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1.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210036, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356460

ABSTRACT

Background: Scorpions are arachnids that have a generalist diet, which use venom to subdue their prey. The study of their trophic ecology and capture behavior is still limited compared to other organisms, and aspects such as trophic specialization in this group have been little explored. Methods: In order to determine the relationship between feeding behavior and venom toxicity in the scorpion species Tityus fuhrmanni, 33 specimens were offered prey with different morphologies and defense mechanisms: spiders, cockroaches and crickets. In each of the experiments we recorded the following aspects: acceptance rate, immobilization time and the number of capture attempts. The median lethal dose of T. fuhrmanni venom against the three different types of prey was also evaluated. Results: We found that this species does not have a marked difference in acceptance for any of the evaluated prey, but the number of capture attempts of spiders is higher when compared to the other types of prey. The immobilization time is shorter in spiders compared to other prey and the LD50 was higher for cockroaches. Conclusions: These results indicate that T. fuhrmanni is a scorpion with a generalist diet, has a venom with a different potency among prey and is capable of discriminating between prey types and employing distinct strategies to subdue them.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Predatory Behavior , Scorpions , Hunt , Toxicity , Feeding Behavior , Food Chain , Defense Mechanisms , Lethal Dose 50
2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e230891, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1356582

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este estudo tem como objetivo compreender, a partir da psicanálise, as moções afetivas tramadas no interior de nosso corpo social que tornaram possível a adesão massiva ao discurso conservador no pleito presidencial de 2018. Apoiando-nos em estudos sobre a psicologia de massas, em autores do pensamento social brasileiro e em pesquisas sobre os recentes acontecimentos do país, concluímos que a instabilidade política, econômica e moral ocorrida sobretudo a partir de 2013 e 2014, provocou um significativo solapamento das representações que garantiam uma mínima estabilidade à coletividade. Rondado pelo desamparo, mecanismos defensivos mais regressivos passaram a ser adotados no interior deste corpo social, dividindo-o internamente em dois extremos antagônicos, processo que lhe conferiu uma configuração polarizada. Esse cenário de cisão interna propiciou a emergência de discursos paranoides que seduziram grande parcela da população ao oferecer respostas assentadas em elementos persecutórios que circulavam no interior da massa, sustentando um discurso assentado no ódio direcionado ao polo inimigo.(AU)


Abstract This study aims to understand, from a psychoanalytic point of view, the affective motions established in our social body that made possible a massive adherence to conservative speech in the 2018 presidential elections. Based on group psychology studies, on Brazilian social though authors, and research on recent events in the country, we concluded that political, moral, and economic instability ocurred mainly from the years 2013 and 2014 significantly undermined the representations that guaranteed minimal stability to the community. Facing helplessness, more regressive defense mechanisms acted within our social body, splitting it into two antagonistic extremes, that polarized it. This context of internal rupture was propitious for the emergence of paranoid discourses that seduced a large portion of the population by offering answers based on persecutory elements already considered among the masses, sustaining a hate speech directed at the enemy side.(AU)


Resumen Este estudio tiene como objetivo comprender, desde un punto de vista psicoanalítico, las mociones afectivas tramadas en el interior de nuestro cuerpo social que hicieron posible la adhesión masiva al discurso conservador en las elecciones presidenciales de 2018 en Brasil. Con base en estudios sobre la psicología de grupos, en autores del pensamiento social brasileño y en investigaciones sobre los recientes acontecimientos del país, se concluye que la inestabilidad política, económica y moral que había ocurrido, sobre todo, a partir de los años 2013 y 2014, provocó un importante solapamiento de las representaciones que le garantizaban a la comunidad una mínima estabilidad. Con el desamparo, los mecanismos defensivos más regresivos pasaron a ser adoptados en el interior de este cuerpo social, dividiéndolo internamente en dos extremos antagónicos, proceso que le confirió una configuración polarizada. Este contexto de cisión interna propició el surgimiento de discursos paranoides que sedujeron gran parte de la población brasileña al ofrecerle respuestas basadas en elementos persecutorios que circulaban en su interior, sosteniendo un discurso de odio dirigido hacia el polo enemigo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Politics , Psychoanalysis , Brazil , Culture , Population , Psychology , Defense Mechanisms , Hate , Morale
3.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 68(1)jan./fev./mar. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369875

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A capacidade de enfrentamento de situações adversas, que é definida como resiliência, auxilia o paciente a superar as dificuldades do tratamento. Entretanto, ainda são poucos os estudos que avaliam a resiliência em pacientes com câncer que realizam quimioterapia ambulatorial. Objetivo: Avaliar a resiliência de pacientes com câncer em tratamento quimioterápico ambulatorial e verificar a correlação com os mecanismos de defesa, sintomas depressivos e de ansiedade. Método: Estudo observacional, de correlação e prospectivo, com pacientes com diagnóstico de câncer, de ambos os sexos, maiores de 18 anos, alfabetizados e em início de tratamento com quimioterapia ambulatorial. Os seguintes instrumentos foram aplicados no primeiro dia de tratamento quimioterápico e após 30 a 45 dias: Escala de Resiliência, Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), Inventário de Depressão de Beck e Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck. Resultados: Um total de 55 participantes foi incluído, sendo 32 (58%) do sexo feminino, com média e desvio-padrão (DP) de idade de 54,1 (DP=12,2) anos. Os diagnósticos mais frequentes foram câncer colorretal, 15 (27%) e câncer de mama, 12 (22%). Observou-se correlação negativa significativa entre sintomas depressivos e de ansiedade com os níveis de resiliência tanto na primeira (p<0,001) como na segunda avaliação (p<0,05). Os mecanismos de defesa maduros (humor e racionalização) apresentaram correlação positiva significativa e os imaturos (atuação e cisão) demonstraram correlação negativa. Conclusão: Os resultados confirmaram que a maior capacidade de resiliência se correlaciona com o uso de mecanismos de defesa adaptativos e com menores níveis de sintomas depressivos e de ansiedade em pacientes durante a quimioterapia ambulatorial


