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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 156-175, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393371

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the available literature on the essential oil from species of genus Cordia. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews. The search was conducted on four databases: LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus until June 5th, 2020, with no time or language restrictions. Sixty out of the 1,333 initially gathered studies fit the inclusion criteria after the selection process. Nine species of Cordia were reported in the selected studies, out of which 79% of the evaluated studies reported essential oil from Cordia curassavica. The essential oil extraction methods identified were hydrodistillation and steam distillation. As for biological application, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, larvicidal and antioxidant activities were the most reported. The main compounds reported for essential oil were ß-caryophyllene, α-humulene, α-pinene, bicyclogermacrene, and sabinene. The information reported in this systematic review can contribute scientifically to the recognition of the importance of the genus Cordia.


El propósito de esta revisión sistemática fue identificar la literatura disponible sobre el aceite esencial de especies del género Cordia. Este estudio siguió los elementos de informe preferidos para revisiones sistemáticas. La búsqueda se realizó en cuatro bases de datos: LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct y Scopus hasta el 5 de junio de 2020, sin restricciones de tiempo ni de idioma. Sesenta de los 1.333 estudios reunidos inicialmente cumplieron los criterios de inclusión después del proceso de selección. Se informaron nueve especies de Cordia en los estudios seleccionados, de los cuales el 79% de los estudios evaluados informaron aceite esencial de Cordia curassavica. Los métodos de extracción de aceite esencial identificados fueron la hidrodestilación y la destilación al vapor. En cuanto a la aplicación biológica, las actividades antimicrobianas, antiinflamatorias, larvicidas y antioxidantes fueron las más reportadas. Los principales compuestos reportados para el aceite esencial fueron ß-cariofileno, α-humuleno, α-pineno, biciclogermacreno y sabineno. La información reportada en esta revisión sistemática puede contribuir científicamente al reconocimiento de la importancia del género Cordia.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cordia/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Distillation , Monoterpenes/analysis
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 61-70, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284444

ABSTRACT

Identification of the chemical compositionof essential oils is very important for ensuring the quality of finished herbal products. The objective of the study was to analyze the chemical components present in the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies (i.e. B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madang, and B. glabra) by multivariate data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) methods. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and fully characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 108 chemical components were successfully identified from the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies. The essential oils were characterized by high proportions of ß-caryophyllene (B.kunstleri), δ-cadinene (B. penangianaand B. madang), and ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiand B. glabra). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that chemical similarity was highest for all samples, except for B. madang. The multivariate data analysis may be used for the identification and characterization of essential oils from different Beilschmiediaspecies that are to be used as raw materials of traditional herbal products.


La identificación de la composición química de los aceites esenciales es muy importante para garantizar la calidad de los productos herbales terminados. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los componentes químicos presentes en los aceites esenciales de cinco especies de Beilschmiedia (B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madangy B. glabra) mediante análisis de datos multivariados utilizando los métodos de análisis de componente principal (PCA) y análisis de agrupamiento jerárquico (HCA). Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se caracterizaron completamente por cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Se identificaron con éxito un total de 108 componentes químicos a partir de los aceites esenciales de las cinco especies de Beilschmiedia. Los aceites esenciales se caracterizaron por altas proporciones de ß-cariofileno (B. kunstleri), δ-cadineno (B. penangianay B. madang) y ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiy B. glabra). El análisis de componentes principales (PCA) y el análisis de conglomerados jerárquicos (HCA) revelaron que la similitud química fue más alta para todas las muestras, excepto para B. madang. El análisis de datos multivariados puede usarse para la identificación y caracterización de aceites esenciales de diferentes especies de Beilschmiedia que se utilizan como materias primas de productos herbales tradicionales.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Cluster Analysis , Distillation , Multivariate Analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Principal Component Analysis , Monoterpenes/analysis
3.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284447

ABSTRACT

This paper described the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the leaves and stem of Amomum rubidumLamxay & N. S. Lý, collected from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, Lam Dong, Vietnam. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodisitllation method while antimicrobial activity was evaluetd by microdilution broth susceptibility assay. The main constituents of the leaf essential oil were identified as 1,8-cineole (37.7%), δ-3-carene (19.5%) and limonene (16.3%) while δ-3-carene (21.9%), limonene (17.8%) and ß-phellandrene (14.6%) dominated in the stem essentialoil. The leaf and stem essential oils displayed stronger inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC of 25 µg/mLand 50 µg/mL respectively. The stem essential oil was active against Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) while both essential oils inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). This is the first report on chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of A. rubidum.


