the dry season. Soil respiration did not vary among sites but was higher in the wet than in the dry season. The densities of Araneae, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera were higher in the undisturbed site, whereas the densities of Formicidae were higher in the disturbed site. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis separated undisturbed from disturbed sites according to soil biological properties. Disturbance by agricultural practices, such as slash-and-burn, probably resulted in the deterioration of the biological properties of soil under native Cerrado sensu stricto in the Sete Cidades National Park.


Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as propriedades biológicas do solo em área de Cerrado sensu stricto preservadas e não preservadas do Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades, Nordeste do Brasil. Os seguintes sites sob Cerrado sensu stricto (Css) foram avaliados: preservado (UND) e não preservado (DIS). O C orgânico total e da biomassa microbiana foram maiores na área preservada do que na não preservada em ambas estações seca e chuvosa. Entretanto, o C da biomassa microbiana foi maior na estação chuvosa do que na seca. A respiração do solo não variou entre as áreas, mas foi maior na estação chuvosa. As densidades de Araneae, Coleoptera e Ortoptera foram maiores na área preservada, enquanto as densidades de Formicidae foram maiores na área não preservada. A analise de escalonamento não-métrico separou a área preservada da não-preservada de acordo com as propriedades biológicas. Os distúrbios no solo pelas atividades agrícolas, como corte-e-queima, resultaram na deterioração das propriedades biológicas do Cerrado nativo no Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades.


Subject(s)
Animals , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Ecosystem , Biomass , Phosphorus/chemistry , Potassium/chemistry , Seasons , Spiders , Brazil , Calcium/chemistry , Agriculture , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Insecta
6.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-6, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777231

ABSTRACT

The addition of chlorhexidine (CHX) to a resinous experimental Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (E-MTA) based root-end filling material is an alternative to boost its antimicrobial activity. However, the influence of chlorhexidine on the properties of this material is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2% chlorhexidine on the pH, calcium ion release and setting time of a Bisphenol A Ethoxylate Dimethacrylate/Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (Bis-EMA/MTA) based dual-cure experimental root-end filling material (E-MTA), in comparison with E-MTA without the addition of CHX and with conventional white MTA (W-MTA). The materials were placed in polyethylene tubes, and immersed in deionized water to determine pH (digital pH meter) and calcium ion release (atomic absorption spectrometry technique). The setting time of each material was analyzed using Gilmore needles. The data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of 5%. E-MTA + CHX showed an alkaline pH in the 3 h period of evaluation, the alkalinity of which decreased but remained as such for 15 days. The pH of E-MTA + CHX was higher than the other two materials after 7 days, and lower after 30 days (p < 0.05). All of the materials were found to release calcium ions throughout the 30 days of the study. The addition of CHX increased the calcium ion release of E-MTA to levels statistically similar to W-MTA. E-MTA showed shorter initial and final setting time, compared with W-MTA (p < 0.05). The addition of 2% CHX to MTA prevented setting of the material. The addition of CHX to E-MTA increased its pH and calcium ion release. However, it also prevented setting of the material.


Subject(s)
Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Calcium/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Methacrylates/chemistry , Oxides/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Drug Combinations , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/drug effects , Immersion , Materials Testing , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
7.
Bauru; s.n; 2015. 145 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-867344

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o pH e a liberação de íons cálcio dos cimentos AH Plus, MTA Fillapex e Sealapex, em diferentes períodos, quando empregados em obturações de canais radiculares, bem como, a qualidade das obturações, após 1 ano de realizadas. O pH e a liberação de íons cálcio foram avaliados por meio de um peagômetro e espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica, respectivamente. A qualidade das obturações foi avaliada por meio de um estereomicroscópio. Cento e vinte e quatro pré-molares inferiores humanos extraídos, unirradiculados, foram divididos em 01 grupo controle e 02 grupos experimentais, de acordo com a padronização do diâmetro do forame apical. Em seguida, os 02 grupos experimentais foram divididos em 4 subgrupos, considerando as técnicas de instrumentação e obturação empregadas. Após o preparo dos canais radiculares cada subgrupo teve o número de dentes divididos por dois, formando novos subgrupos, de acordo com os cimentos obturadores utilizados. Imediatamente após a obturação, a raiz de cada dente foi imersa em 15 mL de água ultrapura para avaliação do pH e liberação de íons cálcio nos seguintes períodos: 1 h, 1, 3, 7, 30, 180 e 365 dias, após a obturação. Após o período de 1 ano, os dentes foram seccionados transversalmente a 2, 4, 6 mm do forame apical para análise da qualidade das obturações, analisando-se a porcentagem de cimento, guta-percha e espaços vazios na massa obturadora. Os cimentos apresentaram pH neutro, porém, aos 180 dias, os valores mostraram um ligeiro aumento quando utilizados em canais com forames de diâmetro 0,25 mm. Quando utilizados em canais com forames de diâmetro 0,45 mm, o pH mostrou-se com valores maiores para todos os períodos sem distinção do cimento. Todos os cimentos liberaram íons cálcio, com menores valores para o AH Plus. Na estereomicroscopia, observaram-se variações nas porcentagens de cimento e guta-percha, considerando-se os diâmetros foraminais e técnicas obturadoras, e porcentagem...