Introduction: The ability to cope with adverse situations, defined as resilience, helps patients to overcome difficulties in their treatment. However, there are still few studies assessing resilience in cancer patients undergoing outpatient chemotherapy. Objective: To assess resilience in cancer patients undergoing outpatient chemotherapy and to verify its correlation with defense mechanisms, as well as with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Method: Observational, correlational and prospective study with patients of both sexes, diagnosed with cancer, over 18 years old, literate and beginning treatment with outpatient chemotherapy. The following instruments were applied on the first day of chemotherapy treatment and then again after 30 to 45 days: Resilience Scale, Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), Beck's Depression Inventory and Beck's Anxiety Inventory. Results: A total of 55 participants were included in the study, 32 (58%) of which were female, with an average age and standard deviation (SD) of 54.1 (SD=12.2) years. The most frequent diagnoses were colorectal cancer, 15 (27%) and breast cancer, 12 (22%). There was a significant negative correlation between symptoms of depression or anxiety and resilience levels both in the first (p<0.001) and in the second evaluation (p<0.05). Mature defense mechanisms (mood and rationalization) showed a significant positive correlation with resilience, while immature ones (performance and split) showed a negative correlation. Conclusion: The results confirmed that a greater capacity for resilience correlates with the use of adaptive defense mechanisms and with lower levels of depressive symptoms and anxiety in patients while receiving outpatient chemotherapy


Introducción: La capacidad de afrontar situaciones adversas, que se define como resiliencia, ayuda al paciente a superar las dificultades del tratamiento. Sin embargo, todavía hay pocos estudios que evalúen la resiliencia en pacientes con cáncer sometidos a quimioterapia ambulatoria. Objetivo: Evaluar la resiliencia de los pacientes oncológicos sometidos a quimioterapia ambulatoria y verificar la correlación con los mecanismos de defensa y con síntomas depresivos o de ansiedad. Método: Estudio observacional, correlacional y prospectivo con pacientes de ambos sexos, diagnosticados con cáncer, mayores de 18 años, alfabetizados e iniciando tratamiento con quimioterapia ambulatoria. Los siguientes instrumentos se aplicaron el primer día de tratamiento de quimioterapia y otra vez después de 30 a 45 días: Escala de resiliencia, Cuestionario de estilo de defensa (DSQ-40), Inventario de depresión de Beck e Inventario de ansiedad de Beck. Resultados:Se incluyeron 55 participantes en la investigación, 32 (58%) de los cuales eran mujeres, con una edad promedio y desviación estándar (DE) de 54,1 (DE=12,2) años. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes fueron cáncer colorrectal, 15 (27%) y cáncer de mama, 12 (22%). Se encontró una correlación negativa significativa entre síntomas depresivos o de ansiedad y los niveles de resiliencia tanto en la primera (p<0,001) como en la segunda evaluación (p<0,05). Los mecanismos de defensa maduros (estado de ánimo y racionalización) mostraron una correlación positiva significativa y los inmaduros (rendimiento y división) mostraron una correlación negativa. Conclusión: Los resultados confirmaron que una mayor capacidad de resiliencia se correlaciona con el uso de mecanismos de defensa adaptativos y con menores niveles de síntomas depresivos y ansiedad en pacientes durante la quimioterapia ambulatoria


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Defense Mechanisms , Drug Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Neoplasms
4.
Medicina (Ribeirão Preto) ; 54(1)jul, 2021. fig.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353671

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: O gênero Candida possui alta taxa de incidência no ser humano, sendo a espécie Candida albicans a mais isolada em infecções invasivas e superficiais. Porém, tem sido relatado um aumento considerável de espécies de Candidanão-albicans em infecções fúngicas. Os óleos essenciais, por serem voláteis, podem agir como sinais de comunicação química e arma de defesa. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia, in vitro, dos óleos essenciais de Syzygium aromaticum e Eu-calyptus globulus na inibição do crescimento de espécies de Candida não-albicans. Métodos: Para avaliação da atividade antifúngica de S. aromaticum e de E. globulus e do efeito dos seus óleos essenciais sobre a micromorfologia das espécies Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis e Candida glabrata, foram empregadas, nesta ordem, a técnica de difusão em ágar e de microcultivo para leveduras. Resultados: Na técnica de difusão, o óleo essencial de S. aromaticum apresentou for-mação de halo de inibição para Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis e Candida glabrata. O óleo de E. globulus, por sua vez, não apresentou crescimento de halos de inibição em nenhuma das concentrações testadas frente às três espécies de Candida não-albicans. Todavia, com o microcultivo, ambos os óleos essenciais se provaram, in vitro, eficazes antimi-crobianos tendo apresentado estruturas indicativas de atividade antifúngica na maior concentração dos óleos e diferentes graus de destruição celular nas demais concentrações. Conclusão: Nas condições deste estudo, concluiu-se que os pro-dutos avaliados exerceram atividade antifúngica contra cepas de Candida não-albicans, destacando-se o óleo essencial de S. aromaticum que apresentou atividade antimicrobiana em ambas as metodologias. (AU)


ABSTRACT: Introduction: The genus Candida possesses a high incidence of infection in humans, with the Candida albicans species being the most isolated in invasive and superficial infections. However, a considerable increase in non-albicans Candidaspecies has been reported in fungal infections. Essential oils, for being volatile, can act as chemical communication sig-nals and defense mechanisms. Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness, in vitro, of the essential oils of Syzygium aromati-cum and Eucalyptus globulus in inhibiting the growth of non-albicans Candida species. Methods: To evaluate the antifun-gal activity of S. aromaticum and E. globulus and the effect of their essential oils on the micromorphology of the species Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata, in this order, the agar diffusion technique and microculture for yeasts. Results: In the diffusion technique, the essential oil of S. aromaticum presented an inhibition halo for Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida glabrata. E. globulus oil, on the other hand, did not show inhibition halo growth in any of the concentrations tested against the three non-albicans Candida species. However, in the microculture, both essential oils have proven to be effective antimicrobials having shown structures indicative of antifungal activity in the highest concentration and different degrees of cell destruction in the other concentrations. Conclusion: In the conditions of this study, it was concluded that the products evaluated exerted antifungal activity against non-albicans Candidastrains, highlighting the essential oil of S. aromaticum that showed antimicrobial activity in both methodologies. (AU)


Subject(s)
Candida , Syzygium , Candida glabrata , Defense Mechanisms , Eucalyptus , Mycoses , Antifungal Agents
5.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e1014, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347464

