Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 291
Filter
1.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 16(4): 121-123, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512165

ABSTRACT

Los inhibidores de checkpoint (ICP) son anticuerpos usados en inmunoterapia contra el cáncer. Uno de sus blancos de acción es el receptor de muerte celular programada-1 (PD-1), el cual es importante para mantener la tolerancia inmunitaria. Sin embargo, este mecanismo se asocia a riesgo de eventos adversos relacionados a la inmunidad que pueden afectar a múltiples órganos incluyendo el sistema endocrino. Se describe el caso inhabitual de un paciente que a los 18 meses de terapia con ICP debutó con cetoacidosis diabética (CAD).


Immune checkpoint inhibitors consist in antibodies used in immunotherapy against cancer. One of their targets is the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) receptor, which is important in maintaining self-tolerance. However, this mechanism is associated with a risk for immune-related adverse events potentially affecting multiple organs, including the endocrine system. We describe the unusual case of a patient who, after 18 months of treatment with an immune checkpoint inhibitor, debuted with diabetic ketoacidosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/chemically induced , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Melanoma/drug therapy
2.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 111-116, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of licochalcone A (LCA) on the proliferation and cell cycle of human lung squamous carcinoma cells and explore its possible molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#MTT assay was used to detect the changes in proliferation of H226 cells after treatment with different concentrations of LCA for 48 h, and the IC50 of LCA was calculated. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle changes in H226 cells treated with 10, 20, and 40 μmol/L LCA, and the expressions of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase CDK2 and CDK4, and p-PI3K, PI3K, p-Akt, and Akt in the treated cells were detected using Western blotting. The effect of intraperitoneal injection of LCA for 24 days on tumor volume and weight was assessed in a BALB/c-nu mouse model bearing lung squamous carcinoma xenografts.@*RESULTS@#MTT assay showed that LCA significantly decreased the viability of H226 cells with an IC50 of 28.3 μmol/L at 48 h. Flow cytometry suggested that LCA treatment induced obvious cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. LCA treatment also significantly decreased the expressions of cyclin D1, CDK2, and CDK4, and inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt in H226 cells. In the tumor-bearing mice, LCA treatment for 24 days significantly reduced the tumor volume and weight.@*CONCLUSION@#LCA is capable of inhibiting the proliferation and inducing cell cycle arrest in lung squamous carcinoma cells possibility by regulating the PI3K/Akt singling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Cyclin D1 , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Lung Neoplasms , Signal Transduction , Lung
3.
Biol. Res ; 55: 2-2, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chinese hamster ovary cell line has been used routinely as a bioproduction factory of numerous biopharmaceuticals. So far, various engineering strategies have been recruited to improve the production efficiency of this cell line such as apoptosis engineering. Previously, it is reported that the caspase-7 deficiency in CHO cells reduces the cell proliferation rate. But the effect of this reduction on the CHO cell productivity remained unclear. Hence, in the study at hand the effect of caspase-7 deficiency was assessed on the cell growth, viability and protein expression. In addition, the enzymatic activity of caspase-3 was investigated in the absence of caspase-7. RESULTS: Findings showed that in the absence of caspase-7, both cell growth and cell viability were decreased. Cell cycle analysis illustrated that the CHO knockout (CHO-KO) cells experienced a cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. This cell cycle arrest resulted in a 1.7-fold increase in the expression of luciferase in CHO-KO cells compared to parenteral cells. Furthermore, in the apoptotic situation the enzymatic activity of caspase-3 in CHO-KO cells was approximately 3 times more than CHO-K1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: These findings represented that; however, caspase-7 deficiency reduces the cell proliferation rate but the resulted cell cycle arrest leads to the enhancement of recombinant protein expression. Moreover, increasing in the caspase-3 enzymatic activity compensates the absence of caspase-7 in the caspase cascade of apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , CHO Cells , Caspase 7/genetics , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Cell Division , Cricetulus , Cricetinae , Gene Knockout Techniques
4.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 213-219, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935929

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6PC) recombinant adenovirus on proliferation and cell cycle regulation of liver cancer cells. Methods: Recombinant adenovirus AdG6PC was constructed. Huh7 cells and SK-Hep1 cells were set as Mock, AdGFP and AdG6PC group. Cell proliferation and clone formation assay were used to observe the proliferation of liver cancer cells. Transwell and scratch assay were used to observe the invasion and migration of liver cancer cells. Cell cycle flow cytometry assay was used to analyze the effect of G6PC overexpression on the proliferation cycle of liver cancer cells. Western blot was used to detect the effect of G6PC overexpression on the cell-cycle protein expression in liver cancer cells. Results: The recombinant adenovirus AdG6PC was successfully constructed. Huh7 and SK-Hep1 cells proliferation assay showed that the number of proliferating cells in the AdG6PC group was significantly lower than the other two groups (P < 0.05). Clone formation assay showed that the number of clones was significantly lower in AdG6PC than the other two groups (P < 0.05), suggesting that G6PC overexpression could significantly inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells. Transwell assay showed that the number of cell migration was significantly lower in AdG6PC than the other two groups (P < 0.05). Scratch repair rate was significantly lower in AdG6PC than the other two groups (P < 0.05), suggesting that G6PC overexpression can significantly inhibit the invasion and migration of liver cancer cells. Cell cycle flow cytometry showed that G6PC overexpression had significantly inhibited the Huh7 cells G(1)/S phase transition. Western blot result showed that G6PC overexpression had down-regulated the proliferation in cell-cycle related proteins expression. Conclusion: G6PC inhibits the proliferation, cell-cycle related expression, and migration of liver cancer cells by inhibiting the G(1)/S phase transition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Catalytic Domain , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Glucose-6-Phosphatase/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/genetics
5.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 352-363, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929266