The objective of this study was to evaluate the pH and calcium ion release of AH Plus, MTA Fillapex and Sealapex cements at different time periods when used in root canal obturations, as well as the quality of the obturations one year after being performed. The pH and calcium ion release were evaluated by means of a pH meter and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The quality of the obturations was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. One hundred and twenty-four extracted human uniradicular mandibular premolars were divided into 1 control and 2 experimental groups, according to the standardization of the apical foramen diameter. Next, the 2 experimental groups were divided into 4 subgroups, considering the instrumentation techniques and obturations employed. After the preparation of the root canals, each subgroup had the number of teeth divided by two, forming new subgroups, according to the sealers used. Immediately after the obturation, the root of each tooth was immersed in 15 mL of ultrapure water for the evaluation of the pH and calcium ion release in the following time periods: 1 hr, 1, 3, 7, 30, 180 and 365 days after the obturation. After the period of one year, the teeth were transversely sectioned at 2, 4 and 6 mm from the root apex to examine the quality of the obturations, analyzing the percentage of cement, gutta-percha and voids in the obturator mass. The cements presented a neutral pH, which showed slightly increase as of 180 days when used in canals with foramens of 0.25 mm diameters. When used in canals with foramens with diameters of 0.45 mm, the pH presented higher values in all periods for all cements. All cements released calcium ions, with lower values for the AH Plus. In the stereomicroscopy, there were variations in the percentages of cement and gutta-percha, considering the foraminal diameters and obturation techniques and an insignificant percentage of voids.


Subject(s)
Calcium/chemistry , Dental Cements/chemistry , Gutta-Percha/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Obturation/methods , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Materials Testing , Oxides/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Time Factors
8.
Bauru; s.n; 2015. 145 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-773797

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o pH e a liberação de íons cálcio dos cimentos AH Plus, MTA Fillapex e Sealapex, em diferentes períodos, quando empregados em obturações de canais radiculares, bem como, a qualidade das obturações, após 1 ano de realizadas. O pH e a liberação de íons cálcio foram avaliados por meio de um peagômetro e espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica, respectivamente. A qualidade das obturações foi avaliada por meio de um estereomicroscópio. Cento e vinte e quatro pré-molares inferiores humanos extraídos, unirradiculados, foram divididos em 01 grupo controle e 02 grupos experimentais, de acordo com a padronização do diâmetro do forame apical. Em seguida, os 02 grupos experimentais foram divididos em 4 subgrupos, considerando as técnicas de instrumentação e obturação empregadas. Após o preparo dos canais radiculares cada subgrupo teve o número de dentes divididos por dois, formando novos subgrupos, de acordo com os cimentos obturadores utilizados. Imediatamente após a obturação, a raiz de cada dente foi imersa em 15 mL de água ultrapura para avaliação do pH e liberação de íons cálcio nos seguintes períodos: 1 h, 1, 3, 7, 30, 180 e 365 dias, após a obturação. Após o período de 1 ano, os dentes foram seccionados transversalmente a 2, 4, 6 mm do forame apical para análise da qualidade das obturações, analisando-se a porcentagem de cimento, guta-percha e espaços vazios na massa obturadora. Os cimentos apresentaram pH neutro, porém, aos 180 dias, os valores mostraram um ligeiro aumento quando utilizados em canais com forames de diâmetro 0,25 mm. Quando utilizados em canais com forames de diâmetro 0,45 mm, o pH mostrou-se com valores maiores para todos os períodos sem distinção do cimento. Todos os cimentos liberaram íons cálcio, com menores valores para o AH Plus. Na estereomicroscopia, observaram-se variações nas porcentagens de cimento e guta-percha, considerando-se os diâmetros foraminais e técnicas obturadoras, e porcentagem...


