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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 29-34, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388329

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La infección por Clostridioides dfficile (ICD) es la principal causa de diarrea nosocomial, generalmente asociada al consumo de antimicrobianos. Esta infección puede causar desde diarrea no complicada hasta colitis pseudomembranosa o megacolon tóxico. Estudios recientes han intentado relacionar el valor el ciclo umbral (Ct) de la RT-PCR con la mortalidad, como un método rápido, sencillo, objetivo y eficaz. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el Ct como predictor de mala evolución en pacientes con y sin criterio clínico de dicha gravedad. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Realizamos un estudio retrospectivo entre enero 2015 y diciembre 2018, incluyendo todos los pacientes del área de referencia del Hospital Universitario de Canarias en Tenerife (396.483 habitantes) en pacientes con criterios clínicos de gravedad (de acuerdo a la Guía para la Práctica Clínica de la enfermedad por C. dfficile de la Sociedad de Epidemiología del Cuidado de la Salud de América (SHEA) y la Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas de Norteamérica (IDSA) y pacientes sin criterios clínicos de gravedad evaluando el Ct como predictor de mala evolución. RESULTADOS: Se diagnosticó un total de 202 episodios de ICD. El 77,7% (n = 157) presentó criterios clínicos de gravedad. La presencia de colitis ulcerosa (p < 0,001), fiebre (p < 0,001), leucocitosis (p < 0,001), neutrofilia (p < 0,001), creatininemia (p = 0,005) se presentaron como factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de ICD grave. El sexo femenino, la institucionalización, el ingreso previo y el exitus se describieron con mayor frecuencia en el grupo con ICD-G, no encontrando diferencias significativas. No encontramos diferencias respecto a los días de estancia previa, o de estancia post-ICD, aunque en este último, la media fue mayor en el caso de los pacientes con ICD-G. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto al Ct en ambos grupos; siendo sólo un punto menor en pacientes con criterio de gravedad (Ct = 26,1) que sin criterios de gravedad (Ct = 27,4) (p = 0,326).


BACKGROUND: Clostridioides dfficile infection (CDI) is the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea, generally associated with the use of antibiotics. This infection can cause uncomplicated diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon. Recent studies have attempted to relate the threshold cycle (Ct) value of RT-PCR with mortality, as a fast, simple, objective and efficient method. AIM: To evaluate Ct as a predictor of poor outcome in patients with C. dfficile disease with/without clinical signs of severity. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study between January 2015 and December 2018, including all patients in the reference area of the Hospital Universitario de Canarias in Tenerife (396,483 inhabitants) in patients with clinical criteria of severity and patients without clinical severity criteria (according to the guide for the clinical practice of CDI of the Society of Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Infectious Diseases Society of North America (IDSA). RESULTS: A total of 202 CDI episodes were diagnosed. 77.7% (n = 157) presented clinical severity criteria. The presence of ulcerative colitis (p < 0.001), fever (p < 0.001), leukocytosis (p < 0.001), neutrophilia (p < 0.001), creatininemia (p = 0.005) were presented as risk factors for the development of severe CDI (S-CDI). Female sex, institutionalization, previous admission and death were described more frequently in the group with S-CDI, not finding significant differences. We found no differences with respect to the days of previous stay, or of post-CDI stay, although in the latter, the mean was higher in the case of S-CDI patients. No significant differences were found in terms of Ct in both groups; being only one point lower in patients with severity criteria (Ct = 26.1) than without severity criteria (Ct = 27.4) (p = 0.326). CONCLUSION: Based on the results of our study, it has not been possible to systematically implement the Ct value as a predictor of severity to the clinical report, and it is not possible to extrapolate this predictive variable from S-CDI and standardize the Ct value as a predictor of severity. Conclusion: Basándonos en los resultados de nuestro estudio, no ha sido posible la implementación sistemática del valor Ct como predictor de gravedad al informe clínico, no siendo posible extrapolar esta variable predictora de enfermedad por C difficile-G y estandarizar el valor Ct como factor predictor de gravedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Clostridium Infections , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Diarrhea
2.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(1): 59-63, jan./mar. 2022. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1395508

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prevalência de Clostridioides difficile e suas toxinas (A/B) nas fezes de animais domésticos de um Hospital Veterinário Universitário de Teresina - PI. A detecção de C. difficile e suas toxinas foi realizada por meio de um ensaio imunoenzimático, denominado C. Diff Quik Chek Complete® (TECHLAB), capaz de detectar antígeno Glutamato Desidrogenase (GDH) e as toxinas A/B produzidas pelo bacilo, realizado em amostras fecais de cães (C. lupus) e e gatos (Felis catus) coletadas entre agosto de 2019 a setembro de 2020. Um total de 54 amostras fecais foram analisadas, das quais 16 foram positivas para C. difficile (29,63%). 68,75% (11/16) pertenciam a caninos, enquanto 31,25% (5/16) a felinos. Amostras diarreicas e não diarreicas foram utilizadas para o estudo e uma maior prevalência do bacilo pôde ser identificada em amostras diarreicas (33%). Nenhuma das amostras apresentou toxinas do patógeno. Os achados deste estudo evidenciam que C.difficile está presente no estado do Piauí. Foi possível identificá-lo em todas as espécies e em amostras diarreicas ou não, demonstrando que essa infecção pode se manifestar de formasintomática e assintomática, levantando a possibilidade de infecção cruzada entre o animal e seu tutor.