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La COVID-19 es la enfermedad causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2. Aunque la mayoría de los pacientes presentan síntomas leves o moderados, un 5 por ciento desarrolla un síndrome respiratorio severo. Conocer la dinámica de la respuesta inmune en la infección por SARS-CoV-2 es esencial para el manejo adecuado de los pacientes. Objetivo. Describir los elementos esenciales de la dinámica de la respuesta inmune a la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura actualizada en bases de datos bibliográficas. Se consultaron 40 publicaciones. Se analizó la calidad y fiabilidad de los artículos seleccionados. Análisis e integración de la información: Durante los momentos iniciales de la respuesta inmune al SARS-CoV-2 predominan mecanismos innatos de defensa encaminados a eliminar el virus e impedir el avance de la enfermedad hacia la severidad. Si el sistema inmune no logra erradicar el virus ocurre una desregulación inmune que produce un daño importante por inflamación tisular. La inmunoterapia debe enfocarse en estimular la primera etapa (protectora) y suprimir la segunda. Una respuesta inmune adecuada es vital en el enfrentamiento a las infecciones por coronavirus. Conclusiones. La dinámica de la respuesta antiviral en los infectados por SARS-CoV-2 es uno de los elementos esenciales que condicionan la severidad de la enfermedad. La aparición de la tormenta de citocinas, producto de una desregulación inmune, se ha presentado como causa primaria del síndrome respiratorio severo observado en estos pacientes. Un mayor conocimiento de los mecanismos inmunopatogénicos es imprescindible para el desarrollo de medicamentos con alta eficacia.(AU)


Introduction: COVID-19 is the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Though most patients present mild or moderate symptoms, 5 percent develop severe respiratory syndrome. Awareness of the dynamics of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is essential for the appropriate management of patients. Objective: Describe the essential elements of the dynamics of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: A review was conducted of updated literature contained in bibliographic databases. A total 40 publications were consulted. An analysis was performed of the quality and reliability of the papers selected. Data analysis and integration: In the initial stage of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 there is a predominance of innate defense mechanisms aimed at eliminating the virus and preventing the progress of the disease toward severity. If the immune system fails to eradicate the virus, immune dysregulation will occur and considerable damage will result from tissue inflammation. Immunotherapy should focus on stimulating the first (protective) stage and delete the second. An appropriate immune response is vital in the combat against coronavirus infections. Conclusions: The dynamics of the antiviral response in SARS-CoV-2 patients are essential elements conditioning the severity of the disease. Occurrence of the cytokine storm resulting from immune dysregulation has been cited as the primary cause of the severe respiratory syndrome developing in these patients. Better knowledge about the immunopathogenic mechanisms involved is indispensable to develop highly efficient drugs(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Coronavirus Infections , Defense Mechanisms , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Immune System
6.
Cad. psicol. soc. trab ; 23(2): 203-217, jul.-dez. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1249484

ABSTRACT

Este estudo analisou as vivências de prazer-sofrimento dos policiais militares de um batalhão da região Norte e como estas influem na execução de suas atividades. Os pressupostos teórico-metodológicos procederam da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho. Foram realizados seis encontros em grupo com a participação de 17 policiais, sendo 14 homens e três mulheres. As temáticas investigadas foram divididas em cinco eixos: condições precárias de trabalho; perfil do policial; reconhecimento dos pares, superiores e sociedade; prazer-sofrimento no trabalho; e defesas contra o sofrimento, interpretados a partir da análise temática. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade. Percebeu-se que a organização de trabalho desempenha papel importante nas vivências de prazer-sofrimento e que cooperação, reconhecimento, precarização, burocracia e os paradoxos da atividade policial interferem diretamente nesta dinâmica. O uso de estratégias defensivas, como a ironia e o humor, é responsável pela dicotomia entre ter que suportar o real no trabalho e não verbalizar o sofrimento, evidenciando alguns dos importantes paradigmas presentes na atividade militar estudada.


This study analyzed the experiences of pleasure-suffering of a Military Police Battalion from the Northern Region and how they influence the execution of their activities. The theoretical-methodological assumptions adopted were the Psychodynamics of Work. Six group meetings were held with the participation of seventeen policemen: fourteen men and three women. The investigated thematics were divided into five axes, namely: precarious working conditions; profiles of the police officers; acknowledgment among peers, superiors and society; pleasure-suffering at work; and defenses against suffering, according to thematic analysis. This project was approved by the university's Research Ethics Committee. The work organization played an important role in the pleasure-suffering experiences, and cooperation, recognition, precariousness, bureaucracy and paradoxes of the police activity directly interfere in this dynamic. The use of defensive mechanisms such as irony and humor is responsible for the dichotomy between having to endure reality at work and as a means to not verbalize suffering, showing some of the important paradigms present in the military activity studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Working Conditions , Police/psychology , Occupational Risks , Defense Mechanisms , Pleasure , Psychological Distress
7.
Rev. Bras. Psicoter. (Online) ; 22(3): 9-20, 20200000.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1349117

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: contemporary psychodynamic therapy research supports combining clinical judgment with empirical evidences. Recent studies suggest that systematically analyzing single cases may contribute to such efforts. Also, current criteria for evidence-based case studies recommend different perspectives on therapeutic process and outcome, such as therapist's and external judges' ratings. Finally, client's dropout conforms a challenge for psychotherapy research. AIMS & METHODS: as part of a SPR Small Research Grant, this study analyzed and compared the psychodynamic profile proposed both by therapist and two external judges, for the same case of early dropout from focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, consisting of two diagnostic interviews and five subsequent sessions, in a patient with an emotional disorder. Being blind to the rating process of the counterpart, Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis (OPD-2) was used by therapist and judges to generate a psychodynamic profile including five therapeutic foci. External judges rating was achieved through consensus, following CQR's guidelines. RESULTS & DISCUSSION: similarities and differences among therapist's and judges' psychodynamic profiles were found. Result's contributions to the understanding of case's early dropout are discussed, along with OPD-2's usefulness for psychodynamic practice-oriented research.(AU)


Subject(s)
Refusal to Treat , Defense Mechanisms , Psychotherapy, Psychodynamic , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Judgment , Methods
8.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(3): 289-308, 26 de noviembre 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1130004