The objective of this study was to evaluate the pH and calcium ion release of AH Plus, MTA Fillapex and Sealapex cements at different time periods when used in root canal obturations, as well as the quality of the obturations one year after being performed. The pH and calcium ion release were evaluated by means of a pH meter and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The quality of the obturations was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. One hundred and twenty-four extracted human uniradicular mandibular premolars were divided into 1 control and 2 experimental groups, according to the standardization of the apical foramen diameter. Next, the 2 experimental groups were divided into 4 subgroups, considering the instrumentation techniques and obturations employed. After the preparation of the root canals, each subgroup had the number of teeth divided by two, forming new subgroups, according to the sealers used. Immediately after the obturation, the root of each tooth was immersed in 15 mL of ultrapure water for the evaluation of the pH and calcium ion release in the following time periods: 1 hr, 1, 3, 7, 30, 180 and 365 days after the obturation. After the period of one year, the teeth were transversely sectioned at 2, 4 and 6 mm from the root apex to examine the quality of the obturations, analyzing the percentage of cement, gutta-percha and voids in the obturator mass. The cements presented a neutral pH, which showed slightly increase as of 180 days when used in canals with foramens of 0.25 mm diameters. When used in canals with foramens with diameters of 0.45 mm, the pH presented higher values in all periods for all cements. All cements released calcium ions, with lower values for the AH Plus. In the stereomicroscopy, there were variations in the percentages of cement and gutta-percha, considering the foraminal diameters and obturation techniques and an insignificant percentage of voids...


Subject(s)
Calcium/chemistry , Dental Cements/chemistry , Gutta-Percha/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Obturation/methods , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Materials Testing , Oxides/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Time Factors
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(3): 180-184, May-Jun/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-711712

ABSTRACT

Recently, various calcium silicate-based sealers have been introduced for use in root canal filling. The MTA Fillapex is one of these sealers, but some of its physicochemical properties are not in accordance with the ISO requirements. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the flowability, pH level and calcium release of pure MTA Fillapex (MTAF) or containing 5% (MTAF5) or 10% (MTAF10) calcium hydroxide (CH), in weight, in comparison with AH Plus sealer. Material and Methods: The flowability test was performed according to the ISO 6876:2001 requirements. For the pH level and calcium ion release analyses, the sealers were placed individually (n=10) in plastic tubes and immersed in deionized water. After 24 hours, 7 and 14 days, the water in which each specimen had been immersed was evaluated to determine the pH level changes and calcium released. Flowability, pH level and calcium release data were analyzed statistically by the ANOVA test (α=5%). Results: In relation to flowability: MTAF>AH Plus>MTAF5>MTAF10. In relation to the pH level, for 24 h: MTAF5=MTAF10=MTAF>AH Plus; for 7 and 14 days: MTAF5=MTAF10>MTAF>AH Plus. For the calcium release, for all periods: MTAF>MTAF5=MTAF10>AH Plus. Conclusions: The addition of 5% CH to the MTA Fillapex (in weight) is an alternative to reduce the high flowability presented by the sealer, without interfering in its alkalization potential. .


Subject(s)
Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Calcium/chemistry , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Oxides/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Drug Combinations , Materials Testing , Reference Values , Time Factors , Viscosity , Water/chemistry
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(2): 573-578, Jan.-Apr. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-709299

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variação do perfil proteico e do cálcio solúvel na coagulação do leite pelo etanol nas temperaturas de 4ºC, 10ºC, 15ºC e 20ºC. Amostras de leite de 61 animais foram avaliadas quanto à estabilidade ao etanol nas concentrações de 66 a 92 por cento (v/v) nas temperaturas de 4ºC, 10ºC, 15ºC e 20ºC. Três amostras, após 24 horas de armazenamento a 4ºC, foram ultracentrifugadas em quadruplicata (40.000 x g) a 4ºC e a 20ºC, respectivamente, por 60 minutos. Em seguida, o sobrenadante foi retirado e submetido à análise do cálcio solúvel pela técnica via úmida (digestão nitroperclórica) e leitura em espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica. O perfil proteico foi analisado pela técnica de eletroforese capilar empregando kit específico para determinação proteica. Os resultados mostraram uma correlação positiva entre o aumento da temperatura das amostras e a estabilidade do leite frente às diferentes concentrações de etanol. A porcentagem de cálcio solúvel no sobrenadante após ultracentrifugação foi maior nas amostras tratadas a 4ºC (P<0,05). As amostras ultracentrifugadas na temperatura de 4ºC apresentaram quantidades superiores de β-caseína no sobrenadante em comparação com as amostras tratadas a 20ºC. O abaixamento da temperatura favoreceu a migração da β-caseína e do cálcio coloidal para a fase solúvel do leite, o que possivelmente favoreceu o aumento da instabilidade das amostras no teste do etanol. Os resultados sugerem que a temperatura ideal para a realização de teste de estabilidade do leite frente ao etanol deveria ser de 21ºC...


