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Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06991, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365241


Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic and ubiquitous pathogen found in the skin, nares, and mucosal membranes of mammals. Increasing resistance to antimicrobials including methicillin has become an important public concern. One hundred and eight (108) S. aureus strains isolated from a total of 572 clinical and animal products samples, were investigated for their biofilm capability, methicillin resistance, enterotoxin genes, and genetic diversity. Although only one strain isolated from raw retail was found as a strong biofilm producer, the percentage of antimicrobial resistance pattern was relatively higher. 17.59% of S. aureus strains tested in this study were resistant to cefoxitin and identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. mecA and mecC harboring S. aureus strains were detected at a rate of 2.79% and 0.93%, respectively. In addition, staphylococcal enterotoxin genes including Sea, Seb, Sec, and Sed genes were found to be 18.5%, 32.4%, 6.5% and 3.7%, respectively. The phylogenetic relationship among the isolates showed relationship between joint calf and cow milk isolates. Multi locus sequence typing (MLST) revealed three different sequence types (STs) including ST84, ST829, and ST6238. These findings highlight the development and spread of MRSA strains with zoonotic potential in animals and the food chain throughout the world.

Staphylococcus aureus é um patógeno dúctil e ubíquo encontrado na pele, narinas e membranas mucosas de mamíferos. O aumento da resistência aos antimicrobianos, incluindo a meticilina, tornou-se uma importante preocupação pública. Cento e oito (108) cepas de S. aureus isoladas de um total de 572 amostras clínicas e de produtos animais foram investigadas por sua capacidade de biofilme, resistência à meticilina, genes de enterotoxinas e diversidade genética. Embora apenas uma cepa isolada do cru tenha sido encontrada como forte produtora de biofilme, a porcentagem do padrão de resistência antimicrobiana foi relativamente maior. Parte das cepas (17,59%) de S. aureus testadas neste estudo eram resistentes à cefoxitina e identificadas como isolados de MRSA. mecA e mecC abrigando cepas de S. aureus foram detectados a uma taxa de 2,79% e 0,93%, respectivamente. Além disso, verificou-se que os genes da enterotoxina estafilocócica, incluindo os genes Sea, Seb, Sec e Sed, eram 18,5%, 32,4%, 6,5% e 3,7%, respectivamente. A relação filogenética entre os isolados mostrou relação entre os isolados de bezerro e leite de vaca. A tipagem de sequência multiloco (MLST) revelou três tipos de sequência diferentes (STs), incluindo ST84, ST829 e ST6238. Essas descobertas destacam o desenvolvimento e a disseminação de cepas de MRSA com potencial zoonótico em animais e na cadeia alimentar em todo o mundo.

Animals , Staphylococcal Food Poisoning/epidemiology , Turkey/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Cheese/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Enterotoxins
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1835, 2021. mapa, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363707


The artisanal goat coalho cheese is one of the products obtained that stand out in the dairy goat farming of the Northeast of Brazil. Despite its importance, goat cheese is often made under inadequate hygienic-sanitary conditions and usually uses raw goat's milk, increasing the risk of product contamination. Among the pathogens carried by goat coalho cheese, Staphylococcus aureus stands out, being responsible for cases of food poisoning and persistent infections that are difficult to treat. This study aimed to evaluate the contamination, genotypic and phenotypic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from artisanal coalho cheese made with goat milk produced in the Northeast region of Brazil. This study analyzed only artisanal coalho cheeses made with raw goat's milk and purchased directly from farms. Twelve samples of artisanal coalho cheeses made with raw goat's milk were collected (1 sample per property) in 8 municipalities in the state of Pernambuco, Northeast region of Brazil. For microbiological analysis of enumeration of Colony Forming Units (CFU/g) of Staphylococcus spp. the methodology recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (2019) and recognized by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply was used. After enumeration, 5 colonies were selected per enumerated plate, a total of 180 Staphylococcus spp. was obtained. These were subjected to thermal extraction of genetic material to search for the nuc gene by Polymerase Chain Reaction, the isolates carrying the nuc gene were subjected to genotypic and phenotypic evaluation of antimicrobial resistance. After the phenotypic analysis, the Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance Index was evaluated. In all samples, Staphylococcus spp. and were considered unfit for consumption, with the lowest count being 9.4x103 CFU/g and the highest 6.4x106 CFU /g. Of the 180 isolates, 28.34% (51/180) were positive for the detection of the nuc gene. All resistance genes except mecA, mecC, and norB were detected. Of the 51 S. aureus isolates, 31.37% (16/51) were considered multi-resistant and presented a Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance Index above 0.2. After microbiological analysis it was found that all samples of coalho cheese were out of standards and unfit for human consumption in accordance with Ordinance no 146/1996 of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply of Brazil. Furthermore, the contamination of goat coalho cheeses is a risk to public health. During sample collection were found inadequate hygiene conditions in the environment used for cheese production. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus can be attributed to hygienic-sanitary failures in cheese production. From a health point of view, it is even more alarming when it comes to S. aureus carrying resistance genes. Although the 51 S. aureus isolates did not carry the mecA, mecC, norB genes and did not show phenotypic resistance to cefoxitin and oxacillin, all other genes were detected, indicating the circulation of S. aureus carrying the tet(L) genes, tet(M), tet-38, msrA, norA, and norC, which so far had not been reported in the production chain of goat coalho cheese in Brazil. Furthermore, the evaluation of the Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance Index identified the occurrence of multiple resistance to antimicrobials in 31.37% (16/51) of S. aureus at high risk to human health. The results obtained are quite worrying and serve as a warning to the scientific community and the Food Safety and Hygiene Inspection Services.(AU)

Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Cheese/microbiology , Identity and Quality Standard for Products and Services , Food Safety , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1347965


Pattern minas cheese is a product developed with pasteurized milk, fermented with mesophilic cultures, and with the final addition of rennet. This cheese undergoes an artisanal maturation process and possesses a firm shell of yellowish color and striking and acidic flavor. Our study objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of pattern minas cheese. We collected 40 samples from two micro regions (Uberlândia and Patos de Minas) of the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba mesor regions of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The microbiological test results were recorded as counts of enterobacteria, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 35°C, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and Salmonella spp. In the Patos de Minas micro region, the results were 45%, 35%, 20%, and 20% higher than 103 CFU/g for the counts of enterobacteria, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 35°C, and Staphylococcus coagulase-positive, respectively. Five percent of the analyzed samples were positive for Salmonella spp. in the Uberlândia micro region. Based on the findings of the microbiota in the cheese analyzed from the micro regions (Uberlândia and Patos de Minas), we concluded that the hygiene conditions in the manufacturing, handling, transport, and storage stages were precarious, requiring the implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) systems, including Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP).(AU)

