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1.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(1): e20190286, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154691

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: In ICU patients on mechanical ventilation (MV), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common infection. However, such infection can be prevented through oral care protocols. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of the use of chlorhexidine and oral hygiene protocols (brushing and clinical procedures) with that of the use of chlorhexidine alone (intervention group and control group, respectively) in decreasing the prevalence of VAP in patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to the ICU and requiring MV. Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, studies were identified through searches of various national and international databases, as well as of the gray literature, and were selected in accordance with eligibility criteria. Results: We evaluated six studies, involving a collective total of 1,276 patients. We classified the risk of bias as low in three studies, high in two, and uncertain in one; among the six risk domains evaluated, a low risk of bias was predominant in five. The results for random risks were similar in terms of direction and statistical magnitude-chi-square = 6.34; risk difference: −0.06 (95% CI: −0.11 to −0.02); I2 = 21%; p = 0.007. There was a decrease in the prevalence of VAP in the intervention group (n = 1,276) included in the meta-analysis. Conclusions: Protocols that include the mechanical removal of oral biofilm in combination with the use of chlorhexidine can reduce the incidence of VAP among ICU patients requiring MV.


RESUMO Objetivo: A pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica (PAVM) é uma infecção frequente em UTI. No entanto, essa infecção pode ser evitada através de protocolos de cuidados orais. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficiência de protocolos de higiene bucal (escovação e procedimentos clínicos) aliados ao uso de clorexidina (grupo intervenção) com a de protocolos que fazem uso somente de clorexidina (grupo controle) na diminuição da prevalência da PAVM em pacientes adultos (≥ 18 anos) internados em UTI sob VM. Métodos: Nesta revisão sistemática e meta-análise, várias bases de dados nacionais e internacionais foram utilizadas para a identificação e seleção de estudos e literatura cinza seguindo critérios de elegibilidade. Resultados: Foram incluídos seis estudos, envolvendo 1.276 pacientes. Após a classificação dos estudos, três apresentaram baixo risco de viés, dois apresentaram risco de viés alto, e o risco foi incerto em um; entre os seis domínios avaliados houve predomínio de baixo risco de viés em cinco deles. Os resultados para riscos aleatórios foram semelhantes em direção e magnitude estatística - qui-quadrado = 6,34; diferença de risco: −0,06 (IC95%: −0,11 a −0,02); I2 = 21%; p = 0,007. Houve diminuição na prevalência de PAVM no grupo intervenção (n = 1.276) incluídos na meta-análise. Conclusões: Protocolos que incluem a remoção mecânica do biofilme associada ao uso de clorexidina podem reduzir a incidência de PAVM em pacientes internados em UTI sob VM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oral Hygiene , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Toothbrushing
2.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 85(2): 139-146, jun. 2020. []
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1125551

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las heridas con defectos de coberturas suponen un gran desafío a la hora de elegir un buen tratamiento que reduzca el riesgo de infección e incremente la capacidad de granulación del tejido. El objetivo de este estudio fue demostrar la utilidad del digluconato de clorhexidina para la granulación de tejidos. Materiales y Métodos: Se incluyeron 18 heridas de 16 pacientes que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión. Se realizaron curaciones ambulatorias con gasas embebidas en digluconato de clorhexidina al 20%, cada 48-72 h, hasta lograr la adecuada granulación de tejido y se tomaron fotografías de la evolución clínica de las heridas. Resultados: Se observó una adecuada granulación de las heridas en una media de 9.2 días (rango 4-25), independientemente del tamaño o de las comorbilidades. Ninguna herida presentó signos clínicos de infección durante el período de curación. Conclusiones: El uso de digluconato de clorhexidina es un adecuado método por tener en cuenta para tratar heridas, de forma ambulatoria, y así disminuir los costos hospitalarios del sistema de salud. Nivel de Evidencia: IV


Introduction: Wounds with dressing defects pose a great challenge when choosing a good treatment that may reduce the risk of infection and promote granulation tissue formation. Objective: To demonstrate the usefulness of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) for granulation tissue formation. Materials and Methods: Eighteen wounds (16 patients) that met the inclusion criteria were included. Wound cleansing was performed in outpatients with 20% CHG-impregnated cloths every 48-72 h, until the proper tissue granulation was achieved. Photographs of the clinical evolution of the wounds were taken. Results: The adequate wound granulation mean was of 9.2 days (4-25 days) regardless of wound size or presence of comorbidities. There were no clinical signs of infection in any wound during the healing period. Conclusions: CHG treatment is an appropriate method to be considered for outpatient injuries, which reduces the hospital costs borne by the health-care system. Level of Evidence: IV


Subject(s)
Adult , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Soft Tissue Injuries
3.
Rev. ADM ; 77(3): 156-161, mayo-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128800

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La instalación inmediata del implante posterior a la extracción dental se está convirtiendo en un procedimiento de rutina debido a la reducción del tiempo de tratamiento y a la preservación de las estructuras anatómicas remanentes. Sin embargo, en muchos casos esta técnica involucra dientes afectados con procesos infecciosos. Hasta ahora, no se ha descrito a ciencia cierta el grado de éxito o fracaso del implante inmediato en alvéolos infectados, ni se ha establecido un protocolo para el manejo de este tipo de casos. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión bibliográfica actualizada, para determinar qué consideraciones se deben tener para instalar un implante inmediato en alvéolos con procesos infecciosos. Conclusión: Es posible obtener las ventajas de la instalación inmediata del implante en alvéolos infectados mediante la aplicación de un adecuado manejo clínico, donde se considere un adecuado tratamiento antibiótico, acompañado de un correcto curetaje alveolar, respetar la cadena de asepsia y antisepsia, posición subcrestal del implante y obtener siempre una buena estabilidad primaria del implante (AU)


Introduction: The immediate placement of the implant after dental extraction is a procedure that every time is becoming a routine procedure due to the reduction of the treatment time and the preservation of the remaining anatomical structures. However, in many cases, this technique involves affected teeth with infectious processes. Until now, the degree of success or failure of the immediate implant in infected alveoli has not been described for sure; nor has a protocol been established for the management of these types of cases. Objective: Carry out an updated bibliographic review, to determine what considerations must be taken to install an immediate implant in alveoli with infectious processes. Conclusion: Is possible obtain the advantages of the immediate installation of the implant in infected alveoli through the application of adequate clinical management, where appropriate antibiotic treatment is considered, accompanied by proper alveolar curettage, respect the aseptic and antiseptic chain, implant subcrestal position and always obtain a good primary stability of the implant (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Extraction , Tooth Socket , Immediate Dental Implant Loading , Focal Infection, Dental/therapy , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Guided Tissue Regeneration , Lasers , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(1): e2967, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126487

