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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 85-92, July. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS) can synthesize functionally diverse bioactive peptides by incorporating nonproteinogenic amino acids, offering a rich source of new drug leads. The bacterium Escherichia coli is a well-characterized production host and a promising candidate for the synthesis of nonribosomal peptides, but only limited bioprocess engineering has been reported for such molecules. We therefore developed a medium and optimized process parameters using the design of experiments (DoE) approach. RESULTS: We found that glycerol is not suitable as a carbon source for rhabdopeptide production, at least for the NRPS used for this study. Alternative carbon sources from the tricarboxylic acid cycle achieved much higher yields. DoE was used to optimize the pH and temperature in a stirred-tank reactor, revealing that optimal growth and optimal production required substantially different conditions. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a chemically defined adapted M9 medium matching the performance of complex medium (lysogeny broth) in terms of product concentration. The maximum yield in the reactor under optimized conditions was 126 mg L-1, representing a 31-fold increase compared to the first shaking-flask experiments with M9 medium and glycerol as the carbon source. Conditions that promoted cell growth tended to inhibit NRPS productivity. The challenge was therefore to find a compromise between these factors as the basis for further process development.


Subject(s)
Peptide Synthases/metabolism , Bioreactors/microbiology , Escherichia coli , Temperature , Biotechnology , Carbon/metabolism , Models, Statistical , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Bioengineering , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 530-540, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878580

ABSTRACT

One-carbon compounds such as methanol and methane are cheap and readily available feedstocks for biomanufacturing. Oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde catalyzed by methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) is a key step of microbial one-carbon metabolism. A variety of MDHs that depend on different co-factors and possess different enzymatic properties have been discovered from native methylotrophs. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent MDHs are widely used in constructing synthetic methylotrophs, whereas this type of MDH usually suffers from low methanol oxidation activity and low affinity to methanol. Consequently, methanol oxidation is considered as a rate-limiting step of methanol metabolism in synthetic methylotrophs. To accelerate methanol oxidation, thereby improving the methanol utilization efficiency of synthetic methylotrophs, massive researches have focused on discovery and engineering of MDHs. In this review, we summarize the ongoing efforts to discover, characterize, and engineer various types of MDHs as well as the applications of MDHs in synthetic methylotrophs. Directed evolution of MDH and construction of multi-enzyme complexes are described in detail. In the future prospective part, we discuss the potential strategies of growth-coupled protein evolution and rational protein design for acquisition of superior MDHs.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Oxidoreductases/genetics , Carbon , Methane , Methanol
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200118, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339316

ABSTRACT

Abstract This paper focuses on developing a reduced distance matrix to improve the computational performance during the protein interactions clustering. This proposed matrix considers as centroids two alpha carbon atoms from a protein structure and stores the distances between these centroids and the other atoms from this same structure. Each row in this matrix represents a database record and each column is a distance value. Through this build matrix, clusters were performed using K-Means Clustering. The precision and performance of this presented technique were compared with aCSM, RID and another distance matrix methodology that considers the distances between all atoms from each protein structure. The results were satisfactory. The reduced distance matrix obtained a high precision and the best computational performance.


Subject(s)
Protein Interaction Maps , Carbon , Cluster Analysis , Computing Methodologies
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 36-42, sept. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For more than a decade, water-soluble, eco-friendly, biocompatible, and low-toxicity fluorescent nanomaterials have received considerable attention for their numerous in vivo and in vitro applications in biomedical imaging, disease diagnostics, and environmental monitoring. Owing to their tunable photoluminescence properties, carbon-based luminescent nanomaterials have shown great potential in bioimaging, photocatalysis, and biosensing among other applications. RESULTS: Marine environments provide excellent resources for the fabrication of these nanomaterials, because many marine organisms contain interesting trigger organic compounds that can be used as precursors. Herein, we synthesize multi-color emissive carbon dots (CDs) with an intrinsic photoluminescence quantum yield of 20.46%. These nanostructures were achieved through the one-step hydrothermal treatment of marine polysaccharide chondroitin sulfate, obtained from shark cartilage, in aqueous solution. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully demonstrate the low toxicity of our marine resource-derived CDs in zebrafish, and provide an initial assessment of their possible use as a bioimaging agent. Notably, the newly synthesized CDs localize in the intestines of zebrafish larvae, thereby indicating their biocompatibility and potential use as in vivo dyes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Sharks , Carbon/chemistry , Quantum Dots/chemistry , Zebrafish , Carbon/toxicity , Cartilage , Quantum Dots/toxicity , Luminescence , Nanostructures , Coloring Agents/toxicity , Coloring Agents/chemistry
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 720-730, 01-05-2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146500