O queijo minas padrão é um produto elaborado com leite pasteurizado, fermentado com culturas mesófilas e adição de coalho. Esse queijo passa por um processo de maturação artesanal, possui uma casca firme de cor amarelada e sabor ácido. O presente trabalho avaliou a qualidade microbiológica de queijo minas padrão comercializado em duas microrregiões (Uberlândia e Patos de Minas) da mesorregião do Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram examinadas 40 amostras de queijo. Os ensaios microbiológicos foram contagens de enterobactérias, Escherichia coli, coliformes a 35 oC, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e pesquisa de Salmonella spp. Na microrregião de Patos de Minas, os resultados foram de 45%, 35%, 20% e 20% superiores a 103 CFU/g para as contagens de enterobactérias, Escherichia coli, coliformes a 35oC e Staphylococcus coagulase positiva, respectivamente. Cinco por cento das amostras analisadas foram positivas à pesquisa de Salmonella spp. Considerando a microrregião analisada (Uberlândia e Patos de Minas), a conclusão obtida foi que na região estudada, as condições de higiene nas etapas de fabricação, manuseio, transporte e armazenamento do queijo minas padrão são precárias, sendo necessária a implementação de sistemas de Boas Práticas de Fabricação (GMP), incluindo Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle (HACCP).(AU)

Cheese/analysis , Cheese/microbiology , Hygiene , Staphylococcus , Escherichia coli
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(3): 208-212, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132445


ABSTRACT Background: Global publications on Q fever have increased after the 2007 epidemic in the Netherlands. However, the epidemiology of Q fever/coxiellosis in Brazil is still poorly understood. Accordingly, there have been few studies investigating the presence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy products around the world, especially in Brazil, where consumption of fresh cheese made from raw-milk is very high. Objective: This study was a random survey to assess the prevalence of C. burnetii by PCR in traditional Minas artisanal cheese from the Serro microregion, Brazil, which is manufactured from bovine raw-milk. Methods: DNA extracted from 53 cheese samples were analyzed by nested PCR with C. burnetii-specific primers and the products confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results: Out of the 53 cheese samples five (9.43%) were C. burnetii DNA-positive, each coming from one of the respective randomly selected manufacturing agroindustries.Based on our results, it is estimated that 1.62 tons/day of ready-to-eat cheese made from raw-milk from a total of 16.2 tons produced daily in the study region are contaminated with C. burnetii. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report of highly heat-resistant zoonotic pathogen in raw-milk Brazilian artisanal cheese. This food safety hazard has been completely neglected in ready-to-eat raw-milk Brazilian artisanal cheese and could imply potential threats to consumers, since C. burnetii survives in artisanal cheese submitted to long ripening periods. Thus, this work established random and representative baseline prevalence of C. burnetii in this food product in Brazil. Further epidemiological studies, monitoring trends and setting control targets are warranted. Finally, these results point out the importance of including C. burnetii in animal and public health surveillance programs.

Animals , Cattle , Q Fever , Cheese/microbiology , Coxiella burnetii/isolation & purification , Food Microbiology , Brazil , Milk , Food Safety
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 615-622, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128492


A fabricação de queijo coalho artesanal elaborado com leite de cabra é composta pelas etapas de obtenção do leite, refrigeração, manipulação e armazenamento, que aumentam o risco de contaminação do produto. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar o nível de contaminação por Staphylococcus aureus em amostras de queijo coalho artesanal produzido com leite de cabra cru no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, bem como avaliar a concordância entre a técnica oficial da Instrução Normativa nº62/2003 (Mapa) e a técnica molecular (gene nuc) para identificar S. aureus no queijo. Houve crescimento de colônias típicas de Staphylococcus aureus em 100% das amostras, e a contagem variou de 7,0×103 a 8,6×106 UFC/g. Das 30 amostras analisadas, 18 (60,0%) apresentaram valores superiores ou iguais a 105UFC/g, e 21 (70,0%) estavam contaminadas por S. aureus. A concordância entre os métodos de diagnóstico de S. aureus em queijo coalho caprino foi moderada. O nível de contaminação dos queijos revela a necessidade de ações de melhoria das condições de elaboração do produto, a fim de garantir um produto seguro aos consumidores.(AU)

The manufacture of artisanal Coalho cheese made from goat's milk is composed of the steps of obtaining milk, refrigeration, handling and storage that increase the risk of product contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of contamination by Staphylococcus aureus in samples of artisanal Coalho cheese produced with raw goat's milk in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In addition to evaluating the agreement between the official technique of Normative Instruction nº62/2003 (MAPA) and the molecular technique (nuc gene) to identify S. aureus in cheese. There was growth of typical Staphylococcus aureus colonies in 100% of the samples and the count ranged from 7.0×103 to 8.6×106 CFU/g. Of the 30 analyzed samples, 18 (60.0%) presented values greater than or equal to 105CFU/g and 21 (70.0%) were contaminated by S. aureus. The agreement between the diagnostic methods of S. aureus in goat cheese was moderate. The level of contamination of cheeses reveals the need for actions to improve the preparation conditions of the product in order to guarantee a safe product to consumers.(AU)

Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Cheese/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Refrigeration , Brazil , Goats , Foodborne Diseases
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190759, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132246


Abstract Animal products are sources of microbiological contamination when the process has hygienic-sanitary control fails. Therefore, this work aims the evaluation of the pathogenic microorganisms presented in samples from the Brazil southern region of yogurt (N = 101), stretched curd cheese (N = 31), fresh sausage (N = 22) and processing water (N = 63). Analyses of coliforms at 45 °C, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli were performed. Analysis indicated processing water is an important contamination source to be monitored, because the majority of samples presented results above the regulation limits. Thermal treatment and fermentation such as stretched curd cheese and yogurt appeared to be more stable against contamination during processing. In this study, for coliforms at 45 °C, only one cheese sample and 12% of total yogurt samples exceeded the Brazilian legislation limit. None of sausage samples presented any contamination. On the other hand, values found in both processing water and dairy products indicated failures in application and monitoring of good manufactured practices.