The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Clostridioides difficile and its toxins (A/B) in the feces of domestic animals at a University Veterinary Hospital in Teresina - PI. The detection of C. difficile and its toxins was performed by an immunogenic enzyme, called C. Diff Quik Chek Complete® (TECHLAB), capable of detecting antigen glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and A/B toxins produced by this bacillus, performed in fecal samples of dogs (C. lupus) and cats (Felis catus) collected between August 2019 and September 2020.:54 stools were analyzed, of which 16 were positive for C. difficile (29.63%). 68.75% (11/16) belonged to canines, while 3.25% (5/16) to felines. Diarrheal and non-diarrheal diseases are used for the study and a higher prevalence of bacillus can be identified in diarrheal diseases (33%). None of the samples present pathogen toxins. The results of this study show that C. difficile is present in the state of Piauí. It can be identified in all species and in diarrheal or non-diarrheic samples, demonstrating that this infection can be symptomatic and asymptomatic, giving the possibility of cross-infection between the animal and its owner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Cats/abnormalities , Clostridioides difficile/pathogenicity , Immunoenzyme Techniques/veterinary , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Dogs/abnormalities , Feces/microbiology , Bacterial Zoonoses/diagnosis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935331

ABSTRACT

Objective: Comparative analyses of wild-type Clostridioides difficile 630 (Cd630) strain and pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) knockout mutant (ΔPaLoc) by using RNA-seq technology. Analysis of differential expression of Cd630 wild-type strain and ΔPaLoc mutant strain and measurement of its cellular virulence changes. Lay the foundation for the construction of an toxin-attenuated vaccine strain against Clostridioides difficile. Methods: Analysis of Cd630 and ΔPaLoc mutant strains using high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq). Clustering differentially expressed genes and screening differentially expressed genes by DESeq software. Further analysis of differential genes using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment. Finally, cytotoxicity assays of ΔPaLoc and Cd630 strains were performed in the African monkey kidney epithelial cell (Vero) and the human colonic cell (Caco-2) lines. Results: The transcriptome data showed that the ΔPaLoc mutant toxin genes tcdA and tcdB were not transcribed. Compared to the wild-type strain, CD630_36010, CD630_020910,CD630_02080 and cel genes upregulated 17.92,11.40,8.93 and 7.55 fold, respectively. Whereas the hom2 (high serine dehydrogenase), the CD630_15810 (spore-forming protein), CD630_23230 (zinc-binding dehydrogenase) and CD630_23240 (galactitol 1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenase) genes were down-regulated by 0.06, 0.075, 0.133 and 0.183 fold, respectively. The GO and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that the differentially transcribed genes in ΔPaLoc were enriched in the density-sensing system, ABC transport system, two-component system, phosphotransferase (PTS) system, and sugar metabolism pathway, as well as vancomycin resistance-related pathways. Cytotoxicity assays showed that the ΔPaLoc mutant strain lost its virulence to Vero and Caco-2 cells compared to the wild-type Cd630 strain. Conclusion: Transcriptional sequencing analysis of the Cd630 and ΔPaLoc mutant strains showed that the toxin genes were not transcribed. Those other differential genes could provide a reference for further studies on the physiological and biochemical properties of the ΔPaLoc mutant strain. Cytotoxicity assays confirmed that the ΔPaLoc mutant lost virulence to Vero and Caco-2 cells, thus laying the foundation for constructing an toxin-attenuated vaccine strain against C. difficile.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Bacterial Toxins/metabolism , Caco-2 Cells , Clostridioides , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Humans , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Transcriptome , Vaccines, Attenuated
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 185-195, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927703

ABSTRACT

Clostridium difficile is an important zoonotic intestinal pathogen, which is widely present in humans and a variety of animals. The ST11 type C. difficile is one of the most widespread and harmful subtypes in the world. As a large country in pig farming, China lacks efficient methods for detecting C. difficile of porcine origin, leaving hidden dangers for the prevention and control of C. difficile. The aim of this study was to develop a specific and sensitive double-antibody sandwich ELISA for the epidemiological investigation of ST11 type C. difficile of porcine origin. Firstly, a 97 kDa receptor binding domain (RBD) was expressed in a prokaryotic host and purified. A hybridoma cell line AE2D3 capable of stably secreting monoclonal antibody targeting the RBD was screened, and the antibody subtype was determined to be IgG2b (κ). Secondly, a double antibody sandwich ELISA method was developed, where the monoclonal antibody targeting the RBD was used as a detection antibody, and the rabbit polyclonal antibody was used as a capture antibody. The chessboard method was used to determine the matching concentration of the capture antibody and the detection antibody, the antigen coating conditions, the blocking conditions, the incubation conditions for detection antibody and samples to be tested, as well as the reaction conditions of HRP-conjugated and reaction conditions of TMB chromogenic solution. The negative cutoff OD450 was 0.152, and no cross-reaction with 13 strains of non-ST11 type C. difficile was found. The minimum detection concentration of RBD was 8.83 ng/mL. This specific and sensitive double-antibody sandwich ELISA provides a reliable serological detection method for epidemiological investigation of the ST11 type C. difficile in pig industry.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins , Clostridioides difficile , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hybridomas , Swine
5.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(3): 855-867, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289823

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Clostridium difficile es una bacteria relacionada con la colitis, asociada a antibióticos y a la diarrea adquirida en pacientes hospitalizados. Sin embargo, su comportamiento ha cambiado en los últimos años, hasta el punto de ser considerada un problema de salud mundial. Su curso clínico varía desde casos asintomáticos, colitis, hasta complicaciones que ponen en peligro la vida del paciente. Dentro de los factores de riesgo descritos se encuentra la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, especialmente la colitis ulcerativa idiopática. El caso reportado versa sobre la presentación de esta infección asociada a un brote de colitis ulcerativa en un paciente joven, sin antecedentes de enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, consumo de antibióticos ni hospitalización (AU).


ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile is a bacterium related to antibiotic-associated colitis and to diarrhea acquired in hospitalized patients. However, its behavior has changed in recent years to the point of being considered as a global health problem. Its clinical course ranges from asymptomatic cases, colitis, to complications with risk for the patient's life. The inflammatory bowel disease, especially idiopathic ulcerative colitis is found among the described risk factors. The case reported deals with the presentation of this infection associated to an outbreak of ulcerative colitis in a young patient, with no previous history of inflammatory bowel disease, consumption of antibiotics or hospitalization (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Clostridioides difficile/virology , Diarrhea/complications , Infections/complications , Infections/transmission , Inpatients , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
6.
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(2)jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387649

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Clostridioides difficile is a significant cause of diarrhea in hospitals and the community. This bacterial pathogen is transmitted through the ingestion of endospores, which are challenging to eliminate due to intrinsic resistance to a variety of chemical disinfection agents. The well-characterized laboratory strain CD630 displays low virulence, has not caused outbreaks, and is highly susceptible to disinfectants. Nonetheless, a closely related strain termed NAPCR1 caused outbreaks in Costa Rica and later became endemic in many hospitals from this country. This strain causes disease through unusual mechanisms and is genotypically distinct from CD630. Consequently, its epidemic potential could be influenced by as yet unknown spore phenotypes, such as increased resistance to disinfectants. Objective: To determine whether the NAPCR1 strain is more resistant to a conventional and highly effective C. difficile sporicidal agent than strain CD630 and to identify potential explanatory mechanisms at the genomic level. Methods: We used an in vitro dilution-neutralization method to calculate the sporicidal activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (DCC) against purified spores from three subtypes of NAPCR1 isolates (LIBA-2945, LIBA-5761, and LIBA-6276), CD630, and a representative of the highly virulent and epidemic NAP1 strain (LIBA-5758). This phenotypic characterization was complemented with a genomics-steered search of polymorphisms in 15 spore- or sporulation-related genes. Results: Whereas DCC at a final concentration of 0.1 % (w/v) eradicated CD630 endospores with high efficacy (log10 reduction factor (LFR) ≥ 5), it only partially inactivated NAPCR1 (average LFR range: = 1.77-3.37) and NAP1 endospores (average LRF = 3.58). As hypothesized, the three NAPCR1 subtypes tested were more resistant to DCC than strain CD630 (ANOVA, P < 0.05), with LIBA-5761 showing the highest level of DCC resistance overall (ANOVA, P < 0.05). All three NAPCR1 isolates showed large deletions in bclA1. Besides, isolates LIBA-5761 and LIBA-6276 had deletions in bclA2. Conclusions: Our in vitro tests revealed a differential resistance of spores from the C. difficile NAPCR1 strain to DCC. They highlight the importance of continuously evaluating the efficacy of deployed disinfection agents against circulating strains and hint to a potential role of structural proteins from the exosporium in resistance to disinfectants in C. difficile.


Resumen Introducción: Clostridioides difficile es una causa importante de diarrea a nivel hospitalario y comunitario. Esta bacteria se transmite por medio de la ingestión de endosporas, las cuales son difíciles de erradicar por su resistencia intrínseca a diferentes agentes químicos de desinfección. La cepa de referencia CD630 está bien caracterizada, es poco virulenta, no ha causado brotes, y es altamente susceptible a los desinfectantes. Además, pertenece al mismo clado MLST y es filogenéticamente muy cercana a la cepa NAPCR1. Sin embargo, solo la última ha causado brotes en Costa Rica y se ha convertido en una cepa endémica en varios hospitales locales. La cepa NAPCR1 causa enfermedad por mecanismos poco usuales y es genotípicamente diferente a la cepa CD630. Por lo tanto, su potencial epidémico podría estar influenciado por cambios fenotípicos en sus esporas, como una resistencia incrementada a los desinfectantes. Objetivo: Determinar si la cepa NAPCR1 presenta mayor resistencia que CD630 a un desinfectante de alta eficacia utilizado a nivel hospitalario y dilucidar posibles mecanismos a nivel genómico. Métodos: Se utilizó el método de dilución-neutralización para evaluar la actividad esporicida in vitro del dicloroisocianurato de sodio (DCC) contra esporas de 3 subtipos de la cepa NAPCR1 (LIBA-2945, LIBA-5761, y LIBA-6276), CD630 y un aislamiento representativo de la cepa epidémica e hipervirulenta NAP1 (LIBA-5758). Esta caracterización fenotípica fue complementada con una búsqueda genómica de polimorfismos en 15 genes relacionados con la estructura de la endospora o el proceso de esporulación. Resultados: El DCC a una concentración final de 0.1 % (p/v) erradicó las endosporas de la cepa CD630 con gran eficacia (factor de reducción logarítmica; FRL ≥ 5) y eliminó parcialmente las de las cepas NAPCR1 (FRL promedio = 1.77-3.64) y NAP1 (FRL promedio = 3.58). El perfil de susceptibilidad del aislamiento NAPCR1 LIBA-5761 fue único, ya que mostró un mayor nivel de resistencia hacia el DCC que los otros aislamientos NAPCR1 y la cepa NAP1 examinada (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Los tres aislamientos NAPCR1 mostraron deleciones en bclA1 y los aislamientos LIBA-5761 y LIBA-6276 tenían deleciones adicionales en bclA2. Conclusiones: Nuestros experimentos in vitro confirman la resistencia incrementada a los desinfectantes de la cepa NAPCR1 y una susceptibilidad diferencial en sus tres subtipos. Adicionalmente, señalan la importancia de evaluar continuamente la eficacia de los desinfectantes contra cepas circulantes y asignan un posible papel en la resistencia a los desinfectantes gracias a las proteínas del exosporio de C. difficile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clostridioides difficile , Disinfectants/antagonists & inhibitors , Costa Rica
7.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(supl.1): 12-18, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251540