The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation in protein profile and soluble calcium in milk coagulation by ethanol at 4ºC, 10ºC, 15ºC and 20ºC. Milk samples from 61 dairy cows were evaluated for stability of ethanol concentrations from 66 to 92 percent (v/v) at temperatures of 4°C, 10°C, 15°C and 20°C. Three samples were ultracentrifuged (40,000 x g) after 24 hours of storage at 4°C and 20°C, respectively, for 60 minutes. Their supernatants were removed and subjected to analyses of soluble calcium through nitro-perchloric digestion and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The protein profiles were determined by capillary electrophoresis using a specific kit for protein determination. The results showed a positive correlation between the increase in temperature of the samples and the stability of milk against various concentrations of ethanol. The percentage of soluble calcium in the supernatant after centrifugation was higher in samples treated at 4°C (P<0.05). The samples ultracentrifuged at 4°C showed higher amounts of β-casein in the supernatant compared with samples stored at 20°C. The lowering of the temperature favored the migration of β-casein and colloidal calcium to the soluble phase of milk, which may also have favored the instability of milk in the ethanol test. According to the results, the milk sample temperature for the ethanol stability test should be 21ºC...


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium/chemistry , Ethanol/adverse effects , Milk Proteins/chemistry , Ultracentrifugation , Milk/metabolism , Transition Temperature
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(1): 41-46, fev. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-667534

ABSTRACT

Ovelhas Santa Inês com gestação simples e múltipla foram alimentadas com dietas formuladas para atender a 100% - grupo não restrito - e 85% - grupo restrito - das suas necessidades de energia metabolizável (EM) e proteína bruta (PB). Os animais foram abatidos aos 140 dias de gestação para a retirada do útero da glândula mamária e do útero gestante, os quais foram analisados para o conteúdo de cálcio e de fósforo em função dos tratamentos. A restrição nutricional não influenciou as concentrações de cálcio e fósforo no feto e no útero gestante. Foi observado um aumento de 11,68 gramas de cálcio e de 6,37 gramas de fósforo para cada quilograma de massa fetal produzido aos 140 dias de gestação. As concentrações de cálcio e de fósforo do útero e das membranas foram mais baixas nas ovelhas gestantes submetidas à restrição nutricional. O número de fetos e o manejo nutricional não resultaram em alterações na concentração nem no conteúdo de cálcio e fósforo nos fluidos fetais. O conteúdo de cálcio e de fósforo no útero gestante teve como principal fator de variação o tamanho da massa fetal produzida.


Santa Inês breed ewes with single and multiple gestations were fed diets to meet 100% - Group ad libitum - and 85% - restricted group - of metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) needs. The animals were slaughtered at 140 days of gestation for the removal of the gravidic uterus and mammary gland which were analyzed for calcium and phosphorus content. The nutritional restriction did not influence the calcium and phosphorus concentrations in the fetus and the pregnant uterus. The calcium and phosphorus content in the gravidic utero increased 11.68 grams and 6.37 grams for each kilogram of fetal mass produced at 140 days of gestation respectively. The calcium and phosphorus concentration in the uterus and membranes were lower in pregnant ewes subjected to nutritional restriction. The number of fetuses and nutritional management did not result in changes in the concentration or amount of calcium and phosphorus in fetal fluids. The calcium and phosphorus content in the gravidic uterus had the fetal weight as main variation factor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Calcium/analysis , Calcium/chemistry , Phosphorus/analysis , Phosphorus/chemistry , Sheep/anatomy & histology , Sheep/growth & development , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Body Composition
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 19(1): 1-5, Jan.-Feb. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578740

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hydroxyl (OH-) and calcium (Ca++) ion release was evaluated in six materials: G1) Sealer 26, G2) White mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), G3) Epiphany, G4) Epiphany + 10 percent calcium hydroxide (CH), G5) Epiphany + 20 percent CH, and G6) zinc oxide and eugenol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens were placed in polyethylene tubes and immersed in distilled water. After 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, 7, 14, and 28 days, the water was assessed for pH with a pH meter and for Ca++ release by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: G1, G2, G4, and G5 had the highest pH until 14 days (p<0.05). G1 presented the highest Ca++ release until 6 h, and G4 and G5, from 12 h through 14 days. Ca++ release was greater for G1 and G2 at 28 days. G6 released the least Ca++. CONCLUSIONS: MTA, Sealer 26, Epiphany, and Epiphany + CH release OH- and Ca++ ions. Epiphany + CH may be an alternative as retrofilling material.