ABSTRACT

Currently, chemoresistance seriously attenuates the curative outcome of liver cancer. The purpose of our work was to investigate the influence of 6-shogaol on the inhibition of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in liver cancer. The cell viability of cancer cells was determined by MTT assay. Liver cancer cell apoptosis and the cell cycle were examined utilizing flow cytometry. Moreover, qRT-PCR and western blotting was used to analyse the mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Immunohistochemistry assays were used to examine multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) expression in tumour tissues. In liver cancer cells, we found that 6-shogaol-5-FU combination treatment inhibited cell viability, facilitated G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, and accelerated apoptosis compared with 6-shogaol or 5-FU treatment alone. In cancer cells cotreated with 6-shogaol and 5-FU, AKT/mTOR pathway- and cell cycle-related protein expression levels were inhibited, and MRP1 expression was downregulated. AKT activation or MRP1 increase reversed the influence of combination treatment on liver cancer cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The inhibition of AKT activation to the anticancer effect of 6-shogaol-5-FU could be reversed by MRP1 silencing. Moreover, our results showed that 6-shogaol-5-FU combination treatment notably inhibited tumour growth in vivo. In summary, our data demonstrated that 6-shogaol contributed to the curative outcome of 5-FU in liver cancer by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR/MRP1 signalling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1 , Apoptosis , Catechols , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Fluorouracil/pharmacology , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
6.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 547-563, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939826

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is globally the most common invasive cancer in women and remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and endocrine therapy are currently the main treatments for this cancer type. However, some breast cancer patients are prone to drug resistance related to chemotherapy or immunotherapy, resulting in limited treatment efficacy. Consequently, traditional Chinese medicinal materials (TCMMs) as natural products have become an attractive source of novel drugs. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge on the active components of animal-derived TCMMs, including Ophiocordycepssinensis-derived cordycepin, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of O.sinensis, norcantharidin (NCTD), Chansu, bee venom, deer antlers, Ostreagigas, and scorpion venom, with reference to marked anti-breast cancer effects due to regulating cell cycle arrest, proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, and drug resistance. In future studies, the underlying mechanisms for the antitumor effects of these components need to be further investigated by utilizing multi-omics technologies. Furthermore, large-scale clinical trials are necessary to validate the efficacy of bioactive constituents alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs for breast cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , China , Deer , Immunotherapy
7.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 25(3): 125-139, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376839

ABSTRACT

Abstract Proteasomal degradation is an essential regulatory mechanism for cellular homeostasis maintenance. The speckle-type POZ adaptor protein (SPOP) is part of the ubiquitin ligase E3 cullin-3 RING-box1 complex, responsible for the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of biomolecules involved in cell cycle control, proliferation, response to DNA damage, epigenetic control, and hormone signaling, among others. Changes in SPOP have been associated with the development of different types of cancer, since it can act as a tumor suppressor mainly in prostate, breast, colorectal, lung cancer and liver cancer, due to point mutations and/or reduced expression, or as an oncogene in kidney cancer by protein overexpression. In endometrial cancer it has a dual role, since it can act as a tumor suppressor or as an oncogene. SPOP is a potential prognostic biomarker and a promising therapeutic target.


Resumen La degradación proteosómica es un mecanismo de regulación esencial para el mantenimiento de la homeostasis celular. La proteína adaptadora Speckle-type POZ (SPOP) hace parte del complejo ubiquitin ligasa E3 cullin-3 RING-box1, encargado de la ubiquitinación y degradación proteosomal de biomoléculas involucradas en el control del ciclo celular, proliferación, respuesta al daño de ADN, control epigenético, señalización hormonal, entre otros. Las alteraciones en SPOP han sido asociadas al desarrollo de diferentes tipos de cáncer, ya que puede actuar como supresor tumoral principalmente en cáncer de próstata, mama, colorrectal y pulmón, debido a mutaciones puntuales y/o expresión reducida o como oncogén en cáncer riñón por sobreexpresión de la proteína. En cáncer endometrial tiene un rol dual, ya que puede actuar como supresor tumoral o como oncogén. SPOP es considerado como un potencial biomarcador pronóstico y un objetivo terapéutico prometedor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oncogenes , Biomarkers , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Epigenomics , Neoplasms , Prognosis , DNA Damage , Cell Cycle , Cullin Proteins , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Ligases
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e10891, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285652