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las vasculitis leucocitoclásticas se definen como el daño e inflamación de las paredes vasculares, son aquellas vasculitis de pequeños vasos que anatomopatológicamente presentan leucocitoclasia y puede observarse como una manifestación extraintestinal de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. En la colitis ulcerativa se presentan en menor frecuencia, por inmunocomplejos generados en la mucosa intestinal debido a la exposición del tejido linfoide submucoso a antígenos fecales; podrían precipitarse en las paredes de los pequeños vasos. Se pueden asociar con Clostridium difficile, que es un bacilo grampositivo esporulado, anaerobio estricto, que se encuentra normalmente en el medio ambiente y produce colitis, que se manifiesta como un cuadro diarreico presentado después de la ingesta de antibióticos y altera la flora bacteriana común de este órgano. El caso se trata de un paciente 36 años de edad con cuadro de diarreas líquidas con moco y escaso sangrado; se realizó un estudio endoscópico y anatomopatológico en el que se observó colitis ulcerativa con coproparasitario positivo para antígeno de C. difficile, y en su hospitalización presentó lesiones dérmicas petequiales y necróticas en el cuarto dedo de la mano izquierda, que en la biopsia dio como resultado vasculitis de pequeños vasos. En este artículo se revisan de forma práctica los aspectos relacionados con la fisiopatología, histología, tratamiento y diagnósticos de la manifestación extraintestinal dermatológica rara, como la vasculitis leucocitoclástica en pacientes con colitis ulcerativas asociadas con Clostridium.


Abstract Leukocytoclastic vasculitis is defined as the damage and inflammation of the vascular walls. The term refers to vasculitis of the small vessels that anatomopathologically present leukocytoclasia and it can be seen as an extra-intestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease. In ulcerative colitis, it occurs less frequently due to immune complexes produced in the intestinal mucosa by exposure of the submucosal lymphoid tissue to fecal antigens, which could precipitate in the walls of the small vessels. This condition can be associated with Clostridium difficile, which is a gram-positive, sporulated, strict anaerobic bacillus, normally found in the environment. It causes colitis that manifests as a diarrheal disease following the ingestion of antibiotics that alter the common bacterial flora of this organ. This is the case report of a 36-year-old patient with liquid diarrhea with mucus and scarce bleeding. Endoscopic and anatomopathological studies were performed, finding ulcerative colitis with positive coproparasite for Clostridium difficile antigen. The patient was hospitalized, and during his stay, he presented with petechiae and necrotic skin lesions on the fourth finger of the left hand. Skin biopsy showed small vessel vasculitis. This article is a practical review of the pathophysiology, histology, treatment, and diagnosis of a rare dermatologic extraintestinal manifestation, namely, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, in patients with C. difficile-associated ulcerative colitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Vasculitis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Colitis, Ulcerative , Clostridioides difficile , Skin , Therapeutics , Diarrhea , Fingers , Histology
8.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 113-115, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279084

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Clostridioides difficile causa diarrea y colitis pseudomembranosa. Su diagnóstico se realiza con la detección de glutamato-deshidrogenasa (GDH) o las toxinas A y B y se confirma con pruebas de amplificación de ácidos nucleicos. Objetivo: Definir si la determinación de GDH es redundante a la de las toxinas. Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de muestras fecales de pacientes con sospecha de infección por Clostridioides difficile. Las toxinas y GDH se determinaron mediante inmunocromatografía. Se realizó una simulación bayesiana con los cocientes de probabilidad; se consideró significativo un valor de p < 0.05. Resultados: Se analizaron 329 resultados de GDH y toxinas A y B. Se encontró una prevalencia de infección de Clostridioides difficile de 18.2 %. La sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba de GDH fue de 0.90 y 0.89, respectivamente. El cociente de probabilidad positivo fue de 8.9 y el negativo, de 0.11. Conclusiones: Un resultado negativo de GDH disminuye considerablemente la probabilidad de infección, pero no la descarta. La detección de toxinas de Clostridioides difficile puede ser necesaria en instituciones donde la amplificación de ácidos nucleicos no es económica o accesible.


Abstract Introduction: Clostridioides difficile causes diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Its diagnosis is made with glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) or toxins A and B detection and is confirmed with nucleic acid amplification tests. Objective: To define if GDH determination is redundant to that of toxins. Methods: Retrospective, observational study in diarrheal stools of patients with suspected Clostridioides difficile infection. Toxins and GDH were determined by immunochromatography. Bayesian simulation was performed with likelihood ratios; a p-value < 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results: 329 GDH and toxin A and B results were analyzed. Clostridioides difficile infection prevalence was 18.2 %. Sensitivity and specificity of the GDH test were 0.90 and 0.89, respectively. Positive likelihood ratio was 8.9, and negative was 0.11. Conclusions: A negative GDH result considerably reduces the probability of infection but does not rule it out. Clostridioides difficile toxins detection may be necessary in institutions where nucleic acid amplification is not affordable or accessible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Bacterial Toxins/analysis , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Enterotoxins/analysis , Feces/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Likelihood Functions , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Bayes Theorem , Sensitivity and Specificity , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Feces/enzymology , Glutamate Dehydrogenase/analysis
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(1): 101040, jan., 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249289

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infections in Western countries. Risk factors, mortality, and healthcare utilization for CDI in Latin America are poorly understood. This study assessed risk factors and burden associated with nosocomial CDI in four Latin American countries. Methods: This retrospective, case-control study used databases and medical records from 8 hospitals in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify nosocomial CDI cases from 2014 − 2017. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with diarrhea and a positive CDI test ≥72 h after hospital admission. Two controls (without diarrhea; length of hospital stay [LOS] ≥3 days; admitted ±14 days from case patient; shared same ward) were matched to each case. CDI-associated risk factors were assessed by univariate and multivariable analyses. CDI burden (LOS, in-hospital mortality) was compared between cases and controls. Results: The study included 481 cases and 962 controls. Mean age and sex were similar between cases and controls, but mean Charlson comorbidity index (4.3 vs 3.6; p< 0.001) and recent hospital admission (35.3% vs 18.8%; p< 0.001) were higher among cases. By multivariable analyses, CDI risk was associated with prior hospital admission within 3 months (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% CI: 1.45, 2.97), recent antibiotic use (ie, carbapenem; OR, 2.85; 95% CI: 1.75, 4.64), acid suppressive therapy use (OR, 1.71; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.58), and medical conditions (ie, renal disease; OR, 1.48; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.85). In-hospital mortality rate (18.7% vs 6.9%; p< 0.001) and mean overall LOS (33.5 vs 18.8 days; p< 0.001) were higher and longer, respectively, in cases versus controls. Conclusion: Antibiotic exposure, preexisting medical conditions, and recent hospital admission were major risk factors for CDI in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. CDI was associated with increased in-hospital risk of death and longer LOS. These findings are consistent with published literature in Western countries.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/epidemiology , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Argentina , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Clostridioides , Latin America/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(6): 633-639, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250285