ABSTRACT

Se describe la situación global de las infecciones por SARS-CoV-2 y los cuadros clínicos de COVID-19. Se presentan datos epidemiológicos de Centro América y de Guatemala, para ejemplificar algunos factores de riesgo de infección y morbilidad. Se revisa la función y estructura del sistema respiratorio, sus mecanismos de defensa innata -captura y remoción de agentes extraños, reconocimiento e inactivación de agentes potencialmente nocivos, reparación del daño y prevención de futuras incursiones por agentes identificados-, los de defensa adaptativa en las vías respiratorias y el microbioma. Se describen los tejidos linfoides nasal y bronquio-alveolar y la contribución de citoquinas, células especializadas y anticuerpos del tipo IgA secretoria a la protección antiviral, a la respuesta inflamatoria asociada a la infección y a la reparación del daño tisular. Se discuten las interacciones de SARS-CoV-2 con los mecanismos de defensa. Se presentan consideraciones para las medidas preventivas de infecciones, incluyendo la aplicación de vacunas, y para evitar enfermedad severa.


The global situation of SARS-CoV-2 infections and the clinical picture of COVID-19 are described. Epidemiological data from Central America and Guatemala are presented to exemplify some risk factors for infection and morbidity. The function and structure of the respiratory system and its innate defense mechanisms - capture and removal of foreign agents, recognition and inactivation of potentially harmful agents, repair of damage, and prevention of future incursions by identified agents ­ are reviewed, as are those of the adaptive defense in the airways and of the respiratory microbiome. The nasal and bronchioalveolar lymphoid tissues are described. The contributions of cytokines, of specialized cells and of secretory IgA-type antibodies to antiviral protection, to the inflammatory response associated with infection, and to the repair of tissue damage are explained. SARS-CoV-2 interactions with defense mechanisms are discussed. Considerations are presented for the preventive measures of infections, including the application of vaccines, and those designed to avoid severe disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antiviral Agents , Morbidity , Defense Mechanisms , Adenovirus Vaccines , Antibodies
9.
Rev. psicanal ; 27(2): 479-505, Agosto 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252593

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho objetiva analisar a etiologia das neuroses em Freud e Winnicott. Para tanto, parte das principais considerações sobre os mecanismos de defesa, o recalque, a sexualidade, o complexo edípico e o conflito psíquico na psicanálise clássica freudiana, para depois propor uma nova etiologia a partir da teoria das relações objetais em Donald W. Winnicott. Os autores não consideram apenas o conflito vivido em termos da dinâmica psíquica, mas aquele vivido na dinâmica mãe-bebê, principalmente a partir dos polos opostos entre o amor e o ódio na travessia do concernimento (posição depressiva). Os autores defendem um manejo clínico de pacientes com sofrimento psíquico neurótico a partir da psicanálise transmatricial, propondo, concomitantemente à associação livre, o uso da regressão à dependência a fases primitivas de falhas ambientais (AU)


This paper aims to analyze the etiology of the neuroses in Freud and Winnicott. In order to do so, the authors build upon the main considerations on defense mechanisms, repression, sexuality, the oedipal complex, and the psychic conflict in Freudian psychoanalysis. Then they propose a new etiology based on Donald W. Winnicott's object relations theory. The authors do not only consider the conflict experienced in terms of psychic dynamics, but also the conflict experienced in the mother-baby dynamics, particularly in regards to the opposition between love and hate in the development of concern (depressive position). The authors stand for the clinical management of patients with neurotic psychic suffering based on transmatricial psychoanalysis, proposing, along with free association, the use of regression to dependence on primitive phases of environmental failures (AU)


El presente trabajo tiene por objeto analizar la etiología de las neurosis en Freud y Winnicott. Para ello, parte de las principales consideraciones sobre los mecanismos de defensa, la represión, la sexualidad, el complejo edípico y el conflicto psíquico en el psicoanálisis freudiano, para proponer una nueva etiología a partir de la teoría de las relaciones objetivas en Donald W. Winnicott. Los autores no sólo consideran el conflicto vivido en términos de la dinámica psíquica, sino el conflicto vivido en la dinámica madre-bebé, principalmente a partir de los polos opuestos entre el amor y el odio en la travesía de la concernimiento (posición depresiva). Los autores defienden un manejo clínico de pacientes con sufrimiento psíquico neurótico a partir del psicoanálisis transmatricial, proponiendo junto a la asociación libre, el uso de la regresión a la dependencia a fases primitivas de fallas ambientales (AU)


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder/psychology , Neurotic Disorders/psychology , Sexuality/psychology , Defense Mechanisms
10.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 47(1): 1-6, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088742

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a challenging disease in terms of remission rates and treatment approaches. All theoretical approaches are needed for a better understanding. Compared to other theories, it has not been examined sufficiently from the perspective of gestalt theory in the literature. Objective To examine and compare the Gestalt Contact Styles of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the Control Group and to examine the relationship between Gestalt Contact Styles and OCD symptoms. Methods 50 OCD patients were compared with the healthy control group. All patients were evaluated with the Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Padua Inventory (PI), and the Gestalt Contact Styles Scale-Revised Form (GCSS-RF). For the control group, GCSS-RF was applied. Results The scores of the OCD patients for GCSS-RF "Retroflection" and "Deflection" subscales were significantly higher than the Control Group. Statistically significant high scores were found between the subscales of Padua Inventory "contamination obsessions and washing compulsions", "obsessional thoughts", "obsessional impulses" and "checking compulsions" subtypes and Gestalt contact styles in the Patient Group in a symptomatological examined manner. With these findings, in terms of Gestalt Contact Styles, it is seen that the difference between Patient and Control Groups is significantly different. There was no significant relationship between the Yale-Brown total score of the Patient Group and the GCSS-RF subscales. Discussion In conclusion, the findings of the study showed significant differences in terms of Gestalt Contact Styles (Retroflection, Contact, Deflection, Desensitization, Confluence) in Patient and Control Groups and OCD symptoms. These results are important to Gestalt Therapists in terms of shedding light on the therapeutic intervention to be done for an OCD patient and contributing to the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Communication , Gestalt Theory , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Personality Inventory , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Statistics, Nonparametric , Defense Mechanisms , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy
11.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 48(4): 232-243, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1098948