ABSTRACT

Studies related to the monitoring of soil quality by physical attributes are important for the evaluation and maintenance of the sustainability of agricultural systems, besides indicating the appropriate management of the environment, aiming at its conservation and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of aggregates and organic carbon after the application of gypsum, soil scarification and a succession of crops. The treatments consisted of an absence and addition of gypsum, absence and presence of soil scarification, and three systems of crops in succession. The experimental design was made of randomized blocks, in a 2x2x4 factorial scheme, with eight replications. The aggregates were evaluated as stabled in water and soil organic carbon content. The treatment where gypsum was applied, as well as the soybean/maize/brachiaria/fallow (SMBF) succession system, presented better results in soil aggregation and higher levels of organic carbon.


Estudos relativos ao monitoramento da qualidade do solo pelos atributos físicos são importantes para a avaliação e manutenção da sustentabilidade dos sistemas agrícolas, além de sinalizar o manejo adequado do ambiente, visando à sua conservação e produtividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a estabilidade de agregados e teor de carbono orgânico, após a aplicação de gesso, escarificação do solo e sucessão de culturas. Os tratamentos consistiram na ausência e adição de gesso agrícola, ausência e presença de escarificação do solo, e três sistemas de sucessão de culturas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2x2x3 com oito repetições. Sendo avaliada a estabilidade dos agregados estáveis em água e teor de carbono orgânico do solo. O tratamento onde foi aplicado gesso agrícola e o sistema de sucessão SMBP apresentaram melhores resultados na agregação do solo e maiores teores de carbono orgânico.


Subject(s)
Soil , Soil Quality , Soil Treatment , Soybeans , Calcium Sulfate , Carbon , Soil Acidity , Soil Characteristics , Zea mays , Brachiaria , Crop Production
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 743-760, 01-05-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146750

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to evaluate the carbon content of the physical, chemical and oxidizable fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) and to calculate the carbon management index (CMI) in an area managed under an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) in the western region of Paraná - Brazil. The experiment was carried out at the experimental farm, belonging to the Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná. Seventeen areas, which are managed in different ways, fifteen in ICLS and two areas of controls (Forest and Haymaking), using the design divided with two nested controls, with three replications were evaluated. Deformed and undisturbed soil samples were collected from all the areas to determine the total organic carbon (TOC), carbon stock, the physical, chemical and oxidizable fractions of SOM and the CMI in the layers of 0-0.05, 0.05-0.1 and 0.1-0.2 m. Little significant changes in the fractions were found for the management of the ICLS area in relation to the Forest and the area of Haymaking, although the Forest presented the best values for most of the studied fractions. It is recommended to adopt sustainable practices, such as ICLS, even though the average fractions tend to take time to match reference areas.