Animals , Water Microbiology , Yogurt/microbiology , Cheese/microbiology , Food Microbiology , Meat Products/microbiology , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Brazil , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Coliforms
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1917-1921, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055124


Paratuberculosis is a chronic and incurable disease that affects ruminants and other domestic animals. It is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that may also be involved in some human diseases such as Crohn's disease, type 1 diabetes, sarcoidosis, multiple sclerosis, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MAP DNA in samples of artisanal coalho cheese purchased in the State of Pernambuco. Forty samples of coalho cheese submitted to the Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) technique were analyzed for the detection of the MAP region IS900. 11 (27.5%) were positive with a mean of 195.9 MAP colony forming unit (CFU) per gram of each sample, with a minimum of 30.3 CFU/g and a maximum of 324.2 CFU/g. Thus, this type of cheese that is one of the most consumed in this region of Brazil constitutes a source of human exposure to MAP. Further research in this area should be performed to evaluate the viability of the bacteria in this cheese type.(AU)

Paratuberculose é uma enfermidade crônica e incurável que acomete ruminantes e outras espécies de animais domésticos. É causada pelo Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) e ainda há a suspeita do seu envolvimento em enfermidades nos humanos como a doença de Crohn, diabetes tipo 1, sarcoidose, esclerose múltipla e tireoidite de Hashimoto. Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa investigar a ocorrência do DNA de MAP em amostras de queijo coalho artesanal adquiridas em estabelecimentos comerciais do Estado de Pernambuco. 40 amostras de queijo coalho artesanal foram submetidas a técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real (qPCR) para detecção da região IS900 do MAP. 11 (27,5%) foram positivas com uma média de 195,9 unidades formadoras de colônia (UFC) de MAP por grama de queijo, com detecção mínima de 30,3UFC/g e máxima de 324,2UFC/g. Sendo assim, esse tipo de queijo que é um dos mais consumidos nesta região do Brasil constitui uma fonte de exposição humana ao MAP. Mais pesquisas nessa área devem ser realizadas para avaliar a viabilidade dessa bactéria no queijo coalho.(AU)

Paratuberculosis , Cheese/microbiology , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolation & purification , Total Quality Management , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(6): 701-707, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058132


Hypertension is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Functional foods containing bioactive peptides have been proposed as a strategy to decrease blood pressure (BP) in subjects under no pharmacological treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of low-sodium, low-fat (LSLF) cheese and LSLF cheese containing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 (LSLF581) on BP in pre-hypertensive and stage 1 hypertensive subjects. Sixty-one pre-hypertensive and stage 1 hypertensive subjects assigned to one of twos (LSLF, n= 29 and LSLF581, n= 32) participated in this 12-month prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Twenty-four h ambulatory BP monitoring was performed at the beginning and at the end of each four-week study period. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased in both study groups, but differences between groups were not significant (systolic, -1.78 and -0.2 mmHg; diastolic, -1.54 and -0.42 mmHg in LSLF581 and LSLF, respectively). Although our results could not support a BP lowering effect of LSLF581, small BP reductions could favorably prevent cardiovascular disease development.

La hipertensión arterial es uno de los principales factores de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular. Los alimentos funcionales que contienen biopéptidos constituyen una estrategia útil para disminuir la presión arterial (PA) en personas que no están bajo tratamiento farmacológico. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar el efecto de un queso bajo en sodio y bajo en grasas (BSBG) y el mismo queso con Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 (BSBG581) sobre la PA en personas con prehipertensión y estadio 1 de hipertensión arterial. Realizamos un estudio prospectivo, randomizado, cruzado y doble ciego durante 12 meses en 61 personas con prehipertensión y estadio 1 de hipertensión arterial, asignadas a dos grupos: BSBG (n= 29) y BSBG581 (n= 32). Se realizó monitoreo ambulatorio de la PA (MAPA) durante 24 h al comienzo y al final de cada etapa del estudio (cuatro semanas). La PA sistólica y diastólica disminuyó en ambos grupos, aunque las diferencias entre grupos no fueron significativas (sistólica, -1.78 y -0.2 mmHg; diastólica -1.54 y -0.42 mmHg en BSBG581 y BSBG respectivamente). Aunque nuestros resultados no pueden confirmar el efecto hipotensor del queso BSBG581, las reducciones moderadas de la PA podrían prevenir el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular.

Humans , Middle Aged , Cheese/microbiology , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/physiology , Prehypertension/diet therapy , Hypertension/diet therapy , Peptides , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Determination , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Anthropometry , Double-Blind Method , Functional Food
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(10): 807-815, Oct. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056902


The most consumed cheese in Brazil, Minas Frescal cheese (MFC) is highly susceptible to microbial contamination and clandestine production and commercialization can pose a risk to consumer health. The storage of this fresh product under refrigeration, although more appropriate, may favor the growth of spoilage psychrotrophic bacteria. The objective of this study was to quantify and compare Pseudomonas spp. and other psychrotrophic bacteria in inspected and non-inspected MFC samples, evaluate their lipolytic and proteolytic activities and their metalloprotease production potentials. Twenty MFC samples were evaluated: 10 inspected and 10 non-inspected. Counts of psychrotrophic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp., evaluation of the proteolytic and lipolytic potential of the isolates, and identification of potential producers of alkaline metalloprotease (AprX) were assessed. The mean total psychrotrophic counts were 1.07 (±2.18) × 109CFU/g in the inspected samples and 4.5 (±5.86) × 108CFU/g in the non-inspected, with no significant difference (p=0.37). The average score of Pseudomonas spp. was 6.86 (±18.6) × 105 and 2.08 (±3.65) × 106 CFU/g for the inspected and non-inspected MFC samples, respectively, with no significant difference (p=0.1). Pseudomonas spp. represented 0.06% and 0.004% of psychrotrophic bacteria found in inspected and non-inspected MFC samples, respectively. Collectively, 694 psychrotrophic strains and 47Pseudomonas spp. were isolated, of which 59.9% and 68.1% were simultaneously proteolytic and lipolytic, respectively. Of the 470 psychrotrophs isolated from inspected and 224 from non-inspected cheese samples, 5.74% and 2.23% contained aprX, respectively, while 100 and 86.96% of the Pseudomonas spp. isolates in inspected and non-inspected cheese samples contained the gene. The production potential of AprX did not, however, determine the proteolytic activity on plates of these isolates under the conditions evaluated in this study. Of total, 65.63% of the psychrotrophs that contained aprX gene were confirmed as Pseudomonas spp., using genus-specific PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of the other psychrotrophs that were potential producers of AprX identified them as Serratia spp. (n=7), Raoultella ornithinolytica (n=1), and Acinetobacter schindleri (n=1) in the inspected samples and Psychrobacter sanguinis (n=1) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (n=1) in the non-inspected samples. The production conditions of Brazilian MFC of these samples, while meeting the legal determinations, are not sufficient to control Pseudomonas and other spoilage-related psychrotrophs. Thus, stricter hygienic measures are required during the formal production of this type of cheese.(AU)

