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Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 10-16, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970101


The present study was aimed to investigate whether Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-mediated pyroptosis participated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), and to explore the role of caspase-1 and caspase-11 pyroptosis pathways in this process. The mice were divided into four groups: wild type (WT), WT-LPS, GSDMD knockout (KO) and KO-LPS. The sepsis-associated AKI was induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (40 mg/kg). Blood samples were taken to determine the concentration of creatinine and urea nitrogen. The pathological changes of renal tissue were observed via HE staining. Western blot was used to investigate the expression of pyroptosis-associated proteins. The results showed that the concentrations of serum creatinine and urea nitrogen in the WT-LPS group were significantly increased, compared with those in the WT group (P < 0.01); whereas serum creatinine and urea nitrogen in the KO-LPS group were significantly decreased, compared with those in the WT-LPS group (P < 0.01). HE staining results showed that LPS-induced renal tubular dilatation was mitigated in GSDMD KO mice. Western blot results showed that LPS up-regulated the protein expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), GSDMD and GSDMD-N in WT mice. GSDMD KO significantly down-regulated the protein levels of IL-1β, caspase-11, pro-caspase-1, caspase-1(p22) induced by LPS. These results suggest that GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis is involved in LPS-induced sepsis-associated AKI. Caspase-1 and caspase-11 may be involved in GSDMD cleavage.

Animals , Mice , Acute Kidney Injury , Caspase 1 , Caspases/metabolism , Creatinine , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice, Knockout , Nitrogen , Sepsis , Urea , Gasdermins/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 146-152, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969817


Objective: This study aims to investigate the associations between genetic variations of pyroptosis pathway related key genes and adverse events (AEs) of postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with rectal cancer. Methods: DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood which was collected from 347 patients before CRT. Sequenom MassARRAY was used to detect the genotypes of 43 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) in eight pyroptosis genes, including absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), caspase-1 (CASP1), caspase-4(CASP4), caspase-5 (CASP5), caspase-11 (CASP11), gasdermin D (GSDMD), gasdermin E (GSDME) and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). The associations between 43 htSNPs and AEs were evaluated by the odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for sex, age, clinical stage, tumor grade, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), surgical procedure, and tumor location. Results: Among the 347 patients with rectal cancer underwent concurrent CRT with capecitabine after surgery, a total of 101(29.1%) occurred grade ≥ 2 leukopenia. rs11226565 (OR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.21-0.79, P=0.008), rs579408(OR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.03-2.29, P=0.034) and rs543923 (OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.41-0.98, P=0.040) were significantly associated with the occurrence of grade ≥ 2 leukopenia. One hundred and fifty-six (45.0%) had grade ≥ 2 diarrhea, two SNPs were significantly associated with the occurrence of grade ≥ diarrhea, including CASP11 rs10880868 (OR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91, P=0.020) and GSDME rs2954558 (OR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.01-2.31, P=0.050). In addition, sixty-six cases (19.0%) developed grade ≥2 dermatitis, three SNPs that significantly associated with the risk of grade ≥2 dermatitis included GSDME rs2237314 (OR=0.36, 95% CI: 0.16-0.83, P=0.017), GSDME rs12540919 (OR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.27-0.99, P=0.045) and NLRP3 rs3806268 (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.03-2.22, P=0.037). There was no significant difference in the association between other genetic variations and AEs of rectal cancer patients (all P>0.05). Surgical procedure and tumor location had great impacts on the occurrence of grade ≥2 diarrhea and dermatitis (all P<0.01). Conclusion: The genetic variants of CASP4, CASP11, GSDME and NLRP3 are associated with the occurrence of AEs in patients with rectal cancer who received postoperative CRT, suggesting they may be potential genetic markers in predicting the grade of AEs to achieve individualized treatment of rectal cancer.

Humans , Pyroptosis , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Gasdermins , Chemoradiotherapy/adverse effects , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Caspases/metabolism , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Leukopenia/genetics , Genetic Variation , Dermatitis
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 410-415, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981881


Objective To investigate the protective effect of artesunate on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) and its mechanism in neonatal rats. Methods 7-day-old neonatal SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, artesunate 5 mg/kg group, artesunate 10 mg/kg group, artesunate 20 mg/kg group and dexamethasone 6 mg/kg group, with 18 rats in each group. HIBD models were established in groups except for the sham operation group. The sham operation group only needed to separate the left common carotid artery without ligation and nitrogen-oxygen mixed gas ventilation. Each group was injected with drug intraperitoneally right after surgery and the rats in the sham operation group and the model group were injected with an equal volume of normal saline (once a day for a total of 5 times). One hour after the last injection, the rats in each group were scored for neurological defects. After the rats were sacrificed, the brain water content was measured and the pathological changes of the brain tissues of rats were observed. Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to detect the neuronal cell apoptosis, and ELISA was applied to detect the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in brain tissues and peripheral blood of each group of rats. Western blot analysis was adopted to detect the protein expression levels of NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) and caspase-1 in the rats brain tissues of each group. Results Compared with the model group, the neurological deficit score was decreased; the pathological damage of brain tissues was relieved; the brain water content was significantly reduced; the apoptosis number of hippocampal neurons was decreased significantly; the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in brain tissues and peripheral blood were significantly reduced; the protein expression levels of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 were significantly lowered in the middle-dose and high-dose artesunate groups and the dexamethasone group. Conclusion Artesunate can improve the neurological function, relieve the brain damage, and alleviate the brain edema in neonatal rats with HIBD. It can protect the HIBD, which may be related to the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reduction of inflammatory cytokine secretion.

Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Artesunate/pharmacology , Brain/metabolism , Caspases/metabolism , Dexamethasone , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-6/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Water/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(5): e8499, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001530


Two new coordination polymers [Zn (bdc)(bpybzimH2)](DMF)0.5 (1, H2bdc=1,4-dicarboxybenzene, bpybzimH2=6,6′-bis-(1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine, DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide) and [Co (bpybzimH2)(sbc)]H2O (2, H2sbc=4-mercaptobenzoic acid) have been successfully prepared under solvothermal conditions using the multi-N chelating organic ligand bpybzimH2 as the foundational building block. In addition, the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was conducted to evaluate the anti-proliferation activity of compounds 1 and 2 against human spinal tumor cells OPM-2. The cell viability curves showed that the two compounds have anti-proliferation activity on spinal tumor cells, and the activity of compound 1 is higher than compound 2. The annexin V-FITC/PI assay and western blot were used to detect the apoptotic percentage of OPM-2 cells incubated with compounds 1 and 2. The YAP protein expression and its role in cell apoptosis were further studied with qRT-PCR, immunoblotting, and flow cytometer.

Humans , Polymers/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Ligands , Spinal Neoplasms/enzymology , Spinal Neoplasms/pathology , Transfection , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Line, Tumor
São Paulo med. j ; 136(6): 525-532, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-991701


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The role of villous atrophy in apoptosis, a distinctive feature of celiac disease, is a matter of controversy. The aim of this study was to determine the apoptosis rate through immunohistochemical staining for M30 and M65 in celiac disease cases. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study in a tertiary-level center. METHODS: Duodenal biopsies from 28 treatment-naive patients with celiac disease, 16 patients with potential celiac disease, 10 patients with a gluten-free diet and 8 controls were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for the end-apoptotic marker M30 and the total cell death marker M65. H-scores were compared. Several laboratory parameters were recorded concomitantly, and at the one-year follow-up for celiac disease and potential celiac disease patients. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in H-score for M30 expression between the celiac disease, potential celiac disease and gluten-free diet groups (P = 0.009). There was no significant difference in H-score for M65 expression. There was a positive correlation between the H-score for M30 expression and the anti-tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin A (anti-tTgIgA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin G (anti-tTgIgG) levels (R = 0.285, P = 0.036; and R = 0.307, P = 0.024, respectively); and between the H-score for M65 expression and the anti-tTgIgA and anti-tTgIgG levels (R = 0.265, P = 0.053; and R=0.314, P = 0.021, respectively). There was no difference between celiac disease and potential celiac disease patients regarding the laboratory parameters selected. CONCLUSION: The rates of apoptosis and nutritional deficiencies in patients with potential celiac disease were similar to those in patients with celiac disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Celiac Disease/pathology , Apoptosis , Caspases/metabolism , Keratin-18/metabolism , Biopsy , Biomarkers/metabolism , Celiac Disease/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(9): e7560, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951752


We constructed lentiviral vectors containing the human wild-type GJB6 gene and the mutant variants A88V and G11R. The three proteins were stably expressed by the Tet-on system in the HaCaT cell line and used to study the functional effect of the variants. The CCK-8 assay and flow cytometric analyses were used to determine the levels of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Western blot analyses were performed to analyze the relevant clinical indicators of hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and markers of apoptosis in transfected HaCaT cells. The CCK8 assay and the flow cytometry results showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the apoptosis of HaCaT cells expressing the A88V and G11R mutants. In addition, we demonstrated that the A88V and G11R mutants induced the apoptosis of transfected HaCaT cells via the activation of caspase-3, -8, -9, and PARA. No change was observed in the activity of BAX compared with the control. This study provides further clarification on the mechanisms underlying the effect of the mutant variants A88V and G11R of the GJB6 gene on the induction of HaCaT cell apoptosis.

Humans , Ectodermal Dysplasia/genetics , Apoptosis/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Connexin 30/physiology , Mutation/drug effects , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Doxycycline/pharmacology , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Flow Cytometry
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(6): 594-602, Nov.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829706


Abstract Background: Local anesthetics (LAs) are generally considered as safe, but cytotoxicity has been reported for several local anesthetics used in humans, which is not well investigated. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of lidocaine, ropivacaine and the combination of lidocaine and ropivacaine were evaluated on human melanoma cell lines. Melphalan, a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, was used as a control agent for comparison of cytotoxic activity. Methods: Melanoma cell lines, A375 and Hs294T, were exposed to 1 h to different concentrations of above agents. Cell-viability after exposure was determined by flow cytometry. Results: Investigated LAs showed detrimental cytotoxicity on studied melanoma cell lines in time- (p < 0.001), concentration- (p < 0.001), and agent dependant. In both A375 and Hs294T cell lines, minimum cell viability rates were found after 72 h of exposure to these agents. Lidocaine 2% caused a reduction of vital cells to 10% ± 2% and 14% ± 2% in A375 and Hs294T, respectively after 72 h of exposure. Ropivacaine 0.75% after 72 h reduced viable cells to 15% ± 3% and 25% ± 3% in A375 and Hs294T, respectively. Minimum cell viability after 72 h exposure to the combination was 10% ± 2% and 18% ± 2% in A375 and Hs294T, respectively. Minimum cell viability after 72 h exposure to melphalan was 8% ± 1% and 12% ± 2%, in A375 and Hs294T, respectively. Conclusion: LAs have cytotoxic activity on human melanoma cell lines in a time-, concentration- and agent-dependant manner. Apoptosis in the cell lines was mediated through activity of caspases-3 and caspases-8.

Resumo Justificativa: Os anestésicos locais (ALs) são geralmente considerados como seguros, mas citotoxicidade foi relatada em vários anestésicos locais usados em seres humanos, a qual não é bem investigada. No presente estudo, a citotoxicidade de lidocaína e ropivacaína e da combinação de lidocaína e ropivacaína foi avaliada em linhagens celulares de melanoma humano. Melfalano, um agente alquilante de mostarda nitrogenada, foi usado como um agente de controle para a comparação da atividade citotóxica. Métodos: Linhagens celulares de melanoma, A375 e Hs294T foram expostas por uma hora a concentrações diferentes dos agentes mencionados acima. A viabilidade celular após a exposição foi determinada por citometria de fluxo. Resultados: Os ALs investigados mostraram citotoxicidade prejudicial nas linhagens celulares de melanoma estudadas dependente do tempo (p < 0,001), da concentração (p < 0,001) e do agente. Em ambas as linhagens de células A375 e Hs294T, níveis mínimos de viabilidade celular foram encontrados após 72 horas de exposição a esses agentes. Lidocaína a 2% provocou uma redução das células vitais para 10% ± 2% e 14% ± 2% em A375 e Hs294T, respectivamente, após 72 horas de exposição. Ropivacaína a 0,75% após 72 horas reduziu as células viáveis para 15% ± 3% e 25% ± 3%, em A375 e Hs294T, respectivamente. A viabilidade celular mínima após exposição de 72 horas para a combinação foi de 10% ± 2% e 18% ± 2% em A375 e Hs294T, respectivamente. A viabilidade celular mínima após exposição de 72 horas ao melfalano foi de 8% ± 1% e 12 ± 2, em A375 e Hs294T, respectivamente. Conclusão: Os ALs têm atividade citotóxica em linhagens de celulares de melanoma humano de modo dependente do tempo, da concentração e do agente. A apoptose nas linhagens celulares foi mediada por meio da atividade das caspases-3 e caspases-8.

Humans , Cell Survival/drug effects , Amides/toxicity , Anesthetics, Local/toxicity , Lidocaine/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Flow Cytometry , Ropivacaine
Salud colect ; 11(1): 99-114, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-746687


El Consejo Federal de Medicina de Brasil (CFM) -órgano normativo y fiscalizador del ejercicio ético de la medicina- prohibió, en 2008, la participación de médicos brasileños en investigaciones que utilizaran placebo para enfermedades con tratamiento eficaz y efectivo, en contraposición a la Declaración de Helsinki, que permite su uso en condiciones metodológicamente justificadas. Con el objetivo de verificar si la normativa ética del CFM modificó el uso de placebo en ensayos clínicos de fase III en Brasil, se analizaron varias características de sus registros en el, en los períodos de 2003 a 2007 y de 2009 a 2013. Se concluye que: a) la normativa promulgada por el CFM en 2008 fue ineficaz y prevaleció la posición adoptada por la Declaración de Helsinki; b) el patrocinio de ensayos con placebo por parte de la industria farmacéutica multinacional fue significativo; c) predominaron las investigaciones de fármacos para enfermedades crónicas, y fueron poco significativas para las enfermedades postergadas, de importancia para Brasil.

In 2008, Brazil's Federal Council of Medicine [Conselho Federal de Medicina] (CFM) - regulatory and supervisory agency on the ethical practice of medicine - banned the participation of Brazilian doctors in studies using placebos for diseases with efficient and effective treatment. This position differs with the Helsinki Declaration, which allows the use of placebos in methodologically justified conditions. To ascertain whether the CMF's ethical regulation modified the use of placebos in phase III clinical trials in Brazil, characteristics of the records in were researched in the periods from 2003 to 2007 and from 2009 to 2013. The conclusions reached were: a) the regulations issued by the CFM in 2008 were ineffective and the position adopted by the Helsinki Declaration prevails; b) there was significant sponsorship by the multinational pharmaceutical industry of trials with placebos; c) the research was predominantly on new drugs for chronic diseases, with little study done of the neglected diseases which are of great importance to Brazil.

Animals , Rats , Apoptosis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/genetics , Heme/deficiency , Nerve Degeneration/genetics , Neurons/metabolism , Porphyrias/complications , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspases/drug effects , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Survival/genetics , Collagen Type XI/drug effects , Collagen Type XI/metabolism , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/drug effects , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/genetics , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Down-Regulation/physiology , Enzyme Inhibitors , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Heme/biosynthesis , Heptanoates , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Membrane Proteins/drug effects , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nerve Degeneration/metabolism , Nerve Degeneration/physiopathology , Nerve Tissue Proteins/drug effects , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/drug effects , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/pathology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Porphyrias/metabolism , Porphyrias/physiopathology , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/drug effects , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SMN Complex Proteins , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Up-Regulation/physiology , Vesicular Transport Proteins/drug effects , Vesicular Transport Proteins/genetics , Vesicular Transport Proteins/metabolism
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 30(1): 24-32, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742904


Objective: A retrospective cohort study was preformed aiming to verify the presence of transient dysfunction of gas exchange in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery and determine if this disorder is linked to cardiorespiratory events. Methods: We included 942 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery and cardiac procedures who were referred to the Intensive Care Unit between June 2007 and November 2011. Results: Fifteen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (2%), 199 (27.75%) had mild transient dysfunction of gas exchange, 402 (56.1%) had moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange, and 39 (5.4%) had severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange. Hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the emergence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange postoperatively (P=0.02 and P=0.019, respectively) and were risk factors for this dysfunction (P=0.0023 and P=0.0017, respectively). Diabetes mellitus was also a risk factor for transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.03). Pneumonia was present in 8.9% of cases and correlated with the presence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.001). Severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange was associated with patients who had renal replacement therapy (P=0.0005), hemotherapy (P=0.0001), enteral nutrition (P=0.0012), or cardiac arrhythmia (P=0.0451). Conclusion: Preoperative hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the occurrence of postoperative transient dysfunction of gas exchange. The preoperative risk factors included hypertension, cardiogenic shock, and diabetes. Postoperatively, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, renal replacement therapy, hemotherapy, and cardiac arrhythmia were associated with the appearance of some degree of transient dysfunction of gas exchange, which was a risk factor for reintubation, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and renal replacement therapy in the postoperative period ...

Objetivo: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo com objetivo de verificar a presença de disfunção transitória da troca gasosa no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca e determinar se esse transtorno está relacionado a eventos cardiorrespiratórios. Métodos: Foram incluídos 942 pacientes consecutivos submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca e procedimentos cardíacos, encaminhados para a Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, entre junho de 2007 e novembro de 2011. Resultados: A síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo foi observada em 15 (2%) pacientes, 199 (27,75%) pacientes apresentaram disfunção transitória da troca gasosa leve, disfunção transitória da troca gasosa moderada foi observada em 402 (56,1%) pacientes e disfunção transitória da troca gasosa grave em 39 (5,4%). A presença de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e choque cardiogênico foi associada ao surgimento de disfunção transitória da troca gasosa moderada no período pós-operatório (P=0,02 e P=0,019, respectivamente) e foram considerados fatores de risco para essa disfunção (P=0,0023 e P=0,0017, respectivamente). A presença de diabetes mellitus também foi considerada um fator de risco para disfunção transitória da troca gasosa (P=0,03). Houve correlação entre a presença de pneumonia e a presença de disfunção transitória da troca gasosa moderada em 8,9% dos casos (P=0,001). A presença de disfunção transitória da troca gasosa grave foi associada a pacientes que necessitaram de hemodiálise (P=0,0005), hemoterapia (P=0,0001), nutrição enteral (P=0,0012), ou arritmia cardíaca (P=0,0451). Conclusão: A presença de hipertensão arterial sistêmica pré-operatória e choque cardiogênico foi associada à ocorrência de disfunção transitória da troca gasosa pós-operatória. Os fatores de risco pré-operatórios foram hipertensão arterial sistêmica, choque cardiogênico e diabetes. No pós-operatório, pneumonia, pneumonia associada à ventilação, hemodiálise, hemoterapia e arritmia cardíaca foram associadas com certo grau de ...

Animals , Humans , Rats , Alcohol Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)/metabolism , Phenanthrenes/metabolism , Aldehyde Reductase , CCAAT-Binding Factor/metabolism , Caspases/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Leupeptins/pharmacology , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 297-306, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66456


Exposure to cadmium (Cd) induces apoptosis in osteoblasts (OBs); however, little information is available regarding the specific mechanisms of Cd-induced primary rat OB apoptosis. In this study, Cd reduced cell viability, damaged cell membranes and induced apoptosis in OBs. We observed decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potentials, ultrastructure collapse, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and increased concentrations of cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 following Cd treatment. Cd also increased the phosphorylation of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in OBs. Pretreatment with the caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone, ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126), p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and JNK inhibitor (SP600125) abrogated Cd-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, Cd-treated OBs exhibited signs of oxidative stress protection, including increased antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase levels and decreased formation of reactive oxygen species. Taken together, the results of our study clarified that Cd has direct cytotoxic effects on OBs, which are mediated by caspase- and MAPK pathways in Cd-induced apoptosis of OBs.

Animals , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cadmium/toxicity , Caspases/metabolism , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Dec ; 51(6): 506-511
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156530


N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) is an essential eukaryotic enzyme which catalyzes the transfer of the myristoyl group to the terminal glycine residue of a number of proteins including those involved in signal transduction and apoptotic pathways. In higher eukaryotes, two isoforms of NMT have been identified (NMT1 and NMT2) which share about 76% amino acid sequence identity in humans. Protein-protein interactions of NMTs reveal that m-calpain interacts with NMT1 whereas caspase-3 interacts with NMT2. These findings reveal differential interactions of both isoforms of NMT with various signaling molecules. This minireview provides an overview of the regulation of N-myristoyltransferase by calpain and caspase systems.

Acyltransferases/metabolism , Animals , Calpain/metabolism , Caspases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/physiology , Humans , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Models, Biological , Signal Transduction/physiology
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 446-450, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731140


Introduction: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the complications of the use of intravascular contrast agents, being defined as a reduction of the glomerular filtration rate caused by the iodinated contrast. Most CIN data derive from the cardiovascular literature, which identified as the most consistent risk factors pre-existing chronic renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. However, these studies limit their conclusions to a more specific patient population. Computerized tomography as a cause of CIN has been studied less often. Objective: To report on the incidence of computerized tomography contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) in an inpatient population of a tertiary general hospital, identifying potentially avoidable risk factors. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study with inpatients admitted at a tertiary hospital requiring contrast-induced CT. The primary outcome was the development of CIN, measure by the alteration of serum creatinine or glomerular filtration rate in 48 or 72 hours. Through clinical interview, we verified possible risk factors and preventive measures instituted by the medical team and their association with development of CIN. Results: Of a total of 410 patients, 35 (8.5%) developed CIN. There was a positive correlation between CIN and the presence of diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.15; 95%CI 1.35-4.06; p = 0.02), heart failure (OR = 2.23; 95%CI 1.18-8.8; p = 0.022), and renal failure (OR = 3.36; 95%CI 1.57- 7.17; p = 0.002) Conclusion: Incidence of CIN varies according to the population. Diabetes mellitus, heart failure and renal failure were independent risk factors for the development of CT-associated CIN. Further studies are needed to better understand and treat CT-associated CIN. .

Introdução: Nefropatia induzida por contraste (NIC) é consequência do uso de meios de contraste intravenoso, sendo definida como uma redução da taxa de filtração glomerular. A maioria dos dados de NIC são da literatura cardiovascular, que identificou como fatores de risco insuficiência renal crônica e diabetes. Entretanto, esses estudos limitam suas conclusões a uma população especifica de pacientes. Tomografia Computadorizada contrastada como causa de NIC foi menos estudada. Objetivo: Reportar incidência de NIC numa população de pacientes internados em hospital terciário submetidos à tomografia computadorizada com contraste, identificando possíveis fatores de risco evitáveis. Métodos: Realizamos um estudo de coorte prospectivo com pacientes internados em hospital terciário e que necessitaram de tomografia computadorizada com contraste. O desfecho primário foi desenvolvimento de NIC, verificado por meio da variação da creatinina sérica ou taxa de filtração glomerular em 48 ou 72 horas. Em entrevista clínica, verificamos possíveis fatores de risco, assim como medidas preventivas instituídas pela equipe médica e suas possíveis associações com desenvolvimento de NIC. Resultados: Do total de 410 pacientes, 35 (8,5%) desenvolveram NIC. Houve correlação positiva entre desenvolvimento de NIC e a presença de diabetes mellitus (OR = 2,15; 95%CI 1,35-4,06; p = 0,02), insuficiência cardíaca (OR = 2,23; 95%CI 1,18-8,8; p = 0,022), e insuficiência renal (OR = 3,36; 95%CI 1,57-7,17; p = 0,002). Conclusão: A incidência de NIC varia de acordo com a população. Diabetes, insuficiência cardíaca e insuficiência renal foram fatores de risco independentes para o desenvolvimento de NIC. Mais estudos são ...

Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Caspases/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Sulindac/analogs & derivatives , Sulindac/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Apoptosis/physiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/enzymology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Division/drug effects , DNA, Neoplasm/antagonists & inhibitors , DNA, Neoplasm/biosynthesis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Liver Neoplasms/enzymology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase/metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured
Rev. bras. enferm ; 67(5): 692-699, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-731217


Estudo prospectivo, tipo coorte que visou identificar a influência da sobrecarga de trabalho da Enfermagem na ocorrência de incidentes sem lesão e eventos adversos em 399 pacientes internados em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Para coleta de dados, foi aplicado um questionário estruturado e feita análise de prontuários. Nessas admissões, aproximadamente 78% dos incidentes sem lesão e eventos adversos em pacientes foram relacionados à esfera da Enfermagem. Essas ocorrências foram atribuídas à sobrecarga de trabalho, aumentaram o número de dias de internação e o risco de óbito dos pacientes estudados. É fundamental que os gerentes de enfermagem atuem no processo de gestão de pessoas no âmbito hospitalar, evitando a sobrecarga de trabalho e proporcionando, consequentemente, aumento da segurança do paciente.

This prospective cohort study aimed to identify the influence of nursing work overload on the occurrence of incidents without injury and adverse events in 399 patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICU). For data collection, a structured questionnaire was administered and an analysis of medical records was performed. In these admissions, approximately 78% of incidents without injury and adverse events in patients were related to the sphere of Nursing. These occurrences were attributed to overwork, increased the number of days of hospitalization and the risk of death of patients. It is essential that nursing managers work on the staff hospital management avoiding work overload to contribute for patient safety.

Estudio de cohorte prospectivo que tuvo como objetivo identificar la influencia de la carga de trabajo de enfermería en la ocurrencia de incidentes sin lesión y los eventos adversos en 399 pacientes ingresados en Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI). Para la recolección de datos, se administró un cuestionario estructurado y realizó el análisis de los registros en prontuarios. En estos ingresos, aproximadamente el 78% de los incidentes sin lesión y los eventos adversos en los pacientes estaban relacionados con el ámbito de la Enfermería. Estos hechos fueron atribuidos al exceso de trabajo, aumentaran el número de días de hospitalización y el riesgo de muerte de los pacientes. Es esencial que los responsables de enfermería que actúan en el proceso de gestión de las personas en los hospitales, eviten el exceso de trabajo y por lo tanto proporcionar una mayor seguridad de los pacientes.

Animals , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Division/drug effects , Cell Line , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Hepatocytes/cytology , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Salvia miltiorrhiza
Braz. dent. j ; 25(5): 451-456, Sep-Oct/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731051


Osteoblastoma is a benign neoplasia and is uncommon in the jaws. In some cases, this lesion presents extremely aggressive local characteristics and is termed aggressive osteoblastoma. Because the clinical, radiographic and histopathologic characteristics are similar to those of a variety of benign and malignant tumors, it poses a diagnostic dilemma. This report presents a case of an aggressive osteoblastoma in the mandible and discusses the differential diagnosis of this lesion. A 13-year-old white male sought the Stomatology Clinic at the State University of Paraíba, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil, complaining of asymptomatic swelling on the left side of his face. Cone-beam computerized tomography showed a multilocular, hypodense bone lesion, located in the body of the left mandible and lower third of the ascending ramus. The initial diagnostic hypothesis was juvenile ossifying fibroma or osteosarcoma. After histopathologic examination, the final diagnosis was aggressive osteoblastoma. Surgical resection with a safety margin was performed. There was no evidence of recurrence after a follow-up period of 4 years.