Subject(s)
Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Calcium/chemistry , Retrograde Obturation/methods , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Bismuth/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Drug Combinations , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Materials Testing , Oxides/chemistry , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Silicates/chemistry , Time Factors , Water/chemistry , Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement/chemistry
13.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 46(3): 531-537, July-Sept. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-564920

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted on the packing and cohesive properties of chloroquine phosphate in binary mixtures with lactose and dicalcium phosphate powders. The maximum volume reduction due to packing as expressed by the Kawakita constant, a, and the angle of internal flow, θ, were the assessment parameters. The individual powders were characterized for their particle size and shape using an optical microscope. Binary mixtures of various proportions of chloroquine phosphate with lactose and dicalcium phosphate powders were prepared. The bulk and tapped densities, angles of repose and internal flow, as well as compressibility index of the materials were determined using appropriate parameters. The calculated and determined values of maximum volume reduction for the binary mixtures were found to differ significantly (P< 0.05), with the Kawakita plot being more reliable in determining the packing properties. Diluent type was found to influence the flow properties of the mixtures, with dicalcium phosphate giving predictable results while mixtures containing lactose were anomalous with respect to flow. The characterization of the packing and cohesive properties of the binary mixtures of chloroquine with lactose and dicalcium phosphate would be useful in the production of powders, tablets, capsules and other drug delivery systems containing these powders with desirable and predictable flow properties.


Realizou-se estudo das propriedades de empacotamento e de coesão do fosfato de cloroquina em misturas binárias com lactose e fosfato dicálcico em pó. O volume máximo de redução devido ao empacotamento, segundo expresso pela constante de Kawakita, a, e o ângulo de fluxo interno, θ, foram os parâmetros de avaliação. Os pós individuais foram caracterizados por seu tamanho e forma de partículas, utilizando microscópio óptico. Prepararam-se misturas binárias de várias proporções de fosfato de cloroquine e lactose e fosfato dicálcico em pó. As densidades de bulk and tapped, os ângulos de repouso e de fluxo interno e o índice de compressibilidade dos materiais foram determinados utilizando-se parâmetros apropriados. Os valores calculados e determinados do volume máximo de redução para as misturas binárias mostraram-se significativamente diferentes (P< 0,05), sendo o traçado de Kawakita mais confiável na determinação das propriedades de empacotamento. O tipo de diluente influenciou as propriedades de fluxo das misturas com fosfato dicálcico, dando resultados previsíveis, enquanto as misturas contendo lactose mostraram-se anômalas com relação ao fluxo. A caracterização das propriedades de empacotamento e de coesão das misturas binárias de cloroquina com lactose e fosfato dicálcico seria útil na produção de pós, comprimidos, cápsulas e outros sistemas de liberação de fármacos contendo esses pós com propriedade de fluxo desejada e previsível.


Subject(s)
Chemical Compounds , Chloroquine , Calcium/chemistry , Lactose , Phosphates , Product Packaging/methods
14.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 7(3): 465-470, Sept. 2009. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-530319

ABSTRACT

Fishes that live in the Amazonian environment may be exposed to several kinds of waters: "black waters", containing high dissolved organic carbon and acidic pH, "white waters", with ten fold higher Ca2+ concentrations than black waters and neutral pH, and "clear waters", with two fold higher Ca2+ concentrations than black waters and also neutral pH. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze Ca2+ fluxes in the facultative air-breather Hoplosternum littorale (tamoatá) exposed to different Amazonian waters. Fishes were acclimated in well water (similar to clear water) and later placed in individual chambers for Ca2+ fluxes measurements. After 4 h, water from the chambers was replaced by a different type of water. Transfer of tamoatás to ion-poor black or acidic black water resulted in net Ca2+ loss only in the first 2 h of experiment. However, transfer from black or acidic black water to white water led to only net Ca2+ influxes. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that transfer of tamoatás to ion-poor waters (black and acidic black water) led to transient net Ca2+ loss, while the amount of Ca2+ in the ion-rich white water seems adequate to prevent Ca2+ loss after transfer. Therefore, transfer of tamoatás between these Amazonian waters does not seem to result in serious Ca2+ disturbance.(AU)


Os peixes que vivem na Amazônia são expostos a vários tipos de água: águas pretas, contendo grande quantidade de carbono orgânico dissolvido, águas brancas, com concentração de Ca2+ dez vezes maior que as águas pretas e pH neutro, e águas claras, com concentração de Ca2+ duas vezes maior que as águas pretas e pH também neutro. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o fluxo de Ca2+ no peixe de respiração aérea facultativa Hoplosternum littorale (tamoatá) exposto a diferentes tipos de águas amazônicas. Os peixes foram aclimatados em água de poço artesiano (semelhante à água clara) e depois colocados individualmente em câmaras para medir o fluxo de Ca2+. Após 4 h, a água das câmaras foi trocada por um tipo diferente de água. A transferência do tamoatá das águas pobres em íons água preta e preta ácida ou da água branca, rica em íons, para as águas preta e preta ácida, pobres em íons, resulta em uma perda de Ca2+ apenas nas duas primeiras horas de experimento. Entretanto, a transferência da água preta e preta ácida, para a água branca resulta em um influxo de Ca2+. Os resultados obtidos nos permitem concluir que a transferência do tamoatá para as águas preta e preta ácida, pobres em íons, leva a uma temporária perda de Ca2+, e a quantidade de Ca2+ na água branca, rica em íons, é adequada para prevenir sua perda após a transferência. Sendo assim, a transferência do tamoatá entre as águas estudadas não resulta em sérios distúrbios no Ca2+.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/growth & development , Catfishes/physiology , Corrosive Water/analysis , Calcium/chemistry
15.
Braz. oral res ; 23(supl.1): 31-38, 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-528427