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por Clostridioides difficile (iCD) es la causa más frecuente de diarrea nosocomial. La primera línea terapéutica es la vancomicina asociada o no al metronidazol. En los últimos años se incrementó el número de fracasos terapéuticos con una mayor frecuencia de formas refractarias o recurrentes. El trasplante de microbiota fecal (TMF) ha surgido como una opción terapéutica para estos casos. Se evaluó la seguridad y la tasa de resolución empleando el TMF en un estudio observacional abierto y prospectivo de 21 pacientes con iCD recurrentes o refractarias internados entre los años 2016 y 2019. La edad media fue de 76.5 años (33-92). Diez presentaron una forma recurrente y 11 una refractaria, 18 fueron graves y 3 fulminantes. En 20 casos el TMF se administró por la vía digestiva alta y en uno por presentar íleo se utilizó la vía baja. Se empleó TMF de heces frescas en un caso y el resto recibió muestras congeladas de un banco de microbiota. Veinte pacientes (95.2%) tuvieron respuesta terapéutica favorable sin presentar recurrencias. Un caso recurrente, con osteomielitis y falla multiorgánica, no tuvo resolución tras dos TMF. La respuesta fue similar en las formas recurrentes y refractarias. Siete pacientes (31%) tuvieron efectos adversos leves y autolimitados. El TMF ha demostrado una alta eficacia como tratamiento de rescate de las formas graves de iCD, con escasos y leves efectos adversos. Contar con un banco de microbiota fecal resulta fundamental para disponer de este recurso terapéutico oportunamente.


Abstract Clostridiodes difficile infection (CDi) is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Vancomycin, associated or not to metronidazol, is the treatment of choice. However, the rate of treatment failure has increased over the last years and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a therapeutic option. To evaluate safety and efficacy of FMT were enrolled 21 hospitalized patients with refractory or recurrent CDi between 2016 and 2019. Fourteen (66%) patients were men and the average age was 76.5 years (range 33-92). Ten had recurrent and 11 refractory CDi, and 18 presented severe and 3 fulminant clinical forms. In 20 cases the FMT was delivered through a nasojejunal tube and in one patient with ileo via enema infusion. Frozen fecal from a stool bank were administered in 20 and in the remaining was used fresh fecal matter. The rate of resolution was observed in 20 patients (95.2%) and none presented recurrence. The response rate was similar in recurrent or refractory forms (9/10 vs 11/11 respectively). One patient with osteomyelitis and multiple organ failure received 2 FMT without response and died. Seven patients (31%) presented mild and self-limited adverse effects. FMT has shown a high efficacy as rescue treatment in cases with refractory or recurrent CDi regardless of severity, with mild side effects. Availability of a stool banks provide reliable, timely and equitable access to FMT for CDi.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Clostridioides
11.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 434-458, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142338