Este artículo describe la composición química y la actividad antimicrobiana de aceites esenciales de las hojas y el tallo de Amomum rubidum Lamxay & N. S. Lý recolectados del Parque Nacional Bidoup Nui Ba, Lam Dong, Vietnam. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron mediante el método de hidrodisitilación, mientras que la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó mediante un ensayo de susceptibilidad de caldo de microdilución. Los principales componentes del aceite esencial de la hoja se identificaron como 1,8-cineol (37,7%), δ-3-careno (19,5%) y limoneno (16,3%), mientras que δ-3-careno (21,9%), limoneno (17,8 %) y ß-felandreno (14,6%) dominaron en el aceite esencial del tallo. Los aceites esenciales de hoja y tallo mostraron una inhibición más fuerte de Pseudomonas aeruginosa con un MIC de 25 µg/mL y 50 µg/mL, respectivamente. El aceite esencial del tallo fue activo contra Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) mientras que ambos aceites esenciales inhibieron el crecimiento de Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). Este es el primer informe sobre los componentes químicos y la actividad antimicrobiana de los aceites esenciales de A. rubidum.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Amomum/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Distillation , Chromatography, Gas , Plant Stems , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Fusarium/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3814-3823, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888103

ABSTRACT

Volatile oil is the main effective component and an important quality indicator of Artemisia argyi leaves. In this study, 100 germplasm resources of A. argyi were collected from all the related habitats in China. The total volatile oils in A. argyi leaves were extracted by steam distillation and the content was determined by GC-MS. The result demonstrated that the content of total volatile oils was in the range of 0.53%-2.55%, with the average of 1.43%. A total of 39 chemical constituents were identified from the volatile oils, including 13 shared by the 100 germplasm resources. Clustering analysis of the 39 constituents showed that the 100 A. argyi samples were categorized into groups Ⅰ(9), Ⅱ(2), Ⅲ(66) and Ⅳ(23), and group Ⅲ had the most volatile medicinal components, with the highest content. Five principal components(PCs) were extracted from 13 shared constituents, which explained 73.454% of the total variance. PC1, PC2, and PC3 mainly reflected the pharmacological activity of volatile oils and the rest two the aroma information. The volatile oils identified in this study lay a foundation for variety breeding of and rational utilization of volatile oils in A. argyi leaves.


Subject(s)
Artemisia , Distillation , Oils, Volatile , Plant Breeding , Plant Leaves
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 1951-1960, 01-11-2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147960

ABSTRACT

This work aimed to compare the antifungal activity of the essential oil of Varronia curassavica obtained by hydrodistillation and microwave against the fungus Colletotrichum musae and verify the alterations caused by these extraction methods on the leaf surface. This study used four essential oil samples obtained by different methods, two by hydrodistillation [HD1 (1.0 L of water and 100 min.) and HD2 (2.0 L of water and 140 min.)] and two by microwave [MI1 (500W, 20 min, without water) and MI2 (700W, 40 min, with 50 mL of water added to fresh leaves)]. Essential oils concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0% (v / v) were tested in PDA medium. The mycelial growth of C. musae was evaluated by measuring the diameter, every 24 hours up to 144 hours after the beginning of the incubation. Untreated leaves and leaves treated with HD1 and MI1 were prepared for observation in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) LEO EVO 40. The most abundant compounds detected in the essential oil samples analyzed by gas chromatography were: shyobunol, germacrene D-4-ol, E-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, and α-cadinol. Up to 72 hours after the beginning of the incubation, C. musae presented no mycelial growth, even at the lowest essential oil concentration. Conversely, mycelial growth was detected in the control (PDA + DMSO) from 24 hours after incubation. At 144 hours after incubation, regardless of the concentration, the essential oil samples obtained by HD provided lower mycelial growth of C. musae (1.49 cm) when compared with samples obtained by MI (1.80 cm). This difference possibly occurred due to the reduction to less than half of the germacrene D-4-ol content in the samples obtained by MI. The four essential oil samples tested inhibited the mycelial growth and thus presented a inhibitory effect on C. musae. The SEM revealed more drastic changes on the surface of the leaf treated with MI than on those treated with HD. The essential oil of V. curassavica, mainly when obtained by hydrodistillation, has the potential for use in the control of C. musae.