ABSTRACT

This paper discusses the role of dental biofilm and adjunctive therapies in the management of dental caries. Dental biofilm is a site of bacterial proliferation and growth, in addition to being a location of acid production. It also serves as a reservoir for calcium exchange between the tooth and saliva. The salivary pellicle, a protein-rich biofilm layer, regulates the reaction between tooth surface, saliva and erosive acids. The protective effects of this pellicle on enamel are well established. However, understanding the effects of the pellicle/biofilm interaction in protecting dentin from erosive conditions requires further research. Saliva interacts with the biofilm, and is important in reducing the cariogenic effects of dental plaque as acidogenic bacteria consume fermentable carbohydrates producing acids that may result in tooth demineralization. Adequate supplies of healthy saliva can provide ingredients for successful remineralization. Strategies for managing the cariogenic biofilm are discussed with emphasis on the effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC) products. However, since many toothpaste components have been altered recently, new clinical trials may be required for true validation of product effectiveness. A new generation of calcium-based remineralizing technologies may offer the ability to reverse the effects of demineralization. Nevertheless, remineralization is a microscopic subsurface phenomenon, and it will not macroscopically replace tooth structure lost in a cavitated lesion. Optimal management of cavitations requires early detection. This, coupled with advances in adhesive restorative materials and microsurgical technique, will allow the tooth to be restored with minimal destruction to nearby healthy tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Biofilms , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Pellicle/physiology , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Saliva/physiology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Biofilms/growth & development , Calcium/chemistry , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Phosphates/chemistry , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/microbiology , Tooth Remineralization , Tooth/chemistry , Tooth/microbiology
16.
Rev. clín. pesq. odontol. (Impr.) ; 4(3): 169-173, set.-dez. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-617355

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o pH e difusão de íons cálcio da pasta de hidróxidode cálcio e propilenoglicol, a partir de três marcas comerciais. Foram utilizados quatro grupos, cada umcom dez dentes humanos (G1=Inodon®, G2=Biodinâmica®, G3=Farmadoctor, G4=controle).MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Os dentes foram preparados e os grupos 1, 2 e 3 preenchidos com asrespectivas pastas; o grupo controle sem pasta. A análise do pH foi feita por medidor de pH e amedição da difusão dos íons cálcio pelo método colorimétrico, com tempos de 0 e 48 horas, 7, 14, 21e 28 dias. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando os testes ANOVA a dois critérios com medidasrepetidas, modelo fatorial completo, comparações múltiplas de Tukey HSD, teste de normalidade deKolmogorov-Smirnov, coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. O nível de significância foi de 5% com ouso do software SPSS 15.0. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que, independentemente dostempos analisados, para a média dos valores do pH houve diferença estatística entre os grupos (P<0,05),sendo que o grupo controle apresentou a menor média de pH diferindo dos outros três. Na difusão deíons cálcio observou-se diferenças significativas na média do G4 e demais grupos (p<0.05). Em 48horas a maior média ocorreu no grupo G1, em 7, 14 e 21 dias no G2 e em 28 dias no G1.CONCLUSÕES: Não houve diferença no pH dos grupos experimentais; a difusão de íons de cálciofoi maior no G1 e G2, com tendência crescente somente no G1.


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pH and dissemination of calciumions in the folder of calcium hydroxide and propylene from three trademarks (Inodon, Biodinâmicaand Farmadoctor). Four groups of specimens were used, each containing ten human teeth (GI –Inodon; G2 – Biodinâmica; G3 –Farmadoctor; G4 - control). The teeth were prepared and groups1, 2 and 3 satisfied with their portfolios and the control group without portfolio. pH was measuredby a pH meter and the diffusion of calcium ions was measured by the colorimetric method (0 and48 hours, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days). The statistical analysis was performed using the tests on twocriteria ANOVA with repeated measures, full factorial design, multiple comparisons of Tukey’sHSD, test of normality of Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The level ofsignificance was 5% with the use of the software SPSS 15.0. RESULTS: The results showedthat, regardless of time tested, for the average values of pH was no statistical difference betweenthe groups (P <0.05), while the control group had the lowest average Ph. In the disseminationof calcium ions there was significant differences in average for the G4 and other groups (P<0.05). In 48 hours at higher average occurred in the group G1, 7, 14 and 21 days in G2 and28 days in G1. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the pH of experimental groups, thediffusion of ions of calcium was higher in G1 and G2, with only growing trend in G1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Calcium/chemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Analysis of Variance , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Pharmaceutical Vehicles/chemistry , Propylene Glycol/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Time Factors
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 19(1): 15-20, 2008. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-481122