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an important therapeutic option for recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile infection, being a safe and effective method. Initial results suggest that FMT also plays an important role in other conditions whose pathogenesis involves alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, its systematized use is not widespread, especially in Brazil. In the last decade, multiple reports and several cases emerged using different protocols for FMT, without standardization of methods and with variable response rates. In Brazil, few isolated cases of FMT have been reported without the implantation of a Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Center (FMTC). OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to describe the process of implanting a FMTC with a stool bank, in a Brazilian university hospital for treatment of recurrent and refractory C. difficile infection. METHODS: The center was structured within the criteria required by international organizations such as the Food and Drug Administration, the European Fecal Microbiota Transplant Group and in line with national epidemiological and regulatory aspects. RESULTS: A whole platform involved in structuring a transplant center with stool bank was established. The criteria for donor selection, processing and storage of samples, handling of recipients before and after the procedure, routes of administration, short and long-term follow-up of transplant patients were determined. Donor selection was conducted in three stages: pre-screening, clinical evaluation and laboratory screening. Most of the candidates were excluded in the first (75.4%) and second stage (72.7%). The main clinical exclusion criteria were: recent acute diarrhea, overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Four of the 134 candidates were selected after full screening, with a donor detection rate of 3%. CONCLUSION: The implantation of a transplant center, unprecedented in our country, allows the access of patients with recurrent or refractory C. difficile infection to innovative, safe treatment, with a high success rate and little available in Brazil. Proper selection of qualified donors is vital in the process of implementing a FMTC. The rigorous clinical evaluation of donors allowed the rational use of resources. A transplant center enables treatment on demand, on a larger scale, less personalized, with more security and traceability. This protocol provides subsidies for conducting FMT in emerging countries.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O Transplante de microbiota fecal (TMF) é uma importante opção terapêutica para a infecção recorrente ou refratária pelo Clostridioides difficile, sendo método seguro e eficaz. Resultados iniciais sugerem que o TMF também desempenha papel relevante em outras afecções cuja patogênese envolve a alteração da microbiota intestinal. No entanto, seu uso sistematizado é pouco difundido, especialmente no Brasil. Na última década, surgiram múltiplos relatos e séries de casos utilizando diferentes protocolos para o TMF, sem padronização de métodos e com taxas de resposta variáveis. No Brasil, poucos casos isolados de TMF foram relatados sem a implantação de um Centro de Transplante de Microbiota Fecal (CTMF). OBJETIVO: O principal objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o processo de implantação de um CTMF com banco de fezes, em hospital universitário brasileiro, para tratamento de infecção recorrente e refratária pelo C. difficile. MÉTODOS: O CTMF foi estruturado dentro dos critérios exigidos e aprovados por organismos internacionais como o Food and Drug Administration, Grupo Europeu de Transplante de Microbiota Fecal e em consonância com os aspectos epidemiológicos e regulatórios nacionais. RESULTADOS: Foi estabelecida toda uma plataforma envolvida na estruturação de um centro de transplante com fezes congeladas. Determinou-se os critérios para seleção de doadores, processamento e armazenamento de amostras, manejo dos receptores antes e após o procedimento, uniformização de vias de administração do substrato fecal e seguimento a curto e longo prazo dos pacientes transplantados. A seleção dos doadores foi conduzida em três etapas: pré-triagem, avaliação clínica e exames laboratoriais. Boa parte dos candidatos foram excluídos na primeira (75,4%) e segunda etapa (72,7%). Os principais critérios clínicos de exclusão foram: diarreia aguda recente, excesso de peso (IMC ≥25 kg/m2) e distúrbios gastrointestinais crônicos. Quatro dos 134 candidatos foram selecionados após a triagem completa, com taxa de detecção de doadores de 3%. CONCLUSÃO: A implantação de um CTMF, inédito no nosso meio, possibilita o acesso de pacientes com infecção recorrente e refratária pelo C. difficile a tratamento inovador, seguro, com elevada taxa de sucesso e pouco disponível no Brasil. A seleção apropriada de doadores qualificados é vital no processo de implantação de um CTMF. A avaliação clínica rigorosa dos doadores permitiu o uso racional de recursos para realização de exames laboratoriais. Um CTMF possibilita tratamento sob demanda, em maior escala, menos personalizados, com mais segurança e rastreabilidade. Este protocolo fornece subsídios para a realização de TMF em países emergentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Brazil , Clostridioides difficile , Treatment Outcome , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Feces
12.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1292192

ABSTRACT

La infección por Clostridioides difficile (ICD) se considera la principal enfermedad diarreica asociada a pacientes internados en instituciones de salud, generalmente mayores de 61 años y al uso de antimicrobianos de espectro extendido. Es un bacilo grampositivo anaerobio estricto, esporulado. La alteración de la microbiota colónica por el tratamiento antimicrobiano permite la colonización e infección por este microorganismo, cuya manifestación clínica, se basa en la presentación de cuadro diarreico. El objetivo de este estudio fue detectar C. difficile toxigénico a partir de muestras diarreicas por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en pacientes hospitalizados. Estudio descriptivo de corte transverso, prospectivo que utilizó como un instrumento de medición una ficha epidemiológica conteniendo las variables de estudio y consentimiento informado. En 901 muestras diarreicas, se detectaron las toxinas tcdA, tcdB, ctdA, ctdB y tcdC y del gen de especie. La prevalencia de C. difficile toxigénico fue de 19,7% (n=178) de las muestras que dieron positivas para una o ambas toxinas (toxinas A y B); el 98% presentó ambas toxinas. Se observó mayor presentación de ICD en pacientes con una mediana de 68 años, y en el sexo masculino en un 52%. Se evaluó el tratamiento antimicrobiano y el uso de los antimicrobianos, donde, el uso de clindamicina, cefalosporinas, fluoroquinolonas y vancomicina, presentó valores estadísticamente significativos. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron caracterizar epidemiológicamente la infección por este patógeno. Es de gran importancia realizar en forma temprana el diagnóstico y diseñar e implementar estrategias para evitar la emergencia de este patógeno


Clostridioides difficile infection is considered the main diarrheal disease associated with patients hospitalized in health institutions, older than 61 years and the use of extended spectrum antimicrobials. It is a strict anaerobic, sporulated gram-positive bacillus. The alteration of the colonic microbiota by antimicrobial treatment allows colonization and infection by this microorganism, whose clinical manifestation is based on the presentation of the diarrheal syndrome. The objective of this study was to detect toxigenic C. difficile from diarrheal samples by polymerase chain reaction in hospitalized patients. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, prospective study in which an epidemiological record containing the study variables and informed consent were used. In 901 diarrheal samples, tcdA, tcdB, ctdA, ctdB and tcdC toxins and the species gene were detected. The prevalence of toxigenic C. difficile was 19.7% (n=178) of the samples, positives for one or both toxins (toxins A and B) while 98% presented both toxins. A higher frequency of ICD was observed in male patients (52%) who had a median age of 68 years. Antimicrobial treatment and use of antimicrobials were evaluated, where the use of clindamycin, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and vancomycin had statistically significant values. The results allowed infection by this pathogen to be epidemiologically characterized. It is very important to make early diagnosis and design and implement strategies to prevent the emergence of this pathogen


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Risk Factors , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Diagnosis
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(9): e9877, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132555

ABSTRACT

Clostridium difficile causes intestinal inflammation, which increases adenosine. We compared the expression of adenosine receptors (AR) subtypes A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 in HCT-8, IEC-6 cells, and isolated intestinal epithelial cells, challenged or not with Clostridium difficile toxin A and B (TcdA and TcdB) or infection (CDI). In HCT-8, TcdB induced an early A2BR expression at 6 h and a late A2AR expression at 6 and 24 h. In addition, both TcdA and TcdB increased IL-6 expression at all time-points (peak at 6 h) and PSB603, an A2BR antagonist, decreased IL-6 expression and production. In isolated cecum epithelial cells, TcdA induced an early expression of A2BR at 2s and 6 h, followed by a late expression of A2AR at 6 and 24 h and of A1R at 24 h. In CDI, A2AR and A2BR expressions were increased at day 3, but not at day 7. ARs play a role in regulating inflammation during CDI by inducing an early pro-inflammatory and a late anti-inflammatory response. The timing of interventions with AR antagonist or agonists may be of relevance in treatment of CDI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Toxins , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Receptors, Purinergic P1/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins , Up-Regulation , Interleukin-6 , Disease Models, Animal , Enterotoxins , Infections , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
14.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(4): 291-294, ago. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040525