O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar a atividade antifúngica do óleo essencial de Varronia curassavica obtido por hidrodestilação e micro-ondas frente ao fungo Colletotrichum musae e verificar as alterações que esses métodos de extração causam na superfície da folha. Quatro amostras de óleo essencial obtidas em diferentes condições foram utilizadas. Sendo duas por hidrodestilação, HD1 (1,0 L de água e 100 min.) e HD2 (2,0 L de água e 140 min.); e duas por micro-ondas, MI1 (500W, 20 min. sem adição de água) e MI2 (700W, 40 min. com adição de 50 mL de água às folhas frescas). Foram testadas as concentrações 0,05; 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 3,0 % (v/v) de óleo essencial em meio BDA. O crescimento micelial do C. musae foi avaliado por medições do diâmetro, a cada 24 horas até 144 horas após o início da incubação. Folhas sem qualquer tratamento e após os tratamentos HD1 e MI1 foram preparadas para observação em microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV) LEO EVO 40. Os compostos mais abundantes nas amostras de óleo essencial analisadas por cromatografia gasosa foram: shyobunol, germacreno D-4-ol, E-cariofileno, biciclogermacreno e α-cadinol. Até 72 horas após o início da incubação, não foi observado nenhum crescimento micelial do C. musae, mesmo nas concentrações mais baixas de óleo essencial, enquanto, para o controle (BDA + DMSO), foi observado crescimento do fungo a partir de 24 horas. Após 144 horas, independentemente da concentração, as amostras de óleo essencial obtidas por HD proporcionaram menor crescimento micelial do C. musae (1,49 cm) quando comparadas às amostras obtidas por MI (1,80 cm). Possivelmente essa diferença ocorreu devido à redução para menos da metade, do teor de germacreno D-4-ol, nas amostras obtidas por MI. As quatro amostras de óleo essencial testadas foram capazes de inibir o crescimento micelial, apresentando portanto, um efeito inibitório sobre o C. musae. Alterações mais drásticas observadas através da MEV foram visualizadas na superfície da folha submetida ao processo de extração por MI em comparação à HD. O óleo essencial de V. curassavica, sobretudo o obtido por hidrodestilação, apresenta potencial para o controle de C. musae.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Distillation , Cordia , Antifungal Agents
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 568-577, 01-03-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146421

ABSTRACT

In the Myrtaceae family, the species Eugenia involucrata DC., popularly known as "cerejeira-do-mato", is traditionally used for the antidiarrheal and digestive action of its leaves. However, no studies were found in the literature regarding its antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. In this context, the objective of the present study was to determine the chemical composition by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by the broth microdilution technique and the antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazila (DPPH) method of the essential oil of E. involucrataleaves. GC-MS identified 28 compounds, all sesquiterpenes, corresponding to 89.41% of the essential oil. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed for all Gram-positive bacteria tested (Staplylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis,Bacillus subtilis and Staplylococcus aureus) and for yeast Candida albicans. The essential oil presented a reduction capacity of DPPH up to 66.81%, evidencing its antioxidant potential. It is suggested that the antimicrobial and antioxidant action of E. involucrata essential oil is related to the presence of the major compounds, elixene (26.53%), ß-caryophyllene (13.16%), α-copaene (8.41%) and germacrene D (7.17%).


Na família Myrtaceae, a espécieEugenia involucrata DC. popularmente denominada "cerejeira-do-mato" é conhecida tradicionalmente pela ação antidiarreica e digestiva de suas folhas. Contudo, na literatura não foram encontrados trabalhos referentes ao seu potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante. Neste contexto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a composição química por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (CG-EM) e avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana pela técnica de microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante pelo método do 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazila (DPPH) do óleo essencial das folhas de E. involucrata. A CG-EM identificou 28 compostos, todos sesquiterpenos, correspondendo a 89,41% do óleo essencial. A atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial foi observada para todas as bactérias Gram-positivas testadas (Staplylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis,Bacillus subtilise Staplylococcus aureus) e para a levedura Candida albicans. O óleo essencial apresentou capacidade redutora de radicais DPPH de até 66,81%, evidenciando sua potencialidade antioxidante. Sugere-se que a ação antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de E. involucrata esteja relacionada à presença dos compostos majoritários, elixeno (26,53%), ß-cariofileno (13,16%), -copaeno (8,41%) e germacreno D (7,17%).


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae , Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants , Mass Spectrometry , Bacillus , Bacteria , Biological Products , Candida albicans , Oils , Distillation , Chromatography, Gas , Enterococcus faecalis , Volatile Organic Compounds
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190181, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132240

ABSTRACT

Abstract Shochu is the most widely consumed spirit in Japan. In its manufacture is used koji, a solid fungus culture traditional of the Asian countries, but that makes the production process slow. Shochu can be produced from a variety of starchy sources, including sweet potato. About 7% of the world's sweet potato production is wasted due to imperfections that make it unsuitable for consumption. However, this material can be used in ethanol production. Considering the high productivity of sweet potato in Brazil, an opportunity to add value to this raw material is perceived. An alternative process for the production of sweet potato distillate similar to shochu was proposed. Koji was replaced by a mixture of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. Process time was reduced from 14 to only 1 day. Composition analyses were performed by HPLC and GC. The experimental yield of alcoholic fermentation using pectinase enzyme reached 67.31-73.65%, but methanol was above the limits of the legislation. Without the addition of pectinase, no methanol was formed. However, there was a decrease in yield (51.65-54.75%), due to the incomplete disintegration of sweet potatoes. The distillate produced and the commercial shochu presented the same absorption bands in FTIR analysis, identifying the similarity between them.