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between defence mechanisms and pathological personality traits. Material and methods: We analysed 320 participants aged from 18 to 64 years (70.6% women, 87.5% university students) who completed the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (IDCP) and the Defence Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). We conducted comparisons and correlations and a regression analysis. Results: The results showed expressive differences (d>1.0) between mature, neurotic and immature defence mechanism groups, and it was observed that pathological personality traits are more typical in people who use less mature defence mechanisms (i.e., neurotic and immature), which comprises marked personality profiles for each group, according to the IDCP. We also found correlations between some of the 40 specific mechanisms of the DSQ-40 and the 12 dimensions of pathological personality traits from the IDCP (r ≥ 0.30 to r ≤ 0.43), partially supported by the literature. In addition, we used regression analysis to verify the potential of the IDCP dimension clusters (related to personality disorders) to predict defence mechanisms, revealing some minimally expressive predictive values (between 20% and 35%). Discussion: The results indicate that those who tend to use immature defence mechanisms are also those most likely to present pathological personality traits. Conclusions: The findings indicate the importance of investigating these correlations as a possible improvement to clinical assessment and intervention.


RESUMEN Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio es investigar la relación entre los mecanismos de defensa y los rasgos patológicos de la personalidad. Material y métodos: Se analizó a 320 participantes de 18 a 64 años (el 70,6% mujeres y el 87,5% Autoevaluación estudiantes universitarios) que respondieron al Inventario Dimensional Clínico de Personalidad (IDCP) y el Cuestionario de Estilo Defensivo (DSQ-40). Se hicieron comparaciones, correlaciones y análisis de regresión. Resultados: Aparecieron diferencias expresivas (d > 1,0) entre grupos de mecanismos de defensa maduros, neuróticos e inmaduros, y se observó que los rasgos de personalidad patológicos son más típicos de personas que usan mecanismos de defensa menos maduros (es decir, neuróticos e inmaduros), lo cual comprende perfiles de personalidad marcados para estos grupos, según el IDCP. También se hallaron correlaciones entre algunos de los 40 mecanismos específicos del DSQ-40 y las 12 dimensiones de los rasgos patológicos de la personalidad del IDCP (r ≥ 0,30 a r ≤ 0,43), parcialmente respaldados en la literatura. Además, se usó el análisis de regresión para buscar el potencial de los clusters de las dimensiones del IDCP (relacionados con los trastornos de personalidad) para predecir los mecanismos de defensa, lo cual reveló algunos valores predictivos mínimamente expresivos (entre el 20 y el 35%). Discusión: Los resultados indican que quienes tienden a utilizar mecanismos de defensa inmaduros son también los que tienen más probabilidades de presentar rasgos de personalidad patológicos. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos señalan la relevancia de investigar estas relaciones como una posible mejora en la evaluación y la intervención clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Personality , Personality Disorders , Defense Mechanisms , Personality Inventory , Self-Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis
12.
aSEPHallus ; 14(28)maio. 2019-out. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1130079

ABSTRACT

O artigo tem como objetivo identificar por que, de acordo com Freud, a transferência de pacientes psicóticos é inadequada para a clínica analítica. Descobrimos que essa afirmativa tem relação com o mecanismo de defesa empregado pelo psicótico que, diante de uma frustração, ao invés de recalcar, rechaça uma representação da consciência, e retorna a libido dessa representação de volta ao próprio ego, em pontos de fixação autoeróticos ou narcísicos. Depositada no Eu, a libido que se direciona para o mundo externo se tornou escassa, diminuindo a capacidade transferencial com o analista. Na esquizofrenia, Freud percebeu uma transferência insuficiente; na paranoia, de manejo impossível. Por conta disso, Freud não recomenda a psicanálise para tratar psicóticos, porque a análise se encerra precocemente, ou não apresenta ganhos terapêuticos. Não obstante, o autor deixa um grande alicerce teórico sobre as psicoses, e delega à posterioridade a responsabilidade de elaborar uma forma de tratamento


Cet article a le but d' identifier la raison pour laquelle, selon Freud, le transfert des patients psychotiques est inapproprié pour la clinique analytique. Nous découvrons que cette affirmation est liée au mécanisme de défense employé par le psychotique qui, face à la frustration, au lieu de la réprimer, il rejette une représentation de la conscience et renvoie la libido de cette représentation au moi, aux points d'attachement auto-érotiques ou narcissiques. Déposée sur le Je, la libido dirigée vers le monde extérieur se raréfie, diminuant la capacité de transférer avec l'analyste. Dansla schizophrénie, Freud a remarqué un transfert insuffisant; dans la paranoïa, sa gestion est impossible. Par conséquent, Freud ne recommande pas la psychanalyse pour traiter les psychotiques, parce que l'analyse se termine trop tôt ou sans gains thérapeutiques. Cependant, l'auteur laisse une grande base théorique sur la psychose et il donne aux successeurs la responsabilité de développer une forme de traitement


The article aims to identify why, according to Freud, the transfer in psychotic patients is inappropriate for the analytical clinic. We found that this affirmation is related to the defense mechanism employed by the psychotic who, in the face of frustration, instead of repressing, rejects a representation in consciousness, and returns the libido of that representation back to the ego itself, in autoerotic or narcissistic fixation points. Deposited in the Self, the libido that is directed to the external world becomes scarce, decreasing the transference capacity with the analyst. In schizophrenia, Freud noticed an insufficient transfer; in paranoia, it is impossible to manage. Thus, Freud does not recommend psychoanalysis to treat psychotics, because the analysis ends early, or there are no therapeutic gains. Nevertheless, the author leaves a great theoretical foundation on psychoses, and delegates to his successors the responsibility of elaborating a form of treatment


Subject(s)
Paranoid Disorders , Psychoanalysis , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Therapeutics , Defense Mechanisms , Freudian Theory
13.
Estilos clín ; 24(2): 195-204, maio-ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1039848

ABSTRACT

Analisamos, mediante revisão bibliográfica, o posicionamento de Sándor Ferenczi acerca da defesa, destacando o recalque, na teoria e na técnica psicanalítica, estabelecendo um contraponto com a obra freudiana. Evidenciamos que há estreita relação entre as tentativas clínicas - destacando a técnica ativa e a neocatarse - de contornar as limitações ao tratamento relativas aos mecanismos defensivos propostas pelo autor e sua forma de compreender o recalcamento. Por fim, formulamos uma crítica considerando as consequências das mudanças técnicas para o processo analítico: uma desvalorização da fala, o excesso de agressividade na relação transferencial e a localização do saber do lado do analista.