ABSTRACT

La diarrea por Clostridium difficile es reconocida de manera creciente en pacientes hospitalizados y se asocia con alta mortalidad. La vancomicina por vía enteral es el tratamiento antibiótico recomendado para las diferentes formas, incluso las más graves. Sin embargo, un grupo pequeño de pacientes desarrolla formas refractarias a ese tratamiento y no existen esquemas antibióticos alternativos recomendados para estos casos. El trasplante de microbiota fecal ha demostrado ser exitoso en una serie de casos de diarrea grave asociada a este microorganismo. Presentamos un caso de diarrea refractaria por C. difficile que fue tratada con éxito con una infusión de microbiota fecal.


Clostridium difficile infection is an increasingly recognized cause of diarrhea in inpatients, frequently associated to high mortality. Vancomycin is the treatment of choice for all Clostridium difficile- associated diarrheas, with different degrees of severity. However, some patients develop refractory forms to that treatment and there are no alternative antibiotic schemes recommended for these cases. Fecal microbiota transplantation has been shown to be successful in a series of cases of severe diarrhea associated with this organism. We present a case of refractory C. difficile infection successfully treated with fecal microbiota transplantation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Diarrhea/therapy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Treatment Outcome , Clostridium Infections/complications , Diarrhea/microbiology
15.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(4): 343-349, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286516

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La infección por Clostridium difficile (ICD) es causa de diarrea hospitalaria potencialmente letal. Objetivo: Identificar los factores de riesgo para mortalidad en pacientes hospitalizados con ICD. Método: Estudio transversal y retrospectivo. Se analizaron factores de riesgo: edad, comorbilidades, estado nutricional, antecedente y uso de antibióticos, de inhibidores de bomba de protones, esteroides, inmunosupresores, quimioterapia y desarrollo de lesión renal aguda (LRA). Resultados: Fueron evaluados 68 casos (incidencia de 25.7/10 000 egresos hospitalarios). La edad fue de 51.4 ± 19.37 años y la mortalidad de 22.2 %. La desnutrición moderada a severa mostró RM = 20.15, IC 95 % = 1.13-35, p = 0.004; el uso de más de dos antibióticos, RM = 1.61, IC 95 % = 0.39-6.65, p = 0.01; la LRA determinada por elevación de los niveles de creatinina, RM = 1.34, IC 95 % = 0.09-2.21, p = 0.02; la hipotensión con uso de vasopresores, RM = 1.28, IC 95 % = 0.30-1.23, p = 0.001; y el desarrollo de falla orgánica múltiple (FOM), RM = 1.13, IC 95 % = 0.31-4.92, p = 0.002. Conclusiones: La desnutrición moderada a severa, el uso de más de dos antibióticos, la LRA, la hipotensión con uso de vasopresores y la FOM se asocian con incremento en la mortalidad en pacientes con ICD.


Abstract Introduction: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes potentially lethal diarrhea. Objective: To identify the risk factors for mortality in hospitalized patients with CDI. Method: Cross-sectional, retrospective study. The analyzed risk factors were age, comorbidities, nutritional status, past and current use of antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, steroids, immunosuppressive therapy and chemotherapy, as well as development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Results: Sixty-eight cases were assessed. Mean age was 51.4 ± 19.37 years. Mortality was 22.2 %. Moderate to severe undernutrition (Odds ratio [OR] = 20.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-35; p = 0.004), use of more than 2 antibiotics (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 0.39-6.65; p = 0.01), AKI as determined by creatinine levels (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 0.09-2.21; p = 0.02), hypotension with vasopressor use (OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 0.30-1.23; p = 0.001) and multiple organ failure (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.31-4.92; p = 0.002) were associated with mortality. Conclusions: CDI represents an important problem in hospitalized patients and confers them an additional morbidity and mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Clostridium Infections/etiology , Clostridium Infections/mortality , Diarrhea/microbiology , Hospitalization
16.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.1): 63-70, mayo 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011455

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Clostridium difficile ocasiona infecciones hospitalarias que resultan en altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad. La cepa NAP1/027 se ha asociado con una mayor producción de toxinas y con una mayor gravedad, lo que aumenta la carga de la enfermedad. Objetivo. Describir la epidemiología de las infecciones asociadas con C. difficile y las características de la cepa NAP1/027. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio observacional basado en la revisión de las historias clínicas de los pacientes con muestras de heces positivas para C. difficile identificadas mediante la prueba Xpert™ entre el 2012 y el 2015 en un hospital de alta complejidad. La gravedad de la enfermedad se evaluó con el índice ATLAS. Resultados. Se incluyeron 42 casos de pacientes infectados, 9 de los cuales fueron positivos para la cepa NAP1/027. El uso de antibióticos antes de la infección durante más de siete días fue más frecuente en los casos de pacientes con muestras negativas para NAP1/027. En la mitad de los pacientes, la duración de la diarrea fue mayor de cinco días y no hubo diferencias según el tipo de cepa (p>0,05). Los casos de pacientes positivos para la cepa NAP1/027 se caracterizaron por presentar deposiciones fétidas y sanguinolentas. La gravedad de la infección fue similar entre los grupos. Conclusión. Se comprobó la circulación de la cepa NAP1/027, pero su presencia no supuso diferencias clínicas significativas con respecto a otras cepas, lo cual podría deberse al limitado número de pacientes en este estudio. Sin embargo, su presencia debe alertar a los médicos y a las instituciones de salud, dada su frecuente asociación con la gravedad de la infección y la mortalidad.