Subject(s)
Distillation/methods , Ipomoea batatas/chemistry , Alcoholic Beverages , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Chemical Phenomena , Fermentation
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190213, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132272

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aims to find the best conditions for the extraction of Zingiber officinale essential oil using the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), steam distillation (SD) and hydrodistillation (HD) techniques, regarding the maximum oil yield. For the HD technique is evaluated the best ratio between plant mass and water volume and for SFE and SD the pressure condition was investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the similarity between the composition of the essential oil in different pressures and extraction methods. The experimental extraction curve was plotted and three different mathematical models were used to fit the data for SD and SFE methods, obtaining the relevant mass transfer parameters. The essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), being α-zingiberene the main component with different contents (from 11.9 to 28.9%). The best condition for the SFE was 100 bar, 40 °C (0.0508 goil/gplant) with 19.34% of α-zingiberene; for the SD, 3 bar (133 °C) (0.00616 goil/gplant) with 28.9% of α-zingiberene; and HD, the volume of 750 mL (0.006988 goil/gplant) with 15.70% of α-zingiberene, all measured on a dry basis.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Zingiber officinale/chemistry , Distillation , Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Models, Theoretical
9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 92 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292367

ABSTRACT

vinhaça é resultante da produção de álcool, após a fermentação do mosto e destilação do vinho. É um resíduo rico em nutrientes, principalmente matéria orgânica, nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. Para ser despejado em rios e lagos, esse efluente deve passar por tratamentos para remoção desses nutrientes, pois o excesso desses elementos nos corpos hídricos poderia levar a grandes problemas ambientais, de modo que tem sido utilizado em fertirrigação. Microorganismos fotossintetizantes absorvem nutrientes inorgânicos, podendo absorver nutrientes de águas residuais. Se for removida a parte orgânica da vinhaça, a fração inorgânica ou com baixa carga orgânica pode ser a base ou o próprio meio de cultivo destes micro-organismos, que absorvem gás carbônico e sua biomassa é de interesse industrial. Neste contexto, foi estudado o cultivo de Monoraphidium contortum e Synechocystis salina, oriundos de água de mangue, em frascos de Erlenmeyer e em fotobiorreatores tubulares por processo descontínuo, empregando a vinhaça proveniente do tratamento aeróbio (biológico), acoplada a processos físico-químicos, com diferentes diluições. As características físico-químicas das vinhaças tratadas foram avaliadas. Além disso, foram comparados os crescimentos celulares nas diferentes condições experimentais adotadas para o crescimento da microalga M. contortum e da cianobactéria S. salina na vinhaça tratada com e sem diluição. Em cultivos em frascos de Erlenmeyer, em meio proveniente de tratamento biológico, o crescimento celular não diferiu do cultivo em meio padrão, com diluições de 5 e 2 vezes da vinhaça tratada para M. contortum e S. salina, respectivamente. Em fotobiorreator tubular, independente do tratamento ser apenas biológico ou também com carvão ativado, as concentrações celulares máximas (Xm) de M. contortum e S. salina foram da ordem de 1,86x107 células mL-1 e 7,90x106 células mL-1, respectivamente, valores esses menores que os obtidos em meio padrão, com valores de Xm de 2,69x107 células mL-1 e 1,27x106 células mL-1 para M. contortum e S. salina, respectivamente. Em fotobiorreatores tubulares, os teores de mínimos de lipídios de M. contortum e S. salina foram de 33,4 % e 11,0 %, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, os teores mínimos de proteínas da microalga foram de 15,1 % e da cianobactéria foi de 23,2 %


The vinasse is the result of the production of alcohol after the fermentation of the mash and the distillation of the wine. It is a waste rich in nutrients, mainly organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. To be discharged into rivers and lakes, this effluent must be treated in order to remove nutrients, because the excess of these elements in water bodies can lead to major environmental problems, so that it has been used in fertigation. Photosynthetic microorganisms absorb inorganic nutrients and they can absorb nutrients from wastewater. If the organic fraction of vinasse is removed, the inorganic or low organic fraction may be the basis or a medium of cultivation of these microorganisms, which absorb carbon dioxide and its biomass is of industrial interest. In this context, Monoraphidium contortum and Synechocystis salina from mangrove water were cultivated in Erlenmeyer flasks and in tubular photobioreactors by batch process using vinasse from aerobic biological treatment, coupled to physicochemical treatments with different dilutions. The physicochemical characteristics of the treated vinasse were evaluated. In addition, cell growth was compared under different experimental conditions adopted for growth of microalgae M. contortum and cyanobacteria S. salina in vinasse treated with and without dilution. In Erlenmeyer flask cultivations, in medium from the biological treatment, the cell growth was not different of that one in standard medium cultivation, with dilutions of 5 and 2 times the vinasse treated for M. contortum and S. salina, respectively. In the tubular photobioreactor, irrespective if the treatment is only biological or also is carried out treatment with activated charcoal, they were obtained maximum cell concentrations (Xm) of M. contortum and S. salina of 1.86x107 cells mL-1 and 7.90x106 cells. mL-1 , respectively, lower than the standard, whose Xm values were 2.69x107 cells mL-1 and 1.27x106 cells mL-1 for M. contortum and S. salina, respectively. In tubular photobioreactors, the minimum lipid contents of M. contortum and S. salina were 33.4 % and 11.0 %, respectively. In addition, the minimum protein content of microalgae was 15.1 % and cyanobacterium was 23.2 %