Partimos del análisis, mediante revisión bibliográfica, de la defensa en la obra de Ferenczi y sus implicaciones técnicas, estableciendo un contrapunto con la obra freudiana. Hay estrecha relación entre sus propuestas clínicas - con destaque para la técnica activa y la neocatarsis - en el intento de eludir las limitaciones al tratamiento relativas a los mecanismos defensivos y su forma de comprender el recalcamiento. Por último, formulamos una crítica considerando las consecuencias de los cambios técnicos para el proceso analítico: una desvalorización del discurso, el exceso de agresividad en la relación transferencial y la localización del saber del lado del analista.


We made an bibliographic review of Sándor Ferenczi's work to analyse his position about the notion of defence, with emphasis in the repression and its technical implications, establishing a counterpoint with Freud's work. We noticed that there is a strong relation between his clinical proposals - among them the active technique and the neocatarse are the most rewardable - and his understanding of repression. Finally, we reviewed the consequences of the technical changes promoted by Ferenczi: an excess of aggressiveness in the transferential relation, a devaluation of the patient's speech and overvaluation of the analyst's knowledge.


Subject(s)
Psychoanalytic Theory , Defense Mechanisms
14.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(1): 43-50, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004839

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LTPP) emphasizes the centrality of intrapsychic and unconscious conflicts and their relation to development. Although there is evidence supporting the efficacy of LTPP in mental disorders, little research has been published on the efficacy of LTPP for depressive and anxiety disorders. Objective To examine whether patients with anxiety and depressive disorders demonstrate improvement in their attachment styles, defense styles, psychiatric symptoms, anxiety/depressive symptoms, and alexithymia with LTPP. Methods In this retrospective, descriptive study, the psychological outcomes of patients who were treated at the psychoanalytic clinic of Babol University of Medical Sciences were assessed. Fourteen patients diagnosed with depressive or anxiety disorder participated in the study of LTPP using the self-psychology approach. The Beck Depression Inventory II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Adult Attachment Scale, 40-item Defense Style Questionnaire, and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale were administered at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze changes in psychological outcomes after each of the three assessments. Results The mean scores of depression and anxiety and secure attachment improved significantly after LTPP with self-psychology approach from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up. Also, the mean scores of neurotic and immature defenses, difficulty in identifying feelings, difficulty in describing feelings, externally oriented thinking, and total alexithymia scores decreased significantly from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up. Conclusion Symptoms of anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, insecure attachment styles, alexithymia, and neurotic/immature defense styles improved after the LTPP with self-psychology approach. Moreover, the improvements persisted at the 6-month follow-up.


Resumo Introdução A psicoterapia psicodinâmica de longo prazo (PPLP) enfatiza a centralidade dos conflitos intrapsíquicos e inconscientes e sua relação com o desenvolvimento. Apesar da evidência em favor da eficácia da PPLP em transtornos mentais, há poucos dados sobre a eficácia da PPLP em transtornos de depressão/ansiedade. Objetivo Examinar se pacientes com transtornos de depressão/ansiedade demonstram melhora em seus estilos de apego, estilos defensivos, sintomas psiquiátricos, sintomas de ansiedade/depressão e alexitimia com PPLP. Métodos Neste estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, os desfechos psicológicos de pacientes tratados na clínica psicanalítica da Babol University of Medical Sciences foram avaliados. Quatorze pacientes com diagnóstico de transtorno de depressão ou ansiedade participaram do estudo sobre PPLP com abordagem de psicologia do self. O Inventário de Depressão de Beck II, o Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck, a Escala de Apego do Adulto, o Questionário de Estilo de Defesa-40 e a Escala de Alexitimia de Toronto-20 foram administrados antes e após o tratamento e no seguimento de 6 meses. Equações de estimação generalizadas foram usadas para analisar mudanças nos desfechos psicológicos após cada avaliação. Resultados Os escores médios de depressão/ansiedade e apego seguro melhoraram significativamente após PPLP com abordagem de psicologia do self do início do estudo ao pós-tratamento e seguimento. Além disso, os escores médios de defesas neuróticas e imaturas, dificuldade em identificar sentimentos, dificuldade em descrever sentimentos, pensamentos orientados externamente e escores totais de alexitimia diminuíram significativamente do início do estudo ao pós-tratamento e seguimento. Conclusão Sintomas de transtornos de ansiedade, transtornos depressivos, estilos de apego inseguro, alexitimia e estilos de defesa neuróticos/imaturos melhoraram após PPLP com abordagem de psicologia do self. Além disso, as melhoras persistiram no seguimento de 6 meses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Affective Symptoms/therapy , Defense Mechanisms , Depressive Disorder/therapy , Psychotherapy, Psychodynamic/methods , Object Attachment , Anxiety Disorders/physiopathology , Time Factors , Retrospective Studies , Affective Symptoms/physiopathology , Depressive Disorder/physiopathology , Iran , Middle Aged
15.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 484-490, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760962

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A defense mechanism is an automatic psychological process necessary for successful adaptation. It reflects adaptive capacity. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the adaptation ability of individuals who face mandatory military service and the pattern of defense mechanisms. METHODS: The subjects were 69 men (21.4±2.2 years) who expressed psychological difficulties in three military service situations. Control group was 36 men (24.0±1.4 years) who had successfully completed military service. We examined psychiatric history, the pattern of defense mechanisms, and depression and anxiety levels. Defense mechanisms were compared between two groups. RESULTS: The maladjusted group used immature defenses more frequently than the control group did. There were no differences in the defense patterns according to diagnosis. The control group used more identification and rationalization, classified as immature defenses. The temporarily maladjusted group used more somatization, regression, and avoidance. CONCLUSION: Using mature defense mechanisms helped young adults to adapt to a particular situation. The maturity of the defense is more valuable than the psychiatric diagnosis. Some immature defenses are also helpful to adapt. We cautiously assume that some defenses can be protective or risk factors in adapting to stressful situations by young adults.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Defense Mechanisms , Depression , Diagnosis , Humans , Korea , Male , Mental Disorders , Military Personnel , Rationalization , Risk Factors , Social Adjustment , Young Adult
16.
Rev. Bras. Psicoter. (Online) ; 21(1): 19-37, Jan./Abril 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1052196