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El té verde (Camellia sinensis) y el propóleo presentan flavonoides, que inhiben el crecimiento, metabolismo y la coagregación del Streptococcus mutans, principal agente causal de la caries dental. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto etanólico del té verde (Camellia sinensis) al 10 por ciento y 20 por ciento comparado con extracto etanólico de propóleo al 10 por ciento y 20 por ciento, frente al crecimiento de cepas de Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175). Métodos: Estudio experimental in vitro, longitudinal, prospectivo y comparativo. El universo estuvo constituido por 90 discos de difusión y la muestra por 15 discos embebidos en té verde (Camellia sinensis) o propóleo a diferentes concentraciones, clorhexidina acuosa al 0,12 por ciento y agua destilada. El tamaño de muestra se calculó por fórmula de comparación de medias, después de realizar un estudio piloto. Se colocaron los discos de difusión embebidos en las sustancias sobre agar Mueller Hinton, sembrado con Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), haciendo medición del ancho de los halos inhibitorios a las 24 y 48 h. Se aplicaron pruebas de comparación no paramétricas de Kruskal Wallis y la prueba rangos de Wilcoxon. Resultados: El máximo ancho de halo inhibitorio logrado por clorhexidina acuosa al 0,12 por ciento, extracto etanólico de té verde (Camellia sinensis) al 20 por ciento y extracto etanólico de propóleo al 20 por ciento fue a las 24 h con valores de 10,64 mm ± 0,924 mm, 6,82 mm ± 0,982 mm y 8,36 mm ± 1,286 mm, respectivamente. El extracto etanólico de té verde (Camellia sinensis) al 20 por ciento, presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas respecto al extracto etanólico de propóleo al 20 por ciento, tanto a las 24 h (p= 0,013), como a las 48 h (p= 0,011). Conclusiones: Frente al crecimiento de cepas de Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), el extracto etanólico de propóleo al 20 por ciento presenta mayor actividad antibacteriana respecto al extracto etanólico de té verde (Camellia sinensis) al 10 por ciento y 20 por ciento, actividad que disminuye con el paso del tiempo(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and propolis contain flavonoids which inhibit the growth, metabolism and co-aggregation of Streptococcus mutans, the main causative agent of dental caries. Objective: Evaluate the antibacterial activity in vitro of 10 percent and 20 percent green tea (Camellia sinensis) ethanolic extract versus 10 percent and 20 percent propolis ethanolic extract against the growth of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) strains. Methods: An in vitro experimental prospective longitudinal comparative study was conducted. The study universe was 90 diffusion disks and the sample was 15 disks soaked up in green tea (Camellia sinensis) or propolis at various concentrations, 0.12 percent aqueous chlorhexidine and distilled water. Sample size was estimated by the comparison of means formula after conducting a pilot study. The diffusion disks soaked up in the substances were placed on Mueller Hinton agar planted with Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) and the width of the inhibition haloes was measured at 24 h and 48 h. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis comparison tests and the Wilcoxon rank test were performed. Results: The maximum width of the inhibition halo achieved by 0.12 percent aqueous chlorhexidine, 20 percent green tea (Camellia sinensis) ethanolic extract, and 20 percent propolis ethanolic extract at 24 h was 10.64 mm ± 0.924 mm, 6.82 mm ± 0.982 mm and 8.36 mm ± 1.286 mm, respectively. The 20 percent green tea (Camellia sinensis) ethanolic extract showed statistically significant differences with respect to the 20 percent propolis ethanolic extract, both at 24 h (p= 0.013) and at 48 h (p= 0.011). Conclusions: The 20 percent propolis ethanolic extract displays greater antibacterial activity against the growth of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) strains than the 10 percent and 20 percent green tea (Camellia sinensis) ethanolic extract. This activity decreases with the passing of time(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Propolis/therapeutic use , Streptococcus mutans/cytology , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Camellia sinensis/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200217, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134767

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Pulp revascularization is an effective treatment for immature necrotic teeth. Calcium hydroxide has been used in pulp revascularization as an intracanal medication due to its antimicrobial action and the non-exhibition of crown discoloration and cytotoxicity for stem cells from the apical papilla. Our study aimed to investigate the clinical success and quantitative radiographic changes of root development in immature traumatized teeth using calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel as intracanal medication. Methodology In this retrospective study, 16 patients were treated with a standardized pulp revascularization protocol. Calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine gel were manipulated in a 1:1 (v/v) ratio and inserted into root canals with Lentulo spirals (Dentsply Maillefer, Baillaigues, Switzerland). Patients were followed up for a period from 9 to 36 months for the evaluation of clinical and radiological data. Radiographic measurements of root length, root width, apical diameter, and MTA placement from the apex were quantified using software ImageJ. Wilcoxon test and t-test were used, according to nonparametric or parametric data, respectively, for changes over time in root length, root width, and apical diameter. Results Fifteen teeth survived during the follow-up period (93.75%) and met the criteria for clinical success. Although the changes seem to be very small in many cases, significant increases in the average root length (14.28%, p<0.0001), root width (8.12%, p=0.0196), and decrease in apical diameter (48.37%, p=0.0007) were observed. MTA placement from the apex and age at the time of treatment was not significantly associated with the quantitative radiographic outcomes. Conclusions Pulp revascularization in traumatized immature teeth treated with calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel as intracanal medication had high success and survival rates, showing periodontal healing and resolution of signs and symptoms. However, concerning the continued root development, the outcomes can still be considered unpredictable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Calcium Hydroxide/therapeutic use , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Dental Pulp/blood supply , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Dental Pulp Necrosis/drug therapy , Tooth Apex
6.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 33: eAPE20180307, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1100875

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Acompanhar o uso do curativo gel de clorexidina em cateter venoso central de crianças e adultos submetidos ao transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas para verificar a ocorrência de infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter e irritação cutânea na vigência deste curativo. Métodos Estudo observacional e prospectivo, com 25 pacientes com cateter venoso central inserido para realização do transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas. Diariamente avaliou-se as características do curativo, da pele, clínicas do paciente e relacionadas a infecção. Os pacientes foram acompanhados a partir do primeiro dia da inserção do CVC até a sua remoção, até o limite de 45 dias a partir da data de inserção do CVC. Resultados A infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter ocorreu em 28% dos pacientes, houve associação entre neutropenia febril e infecção (p<0,01). A irritação cutânea foi identificada em 24% dos pacientes. Não foi identificada associação entre infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter e a irritação cutânea (p=0,51). Houve associação significativa entre irritação cutânea e suspensão do uso do curativo (p=0,03). As trocas não programadas ocorreram em 50% das trocas identificadas e o principal motivo foi a presença de sangue no curativo (57,8%). Conclusão O uso do curativo gel de clorexidina em pacientes submetidos ao TCTH demonstrou ser uma medida eficaz na redução da ocorrência de infecções relacionadas ao cateter, quando comparado aos dados da literatura. Os casos de ICSRC encontrados foram associados, principalmente, à condição de neutropenia, muito comum nesta população. Os casos de irritação cutânea relacionados ao curativo identificados e a presença de sangue como principal motivo de troca não programada salientam a importância do conhecimento relacionado ao uso do curativo por parte dos enfermeiros assistenciais, a fim de criar protocolos que indiquem o uso e manejo do curativo com segurança.