O osteoblastoma é uma neoplasia benigna e incomum nos maxilares. Em alguns casos esta lesão apresenta características locais extremamente agressivas, sendo denominada osteoblastoma agressivo. Devido às características clínicas, radiográficas e histopatológicas serem similares a uma variedade de tumores benignos e malignos, o seu diagnóstico é um dilema. Este relato apresenta o caso de um osteoblastoma agressivo na mandíbula e discute o diagnóstico diferencial desta lesão. Paciente, branco, 13 anos de idade, foi atendido na Clínica de Estomatologia da Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, Campina Grande, PB, Brasil, queixando-se de aumento de volume assintomático do lado esquerdo de sua face. A tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico revelou uma lesão óssea hipodensa multilocular, localizada no corpo do lado esquerdo da mandíbula e no terço inferior do ramo ascendente da mandíbula. A hipótese diagnóstica foi de fibroma ossificante juvenil e osteosarcoma. Após exame histopatológico, o diagnóstico final foi osteoblastoma agressivo. Foi realizada ressecção cirúrgica com margem de segurança. Não houve sinais de recorrência após 4 anos de acompanhamento.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Apoptosis/physiology , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , Antibodies/metabolism , Antibodies/pharmacology , /metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/physiology , Caspase 9 , Cells, Cultured , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Caspases/metabolism , Enzyme Activation , Embryo, Mammalian/physiology , Gene Targeting , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Mice, Knockout , Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics , Survival Rate , Stem Cells/cytology , Stem Cells/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/physiology
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 355-365, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70517


The enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amebiasis. During infection, adherence of E. histolytica through Gal/GalNAc lectin on the surface of the amoeba can induce caspase-3-dependent or -independent host cell death. Phosphorylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC) in E. histolytica play an important function in the adhesion, killing, or phagocytosis of target cells. In this study, we examined the role of amoebic PI3K and PKC in amoeba-induced apoptotic cell death in Jurkat T cells. When Jurkat T cells were incubated with E. histolytica trophozoites, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization and DNA fragmentation in Jurkat cells were markedly increased compared to those of cells incubated with medium alone. However, when amoebae were pretreated with a PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin before being incubated with E. histolytica, E. histolytica-induced PS externalization and DNA fragmentation in Jurkat cells were significantly reduced compared to results for amoebae pretreated with DMSO. In addition, pretreatment of amoebae with a PKC inhibitor, staurosporine strongly inhibited Jurkat T cell death. However, E. histolytica-induced cleavage of caspase-3, -6, and -7 were not inhibited by pretreatment of amoebae with wortmannin or staurosporin. In addition, we found that amoebic PI3K and PKC have an important role on amoeba adhesion to host compartment. These results suggest that amebic PI3K and PKC activation may play an important role in caspase-independent cell death in Entamoeba-induced apoptosis.

Humans , Apoptosis , Caspases/metabolism , Entamoeba histolytica/enzymology , Hydrolysis , Jurkat Cells , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/parasitology
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e9-2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199829


Activated protein C (APC) is a cytoprotective anticoagulant that can promote cutaneous healing. We examined the effect of APC on viability and differentiation of the osteoblastic line, MG63, in the presence and absence of bisphosphonates (BPs). Osteoblasts were cultured and treated for 24 or 48 h with Alendronate (Aln), Zoledronate (Zol) or Pamidronate (Pam) at concentrations ranging from 10-4 to 10-6 M. Cell differentiation was measured using type 1 collagen production, Alizarin red staining and alkaline phosphatase activity, whereas cell viability was assessed using MTT and crystal violet assays. All three BPs induced MG63 cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pam- and Zol-related cell death was prevented by APC treatment; however, cell death induced by Aln was accelerated by APC. APC induced MG63 cell differentiation that was enhanced by Aln, but inhibited by Pam or Zol. Endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) was expressed by MG63 cells and mediated the protective effect of APC on Zol-induced viability. In summary, we have demonstrated that (1) APC favorably regulates MG63 viability and differentiation toward bone growth, (2) APC differentially regulates the effects of specific BPs and (3) at least part of the effects of APC is mediated through EPCR. These findings highlight the potential importance of the PC pathway in bone physiology and provide strong evidence that APC may influence bone cells and has potential to be a therapeutic drug for bone regeneration, depending on concurrent BP treatment.

Humans , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Osteoblasts/cytology , Protein C/pharmacology , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Up-Regulation/drug effects
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 12 (3): 371-376
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138294


Umbelliprenin is a prenylated compound, which belongs to the class of sesquiterpene coumarins. It is extracted from dried roots of Ferula szwitsiana collected from the mountains of Golestan forest [Golestan Province, north of Iran]. Induction of apoptosis in Jurkat T-CLL cells has been previously shown. In this study, effect of umbelliprenin on proapoptotic caspases [caspase-8 and -9] and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein was studied. Jurkat cells were incubated with umbelliprenin. Cells were then lysed and activation of proteins was studied by Western blot analysis. In this study, we showed that umbelliprenin activates intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis by the activation of caspase-8 and -9 respectively. Inhibition of Bcl-2 was also shown. In conclusion, umbelliprenin induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells through caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway

Jurkat Cells , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Caspases/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Blotting, Western
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 557-563, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195122


Cisplatin, a major anti-neoplastic drug, is known to be nephrotoxic and inflammation-inducing. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, regulating lipid metabolism, has known to have anti-inflammatory effect, but the protection mechanisms in various kidney injuries are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the reno-protective effect of rosiglitazone on cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice focusing on inflammation and apoptosis. Male BALB/c mice were pretreated with rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg) or vehicle through daily intraperitoneal injection for 3 days and then were given a single injection of cisplatin (20 mg/kg). Cisplatin induced a significant rise in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, and tubular cell damage with marked tissue inflammation. Tissue cytokines and chemokines measured by a cytometric bead array showed increased TNF-alpha, IL-6, MCP-1, and IFN-gamma levels, while IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was significantly decreased by cisplatin treatment. However, rosiglitazone pretreatment substantially reversed the depressed IL-10 level with simultaneous suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This tissue cytokine and chemokine milieu was associated with marked attenuation of kidney injury elicited by cisplatin. These findings suggest that the rosiglitazone-mediated renoprotective effect in cisplatin nephrotoxicity of mice is partially mediated by upregulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10 production.

Animals , Male , Mice , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Apoptosis/physiology , Caspases/metabolism , Chemokines/metabolism , Cisplatin/toxicity , Cytokines/metabolism , Enzyme Activation , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 639-650, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162253


An abrupt increase of intracellular Ca2+ is observed in cells under hypoxic or oxidatively stressed conditions. The dysregulated increase of cytosolic Ca2+ triggers apoptotic cell death through mitochondrial swelling and activation of Ca2+-dependent enzymes. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a Ca2+-dependent enzyme that catalyzes transamidation reaction producing cross-linked and polyaminated proteins. TG2 activity is known to be involved in the apoptotic process. However, the pro-apoptotic role of TG2 is still controversial. In this study, we investigate the role of TG2 in apoptosis induced by Ca2+-overload. Overexpression of TG2 inhibited the A23187-induced apoptosis through suppression of caspase-3 and -9 activities, cytochrome c release into cytosol, and mitochondria membrane depolarization. Conversely, down-regulation of TG2 caused the increases of cell death, caspase-3 activity and cytochrome c in cytosol in response to Ca2+-overload. Western blot analysis of Bcl-2 family proteins showed that TG2 reduced the expression level of Bax protein. Moreover, overexpression of Bax abrogated the anti-apoptotic effect of TG2, indicating that TG2-mediated suppression of Bax is responsible for inhibiting cell death under Ca2+-overloaded conditions. Our findings revealed a novel anti-apoptotic pathway involving TG2, and suggested the induction of TG2 as a novel strategy for promoting cell survival in diseases such as ischemia and neurodegeneration.

Humans , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Calcimycin/pharmacology , Calcium/metabolism , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Cytochromes c/metabolism , Down-Regulation , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Ionophores/pharmacology , Mitochondria/metabolism , Transglutaminases/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/genetics
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1574-1581, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44286


The massive reorganization of microtubule network involves in transcriptional regulation of several genes by controlling transcriptional factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activity. The exact molecular mechanism by which microtubule rearrangement leads to NF-kappaB activation largely remains to be identified. However microtubule disrupting agents may possibly act in synergy or antagonism against apoptotic cell death in response to conventional chemotherapy targeting DNA damage such as adriamycin or comptothecin in cancer cells. Interestingly pretreatment of microtubule disrupting agents (colchicine, vinblastine and nocodazole) was observed to lead to paradoxical suppression of DNA damage-induced NF-kappaB binding activity, even though these could enhance NF-kappaB signaling in the absence of other stimuli. Moreover this suppressed NF-kappaB binding activity subsequently resulted in synergic apoptotic response, as evident by the combination with Adr and low doses of microtubule disrupting agents was able to potentiate the cytotoxic action through caspase-dependent pathway. Taken together, these results suggested that inhibition of microtubule network chemosensitizes the cancer cells to die by apoptosis through suppressing NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. Therefore, our study provided a possible anti-cancer mechanism of microtubule disrupting agent to overcome resistance against to chemotherapy such as DNA damaging agent.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use , Apoptosis , Caspases/metabolism , Cell Line , Colchicine/pharmacology , DNA/metabolism , DNA Damage , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , Microtubules/chemistry , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nocodazole/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Signal Transduction , Tubulin Modulators/pharmacology , Vinblastine/pharmacology