ABSTRACT

Studies on psychoanalysis are essential and have shown the efficacy of these practices. The psychological functioning of the dyad is always present during this process, expressed through transference, countertransference, projective identification, analytic field, and, more recently, enactments. Objective: To describe how psychoanalysts understand, identify and work through the phenomenon of enactment. Participants: Eight psychoanalysts: two are in training, four are associate members and two training analysts. The anonymity of the participants was assured in the Declaration of Free and Informed Consent. Method: Consisted of a qualitative and descriptive study, the data being interpreted through content analysis (Bardin, 1977). Eight face-to-face semi-structured interviews were held. Results: three final categories of responses: Theoretical Bases, Technical Bases and Level of Experience. Enactment is understood and expressed through the "playing out" of mental conflicts. It possible to detect the patterns of the object relations, brought into the concrete reality of the transferential and countertransferential relationships through projective identification. If enactments are not interpreted, they block the evolution of the therapeutic process, with collusions or impasses between the analytic pair. The interviewees consider it technically useful, as it favours interpretation in the hereand-now of the analytic situation. The length of time of professional work and personal investment for broadening knowledge both promote in the analysts an attitude in which the technique they learned can be used with more security. Enactment is characterised as one of the most current mechanisms that reflect todays emphasis in psychoanalysis on the relationship between the members of the therapeutic dyad.(AU)


Estudos sobre psicanálise são essenciais e demonstram a eficácia dessas práticas. O funcionamento psicológico da díade analítica/psicoterapêutica está sempre presente durante esse processo, expresso por transferência, contratransferência, identificação projetiva, campo analítico e, mais recentemente, enactments. Objetivo: Descrever como os psicanalistas compreendem, identificam e elaboram o fenômeno enactment. Participantes: Oito psicanalistas: dois estão em treinamento, quatro são membros associados e dois analistas didatas. O anonimato dos participantes foi assegurado com o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Método: É um estudo qualitativo/descritivo, sendo os dados interpretados através de Análise de Conteúdo (Bardin, 1977). Foram realizadas oito entrevistas semiestruturadas face a face. Resultados: São identificadas três categorias finais de respostas: Bases Teóricas, Bases Técnicas e Nível de Experiência. O enactment é entendido e expresso através da "encenção" dos conflitos mentais. É possível detectar os padrões das relações objetais, trazidos para a realidade concreta das relações transferenciais e contratransferenciais através da identificação projetiva. Se os enactments não são interpretados, bloqueiam a evolução do processo terapêutico, com colusões ou impasses entre o par analítico. Os entrevistados consideram este fenômeno tecnicamente útil, pois favorece a interpretação no aqui-e-agora da situação analítica. O tempo de trabalho profissional e o investimento pessoal para ampliar o conhecimento promovem nos analistas uma atitude em que a técnica que aprendem pode ser usada com mais segurança. O enactment é caracterizado como um dos mecanismos mais atuais que refletem a ênfase contemporânea da psicanálise na relação entre os membros da dupla analítica/terapêutica.(AU)


Los estudios sobre el psicoanálisis son esenciales y demuestran la eficacia de estas prácticas. El funcionamiento psicológico de la díada analítica / psicoterapéutica está siempre presente durante ese proceso, expresado por transferencia, contratransferencia, identificación proyectiva, campo analítico y, más recientemente, enactments. Objetivo: Describir cómo los psicoanalistas comprenden, identifican y elaboran el fenómeno enactment. Participantes: Ocho psicoanalistas: dos están en entrenamiento, cuatro son miembros asociados y dos analistas didácticos. El anonimato de los participantes fue asegurado con el Término de Consentimiento Libre y Esclarecido. Método: Es un estudio cualitativo / descriptivo, siendo los datos interpretados a través de Análisis de Contenido (Bardin, 1977). Se realizaron ocho entrevistas semiestructuradas cara a cara. Resultados: Se identifican tres categorías finales de respuestas: Bases Teóricas, Bases Técnicas y Nivel de Experiencia. El enactment se entiende y expresa a través de la "escenificación" de los conflictos mentales. Es posible detectar los patrones de las relaciones objetales traídos a la realidad concreta de las relaciones transferenciales y contratransferenciales a través de la identificación proyectiva. Si los enactments no se interpretan, bloquean la evolución del proceso terapéutico, con colusiones o impasses entre el par analítico. Los entrevistados consideran este fenómeno técnicamente útil, pues favorece la interpretación en el aquí y ahora de la situación analítica. El tiempo de trabajo profesional y la inversión personal para ampliar el conocimiento promueven en los analistas una actitud en la que la técnica que aprenden puede ser usada con más seguridad. El enactment se caracteriza como uno de los mecanismos más actuales que reflejan el énfasis contemporáneo del psicoanálisis en la relación entre los miembros del doble analítico / terapéutico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Physician-Patient Relations , Transference, Psychology , Countertransference , Defense Mechanisms
17.
Psicol. rev ; 27(2): 233-261, dez. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-998578

ABSTRACT

Partindo da experiência de uma das autoras como fotógrafa profissional, este trabalho objetiva examinar como a psicanálise poderia colaborar na abordagem da fotografia em relação ao trabalho, investigando possíveis articulações do fotografar com a sublimação das pulsões. Trata-se de uma pesquisa psicanalítica no campo da psicanálise em extensão. Os resultados mostraram que, para Freud, o trabalho é um instrumento poderoso para o homem no combate ao sofrimento, além de inseri-lo na comunidade humana, podendo ser meio de sublimação. Quando o trabalho é fonte de sublimação, coincide com a criação artística, que também é apontada por Freud como uma significativa forma de deslocamento libidinal, e a fotografia abarca estas duas características, sendo um ofício e também uma forma de arte. Foi possível compreender que, sendo escolhido livremente e estando o fotógrafo eroticamente ligado ao trabalho, o fotografar pode propiciar a satisfação pulsionalpor meio da sublimação de componentes sexuais e agressivos.