Subject(s)
Wine/adverse effects , Distillation/instrumentation , Biomass , Aerobic Treatment/analysis , Waste Products , Carbon Dioxide/pharmacokinetics , Nutrients/analysis , Organic Load/adverse effects , Dilution/methods , Minors/classification , Rivers/chemistry , Cell Enlargement , Chemical Phenomena
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3161-3168, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828002

ABSTRACT

To define the extraction process, main components and antioxidative and antimicrobial activities of volatile oil from fenugreek(Trigonella foenum-graecum) leaves and its active substance basis. Response surface methodology was used for optimum supercritical CO_2 extraction conditions of essential oil from fenugreek leaves. The main components of volatile oil were analyzed by GC-MS, its antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) and 2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, ABTS) free radical, and the antimicrobial effect of volatile oil was evaluated by K-B paper AGAR diffusion method. The results showed that the optimal extraction temperature was 50 ℃, the extraction time was 89 min, and the extraction pressure was 35 MPa. Under the conditions, the optimum extracting yield of volatile oil was 1.72%,which was about 1.5 times higher than that of the conventional steam distillation. A total of 52 compounds were found based on reference substance retention time and GC-MS fragmentation information or the existing literatures, and the major compounds were oleic acid(9.65%), carveol(9.41%), n-hexadecanoic acid(9.1%), linoleic acid(6.95%), methyl linolenate(5.4%), petroselinic acid(5.3%), testosterone(3.4%), sotolon(1.75%). The volatile oil of fenugreek showed moderate antioxidant activities in DPPH assay(IC_(50) value of 0.473 mg·mL~(-1)) and ABTS test(IC_(50) value of 0.107 mg·mL~(-1)). The oil had a stronger antimicrobial activity in vitro. MIC of the volatile oil ranged from 0.375 to 1.5 mg·mL~(-1). The results showed that the optimized volatile oil extraction process was stable, and the extraction yield was high. Fenugreek leaves contained a variety of volatile components, with obvious antioxidant and antibacterial activities. This study provides a certain theoretical basis for the comprehensive development and utilization of fenugreek.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Distillation , Oils, Volatile , Plant Leaves , Trigonella
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 67(1): 278-285, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041910

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lippia origanoides Kunth. is a medicinal shrub native to some countries in South America, Central America and the Caribbean. This study aims to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil and the genetic diversity of a natural population of Lippia origanoides in two seasons. Leaf samples were collected from 30 individuals in the dry and rainy seasons. The essential oil was extracted into a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relative quantification of thymol and carvacrol was performed by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the genetic divergence between plants. Carvacrol was the major compound found in most plants for both seasons. In the rainy season, plant 15 presented thymol as the major compound, and plants 16, 27, 28 and 29 presented camphor as the major compound. In the dry season, thymol remained the main compound of plant 15 and camphor remained the main compound of plants 16, 28 and 29; however, plant 27 presented carvacrol as the main compound in this season. After carvacrol, the compounds with the highest content were γ-terpinene, p-cymene and methyl-ether-thymol. Of the 30 plants studied, only five differed in their chemical composition, showing some degree of stability in relation to the dry and rainy seasons. There was no variation in the main compounds between the two seasons, but there was chemical diversity among the main compounds. Tocher grouping revealed five distinct groups, with group 1 including most of the plants in both dry and rainy seasons, indicating that the time of year evaluated did not significantly interfere with the essential oil composition of most plants.(AU)


Resumen Lippia origanoides Kunth. es un arbusto medicinal nativo de algunos países de Centro y Sur América y el Caribe. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la composición química de los aceites esenciales y la diversidad genética de una población natural de L. origanoides en dos estaciones. El aceite esencial se extrajo en un equipo de Clevenger y se analizó por cromatografía de gases acoplado a espectrometría de masas (CG-EM). La cuantificación relativa de timol y carvacrol se realizó por cromatografía de gases acoplado a un detector de ionización de llamas (CG-DIL). Se utilizó un análisis multivariado para evaluar la divergencia genética entre plantas. El carvacrol fue el compuesto principal encontrado en la mayoría de las plantas para ambas estaciones. En la estación lluviosa, la planta 15 presentó timol como el compuesto principal y las plantas 16, 27, 28 y 29 presentaron alcanfor como el compuesto principal. En la estación seca, el timol se mantuvo como el principal compuesto en la planta 15, de igual manera el alcanfor se mantuvo como el principal en las plantas 16, 28 y 29. Sin embargo, la planta 27 presentó carvacrol como el principal compuesto en esta estación. Después del carvacrol, los compuestos con el mayor contenido fueron γ-terpineno, p-cimeno and metil-eter-timol. De las 30 plantas estudiadas, solo cinco difirieron en su composición química, mostrando algún grado de estabilidad en relación a la estación seca y lluviosa. No hubo variación en los compuestos principales entre las dos estaciones, pero hubo diversidad química entre los compuestos principales. El agrupamiento de Tocher mostró cinco grupos distintos, con el grupo 1 incluyendo la mayoría de las plantas en ambas estaciones, lo cual indica que el periodo del año evaluado no interfiere significativamente con la composición de aceites esenciales en la mayoría de plantas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Thymol/chemistry , Crop Production , Distillation/instrumentation , Verbenaceae/chemistry , Biodiversity
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4000-4008, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008318