Abstract Introduction: Clostridium difficile causes nosocomial infections leading to high morbidity and mortality. The NAP1/027 strain is associated with a higher toxin production and disease severity, which increases the load of the disease. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of the infections associated with C. difficile and the characteristics related to the NAP1/027 strain. Materials and methods: This was an observational study based on the revision of clinical registries of patients with fecal samples that were positive for C. difficile identified by the Xpert test™ between 2012 and 2015 in a high complexity institution. The severity of the disease was evaluated by means of the ATLAS score. Results: We included 42 infected cases, 9 of which were positive for the NAP1/027strain. The use of antibiotics previous to the infection for more than seven days was more frequent in patients with negative results for NAP1/027. The duration of diarrhea in half of the patients was longer than five days and there were no differences according to the type of strain (p>0.05). Positive cases for the NAP1/027 strain were characterized by presenting fetid and bloody stools. The severity of the infection was similar between the groups. Conclusions: In Colombia, the NAP1/027 strain circulates without significant clinical differences, which could be due to the limited number of patients. Nevertheless, the existence of NAP1/027 should alert physicians and health institutions because of its high association with severity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cross Infection/microbiology , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Clostridium Infections/microbiology , Recurrence , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Comorbidity , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Clostridioides difficile/classification , Clostridioides difficile/drug effects , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Feces/microbiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Infectio ; 23(1): 52-54, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-975563

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por Clostridium difficile es la principal causa de diarrea asociada al cuidado de la salud. Durante los últimos años se ha incrementado la morbilidad y mortalidad por esta infección. Las recientes investigaciones se orientan a la búsqueda de tratamientos alternativos a la colectomía subtotal para los pacientes con infecciones severas por Clostridium difficile, es por esto que el presente artículo tiene como objetivo hacer la revisión del caso clínico de una paciente con colitis severa por Clostridium difficile refractaria al manejo de primera línea, que respondió satisfactoriamente al tratamiento con lavado colónico anterógrado con vancomicina vía ileostomía en asa.


Abstract Clostridium difficile infection is the main cause of diarrhea in health care settings. Such infections have led to an increase in morbidity and mortality in recent years. Alternative treatments to subtotal colectomy have been sought for patients with severe infections caused by Clostridium difficile. The objective of this article is to present a clinical case report of a patient with severe colitis caused by Clostridium difficile that was refractory to first-line management, which responded satisfac torily to treatment with anterograde colonic lavages with vancomycin via loop ileostomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Ileostomy , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Colectomy , Vancomycin , Colitis , Delivery of Health Care , Diarrhea , Infections
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788046

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The bowel frequency of patients who had undergone rectal resection might be difficult to distinguish from the diarrhea of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The change of bowel movement following rectal surgery has been a challenge for the diagnosis of CDI and scarce studies discussed this diagnostic difficulty.METHODS: From January 2004 to January 2018, a total of 8,327 patients in a single tertiary colorectal cancer center was evaluated for CDI, and their medical records were ret rospectively reviewed. Bowel frequency and treatment outcomes were compared between the rectal resection group (RG) and colectomy group (CG). Diagnostic time was defined as the time interval between first diarrhea (more than three times a day) and pathologic confirmation date of CDI.RESULTS: CDI incidence was 2.3% (17/752) vs. 0.41% (31/7,575) between RG and CG (P<0.001). RG had frequent bowel movements than CG (RG: 13.56±6.16/day vs. CG: 8.39±6.23/day; P=0.010), but the interval between the time of symptom and the time of CDI diagnosis was longer in the RG than in CG (RG: 1.38±3.34 days vs. CG: 0.39±1.16 days). A total of three mortalities has been occurred (RG: 2 vs. CG: 1), and the reasons were delayed diagnosis and omitted treatment.CONCLUSION: Patients experienced significant bowel frequency after rectal surgery than after colectomy, and the delayed diagnosis was associated with mortality. Active surveillance for CDI should be performed for the patients who underwent rectal surgery to prevent morbidity and mortality from delayed diagnosis of CDI, but sophisticated guideline also should be evaluated to reduce over-examinations.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium , Colectomy , Colon , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Surgery , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Humans , Incidence , Medical Records , Mortality , Rectum , Treatment Outcome
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719665

ABSTRACT

Although international clinical guidelines generally recommend bacterial stool cultures for patients with acute diarrhea, stool cultures are frequently being requested by physicians regardless of the likelihood of a bacterial infection. This study was conducted to improve the practice of requesting stool cultures by analyzing patterns for stool culture requests by physicians. We retrospectively reviewed 235 stool cultures of patients who visited Gyeongsang National University Hospital from January to February 2017. We analyzed the period of time after which the stool culture was requested after admission, stool characteristics, wet smear, and concomitant tests performed. 38.7% of stool culture requests were made within 3 days of admission. Stool form analysis showed that 36.6% of stools were watery and loose, and 18.8% were firm. Furthermore, >20 leukocytes per high-power field were found only in 0.4% of the wet smears. Among the stool culture requests, 78.7% were prescribed Clostridium difficile culture or toxin tests at the same time. In addition, 13.6% were prescribed diarrhea-causing viral tests as well. Only stool cultures were requested in 10.2% of the cases. Physicians rarely ensure that the adequate criteria are met when requesting for stool cultures. It is necessary to decrease unnecessary diagnostic practices to maintain the quality of care by establishing reliable rejection criteria and the physicians have valid reasons for requesting stool cultures.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Clostridioides difficile , Diarrhea , Humans , Leukocytes , Quality Improvement , Retrospective Studies
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