ABSTRACT

Juniperus communis (JCo) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant that has been used to treat wounds, fever, swelling, and rheumatism. However, the mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of JCo extract on colorectal cancer (CRC) has not yet been elucidated. This study investigated the anticancer effects of JCo extract in vitro and in vivo as well as the precise molecular mechanisms. Cell viability was evaluated using the MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution was examined by flow cytometry analysis, and cell apoptosis was determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Protein expression was analyzed using western blotting. The in vivo activity of the JCo extract was evaluated using a xenograft BALB/c mouse model. The tumors and organs were examined through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that JCo extract exhibited higher cytotoxicity against CRC cells than against normal cells and showed synergistic effects when combined with 5-fluorouracil. JCo extract induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase via regulation of p53/p21 and CDK4/cyclin D1 and induced cell apoptosis via the extrinsic (FasL/Fas/caspase-8) and intrinsic (Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-9) apoptotic pathways. In vivo studies revealed that JCo extract suppressed tumor growth through the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. In addition, there was no obvious change in body weight or histological morphology of normal organs after treatment. JCo extract suppressed CRC progression by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the potential application of JCo extract in the treatment of CRC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Juniperus , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cell Cycle , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Mice, Inbred BALB C
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 312-319, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878976

ABSTRACT

Breast tumor has become one of the malignant tumors with the highest incidence, and is a serious threat to human health, especially to women. Chemotherapy is an important anti-breast tumor therapy, which can be used in almost every stage of breast tumor therapy alone or in the combination with surgery and radiation therapy. Alkaloids are a kind of ubiquitous natural products, and important active components of various medicinal plants. A large number of studies have shown that alkaloids could exert an anti-breast tumor effect by inhibiting proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis, resisting mitosis, promoting apoptosis and autophagy, and triggering cell cycle arrest. The extensive anti-breast tumor effect makes alkaloids an important candidate drug source. This paper reviews the anti-breast tumor mechanism of natural products of alkaloids.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation
10.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 133 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292693

ABSTRACT

A regulação da fosforilação/desfosforilação das proteínas é o eixo central de muitas cascatas de sinalização. A fosfatase DUSP3, constituída apenas por um único domínio catalítico, desempenha papéis fundamentais na proliferação e senescência celular. Nas células HeLa, submetidas ao estresse genotóxico, o DUSP3 interage fisicamente com as proteínas HNRNPC, mas o efeito dessa função molecular ainda é desconhecido. Aqui demostramos que a ausência de DUPS3 mantem a proteína HNRNPC1/C2 num estado hiperfosforilado. Para entender melhor o envolvimento da interação DUSP3-HNRNPC nas funções biológicas da HNRNPC1/C2, foram estudadas células de fibroblasto deficientes de DUSP3. Foi analisado o efeito da deficiência de DUSP3 na biogênese dos ribossomos através do ensaio de perfil de polirribossomos e quantificação dos rRNAs com RT-qPCR. Os resultados mostraram que a deficiência de DUSP3 não afeta a maturação das subunidades ribossômicas, mas teria um impacto na transcrição dos pré-rRNAs e no acumulo das espécies 47S/45S. A expressado de genes contendo sequencias IRES foi analisado através do RT-qPCR e sua tradução ao longo do ciclo e em condições de estresse. Da expressão, não existe nenhuma diferença nos níveis de transcrição dos genes c-myc e xiap nas células normais e deficientes de DUSP3 em condições basais. Embora a síntese destas proteínas é maior nas células deficientes, mantendo um nível maior de tradução ao longo de todo o ciclo. Sob condições de estresse, esta duas proteínas sempre mantem uma maior expressão nas células Knockdown para DUSP3. Neste trabalho também foi estabelecido a presença de DUSP3 nos complexos da subunidade 40S, através do analise das frações obtidas do ensaio de polirribossomos e interação in vitro (Co-IP). A presença de DUSP3 nas subunidades 40S, os monossomas 80S e polissomos poderia ser através da interação direta com proteínas que possuem um domínio RRM e seria dependente dos complexos formados pelas proteínas e seus RNAs alvos. Aqui mostramos a interação in vitro de DUSP3 com a proteína PABP (com quatro domínios RRM), proteína que tem um papel importante na manutenção da taxa global de tradução, esta interação é enfraquecida na ausência de RNAs. A deficiência de DUSP3 também teria um impacto na interação das proteínas HNRNPC1/C2 e P53 in vitro. A ausência de DUSP3 diminui a interação HNRNPC-P53 através da hiperfosforilação da proteina HNRNPC1/C2. A perda desta interação, aumentaria os níveis da proteína P53 na célula deficiente de DUSP3 e poderia gerar parada no ciclo celular. Através de ensaios de imunofluorescência, se observo uma maior taxa de transcrição global na célula deficiente de DUSP3. Por fim, aqui demostramos que a interação direta de DUSP3 e HNRNPC1/C2 vai permitir a regulação das funções biológicas desta proteína, e a ausência de DUSP3 vai ter efeitos pleiotrópicos na homeostase da célula