ABSTRACT

Agarwood is a traditional and precious medicinal material and natural spice in China and other southeast Asian countries.As the head of all spices,agarwood has many pharmacological activities such as analgesia,antidiarrheal,anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. Due to its high price and scarce resources,there were just a few previous studies on it,mainly focusing on the chemical compositions of the agarwood essential oil and solvent extract mixture. The components of agarwood oils obtained by supercritical extraction and steam distillation were analyzed by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer( GC-MS),and then the agarwood oils compositions and contents were compared between the traditional extraction method and the recently emerging supercritical extraction method. Antioxidant experiments of scavenging DPPH,ABTS,hydroxyl radical,total reducing power and MIC experiments of five kinds of tester strains such as staphylococcus aureus were combined to illustrate the differences between these two kinds of agarwood oils in terms of antioxidant and bacteriostatic activities. The results showed that the main components of agarwood oil were sesquiterpenoids( 68. 68%) in steam distillation extraction method,but sesquiterpenoids( 23. 78%) and chromones( 29. 42%) in supercritical extraction method. Fourteen common components included benzyl acetone,α-santalol,γ-eudesmol,agarospirol and guaiol etc. The antioxidant activity and inhibitory MIC of agarwood oils in supercritical extraction method were better than those in steam distillation method,and the inhibitory effect of agarwood oil on the growth of bacillus subtilis was found for the first time.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , China , Distillation/methods , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Steam , Thymelaeaceae/chemistry , Wood/chemistry
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(3): 629-639, mai/jun. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966920

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of essential oil from Varronia curassavica Jacq. obtained by microwave (MI) and hydrodistillation (HD) extraction methods. The MI method tested three powers (500, 600, and 700W), three distillation times (20, 30, and 40 min.), and three water volumes (0, 25, and 50 mL per sample). The HD method tested three distillation times (100, 120, and 140 min.) and three water volumes (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 L per 3-liter flask). The essential oils were analyzed by GC/MS-FID. The optimal condition for the essential oil extraction by the MI method was 700W for 40 min. (3.28%), regardless of the volume of water. In its turn, the best condition for essential oil extraction by the HD method was 120 min. with 1.0 L of water per flask (3.34%). The most abundant compounds for MI (700 W for 40 min. without water) were shyobunol (26.53%) and bicyclogermacrene (4.96%); and the most abundant compounds for HD (120 min. with 1.0 L of water/flask) were shyobunol (24.00%) and germacrene D-4-ol (10.23%). Methyl farnesoate (2E, 6E) and farnesyl acetate (2Z, 6E) were not detected in the essential oil extracted by HD; however, they were identified by the MI method. By increasing the distillation time and/or volume of water in HD, a reduction was observed for the content of the chemical compounds -elemene (from 1.23 to 0.97%), Ecaryophyllene (from 5.49 to 4.35%), -humulene (from 1.80 to 1.43%), alloaromadendrene (from 1.78 to 1.44%), bicyclogermacrene (from 5.63 to 4.55%), and germacrene D-4-ol (from 11.40 to 9.86%). Power, extraction time, and their interactions influenced the content of essential oil obtained by microwave extraction (MI). Within each power, the highest essential oil content was extracted at the longest distillation time (40 min.), except for 600W, where no significant difference was detected between 30 and 40 min. The optimal essential oil contents for both extraction methods were statically similar by the t-test for dependent samples. However, the MI method presents advantages, such as shorter distillation time and less energy and water consumption.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição química do óleo essencial de Varronia curassavica Jacq. obtido pelos métodos de extração micro-ondas (MI) e hidrodestilação (HD). Para MI, foram testadas três potências (500, 600 e 700W), três tempos de destilação (20, 30 e 40 min.) e três volumes de água (0, 25 e 50 mL por amostra). Para HD, foram testados três tempos de destilação (100, 120 e 140 min.) e três volumes de água (1,0; 1,5 e 2,0 L por balão de 3 litros). Os óleos essenciais foram analisados por CG/EM-FID. Maiores teores de óleo essencial foram obtidos nas condições de 700 W por 40 min. (3.28%), independente do volume de água para MI, e 120 min. com 1,0 L de água por balão para HD (3,34%). Os compostos mais abundantes para MI (700W, por 40 min., sem água) foram o shyobunol (26,53%) e biciclogermacreno (4,96%) e para HD (120 min. com 1,0 L de água /balão) foram shyobunol (24,00%) e germacreno D -4 -ol (10,23%). Metil farnesoato (2E, 6E) e farnesil acetato (2Z, 6E) não foram detectados no óleo essencial extraído por HD, porém, foram detectados nas amostras extraídas por MI. Com o aumento do tempo de destilação e/ou do volume de água em HD, houve redução no conteúdo dos constituintes químicos -elemeno (de 1,23 para 0,97%), E-cariofileno (de 5,49 para 4,35%), -humuleno (1,80 para 1,43%), aloaromadendreno (de 1,78 para 1,44%), biciclogermacreno (de 5,63 para 4,55%) e germacreno D-4-ol (de 11,40 para 9,86%). A potência, o tempo de extração e suas interações influenciaram no teor de óleo essencial obtido na extração por micro-ondas (MI). Dentro de cada potência, o maior teor de óleo essencial foi obtido no tempo mais longo de extração (40 min.), exceto para 600 W, que não apresentou diferença significativa entre 30 e 40 min. Nas condições ótimas de extração, os teores de óleo essencial obtidos foram estatisticamente semelhantes pelo teste t para amostras dependentes. No entanto, a extração por micro-ondas apresenta algumas vantagens em relação a HD, como menor tempo de destilação e menor consumo de energia e água.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Distillation
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4231-4239, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775353

