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1.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e4079, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1530188

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analizar el patrón temporal y estimar las tasas de mortalidad en las primeras 24 horas de vida y por causas evitables en el estado de Pernambuco en el período de 2000 a 2021. Método: estudio ecológico, teniendo como unidad de análisis el trimestre. La fuente de datos se constituyó por el Sistema de Informaciones sobre Mortalidad y el Sistema de Informaciones sobre Nacidos Vivos. El modelado de series temporales se realizó según el Modelo Autorregresivo Integrado de Promedio Móvil. Resultados: se registraron 14.462 óbitos en las primeras 24 horas de vida, siendo 11.110 (el 76,8%) evitables. Se observa para los pronósticos ( forecasts) que la tasa de mortalidad en las primeras 24 horas de vida registro una variación de 3,3 a 2,4 por 1.000 nacidos vivos, y la tasa de mortalidad por causas evitables de 2,3 a 1,8 por 1.000 nacidos vivos. Conclusión: la predicción sugirió avances en la reducción de la mortalidad en las primeras 24 horas de vida en el estado y por causas evitables. Los modelos ARIMA presentaron estimaciones satisfactorias para las tasas de mortalidad y por causas evitables en las primeras 24 horas de vida.


Objective: to analyze the temporal pattern and estimate mortality rates in the first 24 hours of life and from preventable causes in the state of Pernambuco from 2000 to 2021. Method: an ecological study, using the quarter as the unit of analysis. The data source was made up of the Mortality Information System and the Live Birth Information System. The time series modeling was conducted according to the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model. Results: 14,462 deaths were recorded in the first 24 hours of life, 11,110 (76.8%) of which being preventable. It is observed from the forecasts that the mortality rate in the first 24 hours of life ranged from 3.3 to 2.4 per 1,000 live births, and the mortality rate from preventable causes ranged from 2.3 to 1.8 per 1,000 live births. Conclusion: the prediction suggested progress in reducing mortality in the first 24 hours of life in the state and from preventable causes. The ARIMA models presented satisfactory estimates for mortality rates and preventable causes in the first 24 hours of life.


Objetivo: analisar o padrão temporal e estimar as taxas de mortalidade nas primeiras 24 horas de vida e por causas evitáveis no estado de Pernambuco no período de 2000 a 2021. Método: estudo ecológico, tendo como unidade de análise o trimestre. A fonte de dados foi constituída pelo Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade e pelo Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos. A modelagem da série temporal foi conduzida segundo o Modelo Autorregressivo Integrado de Médias Móveis. Resultados: foram registrados 14.462 óbitos nas primeiras 24 horas de vida, sendo 11.110 (76,8%) evitáveis. Observa-se para os forecasts que a taxa de mortalidade nas primeiras 24 horas de vida variou de 3,3 a 2,4 por 1.000 nascidos vivos, e a taxa de mortalidade por causas evitáveis variou de 2,3 a 1,8 por 1.000 nascidos vivos. Conclusão: a previsão sugeriu avanços na redução da mortalidade nas primeiras 24 horas de vida no estado e por causas evitáveis. Os modelos ARIMA apresentaram estimativas satisfatórias para as taxas de mortalidade e por causas evitáveis nas primeiras 24 horas de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Brazil , Information Systems , Mortality , Cause of Death
2.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 40(1)mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1430762

ABSTRACT

La autopsia médico legal en Costa Rica, en casos sospechosos de intoxicación por cocaetileno se debe realizar bajo las normas establecidas en la Guía de estándares de trabajo para la Sección de Patología Forense del Departamento de Medicina Legal. El análisis del mecanismo fisiopatológico de cómo estas sustancias provocan alteraciones en el organismo que pueden conllevar a un eventual fallecimiento corresponde a parte del análisis requerido en la investigación ante la sospecha de esta causa de muerte. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este artículo es describir los mecanismos fisiopatológicos que ocurren durante el consumo combinado de cocaína y etanol, los mecanismos que conllevan a la muerte de personas consumidoras de estas sustancias y las consideraciones médico legales a tomar en cuenta para el diagnóstico de esta causa de muerte. Se realizó revisión de artículos científicos, sobre los efectos del uso combinado de la cocaína y el etanol. La literatura describe que el uso combinado de cocaína y etanol potencia los efectos farmacocinéticos y bioquímicos de cada una de estas sustancias, que su derivado, el cocaetileno, es capaz de generar por sí mismo los mecanismos causantes de la muerte. Que los principales mecanismos fisiopatológicos que conllevan la muerte ante el uso combinado de estas sustancias son de origen cardiovascular y hepático. Como consideraciones médico legales a tomar en cuenta para el diagnóstico de esta manera de muerte accidental, en la Sección de Toxicología del Departamento de Ciencias Forenses de Costa Rica, la cuantificación del cocaetileno y las sustancias relacionadas no se realiza, aunque se encuentra actualmente en el desarrollo de un proyecto para la determinación de la estabilidad de las drogas en sangre bajo las condiciones de almacenamiento, con el fin de ofrecer la posibilidad de cuantificar ciertas drogas (en donde se podría incluir el cocaetileno) en un futuro próximo.


Medical-legal autopsy in Costa Rica, in suspected cases of cocaethylene poisoning must be performed under the regulations established in the Work Standards Guide for the Forensic Pathology Section of the Department of Legal Medicine. The analysis of the pathophysiological mechanism of how these substances cause alterations in the organism that can lead to eventual death corresponds to part of the analysis required in the investigation when this cause of death is suspected. Therefore, the objective of this article is to describe the pathophysiological mechanisms that occur during the combined consumption of cocaine and ethanol, the mechanisms that lead to the death of people who consume these substances, and the medico-legal considerations to be considered for the diagnosis. of this cause of death. A review of scientific articles was carried out on the effects of the combined use of cocaine and ethanol. The literature describes that the combined use of cocaine and ethanol enhances the pharmacokinetic and biochemical effects of each one of these substances, that its derivative, cocaethylene, can generate the mechanisms that cause death by itself. That the main pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to death in the combined use of these substances are of cardiovascular and hepatic origin. As legal medical considerations to take into account for the diagnosis of this type of accidental death, in the Toxicology Section of the Department of Forensic Sciences of Costa Rica, the quantification of cocaethylene and related substances is not carried out, although it is currently in the development of a project for the determination of the stability of drugs in blood under storage conditions, in order to offer the possibility of quantifying certain drugs (which could include cocaethylene) in the near future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cause of Death , Cocaine/adverse effects , Ethanol/analysis , Poisoning
3.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(1): 22-27, jan.-mar. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512586