inglêsProtein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation regulation is a central axis of many signaling cascades. DUSP3 phosphatase, consisting only of a single catalytic domain, plays key roles in cell proliferation and senescence. In HeLa cells subjected to genotoxic stress, DUSP3 physically interacts with HNRNPC proteins, but the effect of this molecular function is still unknown. Here we demonstrate that the absence of DUPS3 keeps the HNRNPC1/C2 proteins in a hyperphosphorylated state. To better understand the involvement of DUSP3- HNRNPC interaction on the biological functions of HNRNPC1/C2, DUSP3 deficient fibroblast cells were studied. The effect of DUSP3 deficiency on ribosome biogenesis was analyzed by polyribosome profile assay and RT-qPCR for rRNA quantification. The results showed that DUSP3 deficiency does not affect ribosomal subunit maturation, but would have an impact on transcription of pre-rRNAs and accumulation of 47S / 45S species. The expression of genes containing IRES sequences was analyzed by RT-qPCR and their translation throughout the cycle and under stress conditions. From expression, there is no difference in transcriptional levels of c-myc and xiap genes in normal and DUSP3 deficient cells under basal conditions. Although, the synthesis of these proteins is higher in deficient cells and these maintain a higher level of translation throughout the cell cycle. Under stress conditions, these two proteins always maintain higher expression in Knockdown cells for DUSP3. In this work, the presence of DUSP3 in the 40S ribosomal subunit complexes was also established by analyzing the fractions obtained from the polyribosome assay and in vitro interaction (CoIP). The presence of DUSP3 in the 40S subunits, 80S monosomes and polysomes could be through direct interaction with proteins that have an RRM domain and would be dependent on the complexes formed by the proteins and their target RNAs. Here we show the in vitro interaction of DUSP3 with PABP protein (with four RRM domains), a protein that plays an important role in maintaining the overall translation rate, this interaction is weakened in the absence of RNAs. DUSP3 deficiency would also have an impact on the interaction of HNRNPC1/C2 and P53 proteins in vitro. The absence of DUSP3 decreases HNRNPC-P53 interaction through hyperphosphorylation of the HNRNPC1/C2 proteins. Loss of this interaction would increase P53 protein levels in the DUSP3 deficient cell and could lead to cell cycle arrest. Through immunofluorescence assays, a higher overall transcription rate is observed in the DUSP3 deficient cell. Finally, we demonstrate that the direct interaction of DUSP3 and HNRNPC1/C2 will allow the regulation of the biological functions of this protein, and the absence of DUSP3 will have pleiotropic effects on cell homeostasis


Subject(s)
DNA Damage , Cell Cycle , Cells , Genes, myc , Origin of Life , Maintenance , Phosphorylation , Polyribosomes , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Fibroblasts , Homeostasis
11.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1784-1792, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880803

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of palbociclib on cell cycle progression and proliferation of human renal tubular epithelial cells.@*METHODS@#Human renal tubular epithelial cell line HK-2 was treated with 1, 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L of palbociclib, and the changes in cell proliferation and viability were examined by cell counting and CCK8 assay. EDU staining was used to assess the proliferation of HK-2 cells following palbiciclib treatment at different concentrations for 5 days. The effect of palbociclib on cell cycle distribution of HK-2 cells was evaluated using flow cytometry. SA-β-Gal staining and C12FDG senescence staining were used to detect senescence phenotypes of HK-2 cells after palbociclib treatment at different concentrations for 5 days. The relative mRNA expression levels of P16, P21, and P53 and the genes associated with senescence-related secretion phenotypes were detected by RT-PCR, and the protein expressions of P16, P21 and P53 were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Palbociclib inhibited HK-2 cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Compared with the control cells, HK-2 cells treated with high-dose (10 μmol/L) palbociclib exhibited significantly suppressed cell proliferation activity, and the inhibitory effect was the most obvious on day 5 (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Palbociclib induces HK-2 cell senescence by causing cell growth arrest and delaying cell cycle progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cellular Senescence , Epithelial Cells , Piperazines/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics
12.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 90 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995153