ABSTRACT

To reveal the extraction regularity of volatile oil from galangal by GC-MS analysis. The volatile oil in galangal was extracted by steam distillation. The extract was collected every 30 min, the oil part and the water part were separated. GC-MS was used to analyze the extraction liquid collected at different time periods. A total of 140 volatile components were obtained by GC-MS analysis. Among them, the main components were eucalyptus oil alcohol, alpha-pine oil alcohol and 4-terpene alcohol; 22 special components were dissolved in water, 77 special components were dissolved in oil and 41 components were dissolved in both oil and water. With the increase of specific components in water, the content of Eucalyptus in water increased in a linear manner. The increase of eucalyptus oil further promoted the dissolution or dispersion of alpha PN in water, and the change of specific components in oil was positively correlated with the content of Eucalyptus and alpha-terpilenol in oil. The results of principal component analysis show that the physical and chemical properties of the compounds were important factors affecting the distribution of components. PC1 (molecular weight, melting point, boiling point positive correlation), PC2 (negative correlation of refractive index) and PC3 (positive correlation of water solubility) were the main components that lead to the differences in composition distribution. The process of extracting volatile oil from galangal through steam distillation was affected by the physical and chemical properties of volatile components. Some components were specifically distributed in the fragrance and volatile oil system. The endemic components of aromatic water increased the content of the main components in the water system, which may lead to the "emulsification", reduction of the yield and low quality of the volatile oil.


Subject(s)
Distillation , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Kinetics , Oils, Volatile , Plant Oils , Steam , Zingiberaceae , Chemistry
15.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 139-147, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741626

ABSTRACT

The essential oils are fragrant products whose complex compositions are obtained from various parts of plants by dry or steam distillation. Plants with variable biological activities have been explored worldwide. The presence of a large number of phenols, terpenes and other aromatic compounds make essential oils more precise in their mode of action. Because of this, they are known to possess many biological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory etc. In this article, we will review the published literature summarizing the chemistry of essential oils and their important biological activities.


Subject(s)
Aromatherapy , Chemistry , Distillation , Oils, Volatile , Phenol , Phenols , Steam , Terpenes
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(1): 26-33, ene. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907562

ABSTRACT

This paper reports the chemical constituents of essential oils from the various parts of Alpinia macroura K. Schum (Zingiberaceae) from Vietnam. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by means of gas chromatography coupled to Flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main constituents of the oils were beta-pinene (8.8 percent-16.4 percent), 1,8-cineole (5.5 percent-17.7 percent), upsilon-terpinene (5.9 percent-16.9 percent), alpha-pinene (4.5 percent-8.4 percent) and beta-caryophyllene (1.4 percent-18.6 percent). Sabinene (9.0 percent) was identified only in the fruit. Overall, nineteen of the identified compounds are coming to all the essential oils. The chemical constituents of essential oils from the leaf, stem, root, fruit and flower of A. macroura are being reported for the first time and were found to be different from those of other Alpinia oils.