O mais consumido no Brasil, o queijo Minas Frescal (QMF) é altamente suscetível à contaminação microbiana e a produção e comercialização clandestina podem representar um risco para a saúde do consumidor. O armazenamento deste produto fresco sob refrigeração, embora mais apropriado, pode favorecer a multiplicação de bactérias psicrotróficas deteriorantes. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar e comparar Pseudomonas spp. e outras bactérias psicrotróficas em amostras de QMF inspecionadas e não inspecionadas, avaliar o potencial lipolítico, proteolítico e de produção de metaloprotease alcalina. Vinte amostras de QMF foram avaliadas: 10 inspecionadas e 10 não inspecionadas. Foram avaliadas as contagens de bactérias psicrotróficas e Pseudomonas spp., o potencial proteolítico e lipolítico dos isolados e a identificação de potenciais produtores de metaloprotease alcalina (AprX). A média total das contagens de bactérias psicrotróficas foi de 1,07 (±2,18) × 109UFC/g nas amostras inspecionadas e 4,5 (±5,86) × 108UFC/g nas não inspecionadas, sem diferença significativa (p=0,37). A média de Pseudomonasspp. foi de 6,86 (±18,6) × 105 e 2,08 (±3,65) × 106UFC/g para as amostras QMF inspecionadas e não-inspecionadas, respectivamente, sem diferença significativa (p=0,1). Pseudomonas spp. representaram 0,06% e 0,004% de bactérias psicrotróficas encontradas em amostras QMF inspecionadas e não-inspecionadas, respectivamente. Das amostras inspecionadas e não inspecionadas, foram isoladas 694 colônias psicrotróficas e 47 Pseudomonasspp., dos quais 59,9% e 68,1% foram simultaneamente proteolíticos e lipolíticos, respectivamente. Dos 470 isolados de psicrotróficos das amostras de queijo inspecionados e dos 224 isolados das não inspecionadas, 5,74% e 2,23% continham o gene aprX, respectivamente, enquanto 100 e 86,96% das Pseudomonasspp. isoladas em amostras de queijo inspecionadas e não inspecionadas continham o potencial de expressão de AprX. Esse potencial, no entanto, não determinou a atividade proteolítica em placas desses isolados nas condições avaliadas neste estudo. Do total, 65,63% dos psicrotróficos que continham o gene aprX foram confirmados como Pseudomonasspp., utilizando PCR gênero-específico. A análise filogenética do gene 16S rRNA dos outros psicrotróficos que foram produtores potenciais de AprX os identificou como Serratia spp. (n=7), Raoultella ornithinolytica (n=1) e Acinetobacter schindleri (n=1) nas amostras inspecionadas e Psychrobacter sanguinis (n=1) e Leuconostoc mesenteroides (n=1) nas amostras não inspecionadas. As condições de produção do QMF dessas amostras, atendendo às determinações legais, não são suficientes para controlar a Pseudomonas e outros psicrotróficos relacionados à deterioração. Assim, medidas higiênicas mais rígidas são necessárias durante a produção formal deste tipo de queijo.(AU)

Pseudomonas/isolation & purification , Cheese/microbiology , Quality Control
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 647-657, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011286


Minas artisanal cheese is made from endogenous starter cultures, including lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Some LAB may possess probiotic potential. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro probiotic properties of lactobacilli isolated from Minas artisanal cheeses produced in Minas Gerais. Ten samples of lactobacilli, formerly isolated from those cheeses, were submitted to the following assays: antimicrobial susceptibility, tolerance to artificial gastric juice and biliary salts, production of hydrogen peroxide and antagonism against pathogenic and non-pathogenic micro-organisms. Only L. plantarum (C0) was sensitive to all tested antimicrobials, while the other LAB samples were resistant to at least one drug. Six samples were tolerant to artificial gastric juice, and L. brevis (A6) even grew in that medium. Three samples were tolerant to biliary salts. Only L. brevis (E35) produced hydrogen peroxide. Difference (P< 0.05) was observed among the means of inhibition haloes of lactobacilli against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 and Lactobacillus plantarum C24 in spot-on-the-lawn assay. All samples of lactobacilli inhibited Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in co-culture antagonism test (P< 0.0001). Most lactobacilli samples showed in vitro probiotic potential. From the tested samples, L. brevis (A6) presented the best results considering all in vitro probiotic tests.(AU)

O queijo minas artesanal é produzido por culturas starters endógenas, incluindo bactérias ácido-láticas (BAL). Algumas BAL podem possuir potencial probiótico. Com isso, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades probióticas in vitro de lactobacilos isolados de queijo minas artesanal produzido no estado de Minas Gerais. Dez amostras de lactobacilos, previamente isoladas desses queijos, foram submetidas aos seguintes testes: susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos, tolerância ao suco gástrico artificial e aos sais biliares, produção de peróxido de hidrogênio e antagonismo contra micro-organismos patogênicos e não patogênicos. Apenas L. plantarum (C0) foi sensível a todos os antimicrobianos testados, enquanto as outras amostras de BAL foram resistentes a, pelo menos, uma droga testada. Seis amostras foram tolerantes ao suco gástrico artificial, e L. brevis (A6) apresentou crescimento nesse meio. Três amostras foram tolerantes aos sais biliares. Apenas L. brevis (E35) produziu peróxido de hidrogênio. Diferença (P<0,05) foi observada entre as médias dos halos de inibição de lactobacilos contra Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 e Lactobacillus plantarum C24 no teste do spot-on-the-lawn. Todas as amostras de lactobacilos inibiram Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 no teste de antagonismo em cocultura (P<0,0001). A maioria das amostras de lactobacilos apresentou potencial probiótico in vitro. Com base nas amostras testadas, L. brevis (A6) apresentou os melhores resultados, considerando-se todos os testes probióticos in vitro.(AU)