This study is based on the experience one of its authors as a professional photographer. It aims to examine how psychoanalysis might potentially collaborate with photography centered on 'work' as a theme, investigating possible links between photography and the sublimation of impulses. This psychoanalytic research aims to apply theory to a field of practice such as photography. The results have demonstrated that, for Freud, work is a powerful tool for man to fight against suffering and to make him feel like he belongs in the human community, so therefore, a path to sublimation. When work is a source of sublimation, it coincides with artistic creation, which is also pointed out by Freud as a significant form of libidinal movement, and photography includes these two features, being a craft and also a form of art. Then, it was understood that if photography is freely chosen practice and the photographer is erotically committed to the work, photographing may provide the instinctual satisfaction through the sublimation of sexual and aggressive components.


A partir de la experiencia de una de las autoras como fotógrafa profesional, este estudio tiene como objetivo explorar como el psicoanálisis podría colaborar en el abordaje de la fotografía en relación al trabajo, investigando posibles ligaciones del acto de fotografiar con la sublimación de las pulsiones. Se trata de una investigación psicoanalítica en el campo del psicoanálisis en extensión. Los resultados mostraron que, para Freud, el trabajo es una herramienta poderosa para el hombre en el combate al sufrimiento, además de inserirlo en la comunidad humana, siendo así un medio de sublimación. Cuando el trabajo es una fuente de sublimación, coincide con la creación artística, la cual también fue indicada por Freud como una forma significativa de desplazamiento libidinal, y la fotografía, abarca estas dos características, siendo un trabajo y también una forma de arte. Fue posible comprender que al ser escogido libremente y el fotógrafo estando ligado eróticamente al trabajo, la fotografía puede propiciar la satisfacción pulsional por medio de la sublimación de componentes sexuales y agresivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Art , Psychoanalysis , Work , Defense Mechanisms , Photograph
18.
Estilos clín ; 23(2): 224-241, maio-ago. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-975248

ABSTRACT

Neste artigo enfocamos diversos mecanismos defensivos colocados em ação pela autista Donna Williams. Esses mecanismos possibilitaram que ela saísse da etapa inicial de caos sensorial no estado de retraimento autístico, para ir em direção a outras modalidades defensivas muito precoces em termos de desenvolvimento do aparelho psíquico. Enfocamos com destaque um primeiro registro associativo conectado à simultaneidade, que operacionaliza um primeiro modelo organizacional perceptivo anterior à organização representacional.


In this paper, we focus on several defensive mechanisms put in action by the autistic Donna Williams. These mechanisms enabled her to leave the initial stage of sensory chaos in the state of autistic withdrawal, towards other very early defensive modalities in terms of the mental apparatus development. We highlight a first associative register connected to simultaneity, which operates a first perceptual organizational model prior to the representational organization.


En el presente artículo abordamos diversos mecanismos de defensa puestos en movimiento por la autista Donna Williams. Los que posibilitaron con que ella saliera de la etapa inicial del caos sensorial en el estado de retraimiento autístico y se dirigiera hacia otras modalidades defensivas muy precoces en términos de desarrollo del aparato psíquico. Nos centramos sobre todo en un primer registro asociativo conectado a la simultaneidad, que instrumentaliza un primer modelo organizacional perceptivo previo a la organización representacional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Perception , Autistic Disorder/psychology , Defense Mechanisms , Psychoanalysis
19.
Fractal rev. psicol ; 30(2): 154-160, maio-ago. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-975372

ABSTRACT

Este artigo se propõe a apresentar algumas pesquisas analisadas por Pascale Molinier acerca dos sistemas defensivos contra o sofrimento no trabalho de care. Para ela, se as situações de trabalho que produzem sofrimento não são as mesmas para homens e mulheres, os sofrimentos e, consequentemente os sistemas defensivos para lidar com eles, serão sexuados - alguns são masculinos, outros femininos. Sob o ângulo combinado da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho e das Relações Sociais de Sexo, as pesquisas de Molinier permitem demonstrar que esta tendência à "sexuação" das defesas se dá não em função da "natureza" dos homens e das mulheres, e sim em decorrência da divisão sexual do trabalho. Estas pesquisas evidenciam ainda que certas modalidades da subjetividade classicamente atribuídas à constelação psíquica da feminilidade são, em grande parte, diferenciações contingentes e secundárias à experiência do trabalho.Palavras-chave: Relações Sociais de Sexo; Psicodinâmica do Trabalho; sistemas defensivos; trabalho de care.(AU)


This article aims to present some research analyzed by Pascale Molinier on defense strategies against suffering at caring labor. Under her perspective, if the work situations that produce suffering are not the same for men and women, the sufferings and consequently the defense systems to deal with them will be distinct regarding sex - some are masculine, some feminine.Under the combined perspective of Psychodynamics of Work and Sex Social Relationships, these researches allow to demonstrate a tendency to the "sexuation" of the defenses, not because of the "nature" of men and women, but because of the sexual division of work. These studies provided evidence that the modalities of subjectivation classically attributed to the psychic constellation of femininity are mostly contingent diferentiations and secondary to the experience of work.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Work/psychology , Defense Mechanisms , Gender Identity , Interpersonal Relations
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718311

ABSTRACT

The concept of bipolar spectrum disorder (BSD) has developed to include affective temperaments such as cyclothymia and hyperthymia. This has greatly helped clinicians to differentiate depressed patients, who would potentially benefit from mood stabilizing treatment, from those with unipolar depression. Cyclothymia, however, has significant similarities with personality disorders, especially with borderline personality disorder (BPD). All the diagnostic items for BPD are frequently found in patients with BSD as well, which presents diagnostic challenges. There are no clear guidelines on how to differentiate BSD from BPD. Featuring borderline pathology for clinical purposes, it may be useful to rely on psychodynamic approaches to identify primitive defense mechanisms of splitting and projective identification suggesting borderline personality organization. Based on new findings on common features between BSD and BPD, some authors have proposed a renewal of the classification system of mental disorders. The dichotomy of bipolar and unipolar depression has gestated a new concept of BSD. Currently, the BSD concept forced us to formulate the border of BSD and personality disorders.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , Borderline Personality Disorder , Classification , Defense Mechanisms , Depressive Disorder , Humans , Mental Disorders , Pathology , Personality Disorders , Temperament
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