Resumen Objetivo Hacer un seguimiento del uso del vendaje gel de clorhexidina en catéter venoso central (CVC) en niños y adultos sometidos al trasplante de células madre hematopoyéticas (TCMH) para verificar los casos de infección del flujo sanguíneo relacionados con el catéter (IFSRC) y la irritación cutánea durante la validez de este vendaje. Métodos Estudio observacional y prospectivo, con 25 pacientes con catéter venoso central insertado para realizar el trasplante de células madre hematopoyéticas. Diariamente se evaluaron las características del vendaje y de la piel, las características clínicas del paciente y las relacionadas con la infección. Los pacientes recibieron un seguimiento a partir del primer día de la inserción del CVC hasta su retirada, con un límite de 45 días a partir de la fecha de inserción del CVC. Resultados La infección del flujo sanguíneo relacionada con el catéter se presentó en el 28% de los pacientes, hubo relación entre neutropenia febril e infección (p<0,01). Se identificó irritación cutánea en el 24% de los pacientes. No se identificó relación entre la infección del flujo sanguíneo relacionada con el catéter y la irritación cutánea (p=0,51). Hubo relación significativa entre la irritación cutánea y la suspensión del uso del vendaje (p=0,03). Los cambios no programados sucedieron en el 50% de los cambios registrados, y el motivo principal fue la presencia de sangre en el vendaje (57,8%). Conclusión El uso del vendaje gel de clorhexidina en pacientes sometidos al TCMH demostró ser una medida eficaz para la reducción de casos de infecciones relacionadas con el catéter, en comparación con los datos de la literatura. Los casos de IFSRC encontrados se relacionaron principalmente con la condición de neutropenia, muy común en esta población. Los casos identificados de irritación cutánea relacionados con el vendaje y la presencia de sangre como principal motivo de cambio no programado resaltan la importancia del conocimiento del uso del vendaje por parte de los enfermeros asistenciales, a fin de crear protocolos que indiquen el uso y manejo seguro del vendaje.


Abstract Objective Monitor the use of chlorhexidine gel dressing in the central venous catheter of children and adults submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to check for catheter-related bloodstream infection and skin irritation while using this dressing. Methods This is a prospective observational study with 25 patients with central venous catheters (CVC) inserted for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Dressing characteristics, skin characteristics, clinical conditions of patients and infection-related characteristics were evaluated daily. Patients were monitored from the first day of CVC insertion until removal, up to 45 days from the CVC insertion date. Results Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) occurred in 28% of all patients, with an association between febrile neutropenia and infection (p<0.01). Skin irritation was identified in 24% of patients. No association was found between catheter-related bloodstream infection and skin irritation (p=0.51). A significant association was observed between skin irritation and dressing removal (p=0.03). Unscheduled dressing changes corresponded to 50% of all dressing changes identified during the study, and the main reason was presence of blood in the dressing (57.8%). Conclusion Using chlorhexidine gel dressing in patients submitted to HSCT proved to be an effective measure to reduce the occurrence of catheter-related infections, when compared to literature data. The cases of CRBSI found in this study were mainly associated with the condition of neutropenia, which is very common in this population. The cases of dressing-related skin irritation and presence of blood as the main reason for unscheduled change highlight the importance of nurses having proper knowledge about how to use this dressing in order to create protocols for safe dressing use and handling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Bandages, Hydrocolloid , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Central Venous Catheters , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Observational Study
7.
Odontol. vital ; (31): 23-30, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091424

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar mediante cuantificación de halos de inhibición el efecto antibacteriano de la cáscara y pulpa del capulí (Prunus serotina capulí) y del mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum), sobre cepas de Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) a las 24 y 48 horas, comparado con arándano deshidratado y gluconato de clorhexidina al 0,12%. Materiales y métodos: Estudio experimental transversal in vitro, 15 cajas petri fueron utilizadas para sembrar 20ml de cultivo de cepas de Streptococcus mutans. En cada caja fueron colocados discos de fieltro impregnados con 20 μl de las sustancias evaluadas; mortiño y capulí, en pulpa y en cáscara, arándano deshidratado y gluconato de clorhexidina al 0,12% como control, distribuidos a una distancia equidistante. El análisis del efecto antibacteriano se realizó midiendo la zona de inhibición en un tiempo de 24 y 48 horas de incubación, los datos obtenidos se analizaron estadísticamente en el programa SPSS 22 mediante las pruebas paramétricas y de Kruskal Wallis. Resultados: No existió diferencia estadística significativa entre las variables analizadas, capulí y mortiño tanto en cáscara como en pulpa y clorhexidina empleada como control, en los dos períodos evaluados (p= > 0,05). Conclusiones: Los frutos rojos analizados tienen un efecto antibacteriano a las 24 y 48 horas, lo cual guarda relación con su capacidad antioxidante.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate by quantification of halos of inhibition, the antibacterial effect of the shell and pulp of capulí, (Prunus serotina capuli) and mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum), on strains of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) at 24 and 48 hours, compared with dehydrated cranberry and chlorhexidine gluconate at 0,12%. Materials and methods: In vitro cross-sectional experimental study, 15 petri dishes were used to plant 20 ul of the evaluated substances were placed in each box, mortiño, and capuli, in pulp and in shell, dehydrated cranberry and 0,12% chlorhexidine gluconate as control, distributed at an equidistant distance. The analysis of the antibacterial effect was performed by measuring the zone of inhibition in a time of 24 and 48 hours of incubation, the dataobtained were statistically analyzed in the SPSS 22 program by parametric and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: There was no significant statistical difference between the analyzed variables, capuli and mortiño, both in skin and pulp and chlorhexidine used as control, in the two evaluated periods of time (p=>0,05). Conclusions: The red fruits analyzed have an antibacterial effect 24 and 48 hours, which is related to its antioxidant capacity.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus/drug effects , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Blueberry Plants/immunology , Dental Caries , Prunus avium/immunology
8.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 61(2): 36-40, nov. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095356

ABSTRACT

La osteonecrosis de los maxilares asociada a bifosfonatosfuedefinida como «Área de hueso expuesto en la región máxilo facial que permanece expuesta al menos por 8 semanas, siempre que los pacientes hayan sido prescriptos con bifosfonatos, y en ausencia de terapia radiante¼. (1) En la actualidad se agregó "hueso expuesto o hueso que se puede sondear a través de una fistula intra o extra oral" (2). Presentamos un caso clínico de una paciente femenina de 70 años de edad, diagnosticada con cáncer de hueso (osteosarcoma) con foco en la pelvis, historia de consumo de bifosfonatosvía endovenosa durante tres años, zolendronato 70mg, semanalmente. Al momento de la consulta, se encontraba en periodo de remisión de la enfermedad de base y sin consumo de medicación antiresortiva desde hace un año (AU)


Osteonecrosis of the jaws associated with bisphosphonates was defined as «Area of exposed bone in the maxillofacial region that remains exposed for at least 8 weeks, provided that patients have been prescribed with bisphosphonates, and in the absence of radiant therapy¼. (1) At present, "exposed bone or bone that can be probed through an intra or extra oral fistula" was added (2). We present a clinical case of a 70-year-old female patient, diagnosed with bone cancer (osteosarcoma) with a focus on the pelvis, history of consumption of bisphosphonates intravenously for three years, zolendronate 70 mg, weekly. At the time of the consultation, he was in the period of remission of the underlying disease and without consumption of antiresortive medication for a year (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Bone Resorption/etiology , Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/therapeutic use , Dental Service, Hospital , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/diagnostic imaging
9.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 27: e3106, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-985656

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the effect of dry care and the application of chlorhexidine to the umbilical cord of newborns at risk of developing omphalitis. Method: systematic review with meta-analysis. Clinical trials comparing dry care with the application of clorexidine to evaluate omphalitis were selected. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials. Results: the joint analysis of the studies shows a significant decrease in the risk of omphalitis in the chlorhexidine group compared to the dry care group (RR=0.58, CI: 0.53-0.64). However, in the analysis by subgroups, chlorhexidine umbilical cord care did not reduce the risk of omphalitis in hospital births (RR=0.82, CI: 0.64-1.05), in countries with a low infant mortality rate (RR=0.8, CI: 0.5-1.28), or at chlorhexidine concentrations below 4% (RR=0.55, CI: 0.31-1). Chlorhexidine acted as a protective factor at a concentration of 4% (RR=0.58, CI: 0.53-0.64), when applied in cases of home births (RR=0.57, CI: 0.51-0.62), in countries with a high infant mortality rate (RR=0.57, CI: 0.52-0.63). Conclusion: dry cord care is effective in countries with low infant mortality rate and in hospital births. However, 4% chlorhexidine for umbilical cord care protects against omphalitis in home births, in countries with a high infant mortality rate.


RESUMO Objetivo: comparar o efeito da cura a seco e da aplicação de clorexidina no cordão umbilical de recém-nascidos em risco de desenvolver onfalite. Método: revisão sistemática com metanálise. Foram selecionados os ensaios clínicos que comparavam a cura a seco com a aplicação de clorexidina para avaliar a onfalite. A qualidade metodológica foi avaliada com Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials. Resultados: a análise conjunta dos estudos mostra uma redução significativa do risco de onfalite no grupo da clorexidina em comparação com a cura a seco (RR=0,58; IC 0,53-0,64). Entretanto, na análise por subgrupos, a cura com clorexidina não reduziu o risco de onfalite em nascimentos hospitalares (RR=0,82; IC: 0,64-1,05), nos países com baixa taxa de mortalidade infantil (RR=0,8; IC: 0,5-1,28), ou com concentrações de clorexidina abaixo de 4% (RR=0,55; IC: 0,31-1). A clorexidina atuou como fator de proteção na concentração de 4% (RR=0,58; IC: 0,53-0,64), aplicada em nascimentos no domicílio (RR=0,57; IC: 0,51-0,62), em países com taxas de mortalidade infantil elevadas (RR=0,57; IC: 0,52-0,63). Conclusão: a cura a seco é eficaz em países com baixa taxa de mortalidade infantil e em nascimentos no contexto hospitalar. No entanto, a cura com clorexidina 4% protege contra a onfalite nos nascimentos domiciliares, em países com elevada mortalidade infantil.


RESUMEN Objetivo: comparar el efecto de la cura seca y de la aplicación de clorhexidina en el cordón umbilical de los recién nacidos en el riesgo de desarrollo de onfalitis. Método: revisión sistemática con metaanálisis. Se seleccionaron ensayos clínicos que compararan la cura seca con la aplicación de clorhexidina evaluando la onfalitis. Calidad metodológica evaluada con Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials. Resultados: el análisis conjunto de los estudios muestra una reducción significativa del riesgo de onfalitis en el grupo de clorhexidina en comparación con cura seca (RR=0,58; IC: 0,53-0,64). Sin embargo, en el análisis por subgrupos, la cura con clorhexidina no aportó reducción del riesgo de onfalitis en nacimientos hospitalarios (RR=0,82; IC: 0,64-1,05) en países con baja tasa de mortalidad infantil (RR=0,8; IC: 0,5-1,28), ni a concentraciones de clorhexidina inferiores al 4% (RR=0,55; IC: 0,31-1). La clorhexidina actuó como factor protector a concentraciones del 4% (RR=0,58; IC: 0,53-0,64), aplicada en nacimientos en el hogar (RR=0,57; IC: 0,51-0,62), en países con elevada mortalidad infantil (RR=0,57; IC: 0,52-0,63). Conclusión: la cura seca es eficaz en países con baja tasa de mortalidad infantil y nacimientos en ámbito hospitalario. Sin embargo, la cura con clorhexidina al 4% protege de onfalitis en nacimientos en el hogar, en países con elevada mortalidad infantil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Umbilical Cord/physiology , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Skin Care/methods
10.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 7(7): 292-297, sept. 22, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120999

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the aim of this study is to determine the current trends of irrigation during root canal therapy by specialists who are members of the Chilean Endodontic Society. materials and method: a survey (survey monkey -SurveyMonkey.com) was e-mailed to the 485 members of the Chilean Endodontic Society. the instrument was translated and adapted from the survey "irrigation trends among American Association of Endodontists members: a web-based survey" applied in the USA in 2012. participants answered a set of 16 questions that included irrigant selection, irrigant concentration, the adopted protocol, techniques or devices for irrigant activation. results: 99 percent of respondents use sodium hypochlorite as the main irrigant. data indicate that 74 percent of respondents use hypochlorite at a concentration of 5 percent. most respondents (94 percent) also include EDTA in their usual practice. In addition, 90 percent of respondents reported that they activate the irrigating agent, and 94 percent confirmed that they perform a final irrigation protocol. conclusion: the majority of respondents use sodium hypochlorite as the main irrigant at a concentration of 5 percent, use ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a smear removal agent, activate the irrigant, and perform a final irrigation protocol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Practice Patterns, Dentists'/statistics & numerical data , Endodontics/statistics & numerical data , Sodium Hypochlorite/administration & dosage , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Chile , Chlorhexidine/administration & dosage , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Surveys and Questionnaires , Smear Layer , Edetic Acid/administration & dosage , Edetic Acid/therapeutic use , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
11.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(2): 103-109, jun. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954249

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Los Trastornos Temporomandibulares (TTM) consisten en un conjunto de condiciones patológicas que afectan la articulación temporomandibular (ATM), los músculos de la masticación y las estructuras asociadas. Estudios epidemiológicos estiman que 40 % a 75 % de la población adulta presenta por lo menos un signo de TTM, como ruido articular y 33 % por lo menos un síntoma, como dolor facial o en la ATM. La toxina botulínica (BoNT) es una neurotoxina producida por la bacteria anaerobia Clostridium botulinum, solo la toxina A y B son utilizadas en la práctica clínica después de la aprobación de la Food and Drug Administration en 1989 y 2000; actualmente continúan siendo utilizadas para tratar varias condiciones de dolor, incluyendo la espasticidad muscular, distonia, dolor de cabeza y dolor miofascial. Las propuestas del mecanismo de acción fueron sugeridas a mediados de 1950 manifestando que esta neurotoxina posee alta afinidad con la sinapsis colinérgicas, ocasionando un bloqueo en la liberación de acetilcolina de esos terminales nerviosos, sin alterar la conducción neural de las señales eléctricas o en la síntesis de almacenamiento de acetilcolina. La inyección intramuscular en dosis y localización apropiada, provoca denervación química parcial y disminución de la contractura, sin ocasionar parálisis completa a lo que se le atribuye ser un innovador y eficaz método de tratamiento para el dolor crónico asociada con hiperactividad de los músculos masticatorios. La toxina botulínica tipo A es ser una alternativa para el control de la sintomatología dolorosa presente en los TTMs de etiología miogénica. Los autores recomiendan realizar un correcto diagnóstico, ya que la indicación de este tipo de tratamiento con diagnósticos incorrectos lleva a resultados inciertos.


ABSTRACT: Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) is a term that was used to describe a set of pathological conditions that affect temporomandibular joint (TMJ), muscles of mastication and associated structures. Epidemiological studies estimates that 40 % to 75 % of the adult population has at least one sign of TMD, such as joint noise and 33 % presented some symptom such as facial or joint pain. Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. There are two types of toxin (A and B) used in clinical practice that were approved by Food and Drug Administration in 1989 and 2000. These medications are in use to treat various diseases including muscle spasticity, dystonia, headache and myofascial pain. The mechanisms of action were suggested in the mid-1950s, this neurotoxin seems to have an action at cholinergic synapses, causing a block in the release of acetylcholine from the nerve terminals without altering the neural conduction of the electrical signals. The synthesis and storage of acetylcholine were preserved. Intramuscular injection in appropriate doses and location causes partial chemical denervation and decreased contracture, without causing complete paralysis of muscles. Due to this features, it has been considered an innovative and effective method to treat chronic pain associated with hyperactivity of masticatory muscles. The botulinum toxin type A appears to be an alternative method for pain control present in TMDs that have myogenic etiology. The authors recommend a correct diagnosis, since the indication of this type of treatment associated with an incorrect diagnosis leads to uncertain outcomes, creating false conclusions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/drug therapy , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use , Analgesia/methods , Pain/drug therapy , Pain Measurement , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/complications , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/epidemiology , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Analgesics/therapeutic use
12.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(3): 296-300, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951548

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the search for the ideal treatment of periodontal disease various non-surgical techniques should be considered. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of full-mouth scaling (FMS) by clinical and microbiological parameters. 670 individuals were evaluated with 230 subjects meeting the selection criteria and were divided into two groups; 115 subjects treated with FMS and 115 treated with weekly sessions of scaling and root planning (SRP). The patient population had a mean age of 51.67 years, with moderate chronic periodontitis. Subjects were evaluated prior to treatment (T1) and 90 days after execution of therapy (T2), with regards to: probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and microbial detection for the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) and Prevotella intermedia (P.i.) by culture method and confirmed by biochemical tests. Subjects treated in the FMS group also rinsed with 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash for seven days following treatment. The results were analyzed using statistical Student's t-test and chi-square test. No statistically significant differences were observed for PD and CAL between T1 and T2 in both groups. For GI and PI significant difference was observed between the groups. For the evaluated microbial parameters was observed reduction of P.g. and P.i., but only for P.g. with a significant reduction in both groups. The full mouth scaling technique with the methodology used in this study provided improved clinical conditions and reduction of P.g. in subjects with moderate periodontitis, optimizing the time spent in the therapeutic execution.


Resumo Na busca do tratamento ideal da doença periodontal varias são técnicas não-cirúrgicas que podem ser consideradas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da técnica de desinfecção total de boca (FMD, na sigla em Inglês) por parâmetros clínicos e microbiológicos. Foram avaliados 670 indivíduos com 230 indivíduos atendendo aos critérios de seleção e divididos em dois grupos; 115 indivíduos tratados com FMD e 115 tratados com sessões semanais de raspagem e alisamento corono radicular (SRP, na sigla em Inglês). A população avaliada tinha idade média de 51,67 anos, com periodontite crônica moderada. Os sujeitos foram avaliados antes do tratamento (T1) e 90 dias após a execução da terapia (T2), quanto à profundidade de sondagem (PS), nível de inserção clínica (NIC), índice de placa (IP), índice gengival (IG) e detecção microbiana da presença de Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) e Prevotella intermedia (P.i.) por método de cultura e confirmada por testes bioquímicos. Os indivíduos tratados no grupo FMD também realizaram bochechos com clorexidina 0,12% durante sete dias após o tratamento. Os resultados foram analisados ​​utilizando o teste estatístico t de Student e o teste de qui-quadrado. Não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas para PS e NIC entre T1 e T2 em ambos os grupos. Para IG e IP observou-se diferença significativa entre os grupos. Para os parâmetros microbianos avaliados foi observada redução de P.g. e P.i., mas apenas para P.g. com uma redução significativa em ambos os grupos. A técnica FMD com a metodologia utilizada neste estudo proporcionou condições clínicas melhoradas e redução da P.g. Em indivíduos com periodontite moderada, otimizando o tempo gasto na execução terapêutica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Dental Scaling/methods , Chronic Periodontitis/therapy , Periodontal Pocket/therapy , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Periodontal Index , Dental Plaque Index , Longitudinal Studies , Root Planing/methods , Periodontal Attachment Loss/therapy , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolation & purification , Prevotella intermedia/isolation & purification , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Disinfectants/therapeutic use , Chronic Periodontitis/microbiology , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use
13.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 7(4): 134-140, abr. 27, 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120767

ABSTRACT

Objective. to evaluate the clinical effect of a probiotic mouthwash in reducing generalized marginal chronic gingivitis using positive and negative control groups. methodology. four-week study conducted in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, from january to march 2017. participants were healthy, non-smokers with generalized marginal chronic gingivitis; age range 18-45 years. subjects were randomized and divided into three groups: group A: mouthwash based on 0.05 percent cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) (positive control); group B: mouthwash based on probiotics (experimental); group C: placebo mouthwash (negative control). no oral hygiene practices or routines were modified; subjects were followed for 4 weeks. the primary outcome variable of interest was the Löe and Silness gingival index, and the secondary one, the Quigley Heinn plaque index modified by Turesky. results. of the 45 patients included, 19 (42.2 percent) were men and 26 (57.7 percent) women, mean age was 22.8±2.07. each group consisted of 15 subjects; all subjects completed the study. there was no statistically significant reduction in gingival inflammation when comparing the 3 treatment groups (p=0.540) with respect to the gingival index. A comparison was made before and after the treatment and in the 3 groups there was no reduction of the gingival inflammation. plaque reduction was not statistically significant when comparing the 3 groups (p=0.278). however, when doing intra-group comparison, it was found that the patients in group A had a reduction in plaque index (p<0.005), which was not observed in groups B (p=0.1103) and C (p=0.1508). conclusions. the use of a probiotic mouth mouthwash did not reduce gingival inflammation or the accumulation of dentobacterial plaque in a period of 4 weeks. there were no statistically significant differences between the study groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Gingivitis/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Periodontal Index , Pilot Projects , Mexico , Mouthwashes/chemistry
14.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170245, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893734

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To determine the effectiveness of chlorhexidine 0.12% mouthwash (CHX) after tooth extraction for the prevention of alveolar osteitis (AO). Material and methods We conducted a double-blind randomised clinical trial stratified by risk factors. We enrolled a cohort of 822 patients who underwent dental extractions, and were considered to be at risk of developing AO (previous surgical site infection, traumatic extraction, and tobacco smoking). After extraction, patients were randomly allocated for CHX group or placebo group, matched by risk factors. The primary outcome was clinical diagnosis of AO: increasing postoperative pain for 4 d within and around the socket, and total or partial breakdown of the blood clot in the socket with or without bone exposure. Results Follow-up was completed by 744 participants (372 chlorhexidine and 372 placebo). We detected no significant differences between the two groups at baseline. After completed follow-up, risk factors were equally distributed between the two groups. Overall incidence of OA was 4.97%, in which 27 participants treated with placebo (7.26%) and 10 participants treated with CHX (2.69%) developed AO. CHX reduced the incidence of AO by 63% [Absolute Risk Reduction: 4.57 (95% CI 1.5-7.7), Number Needed to Treat: 21.88 (95% CI 13.0-69.3), Fisher's exact test: p=0.006]. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusion The use of chlorhexidine 0.12% mouthwash after tooth extraction is safe and effective in reducing the incidence of AO in high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Tooth Extraction/adverse effects , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Dry Socket/prevention & control , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Placebo Effect , Double-Blind Method , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Dry Socket/etiology , Middle Aged
15.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2018. 155 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-912015

ABSTRACT

A infecção de sítio cirúrgico (ISC) é um grande desafio para o paciente, equipe e instituições de saúde. Um fator de risco importante na patogênese das infecções cirúrgicas ortopédicas refere-se à pele do paciente. O banho do paciente com soluções antissépticas, no pré-operatório é recomendado como medida para reduzir o risco de ISC, apesar das controvérsias. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da intervenção de enfermagem, banho pré-operatório, utilizando as soluções de gluconato de clorexidina a 4%, PVP-I degermante a 10% e sabão sem antisséptico, na prevenção de ISC, em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia eletiva de artroplastia do quadril e estimar a frequência de reações alérgicas causadas pelo uso das soluções. Estudo do tipo ensaio clínico, randomizado, controlado, com mascaramento do pesquisador, paciente e estatístico, utilizando dois grupos de intervenção (clorexidina; PVP-I) e um controle (sabão sem antisséptico). A amostra foi composta por 162 pacientes adultos, submetidos à cirurgia eletiva de artroplastia total do quadril, entre agosto/2015 e outubro/2017, sem infecção no local cirúrgico e alergia às soluções e não portadores nasais de Staphylococcus aureus. A randomização foi realizada por um programa de computador. Utilizados os critérios de descontinuidade de tratamento e a análise por intenção de tratar. Cada grupo foi composto por 54 pacientes. Na consulta de enfermagem os pacientes foram orientados pela enfermeira pesquisadora a tomarem dois banhos: na véspera da cirurgia no domicílio e no dia da cirurgia no hospital. O banho no hospital foi realizado por profissional de enfermagem. Para o banho o paciente recebia um envelope pardo fechado contendo o frasco da solução sorteada, quatro esponjas e um manual que orientava sobre o procedimento. O desfecho primário foi ISC e os pacientes foram monitorados até 90 dias de pós-operatório por meio de telefonemas e nas consultas de egressos ambulatorial. O programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), versão 19.0, foi utilizado para análise dos dados. O efeito aos tratamentos foi medido comparando os grupos intervenção e controle por meio da incidência de ISC, risco relativo, redução absoluta de risco. As características clínicas/epidemiológicas/cirúrgicas foram similares entre os pacientes nos três grupos. A incidência de ISC em cada grupo foi 5,5% (3/54) [IC95% 1,2-15,4]. A taxa de infecção superficial foi 4,9% e profunda 0,6%. O tempo médio para o surgimento das infecções foi 19 dias (DP ± 7,4). Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos (p=1,00). Um paciente apresentou reação alérgica com o uso da solução de PVP-I. A taxa de adesão aos dois banhos foi de 99,4% (161/162). Os resultados corroboram recentes revisões sistemáticas que não encontraram diferença nas taxas de infecção cirúrgica quando o banho pré-operatório foi realizado com soluções antissépticas ou sabão. A consulta de enfermagem no pré-operatório pode impactar a taxa de infecção profunda na cirurgia eletiva de artroplastia do quadril. O uso de soluções antissépticas pode ocasionar reações alérgicas na pele do paciente, durante o banho e precisa ser monitorada. É necessário cautela ao recomendar o banho pré-operatório com solução antisséptica como estratégia para reduzir infecção de sítio cirúrgico. A orientação do paciente no pré-operatório de cirurgia eletiva de artroplastia do quadril, quando realizada pelo enfermeiro, pode melhorar a qualidade do cuidado prestado ao paciente cirúrgico. Clinical Trials nº NCTO3001102 (AU)


Surgical site infections (SSI) are a major challenge for the patient, staff, and health institutions. An important risk factor in the pathogenesis of orthopedic surgical infections refers to the patient's skin. The patient's bath with antiseptic solutions in the preoperative period is recommended as measure to reduce the risk of SSI, despite controversies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the nursing intervention, preoperative bath, using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate solutions, 10% PVP-I and non-antiseptic soap in the prevention of SSI in patients submitted to elective hip arthroplasty surgery and the frequency of allergic reactions caused by the use of the solutions. Randomized, controlled clinical trial with masking of the researcher, patient and statistician using two intervention groups (PVP-I, chlorhexidine) and one control (non-antiseptic soap). The sample was consisted of 162 adult patients undergoing elective total hip replacement between August/2015 to October/2017, without infection at the surgical site and allergy solutions and non-nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus. The randomization was performed by a computer program. The criteria for treatment discontinuity and intention-to-treat analysis were used. Each group consisted of 54 patients. In nursing consultation patients were instructed by the research nurse to take two baths: the day before the surgery at home and the day of the surgery in the hospital. The bath in the hospital was performed by a nursing professional. For the bath the patient received a closed brown envelope containing the bottle of the solution drawn, four sponges, and a manual that guided about the procedure. The primary outcome was ISC and the patients were monitored up to 90 postoperative days by phone calls and outpatients visits. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19.0, was used for analysis of the data. The effect on treatments was measured by comparing intervention and control group by incidence of ISC, Relative Risk and Absolute Risk Reduction. Clinical/epidemiological/surgical characteristics were similar among the patients of the three groups. The incidence of SSI in each group was 5.5% (3/54) [IC95% 1,2-15,4]. The superficial infection rate was 4.9% and deep 0.6%. The mean time to onset of infection was 19 days (SD ± 7.4). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 1.00). One patient presented an allergic reaction with the use of the PVP-I solution. The rate of adherence to the two baths was 99.4% (161/162). The results of this study corroborate recent systematic reviews that found no difference in surgical infection rates when the preoperative bath was performed with antiseptic solutions or soap. The preoperative nursing consultation may impact the rate of deep infection in elective hip arthroplasty surgery. The use of antiseptic solutions may cause allergic reactions on the patient's skin during bathing and needs to be monitored. Caution is required when recommending the preoperative bath with antiseptic solution as a strategy to reduce surgical site infection. The orientation of the patient in the preoperative period of elective hip arthroplasty surgeries performed by the nurse can improve the quality of care provided to the surgical patient. Clinical Trials nº. NCTO3001102..(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Baths/nursing , Preoperative Care/nursing , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/nursing , Soaps/therapeutic use , Perioperative Nursing , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Random Allocation , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Academic Dissertation , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(1): 65-70, feb. 2017. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1038349

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones asociadas al cuidado de la salud son un tema de gran importancia en los recién nacidos, teniendo en cuenta su alta carga de morbilidad, mortalidad y secuelas a largo plazo. En prematuros, se ha demostrado que la colonización de la piel y del tracto gastrointestinal sufre variaciones respecto a neonatos a término y sanos, con un riesgo de mayor exposición a microorganismos intrahospitalarios por la mayor probabilidad de ingresar a unidades de cuidado intensivo neonatal por aspectos inherentes a su prematurez. El presente documento revisa la colonización normal, los cambios que se observan con la hospitalización, la prematurez y el potencial papel de la clorhexidina en la prevención de la transmisión de microorganismos resistentes, así como sus efectos secundarios en los neonatos en Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal.


Healthcare-associated infections are a major problem in newborn infants, considering their high morbidity, mortality, and long-term sequelae. In preterm infants, it has been shown that skin and gastrointestinal tract colonization undergoes variations compared to healthy term infants, and that preterm infants are more exposed to nosocomial microorganisms given their higher probability of being admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit where they are cared for. This document reviews normal colonization, the changes observed during hospitalization, prematurity, and the potential role of chlorhexidine in the prevention of resistant microorganism transmission, as well as its side effects in newborn infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Skin/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology
17.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 15(2): 113-118, Apr.-June 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-848188

ABSTRACT

Aim: To compare the effectiveness of a single-tuft toothbrush (STB) with conventional toothbrushes (CT) to control dental biofilm neoformation in the dentogingival area. Methods: For this cross-sectional prospective blind study, 20 periodontally healthy subjects were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups: STB; CT; CHX - chlorhexidine mouthwash (positive control) and PS - placebo mouthwash (negative control). The subjects were instructed to use only the assigned care method for 72 h with a 7-day washout period between experiments. The evaluated parameters were visible and disclosed plaque indices (PI and DPI), gingival bleeding index (GBI) at baseline (T-0) and at the end of each experimental period (T-72). Results: Data analysis demonstrated that at T-0 no difference was observed for any of the parameters (p>0.05); after 72 h, CT, STB and CHX showed equivalente effectiveness at controlling biofilm. When the PI data were analyzed, between T-0 and T-72, STB was similar to CT and CHX (p<0.05), whereas for DPI, STB was significantly superior to the other methods. Except for PS, all methods yielded similar results for GBI (p<0.05). Conclusions: The tested STB was effective at controlling short-term dental biofilm neoformation on the dentogingival area (au)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biofilms , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Dental Devices, Home Care , Dental Plaque , Gingivitis/epidemiology , Oral Hygiene , Periodontal Index , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Toothbrushing
18.
Gac. méd. espirit ; 18(1): 4-13, ene.-abr. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-780679

ABSTRACT

Fundamento. La estomatitis aftosa es una enfermedad periodontal dolorosa, la misma puede ser tratada con clorhexidina al 0,12 %, en colutorios, permitiendo el control de los microorganismos que pueden colonizar la úlcera. Objetivo: Describir el tratamiento con clorhexidina al 0,12 % como coadyuvante de la urgencia estomatitis aftosa. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, prospectivo, en el área norte del municipio Sancti Spíritus en el período comprendido de septiembre de 2011 a mayo de 2012. La población fue 68 pacientes diagnosticados con estomatitis aftosa y la muestra 52 pacientes con criterios de inclusión después de utilizado un muestreo intencional. Las variables utilizadas: Edad, sexo, origen, tipo, localización de las lesiones y efecto del tratamiento. Se utilizó el método de observación, los datos fueron recogidos en una planilla recolectora creada al efecto siendo procesados estadísticamente, representados en tablas de distribución de frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: Prevaleció la estomatitis aftosa en su forma menor con un 86,5 % y las aftas de origen no traumáticas con un 69,2 %; el efecto del tratamiento fue satisfactorio en un 73,1 %. Conclusiones: Con la utilización de la clorhexidina al 0,12 % como coadyuvante en el tratamiento de la estomatitis aftosa se alcanzan resultados satisfactorios permitiendo aliviar el dolor, y las molestias causadas por esta enfermedad periodontal aguda.


Background: The aphthous stomatitis is a painful periodontal illness, this it can be treated with chlorhexidine to 0.12 %, in a pharmaceutical form with a viscous type watery solution used for the topical treatment of buccal affections what allows the control of the microorganisms that can colonize the ulcer. Objective: To describe the treatment with chlorhexidine to 0.12 % as adjuvant so of the urgency aphthous stomatitis. Methodology: It was carried out a descriptive study in the North Area of the municipality of Sancti Spíritus in the period understood from September, 2011 to May, 2012. The population was 68 patients diagnosed with aphthous stomatitis and the sample 52 of them after having used an intentional sampling. The variables used were: age, sex, origin, and type, localization of the lesions and effect of the treatment. The observation method was used and the picked up data were in a gatherer data sheet created in the one that were statistically processed ,the data were represented in charts of distribution of absolute and relative frequencies.Results: The aphthous stomatitis prevailed in its smaller form with 86.5% and the aphthous with a non-traumatic origin with a 69.2 %; the effect of the treatment was satisfactory in a 73.1 %. Conclusions: Satisfactory results were possible when alleviating the pain and the discomforts caused by this periodontal illness with the use of the chlorhexidine to 0.12 % as adjuvant in the treatment of the aphthous stomatitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomatitis, Aphthous/diagnosis , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use
19.
Rio de janeiro; s.n; 2016. 56 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1009447

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a microdureza e o potencial antimicrobiano de três cimentos para cimentação utilizados em dentística modificados com diacetato de clorexidina a 0,5%. Para o teste de exaustão foram usados 48 corpos de prova de 5 mm de diâmetro por 2 mm de altura, colocados numa placa de 96 orifícios, divididos em 2 corpos de prova de acordo com o período de eluição para cada grupo previamente determinado. A eluição foi feita com PBS (tampão fostato), tornando o ambiente isotônico, por períodos de 60, 30 e 15 dias, ou sem exaustão (imediato), com posterior exposição ao inóculo bacteriano (Streptococcus mutans em 80 Unidades Formadoras de Colônias - UFC), em meio isotônico para evitar a morte da bactéria. Após 60 minutos de exposição a 37ºC, cada corpo de prova recebeu 100 µL de agar TSA, para a análise do crescimento das colônias. A viabilidade celular foi avaliada através do teste colorimétrico de Metiltetrazolium (MTT), em que foi utilizada uma suspensão celular L929 (fibroblastos gengival de camundongo), linhagem recomendada pela ISO 10993-5 de 2009 para a realização dos testes de citotoxicidade. As amostras ficaram em eluição pelos períodos de 24 horas, 72 horas e 7 dias , momentos em que foram aliquotados 200 µL da solução de eluição do corpo de prova, para a realização do teste. No geral foram testadas quatro réplicas de cada uma das amostras obtidas distribuídas nos grupos de corpo de prova previamente definidos, sendo confeccionados 18 corpos de prova com 5 mm de diâmetro por 2 mm de altura. A análise de microdureza Knoop (KHN) foi feita confeccionando cinco espécimes para cada grupo experimental com 5 mm de diâmetro e 2 mm de altura, incluídos em seis blocos de resina acrílica rosa. Cada grupo foi denominado conforme os respectivos tratamentos a serem utilizados. Grupo 1 (G1) - cimento de fosfato de zinco sem diacetato de clorexidina; Grupo 2 (G2) - Ketac™ Cem Easymix sem diacetato de clorexina; Grupo 3 (G3) - RelyX™ U 200 sem diacetato de clorexidina; Grupo 4 (G4) - cimento de fosfato de zinco com diacetato de clorexidina 0,5%; Grupo 5 (G5) - Ketac™ Cem Easymix com diacetato de clorexidina 0,5%; Grupo 6 (G6) - RelyX™ U 200 com diacetato de clorexidina 0,5%. Em relação ao teste de exaustão, o cimento de fosfato de zinco foi o que apresentou melhor atividade antimicrobiana. No referente à citotoxicidade, não houve efeito citotóxico significativo entre todas as amostras testadas, tendo apenas o cimento de fosfato de zinco sem adição de diacetato de clorexina no período de eluição de 72 h ficado ligeiramente acima da barra de viabilidade celular. Considerando a microdureza Knoop, o cimento de fostato de zinco apresentou comportamento inferior ao Ketac™ Cem Easymyx e ao RelyX™ U 200, que não foram diferentes entre si e, assim, a adição do diacetato de clorexidina a 0.5% não modificou a propriedade mecânica analisada dos cimentos testados.


The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the hardness and the antimicrobial potential of three cements for cementation used in dentistry modified with 0.5% chlorhexidine diacetate. For the exhaustion test were used 48 specimens samples with 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height, placed in a 96 well plate, divided into 2 specimens samples according to the elution period for each previously determined group. The elution was done with PBS (phosphate buffer), making an isotonic environment for periods of 60, 30 and 15 days, or without exhaustion (immediate), with subsequent exposure to the bacterial inoculum (Streptococcus mutans in 80 Colony Forming Units - UFC) in an isotonic medium to prevent the death of bacteria. After 60 minutes at 37°C exposure, each specimen received 100 µL of agar TSA, for the analysis of the colonies' growth. Cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric test Metiltetrazolium (MTT), which was used in a suspension of the cell type L929 (mouse fibroblasts gum), strain recommended by ISO 10993-5 2009 for carrying out the cytotoxicity tests. The samples were eluted in the periods of 24 hours, 72 hours and 7 days, when 200 µL were aliquoted from specimens samples eluting solution, to perform the colorimetric test. In general, four replicates were tested of each obtained samples, distributed into previously defined specimen groups, totalizing 18 specimens samples with a diameter of 5 mm and a height of 2 mm. The Knoop microhardness analysis (KHN) was done preparing five specimens samples for each experimental group with 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height, included in 6 pink acrylic resin blocks. Each group was designed according to the treatment to be received. Group 1 (G1) - Zinc phosphate cement without chlorhexidine diacetate; Group 2 (G2) - Ketac™ Cem Easymyx without clorexina diacetate; Group 3 (G3) - RelyX™ U 200 without chlorhexidine diacetate; Group 4 (G4) - Zinc phosphate cement with 0,5 % chlorhexidine diacetate; Group 5 (G5) - Ketac™ Cem EasyMix with 0,5% chlorhexidine diacetate; Group 6 (G6) - RelyX™ U 200 with 0,5% chlorhexidine diacetate. Regarding to exhaustion test, zinc phosphate cement showed the best antimicrobial activity. With regard to cytotoxicity, there was no significant cytotoxic effect of all tested samples, having only the zinc phosphate cement without adding chlorhexidine diacetate in the elution period of 72 h, stayed slightly above the cell viability bar. Considering the Knoop hardness, zinc phosphate cement showed less behavior than Ketac™ Cem Easymyx and RelyX™ U 200, which were not different between them. Thus, the addition of 0.5% chlorhexidine diacetate did not modified the mechanical property of the tested cements.


Subject(s)
Materials Testing , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Dental Cements , Anti-Infective Agents , In Vitro Techniques , Cell Survival , Cementation
20.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e115, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951950

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorhexidine varnish on the reduction of caries incidence during fixed orthodontic treatment. The literature searches involved The Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, OpenSigle databases and manual searches. The search on OpenSigle did not produce any additional articles. Clinical studies conducted in patients with orthodontic fixed appliances that used professional application of chlorhexidine varnish were included. The effect-size was calculated and a meta-analysis was performed. From 182 abstracts, a total of six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. After reading the full articles, one was excluded because of lack of a control group. Three articles were used for continuous data analysis, and two articles were used for the dichotomous data analysis. The pooled meta-analysis with continuous data demonstrated chlorhexidine varnish effectiveness on caries reduction (p = 0.003), with a mean difference and confidence interval of −1.49 [−2.47, −0.51]. On the basis of the pooled meta-analysis of continuous data, we were able to conclude that professional application of chlorhexidine varnish is effective in caries incidence reduction during fixed orthodontic treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Orthodontic Appliances/microbiology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome
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