Cheese/microbiology , Probiotics/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Antibiosis
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 21(3): 87-92, jul-set. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-986949


Quark cheese is fresh cheese obtained by the coagulation of milk through the action mainly of lactic bacteria, resulting in fresh-flavor cheese with high acidity. A specific starter culture is used for its commercial production. However, in this work, this culture was replaced by kefir, a symbiotic system of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, which is considered a probiotic product. Agave inulin is a soluble fiber regarded as prebiotic with the ability to improve the balance of the intestinal flora. The purpose of this work was to develop Quark cheese using kefir as a starter culture, with supplementation by agave inulin. Cheese was produced using 24-h fermentation at 25 ºC followed by drainage of the whey, with the addition of 3% inulin to the supplemented cheese. After whey drainage, the cheese was kept in plastic pots under refrigeration until analysis. Microbiological, pH and acidity parameters were analysed at 1, 7 and 14 days after manufacture. The results of the physical-chemical analyses remained close to those found in literature. The resulting cheese presented high counts of Lactobacilli indicating their probiotic potential. The addition of agave inulin decreased the amount of those microorganisms; however, they remained in high counts. It can be verified that the use of kefir in the production of Quark cheese is feasible, mainly in artisanal productions since it is usually inexpensive and easy to maintain, and the Lactobacilli remained stable during the storage period.(AU)

O queijo Quark é um queijo de massa fresca obtida por coagulação do leite pela ação principalmente de bactérias láticasobtendo-se um queijo de sabor refrescante, em sua produção comercial é empregada uma cultura starter específica para a produção de queijos, no presente trabalho essa cultura foi substituída pelo kefir, um sistema simbiótico de bactérias láticas e leveduras e que é considerado um produto probiótico. A inulina de agave é uma fibra solúvel considerada prebiótica com capacidade de melhorar o equilíbrio da flora intestinal. O objetivo desse trabalho foi desenvolver queijo Quark empregando kefir como cultura starter e suplementado com inulina de agave. Os queijos foram produzidos por fermentação durante 24h/25ºC seguido por drenagem do soro, no queijo suplementado com inulina foi adicionada 3%, após a dessoragem, os queijos foram mantidos em potes plásticos sob temperatura de refrigeração até o momento das análises, sendo que as microbiológicas, acidez e pH foram realizadas em 1, 7 e 14 dias após a fabricação. Os resultados das análises físico-químicas mantiveram-se próximos aqueles encontrados na literatura. Os queijos obtidos apresentaram altas contagens de Lactobacilli indicando potencial probiótico, a adição de inulina de agave diminuiu o número destes microrganismos, mesmo assim mantiveram-se em altas contagens. Pode-se constatar que o uso de kefir na produção de queijo Quark é viável, principalmente em produções artesanais uma vez que ele normalmente não possui custo e é de fácil manutenção e os Lactobacillimantiveram-se estáveis durante o período de armazenamento.(AU)

El queso Quark es un queso de masa fresca obtenido por coagulación de la leche y acción principalmente de bacterias lácticas, obteniendo un queso de sabor refrescante. En su producción comercial se utiliza un cultivo iniciador específico para producción de quesos, en el presente trabajo esa cultura fue reemplazada por kéfir, un sistema simbiótico de bacterias del ácido láctico y levaduras, que se considera un producto probiótico. La inulina de agave es una fibra soluble considerada prebiótica con la capacidad de mejorar el equilibrio de la flora intestinal. El objetivo de esa investigación ha sido desarrollar queso Quark, usando kéfir como cultivo inicial y complementado con inulina de agave. Los quesos se produjeron por fermentación durante 24h / 25ºC seguido de drenaje del suero, en el queso suplementado con inulina se añadió 3%, después del drenaje del suero y se mantuvieron en macetas de plástico a temperatura de refrigeración hasta el momento del análisis, siendo que las microbiológicas, el pH y la acidez se realizaron a los 1, 7 y 14 días después de la fabricación. Los resultados de los análisis fisicoquímicos se mantuvieron cerca de los encontrados en la literatura. Los quesos mostraron altos conteos de Lactobacilli indicando su potencial probiótico, la adición de inulina de agave disminuyó el número de estos microorganismos, sin embargo, permanecieron en conteos altos. Se puede verificar que el uso de kéfir en la producción de queso Quark es factible, principalmente en las producciones artesanales, ya que por lo general es económico y de fácil manutención. Los lactobacilos se han mantenido estables durante el período de almacenamiento.(AU)

Cheese/analysis , Cheese/microbiology , Synbiotics/analysis , Kefir/analysis , Inulin/analysis
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 929-935, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974283


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of nanoemulsions encapsulating essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare), both in vitro and after application on Minas Padrão cheese. Nanodispersions were obtained by the phase inversion temperature method. Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., and Penicillium sp. genera were isolated from cheese samples and used to evaluate antifungal activity. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of non-encapsulated and encapsulated oregano essential oil were determined, and they were influenced by the encapsulation of the essential oil depending on the type of fungus. The antifungal activity of the nanoencapsulated oregano essential oil in cheese slices showed no evidence of an effect of the MICs, when applied in the matrix. On the other hand, an influence of contact time of the nanoemulsion with the cheese was observed, due to the increase in water activity. It was concluded that nanoencapsulated oregano essential oil presented an inhibitory effect against the three genera of fungi evaluated. If environmental parameters, such as storage temperature and water activity, were controlled, the inhibitory effect of nanoemulsions of oregano oil could possibly be greatly improved, and they could be presented as a potential alternative for the preservation of Minas Padrão cheese against fungal contamination.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cheese/microbiology , Origanum/chemistry , Food Preservation/methods , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Cheese/analysis , Food Preservatives/analysis , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/analysis
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 50(2): 165-172, jun. 2018. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-977232