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated bone response to a Ca- and P- enriched titanium (Ti) surface treated by a multiphase anodic spark deposition coating (BSP-AK). Two mongrel dogs received bilateral implantation of 3 Ti cylinders (4.1 x 12 mm) in the humerus, being either BSP-AK treated or untreated (machined - control). At 8 weeks postimplantation, bone fragments containing the implants were harvested and processed for histologic and histomorphometric analyses. Bone formation was observed in cortical area and towards the medullary canal associated to approximately 1/3 of implant extension. In most cases, in the medullary area, collagen fiber bundles were detected adjacent and oriented parallel to Ti surfaces. Such connective tissue formation exhibited focal areas of mineralized matrix lined by active osteoblasts. The mean percentages of bone-to-implant contact were 2.3 (0.0-7.2 range) for BSP-AK and 0.4 (0.0-1.3 range) for control. Although the Mann-Whitney test did not detect statistically significant differences between groups, these results indicate a trend of BSP-AK treated surfaces to support contact osteogenesis in an experimental model that produces low bone-to-implant contact values.


O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a resposta do tecido ósseo à superfície de titânio (Ti) enriquecida com Ca e P obtida por anodização (BSP-AK). Três cilindros de Ti (4,1 x 12 mm) BSP-AK ou usinado (controle) foram implantados bilateralmente nos úmeros de dois cães de raça indefinida. Oito semanas após a implantação, os fragmentos ósseos contendo os implantes foram removidos e processados para análises histológica e histomorfométrica. A formação óssea foi observada na região cortical e no canal medular até aproximadamente um terço da extensão do implante. Na maioria dos casos, feixes de fibras colágenas dispostos paralelamente à superfície do implante foram observados na região medular. Nessa região observaram-se também áreas focais de formação de matriz mineralizada e osteoblastos ativos. Os implantes do grupo BSP-AK apresentaram média de contato osso-implante 2,3 por cento, com medidas variando de 0,0 a 7,2 por cento e os do grupo controle tiveram média 0,4 por cento, com medidas variando de 0,0 a 1,3 por cento. Apesar do teste de Mann-Whitney não mostrar diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos, nossos resultados indicaram uma tendência para a ocorrência de osteogênese de contato na superfície BSP-AK em um modelo experimental que resulta em baixos valores de contato osso-implante.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Calcium/chemistry , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Dental Implants , Dental Materials/chemistry , Electroplating/methods , Humerus/pathology , Phosphorus/chemistry , Titanium/chemistry , Bone Marrow/pathology , Bone Remodeling/physiology , Collagen , Connective Tissue/pathology , Dental Prosthesis Design , Electron Probe Microanalysis , Humerus/surgery , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Models, Animal , Osseointegration/physiology , Osteoblasts/pathology , Osteoclasts/pathology , Osteogenesis/physiology , Oxygen/analysis , Porosity , Surface Properties
18.
J Biosci ; 2007 Aug; 32(5): 1009-17
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111063

ABSTRACT

Signalling pathways are complex biochemical networks responsible for regulation of numerous cellular functions. These networks function by serial and successive interactions among a large number of vital biomolecules and chemical compounds. For deciphering and analysing the underlying mechanism of such networks,a modularized study is quite helpful. Here we propose an algorithm for modularization of calcium signalling pathway of H. sapiens .The idea that "a node whose function is dependent on maximum number of other nodes tends to be the center of a sub network" is used to divide a large signalling network into smaller sub networks. Inclusion of node(s) into sub networks(s) is dependent on the outdegree of the node(s). Here outdegree of a node refers to the number of relations of the considered node lying outside the constructed sub network. Node(s) having more than c relations lying outside the expanding sub network have to be excluded from it. Here c is a specified variable based on user preference, which is finally fixed during adjustments of created sub networks, so that certain biological significance can be conferred on them.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Amino Acid Motifs , Animals , Calcium/chemistry , Calcium Signaling/physiology , Humans , Models, Molecular
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Jul; 45(7): 657-64
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59551

ABSTRACT

Ability of Cr (VI) biosorption with immobilized Trichoderma viride biomass and cell free Ca-alginate beads was studied in the present study. Biosorption efficiency in the powdered fungal biomass entrapped in polymeric matric of calcium alginate compared with cell free calcium alginate beads. Effect of pH, initial metal ion concentration, time and biomass dose on the Cr (VI) removal by immobilized and cell free Ca-alginate beads were also determined. Biosorption of Cr (VI) was pH dependent and the maximum adsorption was observed at pH 2.0. The adsorption equilibrium was reached in 90 min. The maximum adsorption capacity of 16.075 mgg(-1) was observed at dose 0.2 mg in 100 ml of Cr (VI) solution. The high value of kinetics rate constant Kad (3.73 x 10(-2)) with immobilized fungal biomass and (3.75 x 10(-2)) with cell free Ca- alginate beads showed that the sorption of Cr (VI) ions on immobilized biomass and cell free Ca-alginate beads followed pseudo first order kinetics. The experimental results were fitted satisfactory to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The hydroxyl (-OH) and amino (-NH) functional groups were responsible in biosorption of Cr (VI) with fungal biomass spp. Trichoderma viride analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Adsorption , Alginates/chemistry , Biomass , Calcium/chemistry , Cell-Free System , Chromium/chemistry , Glucuronic Acid/chemistry , Hexuronic Acids/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ions , Kinetics , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Time Factors , Trichoderma/metabolism
20.
Braz. dent. j ; 18(4): 309-313, 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-474470

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the surface microhardness and fluoride release of 5 restorative materials - Ketac-Fil Plus, Vitremer, Fuji II LC, Freedom and Fluorofil - in two storage media: distilled/deionized water and a pH-cycling (pH 4.6). Twelve specimens of each material, were fabricated and the initial surface microhardness (ISM) was determined in a Shimadzu HMV-2000 microhardness tester (static load Knoop). The specimens were submitted to 6- or 18-h cycles in the tested media. The solutions were refreshed at the end of each cycle. All solutions were stored for further analysis. After 15-day storage, the final surface microhardness (FSM) and fluoride release were measured. Fluoride dose was measured with a fluoride-specific electrode (Orion 9609-BN) and digital ion analyzer (Orion 720 A). The variables ISM, FSM and fluoride release were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p<0.05). There was significant difference in FSM between the storage media for Vitremer (pH 4.6 = 40.2 ± 1.5; water = 42.6 ± 1.4), Ketac-Fil Plus (pH 4.6 = 73.4 ± 2.7; water = 58.2 ± 1.3) and Fluorofil (pH 4.6 = 44.3 ± 1.8; water = 38.4 ± 1.0). Ketac-Fil Plus (9.9 ± 18.0) and Fluorofil (4.4 ± 1.3) presented higher fluoride release in water, whereas Vitremer (7.4 ± 7.1), Fuji II LC (5.7 ± 4.7) and Freedom (2.1 ± 1.7) had higher fluoride release at pH 4.6. Microhardness and fluoride release of the tested restorative materials varied according to the storage medium.


Este estudo avaliou as propriedades de microdureza de superfície e liberação de flúor de 5 materiais restauradores (Ketac-Fil Plus, Vitremer, Fuji II LC, Freedom e Fluorofil) em dois meios de imersão: água destilada/deionizada e modelo de ciclagem de pH (4,6). Doze corpos-de-prova de cada material foram confeccionados e tiveram a microdureza de superfície inicial (MSI) determinada utilizando o microdurômetro Shimadzu HMV-2000 Micro Hardness Tester (carga estática Knoop). Os corpos-de-prova foram submetidos a ciclos de 6 e 18 h para os dois meios de imersão. A cada final de ciclo as soluções foram substituídas e armazenadas. Após 15 dias de imersão, a microdureza de superfície final (MSF) e a liberação de flúor foram determinadas. A dosagem de flúor foi feita com um eletrodo específico combinado para íon flúor (9609 BN - Orion) e analisador de íons digital (Orion 720 A). As variáveis MSI, MSF e liberação de flúor foram submetidas à análise de variância e teste de Tukey (p<0,05). Houve diferença estatisticamente significante na MSF entre os meios de imersão para o Vitremer (pH 4,6 = 40,2 ± 1,5; água = 42,6 ± 1,4), Ketac-Fil Plus (pH 4,6 = 73,4 ± 2,7; água = 58,2 ± 1,3) e Fluorofil (pH 4,6 = 44,3 ± 1,8; água = 38,4 ± 1,0). O Ketac-Fil Plus (9,9 ± 18,0) e o Fluorofil (4,4 ± 1,3) liberaram mais flúor na água; o Vitremer (7,4 ± 7,1), Fuji II LC (5,7 ± 4,7) e o Freedom (2,1 ± 1,7) no pH 4,6. A microdureza e liberação de flúor dos materiais restauradores estudados variaram de acordo com o meio de imersão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Dental Materials/chemistry , Fluorides/chemistry , Acetates/chemistry , Buffers , Calcium/chemistry , Compomers/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Diffusion , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Hardness , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ion-Selective Electrodes , Materials Testing , Maleates/chemistry , Phosphorus/chemistry , Resins, Synthetic/chemistry , Surface Properties , Tromethamine/chemistry , Water/chemistry
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