ABSTRACT

O melanoma é responsável por menos de 5% dos cânceres de pele, porém, 95% das mortes ocorrem devido a ocorrência de metástases. O melanoma metastático é refratário às terapias convencionais e rapidamente adquire resistência às terapias como as oncogene-dirigidas, como o inibidor de BRAF, da via de MAPK. Estudos prévios de screening in silico do nosso grupo, onde se utilizou as bases de dados TCGA e GEO, identificaram o gene adenosina quinase (ADK) como sendo diferencialmente expresso entre o melanoma invasivo e os nevus. A 5-iodotubercidina (5-ITu) é um potente inibidor farmacológico da ADK que dentre os diversos efeitos relatados na literatura destaca-se pelo potencial genotóxico. Os danos no DNA são os principais ativadores de checkpoint do ciclo celular, que levam a parada do ciclo celular transitória ou permanente, além de induzir morte celular, levando a hipótese de que ADK possa ser potencial agente anti-melanoma. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a expressão do gene ADK em melanomas humanos e quimiorresistentes ao inibidor de BRAF (iBRAF), avaliou os impactos de 5-ITu sobre a proliferação, progressão do ciclo celular e morte celular e por fim avaliamos sua capacidade de aumentar a sensibilidade das células. Foi realizado PCR em tempo real para avaliar os níveis de expressão de mRNA de ADK em linhagens de melanoma e na cultura primária de melanócitos; a fim de avaliar a citotoxicidade de 5-ITu foram realizados os ensaios de exclusão por azul de tripan e de apoptose - Anexina V e PI e em modelo de esferoide, usando live/dead; também foi avaliada a influência de 5-ITu sobre a capacidade clonogênica e seus efeitos sobre a proliferação celular, a partir dos ensaios de ciclo celular e avaliação de marcadores de proliferação por imunofluorescência; as linhagens foram submetidas a diferentes regimes de tratamento com 5-ITu e o iBRAF, a fim de avaliar a curva de crescimento e a sensibilidade ao iBRAF por MTT níveis de expressão de mRNA de ADK maiores nas linhagens tumorais em relação aos melanócitos. 5-ITu mostrou-se capaz de inibir a proliferação (IC50) das linhagens de melanoma em concentrações de 1,9 a 3,5 µM. 5-ITu não foi capaz de induzir inviabilidade celular, apesar de reduzir a quantidade de células viáveis em todas as condições de tratamento, também não foi capaz de induzir aumento significativo de células apoptóticas, nem mesmo necróticas. No entanto, o tratamento com 5-ITu reduziu a capacidade clonogênica de linhagens de melanoma e promoveu parada de ciclo celular nas fases G1 e G2/M, levou ao aumento da população subG1. O tratamento com 5-ITu promoveu a redução da expressão de marcadores de proliferação, como ki67, e a combinação de tratamentos 5-ITu e iBraf foi capaz de aumentar o tempo de dobramento das linhagens de melanoma, embora tenha se mostrado incapaz de sensibilizar as células de melanoma ao tratamento com iBRAF. Desse modo, pode-se concluir que 5-ITu induz o efeito citostático e se mostra um potente agente antiproliferativo para melanoma parental e resistente


Melanoma accounts for less than 5% of skin cancers, but 95% of deaths occur due to metastases. Metastatic melanoma is refractory to conventional therapies and rapidly acquires resistance to therapies such as oncogene-directed, such as the BRAF inhibitor, of the MAPK pathway. Previous studies of screening in silico of our group, using the databases TCGA and GEO, identified the adenosine kinase gene (ADK) as differentially expressed between invasive melanoma and nevus. 5-iodotubercidin (5-ITu) is a potent pharmacological inhibitor of ADK that among the several effects reported in the literature stands out for the genotoxic potential. DNA damage is the main activator of the cell cycle checkpoint, which leads to transient or permanent cell cycle arrest, in addition to inducing cell death, leading to the hypothesis that ADK may be a potential anti-melanoma agent. This work aimed to evaluate the expression of the ADK gene in human melanomas and chemoresistants to the BRAF inhibitor (iBRAF), evaluated the impacts of 5-ITu on proliferation, cell cycle progression and cell death and finally we evaluated its ability to increase the sensitivity of cells. Real-time PCR was performed to assess the levels of ADK mRNA expression in melanoma lines and primary melanocyte culture; in order to evaluate the cytotoxicity of 5-ITu, the trypan blue and apoptosis - Annexin V and PI exclusion and blue spheroid models were performed using live / dead; the influence of 5-ITu on the clonogenic capacity and its effects on cell proliferation, from the cell cycle assays and the evaluation of proliferation markers by immunofluorescence; the cell lines were submitted to different treatment regimens with 5-ITu and iBRAF in order to evaluate the growth curve and the sensitivity to iBRAF by MTT levels of mRNA expression of ADK higher in the tumor lines in relation to the melanocytes. 5-ITu was able to inhibit the proliferation (IC 50) of melanoma lines at concentrations of 1.9 to 3.5 181;M. 5-ITu was not able to induce cell non-viability, although it reduced the amount of viable cells in all treatment conditions, nor was it able to induce a significant increase in apoptotic or even necrotic cells. However, treatment with 5-ITu reduced the clonogenic capacity of melanoma cells and promoted cell cycle arrest in the G1 and G2 / M phases, leading to an increase in the subG1 population. Treatment with 5-ITu promotes the reduction of expression of proliferation markers, such as ki67, and the combination of 5-ITu and iBRAF treatments was able to increase the doubling time of melanoma cells, although it has been shown to be unable to sensitize melanoma cells to treatment with iBRAF. Thus, it can be concluded that 5-ITu induces the cytostatic effect and shows a potent antiproliferative agent for parental and resistant melanoma