En este trabajo se presentan los componentes químicos de los aceites esenciales de las distintas partes de Alpinia macroura K. Schum (Zingiberaceae) de Vietnam. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se analizaron por medio de cromatografía de gases acoplada a detector de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS). Los principales constituyentes de los aceites fueron beta-pineno (8,8 por ciento -16,4 por ciento), 1,8-cineol (5,5 por ciento -17,7 por ciento), ípsilon-terpineno (5,9 por ciento -16,9 por ciento), alfa-pineno (4,5 por ciento -8,4 por ciento) y beta-cariofileno (1,4 por ciento -18,6 por ciento). Sabineno (9,0 por ciento) fue identificado solamente en la fruta. En general, diecinueve de los compuestos identificados están llegando a todos los aceites esenciales. Los componentes químicos de los aceites esenciales de la hoja, tallo, raíz, frutas y flores de A. macroura están siendo reportados por primera vez y se encontró que eran diferentes de las de otros aceites de Alpinia.


Subject(s)
Alpinia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Distillation , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(6): 429-435, nov. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907558

ABSTRACT

The composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Dalea strobilacea Barneby (Fabaceae) aerial parts was examined by GC and GC/MS. beta-Phellandrene (44 percent) together with alpha-pinene (18 percent) were the main essential oil components. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was evaluated against eight bacterial strains. A moderate growth inhibition of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis was shown by the essential oil.


La composición del aceite esencial de Dalea strobilacea Barneby (Fabaceae) obtenido por hidrodestilación de las partes aereas fue examinada por CG y CG/EM. beta-felandreno (44 por ciento) junto con alfa-pineno (18 por ciento) fueron los principales componentes del aceite esencial. La actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial fue evaluada contra ocho cepas bacterianas. El aceite esencial inhibió moderadamente el crecimiento de Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus y Enterococcus faecalis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , Fabaceae/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Distillation , Enterococcus faecalis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Staphylococcus aureus
19.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(1): 150-156, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742925

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho visou avaliar a influência de diferentes tempos de extração no teor e composição química do óleo essencial da espécie Pothomorphe umbellata. Folhas de pariparoba foram coletadas em Cajamar - SP, no mês de junho de 2006. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis tempos de extração (90, 120, 150, 180, 210 e 240 minutos) e 4 repetições. A extração do óleo essencial foi realizada por hidrodestilação e a análise química em CG-EM. O tempo de 180 minutos proporcionou maior rendimento do óleo essencial (0,42%), enquanto a composição química não foi influenciada pelos diferentes tempos de destilação. As principais substâncias identificadas foram: D-germacreno (65,5%), alfa-selineno (9,7%), trans-cariofileno (7,5%), e espatulenol (6,58%). Conclui-se que o tempo de extração afeta diretamente o rendimento e a proporção das substâncias químicas, recomendando-se a extração em até 180 minutos. .


The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of different times of extraction in the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil of "pariparoba" (Pothomorphe umbellate). Leaves of "pariparoba" were collected in the municipal district of Cajamar - state of São Paulo, Brazil, in June 2006. The adopted experimental design was completely randomized, with six times of extraction (90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 minutes) and 4 repetitions. The extraction of the essential oil was accomplished by hydrodistillation, and the chemical analysis was performed in GC-MS. The time of extraction of 180 minutes provided greater yield of the essential oil (0.42%), and its chemical composition was not influenced by the different times of hydrodistillation. The main substances showed are D-germacrene (65.5%), alpha-selinene (9.7%), trans-caryophyllene (7.5%) and spathulenol (6.58%). The results of this work showed that the time of extraction affects the yield and the proportion of the chemical substances and it is recommended the extraction in up to 180 minutes.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemical synthesis , Chemistry , Piperaceae/anatomy & histology , /analysis , Distillation/instrumentation
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3958-3962, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320808

ABSTRACT

Smoke water and distillation liquid were used to treat the seeds of Trichosathes kirilowii and to study the effects of smoke water and distillation liquid on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. kirilowii. The results showed that germination rate, germination index and germination vigor of T. kirilowii all were significantly improved with the treatment of SW and DL treatment. The activity of α-amylase were significantly increased with the treatment of SW and DL at 1:2,000. SW and DL treatment showed no significant effects on the activity of SOD. The activity of POD were markedly enhanced under the treatment of SW (1:000) and DL (1:2,000). CAT activity were increased with the treatment of SW and DL at 1:2,000 while were inhibited by SW and DL at 1:500. Seedling height and root length were increased with the treatment of SW and DL (1:1,000, 1:2,000). SW and DL treaments improved the content of chlorophyll, and moreover with the concentration of SW and DL, the stimulatory were also increased. This work demonstrated that smoke water and diatillation liquid at 1:2,000 could stimulate the seed germination and seedling growth of T. kirilowii, and it provided the references for the study of seed germination technology.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Methods , Distillation , Germination , Seedlings , Metabolism , Seeds , Metabolism , Smoke , Trichosanthes , Metabolism , Water , Chemistry , Metabolism
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