El llamado queso artesanal de Corrientes (QAC) es un queso blando elaborado en la provincia de Corrientes a partir de leche de vaca cruda y agente coagulante artesanal. Las bacterias lácticas constituyen la flora principal de estos quesos, pero las levaduras también se encuentran en tasas elevadas como biota secundaria y podrían esempeñar un papel relevante en su maduración. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la presencia de levaduras en las materias primas y en la cuajada con la que se elabora este queso y durante su maduración en función de las variaciones estacionales. Se aislaron y purificaron levaduras a partir de la leche cruda, del agente coagulante, de la cuajada y de los quesos elaborados en las distintas estaciones del año a distintos tiempos de maduración. Los recuentos de levaduras fueron del orden de 10³ a 10(7) UFC/ml o UFC/g. Se obtuvieron e identificaron 90 cepas de levaduras: 9 de leche, 28 de agente coagulante, 10 de cuajada y 43 de quesos. En leche se observó un muy amplio predominio del género Candida, la incidencia de otros géneros fue poco significativa. En el agente coagulante también predominó netamente el género Candida, seguido por los géneros Myxozyma y Debaryomyces. Los aislamientos obtenidos de los quesos correspondieron a los mismos géneros que fueron predominantes en el agente coagulante, con el mismo orden de prevalencia.

The artisanal cheese from Corrientes (from the Spanish acronym QAC-Queso Artesanal de Corrientes/Artisanal Cheese from Corrientes) is a soft cheese elaborated with raw cow milk and an artisanal coagulant agent. Lactic bacteria contitute the main flora of this cheese although yeasts are also present in high quantities as secondary microbiota and might play a relevant role in cheese ripening. The aim of this work was to evaluate yeast occurrence during QAC elaboration and ripening, and the effect of seasonal variation. Yeasts were isolated and purified from raw materials and cheese at different ripening stagesl elaborated during the different seasons. Yeast sample counts were in the order of 10³ - 10(7) UFC/ml o UFC/g. Ninety yeast strains were classified: 9 from milk, 28 from the coagulant agent, 10 from curd and 43 from cheese. Candida predominated in milk samples while other yeast genera had low incidence. Candida also predominated in the coagulant agent samples, followed by genera Myxozyma and Debaryomyces. The isolates obtained from cheese belonged to the same genera predominating in the coagulant agent, and showed the same order of prevalence.

Animals , Cattle , Female , Yeasts , Cheese , Microbiota , Argentina , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Cheese/microbiology , Milk
Rev. medica electron ; 40(2): 371-382, mar.-abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-902297


Introducción: las enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos son una problemática mundial a la que la Organización Mundial de la Salud y los países brindan una atención especial. Dentro de los grupos de alto riesgo se encuentran los productos de origen animal, como la leche y sus derivados. Staphylococcus aureus es un microorganismo causante de brotes de las enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos, lo que genera la necesidad de estudiar la carga microbiana y establecer los controles adecuados. Objetivo: evaluar la calidad microbiológica en el proceso manufacturero en el área de producción de la Cooperativa de Producción Agropecuaria Chone LTDA, con el fin de asegurar la ausencia del Staphylococcus aureus en el queso fresco 100% chonero. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de evaluación de la calidad en cuatro fases. Se realizaron exámenes microbiológicos iniciales, se identificaron las causas esenciales de contaminación identificadas por observación directa, revisión de documentos y entrevistas, como base para la elaboración e implementación de POE (Procedimientos Operativos Estandarizados) y POES (Procedimientos Operativos Estandarizados de Saneamiento). Se cumplieron los requerimientos éticos y se realizaron los análisis estadísticos utilizando porcentaje e índices como medida resumen y con el uso de IBM SPSS, versión libre, realizándose regresión logística binaria para determinar la probabilidad de éxito al aplicar dichos procedimientos. Resultados: los análisis microbiológicos iniciales (antes de implementación de POE y POES), dieron como resultado: 98, 116, 79, 120 y 13 UFC/g para las muestras: DiQ1, DiQ2, DiQ3, DiQ4 y DiQ5, respectivamente. Las causas esenciales de contaminación fueron falta de control microbiológico, falta de control del aspecto del personal y falta de control del agua) Una vez implementados los POE y POES, el análisis mostró ausencia en todas las muestras analizadas. Conclusiones: se concluye que la aplicación de POE y POES tiene un efecto significativo sobre la ausencia del Staphylococcus aureus, con probabilidad de éxito del 100% (AU).

Introduction: Diseases transmitted by foodstuffs (DTF) are a worldwide problem that receives special attention by WHO and different countries. High risk groups include foodstuff of animal origin, like milk and its by-products. Staphylococcus aureus is a microorganism responsible for DTF outbreaks which generates the necessity of studying its microbial burden and establishing the adequate controls. Objective: to evaluate the microbiological quality of the manufacturing process in the production area of the Farming and Stockbreeding Cooperative Chone LTDA, to assure the absence of Staphylococcus aureus in the manufacturing process of fresh cheese. Materials and methods: A study to assess the quality in four stages was carried out: initial microbiological tests, identification of the essential contamination causes by direct observation, documental review and inquires. They were used to elaborate and implement the Standardized Operational Procedures (SOP) and the Standardized Operational Procedures of Sanitation (SOPS). The ethical requirements were fulfilled and the statistical tests were performed using percentages and indexes as summary measures through IBM SPSS, free version; binary logistic regression was made to determine the success when applying those procedures. Results: initial microbiological controls (before implementing SOP and SOPS) gave these results 98, 116, 79, 120, and 13 UFC/g for samples DiQ1, DiQ2, DiQ3, DiQ4 and DiQ5 respectively. The main contamination causes were lack of microbiological control, lack of control on the staff's cleanliness and lack of control on the water. After implementing SOP and SOPS microbiological control found particularly clean samples. Conclusions: SOP and SOPS have a significant effect on the amount of Staphylococcus aureus, with 100% success probability (AU).

Humans , Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Cheese/microbiology , Communicable Disease Control , Microbiological Techniques , Food Microbiology , Foodborne Diseases/complications , Foodborne Diseases/mortality , Foodborne Diseases/prevention & control , Staphylococcal Food Poisoning , Food Quality , Food Hygiene , Evaluation of Results of Preventive Actions , Interviews as Topic , Disease Prevention , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Health Plan Implementation
Hig. aliment ; 31(274/275): 115-19, 30/12/2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-880363


O comércio informal de leite e derivados possui relevante impacto na saúde pública, pelo risco de transmissão de doenças alimentares. O S. aureus configura-se um dos principais patógenos associados à contaminação de queijos. O objetivo do presente trabalho, portanto, foi estudar o perfil de resistência aos antimicrobianos de S. aureus isolados de amostras de queijo manteiga comercializadas nas feiras públicas de Macapá. Foram obtidas 20 amostras de queijo comercializados em feiras livres da cidade de Macapá, AP. O isolamento foi realizado em Agar Baird Parker e para confirmação das colônias típicas, foi realizada a coloração de Gram, identificação bioquímica, catalase, coagulase e DNase. Posteriormente, pela técnica de disco-difusão foram testados os seguintes antibióticos: Gentamicina 10 µg (GEN), clorafenicol 30 µg (CLO), tetraciclina 30 µg (TET), eritromicina 15 µg (ERI), norfloxacina 10 µg (NOR), nitrofurantoina 300 µg (NIT), sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim 1,25/23,75 µg (SUT), oxacilina 1 µg (OXA), vancomicina 30 µg (VAN). Das amostras avaliadas, 60% estavam fora do padrão para S. aureus, mas mostraram que os antibióticos NIT, SUT, TET, CLO e OXA foram eficazes frente a todas as cepas, por outro lado, das 12 estirpes avaliadas, cinco (41,67%%) apresentaram resistência total a ERI, 3 (25%) apresentaram resistência total a GEN e uma (8,33%) apresentou resistência intermediária a NOR. Estes resultados demonstram a importância de uma legislação mais rigorosa para o fortalecimento do Sistema de Vigilância Sanitária, com o intuito de fiscalizar alimentos oferecidos à população e seus lugares de comercialização, diminuindo os riscos à população que consome esses produtos.(AU)

The informal trade in milk and dairy products has a significant impact on public health because of the risk of transmission of foodborne diseases. S. aureus is one of the main pathogens associated with cheese contamination. The present work aimed to study the antimicrobial resistance profile of S. aureus isolated from samples of butter cheese commercialized in the public fairs of Macapá. twenty samples of cheese marketed in free markets of the city of Macapá. Isolation was performed in Baird Parker agar and for confirmation of typical colonies, Gram staining, biochemical identification, catalase, coagulase and DNase were performed. Subsequently, by the disc- -diffusion technique, the following antibiotics were tested: Gentamicin 10 µg (GEN), Chlorphenicol 30 µg (CLO), tetracycline 30 µg (TET), erythromycin 15 µg (ERI), norfloxacin 10 µg (NOR), nitrofurantoin 300 µg (NIT), sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim 1,25 / 23, 75 µg (SUT), oxacillin 1 µg (OXA), vancomycin 30 µg (NPV). Of the samples evaluated, 60% were non-standard for S. aureus but showed that NIT, SUT, TET, CLO and OXA antibiotics were effective against all strains, on the other hand, of the 12 strains evaluated, 5 (41.67%) presented total ERI resistance, 3 (25%) presented total resistance to GEN, and 1 (8.33%) presented intermediate resistance to NOR. These results demonstrate the importance of stricter legislation for the strengthening of the Sanitary Surveillance System, with the purpose of inspecting food offered to the population and their places of sale, reducing the risks to the population that consumes these products.

Humans , Food Contamination/analysis , Cheese/microbiology , Food Microbiology , Brazil , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Street Food , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 689-694, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889163


ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in foods obtained in retail shops and food industries located in Montevideo-Uruguay, and to identify the serogroups of the obtained isolates. Three-thousand one-hundred and seventy-five food samples (frozen, deli meats, ready-to-eat and cheese) were analyzed. The obtained isolates were serogrouped by multiplex PCR and serotyped by conventional procedure. Genetic comparisons were performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis on a sub-set of isolates belonging to the same serotype successively recovered from the same establishment. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 11.2% of samples. The highest prevalence was observed in frozen foods (38%), followed by cheese (10%). 1/2b and 4b were the most frequently identified serotypes. In six of 236 analyzed establishments we successively recovered L. monocytogenes isolates belonging to the same serotype. Most of them corresponded to serotype 1/2b. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles suggest that at least 33% of L. monocytogenes 1/2b isolates are genetically related and that may remain viable for prolonged periods. The observed prevalence of L. monocytogenes was lower than reported in neighboring countries. Our findings highlight the role that frozen foods may play in the spread of this pathogen, and the relevance of serotypes 1/2b and 4b.

Animals , Cheese/microbiology , Fast Foods/microbiology , Frozen Foods/microbiology , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Meat/microbiology , Food Contamination/analysis , Food Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Food Microbiology , Listeria monocytogenes/classification , Listeria monocytogenes/genetics , Prevalence , Serogroup , Uruguay
Rev. salud pública ; 19(3): 311-317, mayo-jun. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-903109


RESUMEN Objetivo Realizar análisis microbiológico del queso costeño artesanal que se consume en las cabeceras municipales del departamento de Córdoba y evaluar las condiciones higiénico-locativas existentes en expendios que favorecen su contaminación. Métodos Se realizó una investigación exploratoria y descriptiva en 120 expendios registrados en la Secretaria de Salud Departamental, de los 28 municipios del departamento de Córdoba-Colombia, durante los años 2012-2013. Se evaluaron las características organolépticas de 360 muestras y, mediante análisis microbiológico se determinó la presencia de coliformes totales, fecales, Staphylococcus coagulasa positiva y hongos. Los resultados se analizaron utilizando estadísticas univariadas y bivariadas con sus respectivas medidas de asociación según la naturaleza de cada variable (Programa EPI-INFO V. 6.04®). Resultados La valoración microbiológica de las 360 muestras demostró la contaminación con valores no aptos para el consumo, equivalentes a: coliformes totales (97,5 %), coliformes fecales (88,9 %), Staphylococcus coagulasa positiva (41,4 %), mohos (40,4 %) y levaduras (96,1 %). Entre las significancias observadas como factores predisponentes para su contaminación resaltan la carencia de registros sanitarios en los expendios, inadecuada limpieza de pisos, paredes y techos, condiciones de exposición, ventilación, iluminación y manipulación inadecuada del producto. Conclusión La significativa carga microbiológica observada en los quesos examinados y su valoración como no aptos para el consumo humano refleja las deficiencias higiénicas en la manipulación del producto, que asociada a los defectos locativos existentes en los sitios donde se comercializa, representa un riesgo para la salud del consumidor.(AU)

ABSTRACT Objective To perform a microbiological analysis of the artisan cheese consumed in the county seats of the Córdoba department, and to evaluate the hygienic-locative conditions of small shops that favor contamination. Methods An exploratory and descriptive research was carried out in 120 small shops registered in the Departmental Health Secretariat of the 28 municipalities of Córdoba-Colombia during 2012-2013. The organoleptic characteristics of 360 samples were evaluated and, the presence of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, coagulase-positive sta-phylococci and fungi was determined through a microbiological analysis. The results were analyzed using univariate and bivariate statistics with their respective association measures according to the nature of each variable (EPI-INFO V. 6.04® Program). Results The microbiological assessment of 360 samples showed contamination with values not suitable for consumption equivalent to: total coliforms (97.5 %), fecal coliforms (88.9 %), coagulase-positive staphylococci (41.4 %), mold (40.4 %) and yeast (96.1 %). Significant factors such as contamination, inadequate cleaning of floors, walls and ceilings, exposure conditions, ventilation, lighting and improper handling of the product were observed. Conclusion The significant microbiological load observed in the examined cheeses and their assessment as unfit for human consumption reflect the hygienic deficiencies in the handling of the product, which, along with locative defects in the places where they are marketed, endangers the health of the consumer.(AU)

Humans , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Cheese/microbiology , Food Microbiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Colombia
Hig. aliment ; 31(266/267): 91-95, 30/04/2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-833333


O queijo de manteiga é um produto típico da região Nordeste, sendo produzido industrialmente e em grande parte de forma artesanal. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica do queijo de manteiga comercializado em supermercados e feiras livres da cidade de Natal, RN. Foram analisadas 15 amostras de queijos provenientes de supermercados e 15 amostras de queijos comercializados em feiras livres. Foi realizada a pesquisa de coliformes totais e coliformes a 45ºC, Salmonella spp e contagem de Estafilococos coagulase positiva. A metodologia utilizada foi a descrita pela APHA (2001). Os resultados revelaram que 30% das amostras excederam os limites estabelecidos pela legislação para coliformes a 45oC e 90% para Estafilococos coagulase positiva, portanto, maior atenção devem ter as autoridades sanitárias, uma vez que tais produtos podem colocar em risco a saúde do consumidor.

Humans , Food Contamination/analysis , Cheese/microbiology , Street Food , Food Microbiology , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Brazil , Food Samples , Food Industry
Hig. aliment ; 31(266/267): 96-101, 30/04/2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-833399


A ricota é um tipo de queijo muito consumido mundialmente devido ao seu baixo teor de gordura e alta quantidade de nutrientes, o que, aliado à sua alta atividade de água proporcionam a proliferação de micro-organismos que podem causar toxinfecções graves. Diante disto, este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de ricotas com e sem tempero comercializadas na região do Triângulo Mineiro e também no interior de São Paulo. Foram avaliadas a presença de Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus spp, Escherichia coli e Enterococcus em 14 amostras não condimentadas e 5 temperadas. Das 19 amostras analisadas, 18 delas revelaram-se em condições impróprias para o consumo. Somente uma ricota não temperada apresentou-se apta para o consumo humano e nenhuma das condimentadas estavam em condições microbiológicas favoráveis. As bactérias analisadas estão associadas à má qualidade da matéria-prima e à precariedade higiênica na produção, comprometendo, assim, a segurança da mercadoria final e a saúde do consumidor.

Humans , Food Contamination/analysis , Cheese/microbiology , Food Microbiology , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Brazil , Food Samples , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Coliforms , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification
Hig. aliment ; 31(264/265): 132-137, 27/02/2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-833127


Os queijos minas frescal e ricota são alimentos derivados do leite, muito nutritivos e muito consumidos pela população em geral. Por ser um veículo frequente de patógenos, a contaminação microbiológica dos queijos gera um grande risco de surtos de doenças de origem alimentar aos consumidores. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a qualidade microbiológica de queijos minas frescal e ricota comercializados na região metropolitana de Campinas/SP. Foram analisadas 20 amostras (5 queijo minas frescal caseiro, 5 queijo minas frescal industrializados, 5 queijo frescal ultrafiltrados e 5 ricotas) para quantificação de coliformes a 35ºC e 45ºC, E. coli, aeróbios mesófilos totais, bolores e leveduras, estafilococos, Salmonella sp e Listeria monocytogenes. As amostras apresentaram contagens de coliformes 35ºC (13 amostras ­ até >1,1x10³NMP/ mL), coliformes a 45ºC (5 amostras ­ até >1,1x10³NMP/mL), E. coli (12 amostras ­ até >1,1x10³ UFC/g), aeróbios mesófilos totais (13 amostras acima de 106 UFC/g), bolores e leveduras (7 amostras acima de 106 UFC/g) e Staphylococcus aureus (10 amostras acima de 5x10² UFC/g). Em nenhuma das amostras foi detectada Salmonella sp. e L. monocytogenes. 11 amostras estiveram em desacordo com a legislação RDC nº 12/2001 por causa da alta contagem de S. aureus e coliformes a 45ºC. O processo de ultrafiltração do queijo reduziu a contagem microbiológica para todas as amostras exceto uma, mostrando que mesmo após o processo é preciso ter boas práticas para evitar a recontaminação. A alta contagem de micro-organismos indica falhas na higiene durante as etapas de fabricação, manipulação e transporte do produto. Assim boas práticas de fabricação devem ser aplicadas aos queijos minas frescal caseiros e industriais, para se adequar a legislação e não oferecer riscos à saúde pública.

Humans , Food Contamination/analysis , Cheese/microbiology , Food Microbiology , Food Samples , Coliforms , Fungi/isolation & purification