Subject(s)
Adenosine Kinase/analysis , Melanoma , DNA Damage , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/antagonists & inhibitors , Disease Resistance , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Neoplasms/classification
13.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 197-207, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 mutated breast cancer cells exhibit the elevated cell proliferation and the higher metastatic potential. G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) has been shown to regulate growth of hormonally responsive cancers, such as ovarian and breast cancers, and high expression of GPR30 is found in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer cells. ER-negative breast cancer patients often have a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene, BRCA1. This study explored antiproliferative effects of genistein, a chemopreventive isoflavone present in legumes, and underlying molecular mechanisms in triple negative breast cancer cells with or without functionally active BRCA1.METHODS: Expression of BRCA1, GPR30 and Nrf2 was measured by Western blot analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was monitored by using the fluorescence-generating probe, 2’,7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. The effects of genistein on breast cancer cell viability and proliferation were assessed by the MTT, migration and clonogenic assays.RESULTS: The expression of GPR30 was dramatically elevated at both transcriptional and translational levels in BRCA1 mutated breast cancer cells compared to cells with wild-type BRCA1. Notably, there was diminished Akt phosporylation in GPR30 silenced cells. Treatment of BRCA1 silenced breast cancer cells with genistein resulted in the down-regulation of GPR30 expression and the inhibition of Akt phosphorylation as well as the reduced cell viability, migration and colony formation. Genistein caused cell cycle arrest at the G₂/M phase in BRCA1-mutant cells through down-regulation of cyclin B1 expression. Furthermore, BRCA1-mutant breast cancer cells exhibited higher levels of intracellular ROS than those in the wild-type cells. Genistein treatment lowered the ROS levels through up-regulation of Nrf2 expression.CONCLUSIONS: Lack of functional BRCA1 activates GPR30 signaling, thereby stimulating Akt phosphorylation and cell proliferation. Genistein induces G2/M phase arrest by down-regulating cyclin B1 expression, which is attributable to its suppression of GPR30 activation and Akt phosphorylation in BRCA1 impaired breast cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Cyclin B1 , Down-Regulation , Estrogens , Fabaceae , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Genistein , Phosphorylation , Reactive Oxygen Species , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Up-Regulation
14.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 55-61, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738591

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the possible effects of chronic exposure of low dose benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on trabecular meshwork cells, and to characterize the pathways involved in the effects. METHODS: Trabecular meshwork cells were treated with 0.0005%, 0.00075%, 0.001%, and 0.0025% BAK for 10 minutes; then, the cells were transferred to a new medium for 24 hours. This process was repeated three times. Cell survival was assessed using the MTT assay to determine the non-apoptotic BAK concentration. Senescence-associated (SA)-β-gal staining was performed to compare quantitatively the cellular senescence of BAK-treated cells with the control group. Cells treated with BAK were analyzed by western blot to determine whether the expressions of cell cycle regulators were affected. RESULTS: Two concentrations (0.0005% and 0.00075%) showed persistent cell viability and were chosen for further experiments. After SA-β-gal staining, cells treated with 0.0005% and 0.00075% BAK showed 28% (± 2.08), 37% (± 2.08) increases in cellular senescence expression, respectively, when compared with control cells (p < 0.05). To identify the molecular pathways involved in cell cycle arrest via BAK, western blot analysis was performed on trabecular meshwork cells, resulting in decreased expressions of cyclin E/CDK2, and increased expressions of the upper stream control molecules, p53 and p21. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic exposure to low dose BAK accelerated cell senescence through cell cycle arrest. Because senescent cells of the trabecular meshwork can inhibit its outflow pathway function and ultimately worsen the glaucomatous process, long-term usage of topical glaucoma medications containing BAK should be conducted with caution.


Subject(s)
Aging , Benzalkonium Compounds , Blotting, Western , Cellular Senescence , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Survival , Cyclins , Glaucoma , Rivers , Trabecular Meshwork
15.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 283-289, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763016