ABSTRACT

Background: Sepsis currently represents a challenge for health systems, this fact may be related to the spread of bacterial resistance, the increase in the population of elderly, immunosuppressed individuals, and the improvement of emergency care, favoring the survival of critically ill patients. This article aimed to evaluate the accuracy of mortality indicators due to sepsis in 2018. Method: Validation study of death certificates that occurred in the Federal District in 2018. Declarations whose basic causes of death identified were classified as garbage codes were identified, which were investigated by a multidisciplinary team, capable of reclassifying them with codes that allow for the improvement of health data. In order to assess accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios of death certificates from sepsis were calculated, with 95% confidence intervals. Results: A total of 6.244 statements were evaluated, of which 233 (3.74%) presented sepsis as the underlying cause before being investigated and only 35 (0.56%) maintained it after the investigation. The filling of statements with sepsis as the underlying cause by physicians showed a sensitivity of 0.9% (95%CI: 0.6 to 1.3) and a specificity of 92.0% (95%CI: 90.9 to 93.1). Conclusion: The low accuracy of the declarations demonstrates the non-reliability of the underlying cause of death from sepsis, especially the completion of death certificates that occurred in the Federal District in 2018.(AU)


Justificativa: A sepse, atualmente, representa um desafio para os sistemas de saúde, tal fato pode estar relacionado com a disseminação da resistência bacteriana, o aumento da população de idosos, os indivíduos imunossuprimidos, e a melhoria do atendimento de emergência, favorecendo a sobrevivência de pacientes críticos. Este artigo teve por objetivo avaliar a acurácia dos indicadores de mortalidade devido à sepse em 2018. Método: Estudo de validação da causa básica dos óbitos ocorridos no Distrito Federal em 2018. Foram identificadas as declarações de óbito cujas causas básicas de morte apontadas foram classificadas como garbage code sepse, as quais foram investigadas por uma equipe multidisciplinar, capacitada para reclassificá-las com códigos que permitem o aprimoramento dos dados em saúde. A fim de avaliar a acurácia, foram calculados os valores de sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivo e negativo, razões de verossimilhança positiva e negativa das declarações dos óbitos por sepse, com intervalos de confiança de 95%. Resultados: Um total de 6.244 declarações foram avaliadas, das quais 233 (3,74%) apresentavam a sepse como causa básica antes de serem investigadas e apenas 35 (0,56%) mantiveram-na após a investigação. O preenchimento das declarações com a sepse enquanto causa básica pelos médicos apresentou sensibilidade de 0,9% (IC95%: 0,6 a 1,3) e especificidade de 92,0% (IC95%: 90,9 a 93,1). Conclusão: A baixa acurácia das declarações demonstra a não fidedignidade da causa básica de óbito por sepse, sobretudo, do preenchimento das declarações dos óbitos ocorridos no Distrito Federal em 2018.(AU)


Justificación: Sepsis representa en la actualidad un desafío para los sistemas de salud, este hecho puede estar relacionado con propagación de resistencias bacterianas, aumento de la población de ancianos, inmunodeprimidos, y mejora de la atención de urgencias, favoreciendo la supervivencia de los pacientes críticos. Este artículo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la precisión de los indicadores de mortalidad por sepsis en 2018. Método: Estudio de validación de causa básica de muertes ocurridas en Distrito Federal en 2018. Se identificaron actas de defunción cuyas causas básicas de muerte fueron clasificadas como sepsis código basura y fueron investigadas por un equipo multidisciplinario capacitado para reclasificarlas con códigos que permitan la mejora de datos de salud. Para evaluar la precisión, se calcularon sensibilidad, especificidad, valores predictivos positivo y negativo y razones de verosimilitud positiva y negativa de certificados de defunción por sepsis, con intervalos de confianza del 95%. Resultados: se evaluaron 6.244 declaraciones, de las cuales 233 (3,74%) tenían como causa básica la sepsis antes de ser investigadas y solo 35 (0,56%) mantuvieron después de investigación. Realización de declaraciones con sepsis como causa subyacente por parte de los médicos mostró sensibilidad del 0,9% (95%IC: 0,6 a 1,3) y especificidad del 92,0% (95%IC: 90,9 a 93,1). Conclusión: Baja precisión de las declaraciones demuestra la poca confiabilidad de la causa subyacente de muerte por sepsis, especialmente la finalización de los certificados de defunción ocurridos en Distrito Federal en 2018.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Sepsis/mortality , Data Accuracy , Cause of Death
4.
Mali méd. (En ligne) ; 38(3): 1-4, 2023. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1515991

ABSTRACT

Les causes de décès revêtent une grande importance dans l'évaluation de l'état de santé de la population et de la qualité des soins. Leur étude pourrait orienter les politiques de santé visant à accroître l'espérance de vie. Objectifs : C'était de déterminer les causes de mort ; d'étudier les caractéristiques sociodémographiques des défunts. Matériels et méthodes : Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective et descriptive portant sur tous les décès survenus dans le service de Médecine de l'hôpital de Sikasso de Janvier 2018 à Décembre 2020. Résultats : Parmi 265 décès recensés, l'âge moyen était de 45,12±17,5 ans. Le sex-ratio était de 1,59. Il s'agissait en majorité de citadins et 51,64% résidaient à Sikasso ville. La durée moyenne d'hospitalisation était 7,09 ± 6,38 jours. L'insuffisance rénale constituait le 1er motif d'hospitalisation. L'infection à VIH était la 1ère cause de décès (29,8%), suivie de l'insuffisance rénale (24,2%). Le sexe masculin était majoritaire dans toutes les causes de décès hormis l'infection à VIH et l'anémie. Les décès liés à l'insuffisance rénale ont quintuplé de 2018 à 2020. Conclusion : Les décès liés au VIH/SIDA reste en tête malgré leur forte réduction ; ceux liés à l'insuffisance rénale ont quintuplé


The causes of death are of great importance in assessing the health status of the population and care'squality. Their study could guide health policies aimed at increasing life expectancy. Objectives: It was to determine the causes of death; to study the socio-demographic characteristics of deceased. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective and descriptive study of all deaths that occurred in the Medical Department of Sikasso Hospital from January 2018 to December 2020. Results: Among 265 deaths recorded, the mean age was 45.12 ± 17.5 years. The sex ratio was 1.59. They were mostly city dwellers and 51.64% lived in Sikasso city. The mean length of hospitalization was 7.09 ± 6.38 days. Kidney failure was the first reason for hospitalization. HIV infection was the leading cause of death (29.8%), followed by renal failure (24.2%). The male sex was predominant in all causes of death except HIV infection and anemia. Deaths linked to kidney failure have increased fivefold from 2018 to 2020. Conclusion: Deaths related to HIV/AIDS remain in the lead despite their strong reduction; those related to kidney failure have increased fivefold


Subject(s)
Cause of Death
5.
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 16(2): 5074-5081, 2023. tables, figures
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1425850

ABSTRACT

Contexte et objectifs. Les données sur la tendance de la mortalité maternelle sont fragmentaires en Afrique Subsaharienne. La présente étude avait pour objectif de faire une analyse triennale de l'évolution du taux de mortalité maternelle et identifier les causes de décès. Méthodes : Il s'agissait d'une étude observationnelle documentaire, sur la mortalité maternelle enregistrée ; au Centre hospitalo universitaire de Constantine, entre le 1er Janvier 2012 et le 31 Décembre 2017. Résultats. Soixante-dix décès maternels ont été déplorés. Le taux de mortalité maternelle est de 101,3 décès pour 100 000 naissances vivantes. Les hémorragies obstétricales et les complications hypertensives de la grossesse sont les premières causes de mortalité. L'analyse des données triennales met en évidence une baisse importante de la mortalité par hémorragie et par complications de l'anesthésie. Conclusion. Cette étude a permis de dresser un profil des causes de la mortalité maternelle dont les niveaux restent inquiétants et requièrent une action globale.


Subject(s)
Humans , Maternal Mortality , Hemorrhage , Cause of Death , Maternal Death
6.
Ghana Med. J. (Online) ; 57(2): 128-133, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1436299

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study examined factors identified during early neonatal death audits contributing to preventable newborn deaths at the Upper East Regional Hospital. Method: Data for this study was collected retrospectively from perinatal death audit forms using three data collectors. Data collection lasted two weeks, from 18th June to 2nd July 2021. The data collectors submitted 113 filled hard copy data collection forms. This was then entered into a designed Excel sheet and exported to STATA software version 15.0 for analysis. The analysis was descriptive statistics with cross-tabulation. The results were presented in charts and tables focusing on percentages. Results: Most of the 113 neonatal deaths were from birth asphyxia (63%). Forty-six (40.7%) of the deaths occurred within 24 hrs after birth. There were 38 factors reported 254 times in the audits as contributory to all the newborn deaths; 17 health personnel-related factors stated 141 (55.5%) times, four transportation and communication-related factors stated 43 (16.9%) times, seven health facility factors stated 31 (12.2%) times. Inappropriate care during transportation to the regional hospital was reported most - 21 times, followed by delay in referral - 18 times. Conclusion: The study identified many factors, such as medical personnel-related factors, transportation and communication factors, family-related factors, and health facility administration factors, contributing to early neonatal deaths. Effective implementation of neonatal death audit-based recommendations arising from these contributory factors is critical to preventing avoidable newborn deaths.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Asphyxia , Cause of Death , Early Neonatal Mortality , Perinatal Death , Risk Factors
7.
Rev. Anesth.-Réanim. Med. Urg. Toxicol. ; 15(1): 55-58, 2023. tables, figures
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1438434

ABSTRACT

Background: Intensive Care Unit unit is taking care the serious patients whose vital prognosis is engaged. Death remains the main fear of those patients who are admitted to intensive care. The main objective of our study was to identify the causes of death in the intensive care unit at the Analakininina teaching hospital, Toamasina, madagascar. Methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective study carried out from January 1, 2019 to June 30, 2019. Results: We had identified 110 cases of death with a high male prevalence and a sex ratio of 1.75. The average age was 48.73 +/- 17.60 years. The main reason for admission was disturbance of consciousness in 63.64% of cases with 24.45% of severe coma. Regarding the causes of death, a total of 25 diagnosis were made. The shock states represented 30% of the causes of death of which 69% were septic, 18% cardiogenic and 15.15% hypovolemic. Next, stroke accounted for 28%, cerebral malaria 7.27% and diabetic coma accounted for 5.45% of causes of death. The average length of hospital stay was 1.91 days. Conclusion: Our study provides a better understanding of the causes of death of patients in the intensive care unit. These data can point towards initiatives to improve the quality of care


Subject(s)
Humans , Shock, Cardiogenic , Cause of Death , Diabetic Coma , Intensive Care Units , Shock , Critical Care
8.
Ethiop. med. j. (Online) ; 61(1): 85-92, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1416251

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Acute Bacterial meningitis is still a major cause of death in under-five children. Surveillance on Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis has been set up by the World Health Organization to generate data on vaccine preventable causes of Meningitis in under-five children. Ethiopia is one of the countries conducting the surveillance and Gondar University Hospital is one of the sentinel surveillance sites. In this study we described the epidemiological data on Bacterial meningitis in under-five children at Gondar University Hospital from 2012-2021. Methods: Data were extracted directly from Gondar University Hospital surveillance database collected from under-five children admitted to the Hospital with suspected meningitis from January 1st, 2012 to December 31st , 2021. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were collected using standard pretested questioners. All under-five children with suspected meningitis over the 10-years period were included and descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, mean, median and standard deviations were used for the characteristics of under-five Children with Suspected Bacterial Meningitis. Results: In this study, a total of 4311 under-five admitted with suspected bacterial meningitis from 2012 to 2021 were enrolled. The majority, 71% of suspected meningitis were reported in infants. The mortality rate in suspected meningitis during the study period was 1%. The majority (92.4 %) had fever at presentation followed by seizure (62.7 %), altered consciousness (58.9 %) and bulged fontanel in 48.3 %, respectively. The commonest bacteria identified by CSF culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction was Streptococcus pneumonia (SPN). There was a reduction of confirmed meningitis cases from 2012 to 2021 (26 cases in 2012 and 6cases in 2021). Conclusions: Streptococcus pneumoniae was the commonest cause of PBM. Bacterial detection by culture was low which showed that Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test should be encouraged to improve bacterial detection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cause of Death , Meningitis, Bacterial , Sentinel Surveillance , Pneumonia
9.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 25(4): 205-215, 2023. tab./graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437053

ABSTRACT

Introduction: College students represent an important subpopulation of the United States, with over 19 million college students in the U.S. enrolled yearly. Methods: Descriptive analysis of the causes of death for all deceased students reported by the UW Dean of Students Office (DSO) between 2004 and 2018. We analyzed frequencies and yearly rates. Results: Our analysis shows that contrary to published data and national statistics for the relevant age groups, intentional by self-harm deaths lead causes of death in enrolled students from 2004 to 2018. Intentional by self-harm is the main cause of death in male students, younger students, and white students. "Other" causes of death is the main cause in female students, older students, and students of color. Conclusions: These results must be shared with different stakeholders across campus as well as with other universities in order to support and evaluate campus-wide prevention strategies for means restriction and environmental safety.


Introducción: Los estudiantes universitarios representan una subpoblación importante de los Estados Unidos, con más de 19 millones de matriculados anualmente. Sin embargo, hay pocos datos publicados sobre la mortalidad y causas de muerte en la población universitaria. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar las causas de muerte, basadas en datos de certificados de defunción, de estudiantes matriculados en University of Winconsin- Madison desde 2004 hasta 2018. Métodos: Análisis descriptivo de las causas oficiales de muerte de todos los estudiantes fallecidos reportados por la Oficina del Decano de Estudiantes entre 2004 y 2018. Se analizaron frecuencias y tasas anuales. Resultados: El análisis muestra que, contrariamente a los datos publicados y las estadísticas nacionales para los grupos de edad relevantes, las muertes intencionales por autolesión lideran las causas de muerte en los estudiantes matriculados entre esos años. Las autolesiones intencionales son la principal causa de muerte en los estudiantes varones, en los estudiantes más jóvenes y en los estudiantes blancos. Las causas incluidas en la categoría indicada como Otras son las principales en las estudiantes mujeres, en estudiantes mayores y en estudiantes de color. Conclusiones: Los resultados de este estudio deben compartirse con las diferentes áreas interesadas en todo el campus universitario y con otras instituciones universitarias, para apoyar y evaluar las estrategias de prevención, la aplicación de los medios de restricción y la seguridad ambiental.


Subject(s)
Mortality , Students , Suicide , Universities , Accidents, Traffic , Cause of Death , Self-Injurious Behavior
10.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 375-383, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986865

ABSTRACT

To study of premature/early death of autistic patients from the perspective of life course can help families, medical institutions and policy makers better deal with the adverse effects of autism. Several studies have shown that autistic patients have a high risk of death, however, the results are still inconsistent. To assess the risk of mortality among the autistic patients, we undertook a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE databases. This paper reviewed the studies on the negative disease outcomes of autism spectrum disorders, including the risk of death, causes of death and several research hotspots in this field. Strict inclusion/exclusion criteria were used. Information was extracted from selected papers, tabulated and synthesized. In the study, 15 studies were included, with a total of 216 045 individuals. The main outcome was all-cause mortality in association with autism and the secondary outcome was cause-specific mortality. The results showed that all-cause mortality was higher for the autistic patients (RR=2.32, 95%CI: 1.98-2.72, I2=87.1%, P < 0.001). Risk ratio showed a greater inequality for female than male (male: RR=2.00, 95%CI: 1.57-2.55, I2=93.2%, P < 0.001; female: RR=4.66, 95%CI: 3.30-6.58, I2=92.0%, P < 0.001). Compared with the unnatural death, the risk of natural death was higher (RR=3.44, 95%CI: 1.27-9.26, I2=80.2%, P=0.025). As autism had many comorbidities, which would bring more health risks and natural deaths possibilities. There were some structural differences in unnatural death. Accidental injury death and suicide were two kinds of causes. Lacking social skills would weaken the ability to ask for help when encountering injuries. This paper put forward some suggestions for futures. First, to well study the comorbidity can reduce the risk of death from a medical point of view. Second, the scientists and policymakers should pay attention to the social environment and provide a safer environment for the autistic patients. Third, for women and for adolescents without cognitive impairment, due to their high risk of suicide, the society should provide them with more supportive social networks and improve their life satisfaction. Fourth, it is necessary to balance the rehabilitation resources in various regions in China and provide more high-quality lifelong rehabilitation monitoring and care services.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , Female , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Autistic Disorder , China
11.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(3): 1223-1241, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425456

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar o perfil epidemiológico e a tendência da mortalidade infantil por causas evitáveis em Fazenda Rio Grande/PR, de 2011 a 2021. Método: realizou-se um estudo de série temporal com dados obtidos dos Sistemas de Informações de Mortalidade e Nascidos Vivos. As taxas de mortalidade foram calculadas segundo categorias: neonatal precoce; tardia e pós-neonatal; evitáveis e não evitáveis; e reduzíveis por adequada atenção à mãe e neonato, com avaliação de tendência por regressão linear de Prais-Winsten. Resultados: As maiores proporções de óbitos evitáveis, foram por inadequada atenção à mulher no parto (36,5%), à mulher na gestação (26,8%), e ao recém- nascido (16%). Observou-se redução percentual nos coeficientes de óbitos gerais (ß = - 0,32; IC95% -0,91;0,68) e por causas evitáveis (ß = -0,74; IC95% -0,98;0,50), mesmo não havendo significância estatística nos resultados relativos às tendências (p ≥ 0,05). Conclusão: A partir dos resultados obtidos, Constatou-se a necessidade de intervenções voltadas ao cuidado materno-infantil, essencialmente na atenção à mulher no pré-natal e no parto e ao neonato, visto que constituem percentuais expressivos dentre as causas de morte evitáveis. A redução da mortalidade infantil é um desafio global para os serviços de saúde e sociedade como um todo. Sua análise permite incorporar o uso de informação qualificada no planejamento e avaliação de ações e políticas públicas voltadas à saúde materno-infantil, tal como, embasar novos estudos, fundamentais para alicerçar a avaliação crítica da prática em relação aos achados de pesquisa e promover mudanças baseadas em evidências.


Objective: to analyze the epidemiological profile and the trend of infant mortality from preventable causes in Fazenda Rio Grande/PR, from 2011 to 2021. Method: a time-series study was conducted with data obtained from the Mortality and Live Births Information Systems. Mortality rates were calculated according to categories: early neonatal; late and post-neonatal; preventable and non-preventable; and reduceable by adequate attention to the mother and neonate, with trend evaluation by Prais-Winsten linear regression. Results: The highest proportions of avoidable deaths, were due to inadequate care of the woman in childbirth (36.5%), the woman in pregnancy (26.8%), and the newborn (16%). There was a percentage reduction in the coefficients of general deaths (ß = -0.32; 95%CI -0.91;0.68) and by preventable causes (ß = -0.74; 95%CI - 0.98;0.50), even though there was no statistical significance in the results regarding trends (p ≥ 0.05). Conclusion: From the results obtained, there was a need for interventions aimed at maternal and child care, especially in the care of women in prenatal and childbirth and neonates, since they constitute significant percentages among the causes of preventable death. The reduction of infant mortality is a global challenge for health services and society as a whole. Its analysis allows us to incorporate the use of qualified information in the planning and evaluation of actions and public policies aimed at maternal and child health, as well as to support new studies, which are essential to support the critical evaluation of the practice in relation to research findings and to promote evidence-based changes.


Objetivo: analizar el perfil epidemiológico y la tendencia de la mortalidad infantil por causas evitables en Fazenda Rio Grande/PR, de 2011 a 2021. Material y método: se realizó un estudio de series temporales con datos obtenidos de los Sistemas de Información de Mortalidad y Nacidos Vivos. Se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad según las categorías: neonatal precoz; neonatal tardía y posneonatal; prevenible y no prevenible; y reducible por atención adecuada a la madre y al neonato, con evaluación de la tendencia por regresión lineal de Prais-Winsten. Resultados: Las mayores proporciones de muertes evitables, se debieron a la inadecuada atención a la mujer en el parto (36,5%), a la mujer en el embarazo (26,8%) y al recién nacido (16%). Hubo una reducción porcentual en los coeficientes de muertes generales (ß = -0,32; IC 95% -0,91;0,68) y por causas evitables (ß = -0,74; IC 95% -0,98;0,50), aunque no hubo significación estadística en los resultados en cuanto a tendencias (p ≥ 0,05). Conclusiones: De los resultados obtenidos se desprende la necesidad de intervenciones dirigidas a la atención materno- infantil, especialmente en la atención de la mujer en el prenatal y parto y de los neonatos, ya que constituyen porcentajes significativos entre las causas de muerte prevenible. La reducción de la mortalidad infantil es un reto global para los servicios de salud y la sociedad en su conjunto. Su análisis permite incorporar el uso de información cualificada en la planificación y evaluación de acciones y políticas públicas dirigidas a la salud materno-infantil, así como apoyar nuevos estudios, que son esenciales para apoyar la evaluación crítica de la práctica en relación con los resultados de la investigación y promover cambios basados en la evidencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Health Profile , Cause of Death , Prenatal Care , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Time Series Studies , Maternal and Child Health , Parturition , Live Birth/epidemiology , Health Information Systems/instrumentation
12.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 23: e20210288, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449157

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the evolution of extremely preterm and very preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units, regarding the use of ventilatory support, morbidities, medication use, death, survival and viability. Methods: a non-concurrent cohort study, with 163 very premature and extreme newborns hospitalized in three neonatal intensive care units, during 2016 and 2017. A descriptive analysis of the data obtained from the medical records was performed. The outcomes studied were the use of ventilatory support, morbidities, medication use, death and causes of death. A survival curve was constructed and a viability limit was defined. Results: in the study, 28.2% were extreme and 71.8% were very premature. In this order of subgroups, the need for mechanical ventilation was higher for the extremes (65.2% and 41.0%) and the main diagnosis was early sepsis (78.6% and 82.6). Off-label (60.5% and 47.9%) and off-license (25.3% and 29.0%) medications were used. Most deaths (57.8%) occurred between the extremes, mainly due to septic shock. Survival was lower for the lowest gestational ages and the limit of viability was between 26 and 27 weeks. Conclusions: the main morbidities were from the respiratory system, with high use of off-label and unlicensed medications. Extremes had a greater demand for intensive care in addition to needing more drugs and progressing more to death.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a evolução dos prematuros extremos e muito prematuros internados em unidades de terapia intensiva neonatais, quanto ao uso de suporte ventilatório e de medicamentos, óbito, sobrevida e viabilidade. Métodos: estudo de coorte não concorrente, com 163 recém-nascidos muito prematuros e extremos internados em três unidades de terapia intensiva neonatais, durante 2016 e 2017. Realizou-se análise descritiva dos dados obtidos dos prontuários. Os desfechos estudados foram o uso de suporte ventilatório, morbidades, uso de medicamentos, óbito e causas de óbito. Foi construída curva de sobrevivência e delimitado um limite de viabilidade. Resultados: no estudo, 28,2% eram extremos e 71,8% muito prematuros. Nessa ordem de subgrupos, a necessidade de ventilação mecânica foi maior para os extremos (65,2% e 41,0%) e o principal diagnóstico foi sepse precoce (78,6% e 82,6).Medicamentos off-label (60,5% e 47,9%) e sem-licença (25,3% e 29,0%) foramutilizados. A maioria dos óbitos (57,8%) ocorreu entre os extremos, principalmente por choque séptico. A sobrevivência foi menor para as menores idades gestacionais e o limite de viabilidade ficou entre 26 e 27 semanas. Conclusões: as principais morbidades foram do sistema respiratório, com alto uso de medicamentos off-label e sem licença. Extremos tiveram maior demanda de cuidados intensivos além de necessitarem de mais medicamentos e evoluírem mais ao óbito.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Morbidity , Cause of Death , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Critical Care , Drug Therapy , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Mortality, Premature , Respiration, Artificial , Cohort Studies
13.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244244, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448957

ABSTRACT

Com os avanços tecnológicos e o aprimoramento da prática médica via ultrassonografia, já é possível detectar possíveis problemas no feto desde a gestação. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prática do psicólogo no contexto de gestações que envolvem riscos fetais. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo sob formato de relato de experiência como psicólogo residente no Serviço de Medicina Fetal da Maternidade Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Os registros, feitos por observação participante e diário de campo, foram analisados em dois eixos temáticos: 1) intervenções psicológicas no trabalho em equipe em consulta de pré-natal, exame de ultrassonografia e procedimento de amniocentese; e 2) intervenções psicológicas em casos de bebês incompatíveis com a vida. Os resultados indicaram que o psicólogo nesse serviço é essencial para atuar de forma multiprofissional na assistência pré-natal para gravidezes de alto risco fetal. Ademais, a preceptoria do residente é relevante para sua formação e treinamento para atuação profissional no campo da psicologia perinatal.(AU)


Face to the technological advances and the improvement of medical practice via ultrasound, it is already possible to detect possible problems in the fetus since pregnancy. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychologist's practice in the context of pregnancies which involve fetal risks. It is a qualitative study based on an experience report as a psychologist trainee at the Fetal Medicine Service of the Maternity School of UFRJ. The records, based on the participant observation and field diary, were analyzed in two thematic axes: 1) psychological interventions in the teamwork in the prenatal attendance, ultrasound examination and amniocentesis procedure; and 2) psychological interventions in cases of babies incompatible to the life. The results indicated that the psychologist in this service is essential to work in a multidisciplinary way at the prenatal care for high fetal risk pregnancies. Furthermore, the resident's preceptorship is relevant to their education and training for professional performance in the field of Perinatal Psychology.(AU)


Con los avances tecnológicos y la mejora de la práctica médica a través de la ecografía, ya se puede detectar posibles problemas en el feto desde el embarazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la práctica del psicólogo en el contexto de embarazos de riesgos fetal. Es un estudio cualitativo basado en un relato de experiencia como residente de psicología en el Servicio de Medicina Fetal de la Escuela de Maternidad de la Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Los registros, realizados en la observación participante y el diario de campo, se analizaron en dos ejes temáticos: 1) intervenciones psicológicas en el trabajo en equipo, en la consulta prenatal, ecografía y los procedimientos de amniocentesis; y 2) intervenciones psicológicas en casos de bebés incompatibles con la vida. Los resultados señalaron como fundamental la presencia del psicólogo en este servicio trabajando de forma multidisciplinar en la atención prenatal en el contexto de embarazos de alto riesgo fetal. Además, la tutela del residente es relevante para su educación y formación para el desempeño profesional en el campo de la Psicología Perinatal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Psychosocial Intervention , Heart Defects, Congenital , Anxiety , Orientation , Pain , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Paternity , Patient Care Team , Patients , Pediatrics , Placenta , Placentation , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Maintenance , Prognosis , Psychoanalytic Theory , Psychology , Puerperal Disorders , Quality of Life , Radiation , Religion , Reproduction , Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena , General Surgery , Syndrome , Congenital Abnormalities , Temperance , Therapeutics , Urogenital System , Bioethics , Physicians' Offices , Infant, Premature , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Animal , Pregnancy Outcome , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Family , Abortion, Spontaneous , Child Rearing , Child Welfare , Mental Health , Family Health , Survival Rate , Life Expectancy , Cause of Death , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Chromosome Mapping , Parental Leave , Mental Competency , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive , Down Syndrome , Perinatal Care , Comprehensive Health Care , Chemical Compounds , Depression, Postpartum , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Disabled Children , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Gravidity , Crisis Intervention , Affect , Cytogenetic Analysis , Spirituality , Complicity , Value of Life , Humanizing Delivery , Death , Decision Making , Defense Mechanisms , Abortion, Threatened , Delivery of Health Care , Dementia , Uncertainty , Organogenesis , Qualitative Research , Pregnant Women , Early Diagnosis , Premature Birth , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Child Mortality , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Postpartum Period , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological , Ethanol , Ego , Emotions , Empathy , Environment , Humanization of Assistance , User Embracement , Ethics, Professional , Cell Nucleus Shape , Prenatal Nutrition , Cervical Length Measurement , Family Conflict , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications , Gestational Sac , Brief, Resolved, Unexplained Event , Fetal Death , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Multimodal Imaging , Mortality, Premature , Clinical Decision-Making , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Child, Foster , Freedom , Burnout, Psychological , Birth Setting , Frustration , Sadness , Respect , Psychological Distress , Genetics , Psychological Well-Being , Obstetricians , Guilt , Happiness , Health Occupations , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Maternity , Hospitals, University , Human Development , Human Rights , Imagination , Infections , Infertility , Anencephaly , Jurisprudence , Obstetric Labor Complications , Licensure , Life Change Events , Life Support Care , Loneliness , Love , Medical Staff, Hospital , Intellectual Disability , Morals , Mothers , Narcissism , Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities , Neonatology , Nervous System Malformations , Object Attachment
14.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449148

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the contribution of the Maternal Mortality and Death Surveillance Committee for women of childbearing age (WCA) and maternal mortality in the magnitude of maternal mortality and in the qualification of the causes of death in Recife, Brazil. Methods: ex ante/ex post evaluation, ecological, of the annual indicators of mortality of WCA, maternal and case study of declared maternal deaths according to causes of death before and after surveillance. Deaths of WCA (2010 and 2017) were analyzed. The percentage of investigation of deaths of WCA was calculated; their rates and maternal mortality ratio (MMR) were estimated; the groups of causes of death, classification of death, the moment of death, the proportional variation before and after surveillance, and the relocation of the causes after this process were described. Results: 4.327 (97.0%) of deaths of WCA were investigated (increase of 40.7% of maternal deaths) and MMR of 62.9/100 thousand live births. Improved notifications of immediate/late (75.0%) and remote (300.0%) postpartum; there was a difference in direct obstetric causes, total maternal deaths and late maternal death (p<0.001). Conclusion: the surveillance and the Maternal Mortality Committee showed potential in identifying the magnitude and qualification of causes of maternal death in order to propose the interventions directed to obstetric care.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a contribuição do Comitê de Mortalidade Materna e da Vigilância do Óbito de mulheres em idade fértil (MIF) e materno na magnitude da mortalidade materna e na qualificação das causas dos óbitos no Recife, Brasil. Métodos: avaliação ex ante/ex post, ecológico, dos indicadores anuais de mortalidade de MIF, materna e estudo de caso de óbitos maternos declarados segundo causas de morte antes e após a vigilância. Analisaram-se óbitos de MIF (2010-2017) e calculou-se o percentual de investigação; estimaram-se suas taxas e a razão de mortalidade materna (RMM); descreveram-se: grupos de causa, classificação e momento do óbito, variação proporcional antes e após a vigilância/análise do comitê e a realocação das causas após esse processo. Resultados: investigou-se 4.327 (97,0%) dos óbitos de MIF (incremento de 40,7% das mortes maternas), e RMM de 62,9/100 mil nascidos vivos; melhoraram as notificações do puerpério imediato/ tardio (75,0%) e remoto (300,0%); houve diferença nas causas obstétricas diretas, total de óbitos maternos e morte materna tardia (p<0,001). Conclusão: mostrou-se o potencial da vigilância e do Comitê de Mortalidade Materna na identificação da magnitude e qualificação das causas de morte materna para proposição de medidas direcionadas aos cuidados obstétricos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Death Certificates , Maternal Mortality , Mortality Registries , Cause of Death , Brazil/epidemiology , Vital Statistics , Public Health Surveillance , Epidemiological Monitoring
15.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 57-65, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984181

ABSTRACT

Lung is the largest organ of the respiratory system. During hypoxia, pulmonary cells undergo rapid damage changes and activate the self-rescue pathways, thus leading to complex biomacromolecule modification. Death from mechanical asphyxia refers to death due to acute respiratory disorder caused by mechanical violence. Because of the absence of characteristic signs in corpse, the accurate identification of mechanical asphyxia has always been the difficulty in forensic pathology. This paper reviews the biomacromolecule changes under the pulmonary hypoxia condition and discusses the possibility of application of these changes to accurate identification of death from mechanical asphyxia, aiming to provide new ideas for related research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asphyxia/pathology , Cause of Death , Hypoxia/pathology , Lung/pathology , Forensic Pathology
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(5): 304-309, oct. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1390730

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las bacteriemias relacionadas con catéteres venosos centrales (CVC) son frecuentes en pacientes pediátricos posquirúrgicos de cardiopatías congénitas complejas internados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos cardiovascular (UCIP-CV) y tienen alta morbimortalidad. Objetivo. Analizar la efectividad de un programa interdisciplinario para prevención de bacteriemias relacionadas con CVC en la UCIP-CV. Material y métodos. Estudio de implementación, cuasiexperimental, antes-después, sin grupo control. Período de estudio del 1 de enero de 2008 al 31 de diciembre de 2018. Población: equipo de salud de la UCIP-CV que atiende pacientes posquirúrgicos de cardiopatías complejas de un hospital. Período preintervención del 1 de enero de 2008 al 31 de diciembre de 2008; período de intervención del 1 de enero de 2009 al 1 de enero de 2018. Intervención: implementación de un programa de mejora continua. Se analizaron tasas de bacteriemias CVC/1000 días y de uso de CVC/100 días, puntaje de RACHS, razón estandarizada de infecciones (REI), riesgo relativo (RR), intervalo de confianza del 95 % (IC95%), estimando una p < 0,05 como estadísticamente significativa. La tasa de referencia se estimó como el promedio del período 2008/2009 y se comparó la tasa anual con la tasa de referencia. Resultados. La tasa de referencia de bacteriemia 2008/2009 fue 10,6/1000 días CVC para analizar la REI. El puntaje de RACHS mayor a 3 fue similar en todos los períodos analizados. Se observó una reducción de la REI estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,05) en la comparación anual. Al comparar la tasa de bacteriemia/1000 días de CVC inicial de 11,9 vs. final de 3,8, se observó una reducción significativa (RR: 0,16; IC95%: 0,07-0,35; p < 0,001). Conclusiones. El programa fue efectivo; se observó reducción progresiva y significativa de la tasa de bacteriemias relacionadas con CVC en la UCIP-CV.


Introduction. Central venous catheter (CVC)related bacteremias are common in pediatric patients following surgery for complex congenital heart disease admitted to a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) and have a high morbidity and mortality. Objective.To analyze the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary program for the prevention of CVC-related bacteremias in the PCICU. Material and methods. Quasi-experimental,before and after implementation study without a control group. Study period: 01-01-2008 to 1231-2018. Population: PCICU staff who care for patients following surgery for complex heart disease at a hospital. Pre-intervention period: 0101-2008 to 12-31-2008; intervention period: 01-012009 to 01-01-2018. Intervention: implementation of an ongoing improvement program. The rate of CVC-related bacteremias/1000 days and CVC use/100 days, RACHS score, standardized infection ratio (SIR), relative risk (RR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were analyzed and a p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The reference rate was estimated as the average for the 2008-2009 period and the annual and reference rates were compared. Results. The bacteremia reference rate for 20082009 was 10.6/1000 days of CVC to analyze the SIR. A RACHS score over 3 was similar across all studied periods. The annual comparison showed a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the SIR. The comparison between the baseline bacteremia rate/1000 days of CVC (11.9) and the final rate (3.8) showed a significant reduction (RR: 0.16; 95 % CI: 0.07­0.35; p < 0.001). Conclusions. The program was effective; the rate of CVC-related bacteremias in the PCICU showed a progressive, significant reduction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Bacteremia/etiology , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cause of Death , Bacteremia/epidemiology
17.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(3): 151-159, sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423696

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analizar y modelar los cambios en la tendencia de la mortalidad por neumonía en la población mayor de 15 años de Chile, entre los años 2000 y 2016. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico basado en información de bases de datos públicas de estadísticas vitales del Departamento de Estadística e Información en Salud (DEIS) y del Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) del Ministerio de Salud (MINSAL) de Chile. Los casos fueron identificados por los códigos CIE-10 J12-J18. Se calculó la tasa de mortalidad estandarizada por edad, según sexo y grupo etario. Se utilizó el análisis de regresión Joinpoint para modelar la mortalidad y estimar el porcentaje de cambio anual (CPA) en las tasas e identificar cambios significativos en las tendencias. Se utilizó el cambio del CPA como medida de resumen. Resultados: Durante el período de estudio, la tasa de mortalidad por neumonía en Chile disminuyó significativamente en un 61,9%, desde 56,3 muertes por 100.000 habitantes el año 2000 a 21,7 muertes por 100.000 habitantes en el año 2016, con un CPA de −4,2%, (p < 0,05). El 90% de los fallecidos tenían más de 65 años. Conclusiones: Las tasas de mortalidad por neumonía en Chile en mayores de 15 años muestran una tendencia a la disminución sostenida significativa en el período comprendido entre los años 2000 y 2016.


Objective: To analyze and model changes in the pneumonia mortality trend in the population over 15 years old of Chile, between 2000 and 2016. Methods: Epidemiological study based on information from public databases of vital statistics of the Department of Health Statistics and Information (DEIS) and the National Institute of Statistics (INE) of the Ministry of Health (MINSAL) of Chile. The cases were identified by the codes ICD-10 J12-J18. We calculated age-standardized overall mortality, according to sex and age group. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to model mortality and estimate the annual percentage of change (APC) in rates and identify significant changes in trends. APC was used as a summary measure. Results: During the period studied, the pneumonia mortality rate in Chile decreased significantly by 61.9%. Mortality rate diminished from 56.3 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants in 2000 to 21.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants in 2016 with an APC of −4.2%, (p < 0.05). Almost 90% of the deceased were over 65 years old. Conclusions: Mortality rates for pneumonia in Chile in people over 15 years of age show a significant sustained decreasing trend in the period between 2000 and 2016.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pneumonia/mortality , Epidemiologic Studies , Comorbidity , Chile/epidemiology , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Vital Statistics , Mortality/trends , Cause of Death , Age and Sex Distribution
18.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(2): 18-24, 20220801.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380292

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la primera causa de muerte. El accidente cerebrovascular isquémico es un problema de salud pública. Objetivos: Determinar las características clínicas de los pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular de tipo isquémico admitidos durante el periodo de ventana terapéutica en el Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital de Clínicas en el periodo 2018 - 2020. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo, transversal. Los sujetos fueron los pacientes de sexo masculino y femenino, mayores de 18 años admitidos en la Unidad de Ictus del Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital de Clínicas en el periodo de ventana terapéutica comprendido entre junio del año 2018 y septiembre del año 2020. Resultados: Se incluyó en el estudio 512 pacientes. La media de edad fue 65 ± 12,1 años. El sexo más frecuente fue el masculino con (58,7%) y la mayoría proceden del Departamento Central (61,3%). Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial (83,3%), el sobrepeso (34,7%) y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (27,3%). Presentaron infarto moderado (41,8%) y la trombólisis fue realizada en el (16%) de los pacientes. Conclusión: Los pacientes que presentaron accidente cerebrovascular de tipo isquémico admitidos en el periodo de ventana terapéutica fueron en su mayoría del sexo masculino, edad media de 65 años, los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial, el sobrepeso y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2, el infarto moderado fue la más frecuente y escasa cantidad recibieron trombólisis.


Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. Ischemic stroke is a public health problem. Objectives: To determine the clinical characteristics of patients with ischemic stroke admitted during the therapeutic window period in the Emergency Department of the Hospital de Clínicas in the period 2018 - 2020. Materials and methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The subjects were male and female patients, over 18 years of age admitted to the Stroke Unit of the Emergency Service of the Hospital de Clínicas in the therapeutic window period between June 2018 and September 2020. Results: Included 512 patients in the study. The mean age was 65 ± 12,1 years. The most frequent sex was male with (58.7%), most of them come from the central department (61.3%). The most frequent risk factors were arterial hypertension (83.3%), overweight (34.7%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (27.3%). They presented moderate infarction (41,8%). Thrombolysis was performed in (16%) of the patients. Conclusion: The patients who presented ischemic stroke admitted in the therapeutic window period were mostly male, mean age 65 years, the most frequent cardiovascular risk factors were arterial hypertension, overweight and mellitus diabetes type 2, moderate infarction was the most frequent and few received thrombolysis.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Overweight , Ischemic Stroke , Hypertension , Cardiovascular Diseases , Public Health , Risk Factors , Cause of Death , Stroke
19.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(2): 71-76, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1378656

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la información sobre las causas de muerte es de gran importancia tanto para los países como para las instituciones sanitarias, en la medida en que contribuye a la evaluación y el seguimiento del estado de salud de la población y a la planificación de intervenciones sanitarias. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la proporción de causas de muerte mal definidas e imprecisas y su relación con el día de la semana y período lectivo de médicos residentes en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (HIBA) durante 2020. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico de corte transversal a partir de certificados médicos de defunción de pacientes fallecidos en el ámbito intrahospitalario, evaluando las causas de muerte mal definidas (términos médicos que no aportan información desde el punto de vista clínico y epidemiológico) y las imprecisas (no resultan lo suficientemente específicas como para identificar entidades nosológicas que permitan establecer acciones de prevención y control). Resultados: se analizaron 1030 certificados de defunción, con una proporción de certificados con causa básica de muerte mal definida del 2,3% (n = 24), mientras que en el 17,4% (n = 180) fue imprecisa. No se hallaron diferencias entre la proporción de causas básicas mal definidas y las imprecisas según el día de la semana o período lectivo. Al extender el análisis a todas las causas (básicas, mediatas e inmediatas), la proporción de causas mal definidas fue del 1,6% (n = 40) y la de imprecisas del 51% (n = 1212). Conclusiones: los resultados definen al HIBA como un centro de mediana calidad estadística en el registro de causas de muerte. Se concluye que es necesario mejorarla, para lo que resulta de interés la creación de un plan de capacitación y entrenamiento de los médicos en el grado y el posgrado. (AU)


Introduction: information on causes of death is of great importance both for countries and for health institutions, as it contributes to the evaluation and monitoring of the health status of the population and to the planning of health interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the proportion of ill-defined and imprecise causes of death and its relationship with the day of the week and academic calendar during 2020 at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Methods: a cross-sectional study was carried out from data recorded in the death certificates of patients who died in the intrahospital setting, evaluating ill-defined causes of death (medical terms that do not provide clinical or epidemiological information) and imprecise ones (not specific enough to identify nosological entities susceptible to prevention or control). Results: 1030 death certificates were analyzed. The proportion of certificates with ill-defined underlying causes of death was 2.3% (n=24), while 17.4% (n=180) was imprecise. No significant differences were found between the ill-defined and imprecise underlying causes of death and the day of the week and academic calendar. When extending the analysis to all causes (underlying, intermediate, and immediate) the percentage of ill-defined causes was 1.6% (n=40) and 51% (n=1212) was imprecise. Conclusions: results define our hospital as of medium statistical quality on medical death certification. It is concluded that it is necessary to improve the quality of the registry, for which the creation of a training plan for undergraduate and graduate physicians is of interest. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cause of Death/trends , Hospital Mortality/trends , Argentina , Death Certificates , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Accuracy , Data Analysis
20.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 37(1): e201, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1390034

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: aunque la enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV) es la principal causa de muerte de las mujeres en Uruguay, ellas no lo perciben. Objetivos: el propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la percepción, el conocimiento y las conductas de prevención de las ECV entre mujeres por grupos de edad, nivel socioeconómico (NSE) y región, así como su conocimiento sobre factores de riesgo, síntomas y comportamientos cardiosaludables. Métodos: en 2020 se encuestaron vía web 700 mujeres de entre 20 y 70 años, residentes en Uruguay (Montevideo: 301, interior del país: 399). Se pautó publicidad en redes sociales para convocar a la población objetivo a participar. Las integrantes de la muestra, que completaron una encuesta autoadministrada, presentaban distribución similar a la población general en cuanto al NSE y la edad. Resultados: las mujeres encuestadas percibieron a la ECV como principal problema de salud (PS) en el 10% y como primera CM en el 18%. Las montevideanas, comparadas con las del interior, tuvieron mayores niveles de percepción (PS: 13% vs. 7%-CM: 20% vs. 17%); así como las de NSE alto vs. las de medio-bajo (PS: 17% vs. 8%-CM: 29% vs. 14%). La percepción y el conocimiento sobre ECV son bajos, las jóvenes son las menos informadas (escasos/muy escasos: 62%). Los médicos advierten poco sobre síntomas (23%) y estrategias de prevención (48%). Conclusión: la percepción de las mujeres encuestadas sobre la ECV es baja, existiendo brechas por edad, NSE y región. En la consulta, los médicos informan poco sobre el tema. Es necesario un esfuerzo continuo para mejorar la percepción de las mujeres sobre la ECV en su propio género, intentando llegar principalmente a las poblaciones de mayor riesgo.


Background: although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death for women in Uruguay, they do not perceive it. Objectives: the purpose of this study was to evaluate the perception, knowledge, and prevention behaviors of CVD among women by age group, socioeconomic level (SEL), and region, as well as knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and heart-healthy behaviors. Method and result: online survey of 700 women residents of Uruguay (Montevideo: 301, interior of the country: 399), was conducted in 2020, ages between 20 and 70 years. Advertising was scheduled on social networks, calling the target population to participate in that research by completing a selfadministered survey, obtaining a set of cases with a similar distribution to the general population in terms of SEL and age. CVD was perceived in 10% as the main health problem (HP) and 18% as the first CD. Women from Montevideo vs. interior had higher levels of perception (HP: 13% vs. 7%-CD: 20% vs. 17%); as well as those of high vs. those of mediumlow SEL (HP: 17% vs. 8%-CD: 29% vs. 14%). The perception and knowledge about CVD are low, with young women being the least informed (little/very little: 62%). Doctors report little on symptoms (23%) and prevention (48%). Conclusion: the perception of the women surveyed about CVD is low, with gaps by age, NSE and region. Doctors inform little about this topic during clinical visits. A continuous effort is necessary to improve women's perception of CVD in their own gender, trying to reach mainly the populations at greatest risk.


Antecedentes: embora a doença cardiovascular (DCV) seja a principal causa de morte das mulheres no Uruguai, elas não a percebem. Objetivos: o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a percepção, conhecimento e comportamentos de prevenção de DCV entre mulheres por faixa etária, nível socioeconômico (NSE) e região, bem como o conhecimento de fatores de risco, sintomas, doenças cardíacas e comportamentos saudáveis para o coração. Método e resultado: em 2020, 700 mulheres entre 20 e 70 anos, residentes no Uruguai, foram entrevistadas via web (Montevidéu: 301, interior do país: 399). A publicidade foi agendada nas redes sociais, convocando a população alvo a participar da referida pesquisa através do preenchimento de um inquérito autoaplicável, obtendose um conjunto de casos com distribuição semelhante à população geral em termos de NSE e idade. As mulheres pesquisadas perceberam a DCV como principal problema de saúde (PS) em 10% e como principal CM em 18%. As mulheres de Montevidéu vs. interior apresentaram níveis mais elevados de percepção (PS: 13% vs. 7%-CM: 20% vs. 17%); bem como as de NSE alto vs. as de médiobaixo (PS: 17% vs. 8%-CM: 29% vs. 14%). A percepção e o conhecimento sobre DCV são baixos, sendo as mulheres jovens as menos informadas (pouco/muito pouco: 62%). Os médicos informam pouco sobre síntomas (23%) e prevenção (48%). Conclusão: a percepção das mulheres pesquisadas sobre DCV é baixa, com diferenças por idade, NSE e região. Os médicos informam pouco sobre esse tema durante as consultas clínicas. É necessário um esforço contínuo para melhorar a percepção das mulheres sobre as DCV em seu próprio gênero, tentando atingir principalmente as populações de maior risco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Perception , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Socioeconomic Factors , Uruguay/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Health Surveys , Cause of Death , Age Distribution
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