O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar os teores de carbono das frações física, química e oxidável da matéria orgânica do solo (MOS) e calcular o índice de manejo de carbono (IMC) em uma área manejada em sistema de integração lavoura pecuária (ILP) na região Oeste do Paraná - Brasil. O experimento foi realizado na fazenda experimental, pertencente à Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná. Foram avaliadas dezessete áreas, que foram manejadas de diferentes formas, quinze em ILP e duas testemunhas (Mata e Fenação), sendo empregado o delineamento subsubsubdividido com duas testemunhas aninhadas, com três repetições. Em todas as áreas foram coletadas amostras deformadas e indeformadas de solo para serem determinados o carbono orgânico total, estoque de carbono e as frações físicas granulométricas, oxidáveis e químicas da MOS e o IMC nas camadas de 0-0,05, 0,05-0,1 e 0,1-0,2 m. Alterações pouco significativas das frações foram encontradas para os manejos da área em ILP em relação a mata e a área de fenação, entretanto a mata apresentou os melhores valores para a maioria das frações estudadas. Recomenda-se a adoção de práticas sustentáveis, como a ILP, mesmo que os teores médios das frações tendem a demorar tempo para igualar-se a áreas de referência.


Subject(s)
Soil , Carbon , Soil Characteristics , Forests , Crops, Agricultural , Fertility
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 19-24, Mar. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pyruvic acid (PA), a vital α-oxocarboxylic acid, plays an important role in energy and carbon metabolism. The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica (Y. lipolytica) has considerable potential for the production of PA. An increased NaCl concentration reportedly increases the biomass and PA yield of Y. lipolytica. RESULTS: To increase the yield of PA, the NaCl-tolerant Y. lipolytica A4 mutant was produced using the atmospheric and room temperature plasma method of mutation. The A4 mutant showed growth on medium containing 160 g/L NaCl. The PA yield of the A4 mutant reached 97.2 g/L at 120 h (0.795 g/g glycerol) in a 20-L fermenter with glycerol as the sole carbon source, which was 28.9% higher than that of the parental strain. CONCLUSION: The PA yield from Y. lipolytica can be improved by increasing its NaCl tolerance.


Subject(s)
Pyruvic Acid/metabolism , Yarrowia/genetics , Yarrowia/metabolism , Osmotic Pressure , Yeasts , Carbon/metabolism , Sodium Chloride , Bioreactors , Salt Tolerance/genetics , Fermentation , Glycerol/metabolism , Mutation
9.
Rev. Asoc. Med. Bahía Blanca ; 30(2): 51-54, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1293353

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se presenta un estudio sobre el uso de placas de carbono realizado en el Hospital Naval Puerto Belgrano, Argentina, durante el año 2019. Materiales y métodos: Se han utilizado cinco placas de carbono (CARBOFIX ®), de las cuales fueron tres de tobillo y dos de muñeca. Los pacientes en estudiados fueron jóvenes, siendo tres hombres y dos mujeres. Resultados: En todos los casos se logró la consolidación de la fractura con buenos resultados funcionales. No se presentaron complicaciones infecciosas ni fue necesario retirar ninguna osteosíntesis. Conclusiones: De nuestros resultados se desprende que las placas de carbono presentan las siguientes ventajas: biocompatibilidad, osteointegración, una mayor resistencia y elasticidad y radiolucides con posibilidad de resonancia magnética postratamiento. Por estos motivos, podemos concluir que las placas de carbono son una opción válida para el tratamiento de fracturas.


Introduction: We present a study on the use of carbon plates carried out at Puerto Belgrano Naval Hospital, Argentina, during the year 2019. Materials and methods: Five carbon plates (CARBOFIX ®) were used, three of them for the ankle and two for the wrist. The patients studied were young, being three men and two women. Results: In all cases, fracture consolidation was achieved with good functional results. There were no infectious complications and it was not necessary to remove any osteosynthesis. Conclusions: From our results, we can see that carbon plates present the following advantages: biocompatibility, osseointegration, greater resistance and elasticity and radiolucency with the possibility of post-treatment magnetic resonance. For these reasons, we can conclude that carbon plates constitute a valid option for the treatment of fractures.


Subject(s)
Fracture Fixation , Carbon , Fracture Fixation, Internal
10.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190520, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142513

ABSTRACT

Abstract Conservation agriculture practices can contribute to changes in soil nutrient dynamics over time. This experiment evaluated the changes in total stocks and distribution of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur concentrations in soil, during 60 months, in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) due to anticipated fertilization of sources and doses phosphates applied in soil surface. The experiment was conducted over a period of five years, under Typic Dystrudept, using a randomized block design, in an incomplete factorial scheme (3×3+1), with four replications. Treatments consisted of three sources of P [triple superphosphate (TSP), rock phosphate - Arad (RP) and magnesium thermophosphate (MTP)], along with four doses of P (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 P2O5 total). Samples of soil were collected in 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm layers at 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after beggining of experiment where the following chemical attributes were evaluated: (i) total organic carbon (TOC); (ii) total nitrogen Kjeldahl (TNK); (iii) available P by ion exchange resin method (P-IER); and (iv) available S-SO4 2-. The ICLS conditions provided increased total stocks and concentrations of TOC, TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- over time. The applications of different phosphates had no influence on soil TOC concentrations during the five years of experimentation. The concentrations of TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- showed an increase in different layers of soil, with the application of sources and doses of P. The P fertilization practice that was anticipated can consist of an efficient management of soil fertility, using properly managed conservation systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Phosphates/administration & dosage , Soil/chemistry , Agricultural Cultivation , Soil Analysis , Fertilizers , Animal Husbandry , Phosphorus/analysis , Sulfur/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190651, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142512

ABSTRACT

Abstract To accelerate the recovery of degraded environments, it is necessary to use ecological restoration techniques, which require validation according to the ecosystem conditions where are implemented. This work aimed to evaluate soil microbiological attributes under different ecological restoration technologies in a subtropical forest. The study was conducted at UTFPR-DV, southwest of Paraná, in an ecotone between Mixed Ombrophilous Forest and Semideciduous Seasonal Forest and on an Oxisol. In December 2010, a tillage area of at least 17 years old was isolated and the passive restoration, tree planting and nucleation treatments were installed in 40x54 m plots and four replications. In November 2018 the soil was sampled in these plots and in a native forest area as a reference. There were calculated soil organic carbon content (OCC) and microbiological attributes such as microbial biomass N and C (NMIC and CMIC), basal respiration, fungal spore content and the metabolic (qCO2) and microbial quotient (MICq). It can be concluded that nucleation technology can restore soil microbiological attributes but has not yet reached the conditions of a natural environment. Passive restoration is not a good technology for restoring soil microbiological attributes. The higher contents of CMIC, NMIC, OCC, MICq and fungal spores in the soil under native forest compared to ecological restoration technologies indicate that eight years of adoption of these techniques have not yet been enough to fully recover soil microbiological activity.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Forests , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Spores, Fungal , Tropical Climate , Brazil , Carbazoles , Carbon/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190603, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142511

ABSTRACT

Abstract The no-tillage system associated with crops rotation affects the dynamics of soil organic matter, influencing the formation, reorganization and stabilization of aggregates and the carbon content (C) into soil aggregates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of crop rotations under no-tillage system on C content and soil aggregation. The experiment was conducted at the Paraná Agronomic Institute in Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil. The treatments consisted of six crop rotations, in a 3-year cycle, arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Soil samples were collected at layers of 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm. The aggregate classification was determined by the wet sieving methodology, and the Weighted Mean Diameter (WMD), Geometric Mean Diameter (GMD) and Aggregate Stability Index (ASI) were calculated. The C content in the aggregates was determined by wet oxidation. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test at 5% probability. There was no difference among crop rotations for aggregate classes and aggregation indexes, but were higher in surface, decreasing in depth. The carbon content in the aggregates did not differ among crop rotations, but presented stratification in the soil profile, decreasing in depth. The cycle of three years with crop rotation was insufficient to express possible changes in soil C content and aggregation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soil/chemistry , Carbon/chemistry , Crop Rotation , Fertilizers , Brazil , Crops, Agricultural , Models, Theoretical
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190537, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142508

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main destination of manure is the application to croplands near livestock farms as nutrient source to enhance crop production. The aim of this study was to define the dairy liquid manure (DLM) dose, complementary to the mineral fertilizer, for higher crops yield, in rotation black oat-maize-wheat-soybean, and to identify the soil chemical variables improved by the manure that most affect the yield, in long-term. The experiment was conducted from 2006 to 2015, in no-tillage system, at Paraná State, Brazil. The soil was a Latossolo Bruno Distrófico típico, clayey texture. The treatments consisted by doses of DLM (0, 60, 120 and 180 m3 ha-1 year-1), complementary to the mineral fertilizer (applied in the same amount for all DLM doses). Crops yield and soil chemical variables were evaluated at six depths (0-10; 10-20; 20-30; 30-40; 40-50 and 50-60 cm). The DLM application increased the yield of all crops, but not in all harvests. The DLM even applied at soil surface improved the soil chemical variables in deep layers, resulting in high positive correlation between yield and exchange bases, P, Zn and Mn contents, and high negative correlation with Ca/Mg ratio and potential acidity at depth 0-10 cm. The DLM dose, complementary to the mineral fertilization, that provided higher soybean and wheat yield was about 130 m3 ha-1 year-1, while for maize this dose was equal to or greater than 180 m3 ha-1 year-1. This effect was not attributed to a single chemical variable but the improvement of all chemical variables evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Soil/chemistry , Fertilizers , Crop Production/methods , Manure , Phosphorus/analysis , Soybeans , Triticum , Carbon/analysis , Avena , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays , Farms , Minerals/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828052

ABSTRACT

Salvia miltiorrhiza(Sm) and Salvia castanea f. tomentosa(Sc) hairy roots were used as experimental materials to study the effects of six different carbon sources, galactose, fructose, lactose, glucose, arabinose and sucrose(control), on fresh weight, dry weight, contents and yields of salvianolic acids and tanshinones. The results showed that galactose was most beneficial to the growth of two kinds of hairy roots, while lactose and arabinose were not conducive to their growth. As for Sm hairy roots, fructose significantly promoted the accumulation of salvianolic acid B, and the content increased by 5.801 times and 10.151 times compared with the control group, respectively. Glucose significantly promoted the accumulation of salvianolic acids. The content and yield of rosmarinic acid were 7.674 times and 9.260 times of that of the control group, and the content and yield of salvianolic acid B were 5.532 times and 6.675 times of the control group. For the hairy roots of Sc, galactose significantly increased the content and yield of rosmarinic acid, reaching 7.820 times and 9.944 times of the control group, respectively. Fructose promoted the increase of the content and yield of cryptotanshinone, reaching 9.242 times and 6.609 times of the control group, respectively. The study confirmed the optimal carbon source for the hairy root culture of Sm and Sc, and provided theoretical guidance for large-scale production of Sm drug-derived components and the utilization of Sc.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Plant Roots , Salvia , Salvia miltiorrhiza
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(6): 607-616, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055448

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film is a biocompatible hard coating material that can prevent the leaching of metal ions. This study evaluates the structural characteristics of DLC, with and without silver nanoparticles, deposited by plasma (PECVD) on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) and bone formation in contact with DLC films. Sixty Ti-6Al-4V samples were used divided in: uncoated, coated with DLC and coated with DLC-Ag. After structural characterization, samples were fixed bilaterally at the rabbit's mandible. After 15 and 90 days, samples were characterized again and bone formation in the area was analyzed by histomorphometry. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA. Both the DLC and DLC-Ag films were firmly adhered and showed a high electrical resistance without significant changes in the Raman spectrum after in vivo integration. After 15 days, there were immature bone trabeculae in the interface and partially covering the surface. After 90 days, mature bone filled the interface and coved the surface. There was no statistically significant difference among the three groups in both periods. In conclusion, osseointegration with DLC, DLC-Ag and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V is similar. However, DLC and DLC-Ag coverings have the advantage of electrical insulation and can presumably control bacterial activity and ion leaching.


Resumo O filme de carbono semelhante a diamante (DLC) é um material de revestimento duro e biocompatível que pode impedir a corrosão com liberação de íons metálicos. Este estudo avaliou as características estruturais do filme de DLC, com e sem nanopartículas de prata (Ag), depositadas por plasma (PECVD) em liga de titânio (Ti-6Al-4V) e formação óssea em contato com filmes de DLC. Foram utilizadas 60 amostras de Ti-6Al-4V divididas em: não recobertas, recobertas com DLC e recobertas com DLC-Ag. Após caracterização estrutural, amostras foram fixadas bilateralmente na mandíbula de coelhos. Após 15 e 90 dias, as amostras foram novamente caracterizadas e a formação óssea na área foi analisada por histomorfometria. A análise estatística foi realizada por ANOVA dois fatores. Ambos os filmes DLC e DLC-Ag foram firmemente aderidos e mostraram uma alta resistência elétrica sem alterações significativas no espectro Raman após a osseointegração in vivo. Após 15 dias, havia trabéculas ósseas imaturas na interface e cobrindo parcialmente a superfície. Após 90 dias, o osso maduro preencheu a interface e a superfície. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os três grupos nos dois períodos. Em conclusão, a osseointegração com DLC, DLC-Ag e Ti-6Al-4V não revestido é similar. No entanto, os revestimentos DLC e DLC-Ag têm a vantagem do isolamento elétrico e podem presumivelmente controlar a atividade bacteriana e a corrosão com liberação de íons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Alloys , Metal Nanoparticles , Silver , Surface Properties , Titanium , Materials Testing , Carbon , Diamond
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 589-593, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001490

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability to degrade organic matter by edaphic macrofauna (worms), carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and hydrogenation potential (pH) during the vermicomposting process in different organic residues. The treatments were constituted by organic residues of animal origin (bovine, ovine and equine manure) and vegetable (herb-checkmate and coffee drag), which were conditioned in plastic pots with a capacity of 10 liters, comprising five treatments in a completely randomized experimental design, with five replications. Were inoculated 150 earthworms of the species Eisenia foetida, into each plot. After 87 days, the evaluation of the multiplication of the earthworms was carried out, through its manual count and its cocoons. At the beginning and at the end of the experiment, the samples were submitted to analysis of humidity at 60 °C, pH, volumetric density, chemical analysis of macronutrients and C/N ratio. There was a dominance of worms and cocoons in the process of vermicomposting in the residues of ovine manure and herb-checkmate. The macronutrients (P, K and Mg) and C/N ratio were higher in the vegetal residues, while for N higher values were found in ovine manure and coffee drag treatments, and for Ca higher value among treatments was observed in the coffee drag treatment at the end and the lowest value at initiation. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the importance of the edaphic macrofauna to the vermicomposting process, since it allows more information about its influence on the continuity of soil organic matter decomposition processes.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou avaliar a capacidade de degradar a matéria orgânica pela macrofauna edáfica (minhocas), a relação carbono/nitrogênio (C/N) e o potencial hidrogeniônico (pH), durante o processo da vermicompostagem em diferentes resíduos orgânicos. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por resíduos orgânicos de origem animal (esterco bovino, ovino e equino) e vegetal (resíduo de erva-mate e borra-de-café), os quais foram acondicionados em vasos plásticos com capacidade de 10 litros, compondo cinco tratamentos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualisado, com cinco repetições. Foram inoculadas 150 minhocas da espécie Eisenia foetida, em cada recipiente. Após 87 dias, foi realizada a avaliação da multiplicação das minhocas, através da sua contagem manual e seus casulos. Os resíduos foram submetidos, ao inicio e ao final do experimento, a análises de umidade a 60 °C, pH, densidade volumétrica, análise química de macronutrientes e relação C/N. Houve uma dominância de minhocas e casulos no processo da vermicompostagem nos resíduos de esterco ovino e erva-mate. Observou-se para os macronutrientes (P, K e Mg) e para a relação C/N uma maior quantidade nos resíduos vegetais, enquanto que para N valores maiores foram encontrados nos tratamentos esterco ovino e borra-de-café, e para Ca o maior valor entre os tratamentos foi observado no tratamento com borra de café ao final e o menor valor no inicio. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo demonstram a importância da macrofauna edáfica para o processo da vermicompostagem por possibilitar maiores informações sobre sua influência na continuidade dos processos de decomposição da matéria orgânica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligochaeta/physiology , Soil/chemistry , Composting , Garbage , Manure/analysis , Biodegradation, Environmental , Brazil , Cattle , Carbon/analysis , Sheep, Domestic , Horses , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Nitrogen/analysis
17.
Odontol. vital ; (30): 73-78, ene.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1091416

ABSTRACT

Resumen El tema de la ecología en los últimos años ha sido de gran interés para la población en general, más aún en las empresas para disminuir el impacto ambiental generado, y la práctica odontológica no está exenta, ya que como es de conocimiento, se genera gran cantidad de basura mucha de la cual es infecciosa y altamente contaminante, por lo que la tendencia actual es de generar menos impacto ambiental en todos los aspectos del diario vivir y eso está retomando fuerza. Se abordó el tema de la carbono neutralidad, ya que es un complemento para entender el daño y la huella de carbono que se genera en la actualidad. De igual manera parte del trabajo se basó en la indagación sobre la cantidad de información que poseen los odontólogos acerca del tema de las clínicas dentales ecológicas, asimismo como de los requisitos necesarios para el proyecto, y se enlistaron las principales dificultades que ellos consideraban impedimento para aplicar esta modalidad en su práctica profesional.


Abstract The research intends open a gate between the dental industry and ecofriendly practices, now that the tendency to have less contamination impact in a daily basis routine has risen in the past years. The topic of carbón neutrality has come to the table since it is an important complement to have a better understanding of the damage and carbon foot print that is happening in the present. As well, big part of the study was to investigate if the dentists have had any kind of information regarding ecofriendly dental offices and it requirements, as well to see which one is the biggest difficulties dentists think are pushing them back to apply this modality in their day to day routine.


Subject(s)
Dental Care , Medical Waste Disposal , Ecological Damage , Dental Clinics , Carbon , Environmental Health , Costa Rica , Recycling
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 732-740, may./jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048631

ABSTRACT

Soil organic matter has a strong relation to total organic carbon, and about 85% of organic carbon consists of humic substances (HS), classified as humin (HU), humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA), and denominated as recalcitrant carbon in soil. HS are formed by complex, heterogeneous and polydisperse molecules, which have significant influence on the soil physical and chemical characteristics. The study evaluates the hypothesis that agricultural soils treated with organic residues may present higher carbon stocks as presented in forest soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in recalcitrant carbon and nitrogen stocks in Oxisol (Forest - FL, unfertilized Brachiaria - UB, and fertilized Brachiaria - FB) and Cambisol (Forest - FC, Coastcross - CC, sugarcane - CA, and silage corn - SM) at surface (0.0 - 0.1) and subsurface (0.1 - 0.2 m), in the Zona da Mata in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Result shows that fertilization, low soil disturbance and residual removal promoted increase of C and N content in HS, being close to native forests. Both, carbon and nitrogen recalcitrant, presented reduction with soil depth. HU ranged from 10.5 to 16.7 g kg-1 and presented the highest concentration compared to FA and HA. In Oxisol, FL and FB presented the highest SH concentration and demonstrate the positive effect of fertilization on carbon stocks improving soil quality in well-managed and productive areas. While, In Cambisol, FC and CC presented higher carbon and nitrogen in HS, mainly for HU and HA fractions, and SM showed the lowest concentrations in all fractions. Our results suggest that soil managements with lower soil disturbance and residual removal promotes increasing of carbon and nitrogen in recalcitrant fraction, with concentration close to native forests. Pasture should be fertilized to improve recalcitrant carbon and nitrogen stocks, avoiding process of degradation in tropical soil. It is an important outcome due to high levels of degraded areas in Brazil caused by inadequate use of soil mainly with pasture.


A matéria orgânica do solo tem uma forte relação com o carbono orgânico total, cerca de 85% do carbono orgânico é composto por substâncias húmicas (HS), classificadas como humina (HU), ácidos húmicos (HA) e fúlvicos (FA), denominadas como carbono recalcitrante no solo. As HS são formadas por moléculas complexas, heterogêneas e polidispersas, que exercem influência significativa nas características físicas e químicas do solo. O estudo avalia a hipótese de que solos agrícolas tratados com resíduos orgânicos podem apresentar maiores estoques de carbono como os encontrados em solos florestais. O objetivo destetrabalho foi avaliar as alterações nos estoques de carbono e nitrogênio recalcitrantes em Latossolo (Floresta - FL, Brachiaria não fertilizada ­ UB, e Brachiaria fertilizada - FB) e Cambissolo (Floresta - FC, coastcross - CC, cana-de-açúcar e milho para silagem - SM) na superfície (0,0 - 0,1) e sub-superfície (0,1 - 0,2 m), na Zona da Mata em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os resultados mostram que a adubação, a baixa perturbação do solo e a remoção dos resíduos promoveram aumento do teor de C e N na HS, estando próximos às florestas nativas. Ambos, carbono e nitrogênio recalcitrantes, apresentaram redução com a profundidade do solo. A HU variou de 10,5 a 16,7 g kg-1 e apresentou a maior concentração em relação à FA e HA. Em Latossolo, FL e FB apresentaram a maior concentração de SH e demonstraram o efeito positivo da adubação nos estoques de carbono, melhorando a qualidade do solo em áreas bem manejadas e produtivas. Enquanto, no Cambissolo, FC e CC apresentarammaiores teores de carbono e nitrogênio nas HS, principalmente nas frações HU e HA, e SM apresentou as menores concentrações em todas as frações. Nossos resultados mostram que manejos de solo com menor perturbação e remoção de resíduos promovem o aumento de carbono e nitrogênio em frações recalcitrantes, com concentração próxima às florestas nativas. A pastagem deve ser fertilizada para melhorar o estoque de carbono e nitrogênio recalcitrante, evitando o processo de degradação do solo tropical. Este é um resultado importante devido aos altos níveis de áreas degradadas no Brasil causadas pelo uso inadequado do solo,principalmente com pastagens.


Subject(s)
Agricultural Zones , Brachiaria , Garbage , Carbon , Tropical Ecosystem , Nitrogen
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 389-395, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771368

ABSTRACT

Most organisms contain glutamate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.4.1.2-1.4.1.4). In eukaryotes, the enzyme is mainly present in mitochondria. This enzyme plays a vital role in the metabolism of nitrogen and carbon and the signaling pathway. Studies have found that glutamate dehydrogenase has a certain relationship with the occurrence and development of tumors, which is significant for tumor research, but reviews on its relationship with human tumors are rare. This review summarized the relationship between glutamate dehydrogenase and breast cancer, glioma, colorectal cancer and ovarian cancer, etc, thus providing assistance for related research.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Glioma , Glutamate Dehydrogenase , Humans , Mitochondria , Nitrogen
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776883

ABSTRACT

Jatrogricaine A (1), a new diterpenoid possessing a 5/6/6/4 carbon ring system, together with eight known diterpenoids (2-9) were isolated from the stems of Jatropha podagrica. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, and compound 3 showed significant inhibitory effects against nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells with an IC of 13.44 ± 0.28 μmol·L, being comparable to the positive control, quercetin (IC 17.00 ± 2.10 μmol·L).


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Carbon , Diterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Jatropha , Chemistry , Lipopolysaccharides , Toxicity , Macrophages , Metabolism , Mice , Molecular Structure , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Stems , Chemistry
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