ABSTRACT

Brain aging induces neuropsychological changes, such as decreased memory capacity, language ability, and attention; and is also associated with neurodegenerative diseases. However, most of the studies on brain aging are focused on neurons, while senescence in astrocytes has received less attention. Astrocytes constitute the majority of cell types in the brain and perform various functions in the brain such as supporting brain structures, regulating blood-brain barrier permeability, transmitter uptake and regulation, and immunity modulation. Recent studies have shown that SIRT1 and SIRT2 play certain roles in cellular senescence in peripheral systems. Both SIRT1 and SIRT2 inhibitors delay tumor growth in vivo without significant general toxicity. In this study, we investigated the role of tenovin-1, an inhibitor of SIRT1 and SIRT2, on rat primary astrocytes where we observed senescence and other functional changes. Cellular senescence usually is characterized by irreversible cell cycle arrest and induces senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity. Tenovin-1-treated astrocytes showed increased SA-β-gal-positive cell number, senescence-associated secretory phenotypes, including IL-6 and IL-1β, and cell cycle-related proteins like phospho-histone H3 and CDK2. Along with the molecular changes, tenovin-1 impaired the wound-healing activity of cultured primary astrocytes. These data suggest that tenovin-1 can induce cellular senescence in astrocytes possibly by inhibiting SIRT1 and SIRT2, which may play particular roles in brain aging and neurodegenerative conditions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aging , Astrocytes , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Cellular Senescence , Cell Count , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Interleukin-6 , Language , Memory , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Permeability , Phenotype , Wound Healing
16.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 133-142, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis involves irreversible alveolar destruction. Although alveolar epithelial type II cells are key functional participants within the lung parenchyma, how epithelial cells are affected upon bleomycin (BLM) exposure remains unknown. In this study, we determined whether BLM could induce cell cycle arrest via regulation of Schlafen (SLFN) family genes, a group of cell cycle regulators known to mediate growth-inhibitory responses and apoptosis in alveolar epithelial type II cells. METHODS: Mouse AE II cell line MLE-12 were exposed to 1–10 µg/mL BLM and 0.01–100 µM baicalein (Bai), a G1/G2 cell cycle inhibitor, for 24 hours. Cell viability and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by MTT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Apoptosis-related gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cellular morphology was determined after DAPI and Hoechst 33258 staining. To verify cell cycle arrest, propidium iodide (PI) staining was performed for MLE-12 after exposure to BLM. RESULTS: BLM decreased the proliferation of MLE-12 cells. However, it significantly increased expression levels of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and transforming growth factor β1. Based on Hoechst 33258 staining, BLM induced condensation of nuclear and fragmentation. Based on DAPI and PI staining, BLM significantly increased the size of nuclei and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Results of qRT-PCR analysis revealed that BLM increased mRNA levels of BAX but decreased those of Bcl2. In addition, BLM/Bai increased mRNA levels of p53, p21, SLFN1, 2, 4 of Schlafen family. CONCLUSION: BLM exposure affects pulmonary epithelial type II cells, resulting in decreased proliferation possibly through apoptotic and cell cycle arrest associated signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Apoptosis , Bisbenzimidazole , Bleomycin , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Gene Expression , Genes, vif , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Interleukin-6 , Lung , Propidium , RNA, Messenger , Transforming Growth Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
17.
The World Journal of Men's Health ; : 186-198, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742359

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigated the role of natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) on cell proliferation and testosterone secretion in mouse Leydig cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mouse testis of different postnatal stages was isolated to detect the expression C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its receptor NPR2 by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Leydig cells isolated from mouse testis were cultured and treated with shNPR2 lentiviruses or CNP. And then the cyclic guanosine monophosphate production, testosterone secretion, cell proliferation, cell cycle and cell apoptosis in mouse Leydig cells were analyzed by ELISA, RT-qPCR, Cell Counting Kit-8, and flow cytometry. Moreover, the expression of NPR2, cell cycle, apoptosis proliferation and cell cycle related gene were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot. RESULTS: Knockdown of NPR2 by RNAi resulted in S phase cell cycle arrest, cell apoptosis, and decreased testosterone secretion in mouse Leydig cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides more evidences to better understand the function of CNP/NPR2 pathway in male reproduction, which may help us to treat male infertility.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Cell Count , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Proliferation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Germ Cells , Guanosine Monophosphate , Infertility, Male , Lentivirus , Leydig Cells , Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Peptide , Reproduction , Reverse Transcription , RNA Interference , S Phase , Testicular Diseases , Testis , Testosterone
18.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 94-103, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Development of chemotherapeutics for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been lagging. Screening of candidate therapeutic agents by using patient-derived preclinical models may facilitate drug discovery for HCC patients. METHODS: Four primary cultured HCC cells from surgically resected tumor tissues and six HCC cell lines were used for high-throughput screening of 252 drugs from the Prestwick Chemical Library. The efficacy and mechanisms of action of the candidate anti-cancer drug were analyzed via cell viability, cell cycle assays, and western blotting. RESULTS: Guanabenz acetate, which has been used as an antihypertensive drug, was screened as a candidate anti-cancer agent for HCC through a drug sensitivity assay by using the primary cultured HCC cells and HCC cell lines. Guanabenz acetate reduced HCC cell viability through apoptosis and autophagy. This occurred via inhibition of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34, increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, increased activating transcription factor 4, and cell cycle arrest. CONCLUSIONS: Guanabenz acetate induces endoplasmic reticulum stress–related cell death in HCC and may be repositioned as an anti-cancer therapeutic agent for HCC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Activating Transcription Factor 4 , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Death , Cell Line , Cell Survival , DNA , Drug Discovery , Drug Repositioning , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Guanabenz , Mass Screening , Peptide Initiation Factors , Phosphorylation , Primary Cell Culture
19.
Korean Journal of Neurotrauma ; : 2-10, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Astrocyte dysfunctions are related to several central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Transcriptomic profiling of human mRNAs to investigate astrocyte functions may provide the basic molecular-biological data pertaining to the cellular activities of astrocytes. METHODS: Human Primary astrocytes (HPAs) and human neural stem cell line (HB1.F3) were used for differential digital gene analysis. In this study, a massively parallel sequencing platform, next-generation sequencing (NGS), was used to obtain the digital gene expression (DGE) data from HPAs. A comparative analysis of the DGE from HPA and HB1.F3 cells was performed. Sequencing was performed using NGS platform, and subsequently, bioinformatic analyses were implemented to reveal the identity of the pathways, relatively up- or down-regulated in HPA cells. RESULTS: The top, novel canonical pathways up-regulated in HPA cells than in the HB1.F3 cells were “Cyclins and cell cycle regulation,” “Integrin signaling,” “Regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signaling,” “Wnt/β-catenin signaling,” “mTOR signaling,” “Aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling,” “Hippo signaling,” “RhoA signaling,” “Signaling by Rho family GTPases,” and “Glioma signaling” pathways. The down-regulated pathways were “Cell cycle: G1/S checkpoint regulation,” “eIF2 signaling,” “Cell cycle: G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation,” “Telomerase signaling,” “RhoGDI signaling,” “NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response,” “ERK/MAPK signaling,” “ATM signaling,” “Pancreatic adenocarcinoma signaling,” “VEGF signaling,” and “Role of CHK proteins in cell cycle checkpoint control” pathways. CONCLUSION: This study would be a good reference to understand astrocyte functions at the molecular level, and to develop a diagnostic test, based on the DGE pattern of astrocytes, as a powerful, new clinical tool in many CNS diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Astrocytes , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Central Nervous System , Central Nervous System Diseases , Computational Biology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , DNA Damage , Gene Expression , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Neural Stem Cells , Oxidative Stress , Pathology , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa , RNA, Messenger
20.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 43-52, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774000

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effects of diallyl disulfide(DADS)-induced G2/M phase arrest on proliferation and apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells and its possible molecular mechanism.Methods DADS was used to incubate SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells,respectively,in different concentrations. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay and cell apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry assay. Xenograft model assay were performed to analyze the antitumor effect in vivo. Cell cycle phase distribution was detected by flow cytometry. Expressions of cell cycle G2/M phase as well as proliferation- and apoptosis-related proteins were measured by Western blotting.Results MTT assay showed that,after treatment of SK-OV-3(F=247.86,P=0.000)and OVCAR-3 cells(F=302.54,P=0.000)with different concentrations of DADS,the cell proliferation inhibition rate was significantly elevated with the increase of DADS concentrations in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition rate of SK-OV-3(F=335.12,P=0.000)and OVCAR-3 cells(F=347.43,P=0.000)at 24 h was significantly higher than that at 12 h and 48 h,showing a significant time-dependence manner. Flow cytometry showed that,after SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells were treated with different concentrations of DADS,the apoptosis rates increased significantly with the increase of DADS concentration in a concentration-dependent manner(P<0.05). The apoptotic rates of SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells treated with DADS at 24 h was significantly higher than that at 12 h and 48 h in a significant time-dependence manner(P<0.05). Compared with the blank treatment group,intraperitoneal injection of DADS solution significantly inhibited the xenograft volume of ovarian cancer cells in nude mice(F=548.23,P=0.000;F=311.84,P=0.000). After 30 mg/L of DADS was applied to SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells for 24 h,the percentage of cells in G2 phase of SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells increased significantly(F=375.11,P=0.000;F=256.48,P=0.000),compared with the blank cells. After 30 mg/L DADS was applied to SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells for 24 h,the expressions of p-Chk1(ser345)(F=108.89,P=0.013;F=97.58,P=0.018),p-CDC25C(ser216)(F=87.25,P=0.025;F=114.25,P=0.009),p-P53(ser15)(F=112.41,P=0.011;F=255.87,P=0.000),P21WAF1(F=246.38,P=0.001;F=141.36,P=0.005)and p-CDK1(Thr14/Tyr15)protein(F=298.12,P=0.000;F=233.15,P=0.000)were significantly increased,whereas the expressions of CDK1(F=308.24,P=0.000;F=257.55,P=0.000)and CyclinB1 protein(F=223.15,P=0.001;F=241.28,P=0.000)were significantly reduced.The expressions of proliferation and apoptosis-related proteins PCNA(F=77.36,P=0.031;F=157.28,P=0.001),Ki-67(F=205.64,P=0.007;F=315.22,P=0.000)and Survivin(F=122.13,P=0.013;F=188.24,P=0.000)were significantly decreased and Cleaved-caspase3 protein was significantly increased(F=86.46,P=0.023;F=99.11,P=0.009).Conclusion DADS can inhibit the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and induce their apoptosis,which may be related to the activation of Chk1-CDC25C and P53-P21WAF1 signaling pathways in G2/M checkpoint,decreased kinase activity of CDK1,down-regulated expressions of CDK1 and CyclinB1 proteins,and ultimately cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Allyl Compounds , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Disulfides , Mice, Nude
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL