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Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 647-653, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939509


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Neiguan" (PC 6) on cardiac function of ventriculus sinister in rats with spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and to explore the mediation effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1)/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS).@*METHODS@#Six 12-week-old male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were taken as the normal group. Eighteen 12-week-old SHR were randomly divided into a model group, an EA group and a sham EA group, 6 rats in each group. The rats in the EA group were treated with EA (disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/15 Hz in frequency, 1 mA in current intensity) at "Neiguan" (PC 6), 30 min each time, once a day for 8 weeks. The rats in the sham EA group were treated with superficial needling at "Neiguan" (PC 6) with no electrical stimulation applied. After treatment, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) were tested by echocardiographic analysis. The left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), heart rate (HR), the maximum rate of increase/decrease of left ventricular pressure (±dp/dtmax) were detected. The serum content of ET-1 was detected by ELISA. Western blot was used to evaluate the expression of ETAR, eNOS in myocardial tissue of left ventricular.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal group, LVEF, LVFS, +dp/dtmax/LVSP and -dp/dtmax/LVSP were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05), while LVSP, LVEDP, +dp/dtmax and -dp/dtmax were increased (P<0.01) in the model group. Compared with the model group, LVEF, LVFS, +dp/dtmax/LVSP and -dp/dtmax/LVSP were increased (P<0.01, P<0.05), and LVSP and LVEDP were decreased (P<0.01) in the EA group. Compared with the normal group, the serum content of ET-1 and the expression of ETAR in myocardial tissue were increased (P<0.01), whereas expression of eNOS was decreased (P<0.01) in the model group. Compared with the model group, the serum content of ET-1 and the expression of ETAR in myocardial tissue were decreased (P<0.05), whereas expression of eNOS was increased (P<0.05) in the EA group.@*CONCLUSION@#EA intervention may alleviate hypertensive cardiac function damage by up-regulating the expression of eNOS protein in myocardial tissue, down-regulating the serum content of ET-1 and the expression of ETAR protein in myocardial tissue.

Animals , Male , Rats , Electroacupuncture , Endothelin-1/genetics , Heart Diseases , Hypertension/therapy , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18430, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132056


To assess the effect of nesiritide on the endothelial function of iliac arteries following endothelia trauma. Right iliac artery trauma was created with a balloon catheter. Ten rabbits were treated with a 4-week subcutaneous injection of nesiritide at a fixed daily dose of 0.1mg/kg. Ten rabbits received daily normal saline injection. Plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1), nitric oxide (NO), and Von Willebrand Factor (vWF) were measured before and after the therapies. Tissue proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was measured after the treatment. After the treatment, in the therapeutic group, the area under internal elastic membrane and the residual lumen area were higher than in the normal saline group (P <0.05). The plasma levels of ET-1 (91.6±6.8 vs 114.9±6.3 ng/L, P =0.001), vWF (134.6±10.8% vs 188.8±10.4%, P =0.001) and the ratio of PCNA positive expression (11.7±4.2% vs 36.2±11.4%, P =0.005) in the therapeutic group was lower than in the normal saline group, while the plasma levels of NO was higher (89.7±9.3 vs 43.5±5.3 µmol/L, P =0.001). Nesiritide inhibited remodeling of rabbit iliac artery following endothelial trauma. The inhibition of vascular remodeling may be related to the alleviated endothelial dysfunction and reduced expression of tissue proliferating cell nuclear antigen

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Iliac Aneurysm/classification , Endothelin-1/adverse effects , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/analysis , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Wounds and Injuries/classification , von Willebrand Factor/analysis , Catheters/classification , Iliac Artery , Nitric Oxide/analysis
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 451-461, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056616


ABSTRACT Hypertension and Diabetes mellitus are the two main causes of chronic kidney disease that culminate in the final stage of kidney disease. Since these two risk factors are common and can overlap, new approaches to prevent or treat them are needed. Macitentan (MAC) is a new non-selective antagonist of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic blockade of ET-1 receptor with MAC on the alteration of renal function observed in hypertensive and hyperglycemic animals. Genetically hypertensive rats were divided into control hypertensive (HT-CTL) group, hypertensive and hyperglycemic (HT+DIAB) group, and hypertensive and hyperglycemic group that received 25 mg/kg macitentan (HT-DIAB+MAC25) via gavage for 60 days. Kidney function and parameters associated with oxidative and nitrosative stress were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), ET-1, and catalase in the renal cortex was performed. The HT+DIAB group showed a decrease in kidney function and an increase in NGAL expression in the renal cortex, as well as an increase in oxidative stress. MAC treatment was associated with attenuated ET-1 and NGAL production and increases in antioxidant defense (catalase expression) and nitric oxide production. In addition, MAC prevented an increase in oxidant injury (as measured by urinary hydroperoxide and lipid peroxidation), thus improving renal function. Our results suggest that the antioxidant effect of the ET-1 receptor antagonist MAC is involved in the improvement of kidney function observed in hypertensive and hyperglycemic rats.

RESUMO Hipertensão e Diabetes Mellitus figuram como as duas principais causas de doença renal crônica que culmina em doença renal terminal. Uma vez que os dois fatores de risco são comuns e podem se sobrepor, novas abordagens preventivas e terapêuticas se fazem necessárias. O macitentan (MAC) é um novo antagonista não-seletivo dos receptores da endotelina-1 (ET-1). O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do bloqueio crônico dos receptores da ET-1 com MAC sobre a alteração da função renal em animais hipertensos e hiperglicêmicos. Ratos geneticamente hipertensos foram divididos em grupos com animais hipertensos de controle (HT-CTL), hipertensos e hiperglicêmicos (HT+DIAB) e hipertensos e hiperglicêmicos tratados com 25 mg/kg de macitentan (HT-DIAB+MAC25) via gavagem por 60 dias. Foram avaliados função renal e parâmetros associados ao estresse oxidativo e nitrosativo. Exames de imunoistoquímica foram realizados para lipocalina associada à gelatinase neutrofílica (NGAL), ET-1 e catalase no córtex renal. O grupo HT+DIAB exibiu diminuição da função renal e aumento na expressão de NGAL no córtex renal, bem como estresse oxidativo aumentado. O tratamento com MAC foi associado a atenuação da produção de ET-1 e NGAL e maior ativação das defesas antioxidantes (expressão de catalase) e elevação da produção de óxido nítrico. Além disso, o MAC evitou exacerbação da lesão oxidante (medida por hidroperóxidos urinários e peroxidação lipídica), melhorando assim a função renal. Nossos resultados sugerem que o efeito antioxidante do antagonista dos receptores da ET-1 MAC esteja imbricado no aprimoramento da função renal observada em ratos hipertensos e hiperglicêmicos.

Humans , Animals , Male , Hyperglycemia/complications , Kidney/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Rats/genetics , Risk Factors , Endothelin-1/metabolism , Administration, Intravenous , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/injuries , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(1): 3-10, Jan. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973840


Abstract Background: Vein graft restenosis has an adverse impact on bridge vessel circulation and patient prognosis after coronary artery bypass grafting. Objectives: We used the extravascular supporter α-cyanoacrylate (α-CA), the local application rapamycin/sirolimus (RPM), and a combination of the two (α-CA-RPM) in rat models of autogenous vein graft to stimulate vein graft change. The aim of our study was to observe the effect of α-CA, RPM, and α-CA-RPM on vein hyperplasia. Methods: Fifty healthy Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into the following 5 groups: sham, control, α-CA, RPM, and α-CA-RPM. Operating procedure as subsequently described was used to build models of grafted rat jugular vein on carotid artery on one side. The level of endothelin-1 (ET-1) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Grafted veins were observed via naked eye 4 weeks later; fresh veins were observed via microscope and image-processing software in hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry after having been fixed and stored" (i.e. First they were fixed and stored, and second they were observed); α-Smooth Muscle Actin (αSMA) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparisons were made with single-factor analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test, with p < 0.05 considered significant. Results: We found that intimal thickness of the α-CA, RPM, and α-CA-RPM groups was lower than that of the control group (p < 0.01), and the thickness of the α-CA-RPM group was notably lower than that of the α-CA and RPM groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: RPM combined with α-CA contributes to inhibiting intimal hyperplasia in rat models and is more effective for vascular patency than individual use of either α-CA or RPM.

Resumo Fundamento: Reestenose de enxertos venosos tem um impacto adverso na circulação de pontagens e no prognóstico de pacientes após a cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica. Objetivos: Nós utilizamos α-cianoacrilato (α-CA) como suporte extravascular, rapamicina/sirolimus (RPM) como aplicação local e a combinação dos dois (α-CA-RPM) em modelos de enxerto venoso autógeno em ratos para estimular mudança no enxerto venoso. O objetivo do nosso estudo foi observar o efeito de α-CA, RPM e α-CA-RPM na hiperplasia venosa. Métodos: Cinquenta ratos Sprague Dawley (SD) saudáveis foram randomizados nos 5 grupos seguintes: sham, controle, α-CA, RPM e α-CA-RPM. O procedimento operacional descrito subsequentemente foi utilizado para construir modelos de enxertos da veia jugular na artéria carótida em ratos, em um lado. O nível de endotelina-1 (ET-1) foi determinado por ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática (ELISA). As veias enxertadas foram observadas a olho nu 4 semanas após; as veias frescas foram observadas via microscópio e software de processamento de imagem com coloração hematoxilina-eosina (HE) e imuno-histoquímica depois de serem fixadas e armazenadas; α-actina do músculo liso (αSMA) e o fator de von Willebrand (vWF) foram medidos com reação em cadeia da polimerase-transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR). Realizaram-se as comparações com análise de variância de fator único (ANOVA) e o teste de diferença mínima significativa (LSD) de Fisher, com p < 0,05 sendo considerado estatisticamente significante. Resultados: Nós achamos que a espessura intimal nos grupos α-CA, RPM e α-CA-RPM era menor que no grupo controle (p < 0,01) e a espessura no grupo α-CA-RPM era notavelmente menor que nos grupos α-CA e RPM (p < 0,05). Conclusão: A combinação de RPM e α-CA contribui à inibição de hiperplasia em modelos em ratos e é mais efetivo para patência vascular que uso individual de α-CA ou RPM.

Animals , Male , Female , Tunica Intima/drug effects , Tunica Intima/pathology , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Cyanoacrylates/pharmacology , Hyperplasia/prevention & control , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Carotid Arteries/pathology , Carotid Arteries/transplantation , Random Allocation , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Reproducibility of Results , Actins/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Endothelin-1/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Combinations , Graft Occlusion, Vascular/etiology , Graft Occlusion, Vascular/pathology , Graft Occlusion, Vascular/prevention & control , Jugular Veins/pathology , Jugular Veins/transplantation
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1036-1044, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762056


PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) transplantation on atherosclerosis (AS) and its underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study, rat AS model was established, and ADSCs were isolated and cultured. Atherosclerotic plaque and pathological symptoms of thoracic aorta were measured by Oil Red O staining and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, respectively. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured by an automatic biochemical analyzer. Expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), aortic endothelin-1 (ET-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), c-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, VEGF, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, ET-1, respectively, and NF-κB p65 mRNA expressions were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein expressions of VEGF, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, ET-1, NF-κB p65, p-NF-κB p65, and IκBα were measured by western blot. Moreover, NF-κB p65 expression was measured by immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: ADSC transplantation alleviated the pathological symptoms of aortic AS. ADSC transplantation decreased the levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C and increased serum HDL-C level. Meanwhile, ADSC transplantation decreased the levels of IL-6, CRP, and TNF-α in AS rats. Moreover, the expressions of VEGF, ET-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 were decreased by ADSC transplantation. ADSC transplantation inhibited phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and promoted IκBα expression in AS rats. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that ADSC transplantation could inhibit vascular inflammatory responses and endothelial dysfunction by suppressing NF-κB pathway in AS rats.

Animals , Rats , Aorta, Thoracic , Atherosclerosis , Blotting, Western , C-Reactive Protein , Cholesterol , Endothelin-1 , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Interleukin-6 , Lipoproteins , Phosphorylation , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Triglycerides , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 193-198, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776531


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the vascular damage effects and possible mechanism of acute exposure to ozone (O) in male Wistar rats.@*METHODS@#One hundred and twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups, 20 in each group. The experimental animals were placed in a gas poisoning cabinet, the control group was exposed to filtered air, and the treatment group was exposed to ozone at concentrations of 0.12 ppm, 0.5 ppm, 1.0 ppm, 2.0 ppm, and 4.0 ppm, respectively, for 4 hours. Arterial blood pressure data were obtained by PC-lab medical physiological signal acquisition system. Blood rheology indicators and blood biochemical indicators were detected by Tianjin Dean Diagnostic Laboratory. Serum endothelin-1 (ET-1), homocysteine (HCY), von Willebrand factor (vWF), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OhdG), interleukin (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microplate assay. Oxidative stress indicators superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by xanthine oxidase method, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method, reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) were tested by using microplate colorimetry. Paraffin sections were prepared from thoracic aorta tissue, and vascular structure was observed by HE staining.@*RESULTS@#Acute exposure to 0.12 ppm ozone could cause a significant increase in arterial systolic blood pressure (SBP). Exposure to different concentrations of ozone could cause a significant increase in plasma viscosity, and the K value of the ESR equation was significantly increased in the 1.0 ppm ozone exposure group. Both the relative and reduced viscosities were significantly reduced at ozone concentrations of 0.5 ppm and 4.0 ppm, while the red blood cell deformation index was increased significantly at ozone concentrations of 0.12 ppm, 0.5 ppm, 1.0 ppm, and 2.0 ppm. Acute ozone exposure resulted in the decrease of total cholesterol content. The content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly reduced in the 0.12 ppm ozone exposure group. When the ozone concentration was higher than 1.0 ppm, the body may also had an inflammatory reaction (increased TNF-α) and oxidative stress (increased MDA, decreased GSH). Acute exposure to ozone could lead to elevated levels of ET-1 in the blood, with significant differences in the 4.0 ppm concentration group, while HCY levels were decreased firstly and then increased, reaching the highest in the 1.0 ppm concentration group. No obvious pathological changes were observed in the thoracic aorta.@*CONCLUSION@#Acute ozone exposure can affect arterial blood pressure, blood rheology and cholesterol metabolism in rats. The possible mechanism is that ozone exposure leads to inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress reaction, causing vascular endothelial function damage, and vascular endothelial cells increase with ozone exposure concentration.

Animals , Male , Rats , Blood Vessels , Wounds and Injuries , Deoxyguanosine , Blood , Endothelin-1 , Blood , Homocysteine , Blood , Interleukin-6 , Blood , Malondialdehyde , Oxidative Stress , Ozone , Toxicity , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Blood , von Willebrand Factor
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 55(3): 21-30, set. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041741


RESUMEN La Endotelina-1 (ET1) y Proteína C Reactiva ultrasensible (PCRus) como marcadores de disfunción endotelial (DE) e inflamación vascular en hipotiroidismo subclínico (HS) han mostrado resultados controvertidos. El rol del estrés oxidativo y defensa antioxidante (TRAP) es motivo de discusión. Objetivos Establecer si el HS y la autoinmunidad tiroidea (AIT), excluyendo otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular, pueden causar DE e inflamación vascular, evaluadas a través de ET1 y PCRus, respectivamente. Establecer si TRAP juega algún rol. Evaluar cambios en ET1 y PCRus luego del tratamiento con levotiroxina (LT4). Material y métodos Se evaluaron prospectivamente 70 pacientes divididos en 3 grupos: HS: 41 pacientes (T4 normal,TSH >4,2 y <10 mUI/L), AIT: 10 pacientes eutiroideos (TSH <4,2 mUI/L) con aTPO y/o aTg (+) y Control: 19 pacientes eutiroideos sin AIT. Se excluyeron otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Se midió basalmente ET1, PCRus y TRAP plasmáticos, y en HS bajo LT4 (n = 24): ET1 y PCRus. Resultados No hubo diferencias significativas en edad, IMC, perfil lipídico y TRAP. ET1 y PCRus fueron significativamente mayores en pacientes con HS (media ± DS 1,77 ± 0,85 pg/ml y 1,5 ± 0,6 mg/l vs. controles (0,8 ± 0,3 pg/ml y 0,5 ± 0,2 mg/l) p <0,0001 y <0,008 respectivamente. Del mismo modo en AIT (1,4 ± 0.4 pg/ml y 2,3 ± 1,3 mg/l) vs controles p <0,0001 y <0,034, respectivamente. La TSH fue mayor en el grupo AIT vs. Control 2,57 ± 0,88 vs. 1,64 ± 0,5 mUI/L; p = 0,002. En HS bajo LT4 (8,7 ± 3,8 meses) se observó descenso de ET1 (p <0,001). ET1 correlacionó con TSH (r = 0,5 p <0,0001). El punto de corte de ET1 mediante curva ROC fue 1,32 pg/ml (Sensibilidad 81,6%-Especificidad 75%). Conclusiones ET1 y PCRus resultaron marcadores útiles para evaluar DE e inflamación vascular asociadas a HS. La defensa antioxidante no ejercería un rol en estos mecanismos. El tratamiento con LT4 produjo una significativa caída de ET1, pudiendo necesitarse un período más largo de eutiroidismo para normalizarla. En AIT, niveles de TSH >2,5 mUI/L podrían sugerir un mínimo grado de hipotiroidismo justificando la elevación en ET1 y PCR, sin descartar el rol de la AIT "per se".

ABSTRACT The measurement of endothelin-1 (ET1) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as markers of endothelial dysfunction (ED) and vascular inflammation in subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) has shown controversial results. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense (TRAP) is a matter of discussion. Objectives To establish if SH and thyroid autoimmunity (TAI), excluding other cardiovascular risk factors, may cause ED and vascular inflammation, evaluated through the measurement of ET1 and hsCRP respectively. To determine if TRAP could have some role. Additionally, changes in these parameters after treatment with levothyroxine (LT4) will be evaluated. Material and methods: 70 patients were prospectively evaluated. They were classified into: SH Group: 41 patients (normal T4, TSH> 4.2 and <10 mIU/L), TAI Group: 10 euthyroid patients (TSH <4.2 mUI/L) with positive aTPO and/or aTg and Control Group: 19 euthyroid patients without TAI. Other cardiovascular risk factors were excluded in patients and controls. Plasma ET1, hsCRP and TRAP were measured basally, and ET1 and hsCRP under LT4 therapy in the HS Group. Results There were no significant differences between the 3 groups in age, BMI, lipids and TRAP. ET1 and hsCRP were significantly higher in patients with SH (mean ± SD 1.77 ± 0.85 pg/ml and 1.5 ± 0.6 mg/l) vs. controls (0.8 ± 0.3 pg/ml y 0.5 ± 0.2 mg/l) p <0.0001 y <0.008 respectively. Similarly, in TAI patients (1.4 ± 0.4 pg/ml y 2.3 ± 1.3 mg/l) vs controls, p <0.0001 and <0.034, respectively. TSH was higher in the TAI patients versus control group (2.5 ± 0.88 versus 1.64 ± 0.5 mIU/L, p = 0.002). Twenty-four patients with SH showed a significant decrease in ET1 (p <0.001) under treatment with LT4 (8.7 ± 3.8 months). ET1 had a highly significant correlation (p <0.0001) with TSH (r = 0.5). The cut-off level of ET1 established by ROC curve was 1.32 pg/ml (Sensitivity 81.6%-Specificity 75%). Conclusions ET1 and hsCRP were useful markers to evaluate ED and vascular inflammation associated with SH. There were no differences in TRAP levels between patients and controls, so it does not appear that oxidative stress would have played any role. Treatment with LT4 produced a significant drop in ET1. Probably, a longer period of euthyroidism might be necessary to normalize ET1 levels. In TAI Group, TSH levels >2.5 mUI/L could suggest a "minimal degree" of hypothyroidism justifying the elevation in ET1 and hs CRP. The role of the TAI "per se" couldn't be completely ruled out.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/drug effects , Endothelin-1/drug effects , Hypothyroidism/complications , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Autoimmunity/drug effects , Case-Control Studies , Endothelin-1/analysis , Antioxidants/metabolism
Acta cir. bras ; 33(7): 577-587, July 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949362


Abstract Purpose: To investigate changes in the plasma concentrations of cardiac troponin I (CTnI), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in rabbits with massive pulmonary embolism (AMPE) and the impact of nitric oxide inhalation (NOI) on these indices. Methods: A total of 30 Japanese rabbits were used to construct an MPE model and were divided into 3 groups equally (n=10), including an EXP group (undergoing modeling alone), an NOI group (receiving NOI 2 h post-modeling) and a CON group (receiving intravenous physiological saline). Results: In the model group, plasma concentration of CTnI peaked at 16 h following modeling (0.46±0.10 µg/ml) and significantly decreased following NOI. Plasma levels of TXB2, PGI2 and ET-1 peaked at 12, 16 and 8 h following modeling, respectively, and significantly decreased at different time points (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h) following NOI. A significant correlation was observed between the peak plasma CTnI concentration and peak TXB2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1α and ET-1 concentrations in the model and NOI groups. Conclusion: Increases in plasma TXA2, PGI2 and ET-1 levels causes myocardial damage in a rabbit model of AMPE; however, NOI effectively down regulates the plasma concentration of these molecules to produce a myocardial-protective effect.

Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Thromboxane A2/blood , Bronchodilator Agents/pharmacology , Epoprostenol/blood , Endothelin-1/blood , Troponin I/blood , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Administration, Inhalation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Random Allocation , Down-Regulation , Acute Disease , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 488-492, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954142


Spinal cord injury causes neuron nerve fiber loss. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective, inflammatory and angiogenetic effects of melatonin on rat spinal cord injury (SCI). For spinal cord injury, a standard weight reduction method was used that caused moderate severity of injury (100 g / cm force) at T10 Melatonin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally ) was administered for 10 days after trauma. Each group consisted of 10 animals. of these, six were used for biochemical and four were used for the evaluation of histological analysis. Spinal cord samples were taken for histological examination or determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Spinal cord injury and melatonin treated group were compared. Melatonin administration in spinal cord injury increased the activity of glial cells in the radial and funicular cells and ependymal cells and increased the activity of glial cells and also showed a positive effect on inflammation and vascular endothelial cells in synaptic connections in the nerve fibers undergoing spinal injury endothelial degeneration It is thought that it can regulate the degenerative effect which is caused by both the inflammatory effect and the angiogenic effect which will have a positive effect on the neural connection.

La lesión de la médula espinal (SCI) provoca daño en la fibra nerviosa, que puede conducir a alteraciones motoras y sensitivas, incluso la muerte. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los efectos neuroprotectores, proinflamatorios y proangiogénicos de la melatonina en un modelo de SCI inducida en rata. Para tal efecto se utilizaron dos grupos: Grupo 1 (n:10) se le indujo una SCI, mediante el método de reducción de peso estándar (100 g/cm fuerza), provocando una lesión de severidad moderada. Grupo 2 (n:10) inducción SCI más aplicación de T10 Melatonina (10 mg / kg v.i.) durante 10 días después del trauma. Muestras de seis animales de cada grupo fueron usados para análisis bioquímicos y los otros cuatro para la evaluación histológica. Se tomaron muestras de médula espinal para el examen histológico y para la determinación de niveles de malondialdehído (MDA) y glutatión (GSH), actividad mieloperoxidasa (MPO) y se comparó la lesión de la médula espinal y el grupo tratado con melatonina. La administración de melatonina en la lesión de la médula espinal aumentó la actividad de las células gliales en las células radiales, funiculares y ependimocitos. Ademas mostró un efecto positivo sobre la inflamación y angiogénesis en las conexiones sinápticas en las fibras nerviosas sometidas a lesión espinal. Pudiendo este participar en la regulación del efecto degenerativo causado, principalmente, por acción de angiogénesis e inflamación local.

Spinal Cord Injuries/metabolism , Spinal Cord Injuries/drug therapy , Melatonin/metabolism , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Immunohistochemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Endothelin-1/metabolism
Rev. nefrol. diál. traspl ; 38(2): 103-110, jun. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006761


INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the most common causes of mortality in chronic kidney disease. Smoking is a well defined risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and endothelin-1 (Et-1) have found elevated in chronic inflammatory process. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate if IL-6, TNF-alpha, hsCRP and ET-1 are increased in smoker hemodialysis (HD) patient compared to non-smoker HD individuals to potentially refer us cardiovascular diseases noninvasively. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 80 smoker and 50 non-smoker maintenance hemodialysis male patients with similar demographic characters, dialysis and support treatment and metabolic profile. In addition to routine tests, we took samples for evaluating IL-6, TNF-α, hsCRP and endothelin-1. P values were In smoker HD patients, IL-6, TNF-alpha, hsCRP and endothelin-1 levels were found increased level statistically significant compared to non-smoker indiviuals. CONCLUSION: This study may refer us that smoking is an additional risk factor among HD individuals by increased levels of IL-6, TNF-α, hsCRP and Et-1

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (EC) constituyen una de las causas más frecuentes de mortalidad en los casos de enfermedad renal crónica. El tabaquismo es un factor de riesgo bien definido para la enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica. Se encontraron valores elevados de Interleucina-6 (IL-6), factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNFα), proteína C-reactiva de alta sensibilidad (hs-CRP) y Endotelina-1 (Et-1) en el proceso inflamatorio crónico. OBJETIVO: El objetivo fue analizar si los valores de IL-6, TNFα, hs CRP y Et-1 son más elevados en los pacientes fumadores en hemodiálisis que en los no fumadores para predecir una posible enfermedad cardiovascular de forma no invasiva. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron pacientes masculinos en hemodiálisis de mantenimiento, 80 fumadores y 50 no fumadores, similares en cuanto a sus características demográficas, tratamiento de diálisis y de mantenimiento, y perfil metabólico. Además de los análisis de rutina, se tomaron muestras para evaluar los valores de IL-6, TNFα, hs CRP y Endotelina-1. Se midieron los valores de p. RESULTADOS: Se halló una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en los niveles de IL-6, TNFα, hs CRP y Endotelina-1: fueron más elevados en los pacientes sometidos a hemodiálisis que eran fumadores en comparación con los no fumadores.CONCLUSIÓN: Este estudio podría demostrar que el tabaquismo es un factor de riesgo adicional para los pacientes que se tratan con hemodiálisis según muestran los valores elevados de IL-6, TNFα, hs CRP y Et-1

Humans , Tobacco Use Disorder , Protein C , Cardiovascular Diseases , Renal Dialysis , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Endothelin-1 , Risk Factors
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 109-112, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893196


SUMMARY: Severe preeclampsia (HELLP syndrome) is a life-threatening pregnancy complication, usually a severe form of preeclampsia. In this study, we aimed to examine histopathologic changes and Endothelin-1 and KI-67 expression levels by immunohistochemical methods in severe preeclamptic placentas. Severe preeclampsia and obstetric characteristics and biochemical and hematological characteristics of healthy subjects were compared. Placenta sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological examination. In the histopathological examination of severe preeclamptic placenta, degeneration in synaptic and cytotrophoblastic cells, increase in insidious knots, fibrinoid necrosis, degeneration in endothelial cells, calcification and hyaline villous stains were observed. In the severe preeclampsia group, Ki-67 expression increased in decidua cells and inflammatory cells, while endothelial cells in the vessel wall and inflammatory cells in the villus and intervillous spaces increased. It is thought that angiogenetic and cellular proliferation is induced in a co-ordinated manner and significantly influences fetal development.

RESUMEN: La preeclampsia severa (síndrome de HELLP) es una complicación del embarazo potencialmente mortal, generalmente una forma grave de preeclampsia. En este estudio, nuestro objetivo fue examinar los cambios histopatológicos y los niveles de expresión de Endotelina-1 y Ki-67 mediante métodos inmunohistoquímicos en placentas preeclámpsicas graves. Se compararon la preeclampsia grave y las características obstétricas, además de las características bioquímicas y hematológicas de pacientes sanas. Las secciones de placenta se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina para examen histopatológico. En el examen histopatológico de placenta preeclampsia severa, se observó la degeneración en células sinápticas y citotrofoblásticas, un aumento de nudos insidiosos, necrosis fibrinoide, degeneración en las células endoteliales,calcificación y manchas vellosas hialinas. En el grupo de preeclampsia grave, la expresión de Ki-67 aumentó en células deciduas y células inflamatorias, mientras que las células endoteliales en la pared del vaso, y las células inflamatorias en las vellosidades y los espacios intervellosos aumentaron. Se cree que la proliferación angiogenética y celular se induce de forma coordinada y que influye significativamente en el desarrollo fetal.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Endothelin-1/metabolism , HELLP Syndrome/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Placenta/pathology , HELLP Syndrome/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Pre-Eclampsia/pathology
Acta cir. bras ; 33(1): 22-30, Jan. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886251


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the influence of dexmedetomidine on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rabbits. Methods: Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two equal-sized groups: IRI group (group IR) and dexmedetomidine group (group D). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular diastolic pressure (LVDP), +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmax, and t-dp/dtmax were recorded and calculated at the following time points: before (T0) and after (T1) dexmedetomidine infusion, after 30-min ischemia (T2), and after 120-min reperfusion (T3). The levels of plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and platelet activating factor (PAF); area of myocardial infarction (MI); and no-reflow area were evaluated. Results: SBP, DBP, LVSP, LVEDP, LVDP, and +dp/dtmax at T3 were higher in group D than in group IR (P<0.05). The average no-reflow area in group IR was significantly smaller than that in group D (14±3% vs. 38±5%, P=0.0116). The ET-1, TXA2, and PAF levels at T2 and T3 were higher than those at T0 in both groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine could reduce the magnitude of ischemic myocardial no-reflow area and protect the myocardium with ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Animals , Male , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Reference Values , Thromboxane A2/blood , Platelet Activating Factor/analysis , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Endothelin-1/blood , Disease Models, Animal , No-Reflow Phenomenon/physiopathology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemodynamics
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): e6329, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889035


Recent evidence shows that chronic ethanol consumption increases endothelin (ET)-1 induced sustained contraction of trabecular smooth muscle cells of the corpora cavernosa in corpus cavernosum of rats by a mechanism that involves increased expression of ETA and ETB receptors. Our goal was to evaluate the effects of alcohol and diabetes and their relationship to miRNA-155, miRNA-199 and endothelin receptors in the corpus cavernosum and blood of rats submitted to the experimental model of diabetes mellitus and chronic alcoholism. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C), alcoholic (A), diabetic (D), and alcoholic-diabetic (AD). Samples of the corpus cavernosum were prepared to study the protein expression of endothelin receptors by immunohistochemistry and expression of miRNAs-155 and -199 in serum and the cavernous tissue. Immunostaining for endothelin receptors was markedly higher in the A, D, and AD groups than in the C group. Moreover, a significant hypoexpression of the miRNA-199 in the corpus cavernosum tissue from the AD group was observed, compared to the C group. When analyzing the microRNA profile in blood, a significant hypoexpression of miRNA-155 in the AD group was observed compared to the C group. The miRNA-199 analysis demonstrated significant hypoexpression in D and AD groups compared to the C group. Our findings in corpus cavernosum showed downregulated miRNA-155 and miRNA-199 levels associated with upregulated protein expression and unaltered mRNA expression of ET receptors suggesting decreased ET receptor turnover, which can contribute to erectile dysfunction in diabetic rats exposed to high alcohol levels.

Animals , Male , Rats , Alcoholism/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Endothelin-1/analysis , MicroRNAs/analysis , Penis/metabolism , Receptor, Endothelin A/analysis , Receptor, Endothelin B/analysis , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Immunohistochemistry , Penis/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 296-303, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691369


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxinluo Capsule (, TXL) for patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding TXL in the treatment of CSX were searched in Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Wanfang Database, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial, websites of the Chinese and International Clinical Trial Registry platform up to June 30, 2015. The intervention was either TXL alone or TXL combined with conventional treatment, while the control intervention was conventional treatment with or without placebo. Data extraction, methodological quality assessment and data analyses were performed according to the Cochrane criteria. The primary outcome was a composite event of death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), angina requiring hospitalization, revascularization, and heart failure. The secondary outcome measures were angina symptom improvement, electrocardiograph (ECG) improvement, and serum endothelin-1 (ET-1) level. The adverse events were also recorded. RevMan 5.3 software was applied for data analyses.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Twelve RCTs (696 patients) were included. Compared with conventional treatment, the addition of TXL to conventional treatment showed some benefits on relieving angina symptoms [risk ratio (RR): 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.25, 1.71), P<0.01], and improving ECG [RR: 1.45, 95% CI (1.21, 1.74), P<0.01]. The pooled result did not support a benefit of TXL on reducing the incidence of primary outcome [RR: 0.20, 95% CI (0.02, 1.61), P=0.13]. In addition, TXL decreased serum ET-1 concentration of CSX patients [standardized mean number:-1.63, 95% CI (-2.29,-0.96), P<0.01]. No serious adverse events were reported.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>TXL documents potential benefits on attenuating angina symptoms, improving ECG and decreasing serum ET-1 level for CSX patients. However, more rigorous RCTs with high quality are needed to confirm its efficacy and safety.</p>

Humans , Middle Aged , Capsules , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diagnostic Imaging , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Electrocardiography , Endothelin-1 , Blood , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Publication Bias , Syndrome
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 147-153, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776410


This study aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effect and possible mechanism of Dendrobium officinale flos on hypertensive rats induced by high glucose and high fat compound alcohol. The hypertensive models were successfully made by high-glucose and high-fat diet, with gradient drinking for 4 weeks, and then divided into model control group, valsartan (5.7 mg·kg⁻¹) positive control group and D. officinale flos groups (3,1 g·kg⁻¹). After 6 weeks of treatment, the blood pressure of rats was measured regularly. After the last administration, endothelin-1 (ET-1), thromboxane B₂ (TXB₂), prostacyclin (PGI₂) and nitric oxide (NO) were tested. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and lesion status in thoracic aorta were detected. The vascular endothelium dependent dilation of the thoracic aorta was detected by the isolated vascular loop tension test. The results showed that D. officinale flos could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure in hypertensive rats, inhibit the thickening of thoracic aorta and the loss of endothelial cells, reduce plasma content of ET-1 and TXB₂, and increase the content of PGI₂ and NO. After long-term administration, vascular endothelium dependent dilation of the thoracic aorta was significantly increased, and could be blocked by the eNOS inhibitor (L-NAME) and increase the expression of eNOS. Therefore, D. officinale flos has an obvious antihypertensive effect on high glucose and high fat compound alcohol-induced hypertensive rats. Its mechanism may be correlated with the improvement of vascular diastolic function by protecting vascular endothelial cells, and finally resist hypertension.

Animals , Rats , Antihypertensive Agents , Pharmacology , Blood Pressure , Dendrobium , Chemistry , Diet, High-Fat , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Endothelin-1 , Blood , Endothelium, Vascular , Epoprostenol , Blood , Glucose , Hypertension , Drug Therapy , Nitric Oxide , Blood , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Metabolism , T-Box Domain Proteins , Blood , Vasodilation
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 33(4): 308-315, dic. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042620


La adaptación al medio extrauterino incluye un aumento considerable de la PaO2, que induce especialmente cambios estructurales y vasoactivos en la circulación pulmonar, que llevarán a una circulación previamente pobremente irrigada, a recibir ∼100% del gasto cardíaco del recién nacido, permitiendo el normal intercambio gaseoso. La regulación local de la circulación arterial pulmonar neonatal basal, es mantenida por un delicado equilibrio entre agentes vasoconstrictores y vasodilatadores. Este equilibrio, permite mantener la circulación pulmonar como un territorio de gran flujo sanguíneo y baja resistencia. La acción de los vasoconstrictores permite la formación de las interacciones entre actina y la cadena liviana de la miosina, esta es inducida en la célula muscular lisa principalmente por dos vías: a) dependiente de calcio, que consiste en aumentar el calcio intracelular, facilitando finalmente la unión de actina y miosina, y b) independiente de calcio, la cual a través de consecutivas fosforilaciones logra sensibilizar a las proteínas involucradas promoviendo la unión de actina y miosina. Estas acciones son mediadas por agonistas generados principalmente en el endotelio pulmonar, como endotelina-1 y tromboxano, o por agonistas provenientes de otros tipos celulares como la serotonina. Los agentes vasodilatadores regulan la respuesta vasoconstrictora, principalmente inhibiendo la señalización que induce la vasocontricción independiente de calcio, a través de la activación de proteínas quinasas que inhibirán la función de la ROCK quinasa, uno de los últimos efectores de la vasocontricción antes de la formación de la unión de actina y miosina. Esta revisión describe estos mecanismos de primordial importancia en las primeras horas de nuestra vida como individuos independientes.

The extrauterine-milieu adaptation includes a considerable increase in PaO2, that specifically induces structural and vasoactive changes at pulmonary circulation. Such changes transform a poor irrigated circulation into a circulation that receive ∼100% of neonatal cardiac output, supporting the normal alveolar-capillary gas exchange. Local regulation of basal neonatal pulmonary circulation is maintaining by a delicate equilibrium between vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents. This equilibrium, allows to maintain the pulmonary circulation as an hemodynamic system with a high blood flow and a low vascular resistance. Vasocontrictors action allows actin and light-chain myosin interaction. Two main pathways induced this effect in smooth muscle cell: a) a calcium dependent pathway, that increases intracellular calcium, facilitating actin - myosin binding, and b) the independent calcium pathway, which achieves through consecutive phosphorylation reactions sensitize the proteins involved, promoting the binding of actin and light-chain myosin. These actions are mediated by agonists produced mainly in the pulmonary endothelium, such as endothelin-1 and thromboxane, or by agonists from other cell types such as serotonin. Vasodilator agents regulate the vasoconstrictor response, mainly by inhibiting signals that induce calcium-independent vasoconstriction, through activation of protein kinases, which in turn will inhibit the function of ROCK kinase, one of the last effectors of vasoconstriction before formation of the actin and light-chain myosin binding. This review will focus on describing these mechanisms of primal importance in the first hours of our lives as independent individuals.

Humans , Infant, Newborn/physiology , Pulmonary Circulation/physiology , Lung/blood supply , Vascular Resistance , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/antagonists & inhibitors , Vasodilation/physiology , Vasodilator Agents/antagonists & inhibitors , Adaptation, Physiological , Serotonin/physiology , Thromboxanes/physiology , Calcium , Endothelin-1/physiology
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2017; 33 (4): 920-925
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-188613


Objective: To explore hsCRP and ET-1 expressions in patients with no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]

Methods: A total of 136 patients with single coronary artery disease receiving PCI were divided into a reflow group and a no-reflow group to compare the level use of ET-1 alone with combined level of ET-1 and hs-CRP in PCI regarding sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy for postoperative no-reflow. The study was conducted between 2014-2016 at our hospital

Results: Postoperative levels of ET-1 and hs-CRP in no-reflow group were significantly higher than those of reflow group [P<0.05]. ET-1 level of reflow group peaked three hours after PCI and then declined. Serum level of hs-CRP decreased most obviously within three hours after PCI in reflow group and three hours - three days after PCI in no-reflow group. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameters of both groups after PCI were apparently lower than those before PCI, without significant inter-group difference [P>0.05]. Left ventricular end-systolic diameters and left ventricular ejection fractions of both groups evidently increased after PCI, without significant inter-group differences either [P>0.05]. Corrected TIMI frame count [CTFC] and wall motion score index of reflow group after PCI were significantly lower than those of no-reflow group [P<0.05]. ET-1 level was positively correlated with CTFC [P<0.05]. Multivariate linear regression showed hs-CRP was negatively correlated with the serum level [P<0.05] [r=-0.34]

Conclusion: hsCRP and ET-1 levels significantly increased in patients with no-reflow phenomenon

Humans , C-Reactive Protein , Endothelin-1 , Gene Expression , No-Reflow Phenomenon , Predictive Value of Tests
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 60-68, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193187


Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe pulmonary vascular disease characterized by sustained increase in pulmonary arterial pressure and excessive thickening and remodeling of distal small pulmonary arteries. During disease progression, PAH include increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular (RV) enlargement, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, and smooth muscle hypertrophy in pulmonary arterioles. Several anti-PAH therapies targeting various pathways involved in PAH progression have been approved by the Food and Drug Adminstration. However, many of the currently available anti-PAH drugs suffer from a number of limitations, including short biological half-life, and poor pulmonary selectivity. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is a potent vasodilator with selectivity toward pulmonary circulation when it is administered via the pulmonary route. However, PGE1 has a very short half-life of 5–10 minutes. Therefore, we hypothesized that long-term effect of PGE1 could reduce mal-adaptive structural remodeling of the lung and heart and prevent ventricular arrhythmias in monocrotaline-induced rat model of PAH. Our results revealed that PGE1 reduced ventricular hypertrophy, protein expressions of endothelin-1 and endothelin receptor A, and the expression of fibrosis. These results support the notion that PGE1 can improve the functional properties of RV, highlighting its potential benefits for heart and lung impairment.

Animals , Rats , Alprostadil , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Arterial Pressure , Arterioles , Disease Progression , Endothelin-1 , Fibrosis , Half-Life , Heart , Heart Ventricles , Hypertension , Hypertrophy , Lung , Models, Animal , Muscle, Smooth , Pulmonary Artery , Pulmonary Circulation , Receptors, Endothelin , Vascular Diseases , Vascular Resistance
Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine ; : 43-54, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174149


BACKGROUND: Extracellular sulfatases (Sulfs), sulfatase 1 (Sulf1) and sulfatase 2 (Sulf2), play a pivotal role in cell signaling by remodeling the 6-O-sulfation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface. The present study examined the effects of Sulfs on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive mediator expression and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: Ang II receptors, 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions in SHR VSMCs were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. VSMCs proliferation was determined by [³ H]-thymidine incorporation. RESULTS: Basal Sulfs mRNAs expression and enzyme activity were elevated in SHR VSMCs. However, Sulfs had no effect on the basal or Ang II-induced 12-LO and ET-1 mRNA expression in SHR VSMCs. The inhibition of Ang II-induced 12-LO and ET-1 expression by blockade of the Ang II type 2 receptor (AT₂ R) pathway was not observed in Sulf1 siRNA-transfected SHR VSMCs. However, Sulf2 did not affect the action of AT₂ R inhibitor on Ang II-induced 12-LO and ET-1 expression in SHR VSMCs. The down-regulation of Sulf1 induced a reduction of AT₂ R mRNA expression in SHR VSMCs. In addition, the inhibition of Ang II-induced VSMCs proliferation by blockade of the AT₂ R pathway was mediated by Sulf1 in SHR VSMCs. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that extracellular sulfatase Sulf1 plays a modulatory role in the AT₂ R pathway that leads to an Ang II-induced hypertensive effects in SHR VSMCs.

Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase , Blotting, Western , Down-Regulation , Endothelin-1 , Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans , Hypertension , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Rats, Inbred SHR , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2 , RNA, Messenger , Sulfatases
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 428-434, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58349


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial disorder, involving dysregulation of brain-gut axis. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroendocrine activity in IBS. METHODS: Thirty IBS and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Psychological symptoms were evaluated by questionnaires. Urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, plasma serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), endothelin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and plasma and urinary cortisol levels were evaluated. Fourteen IBS subjects underwent microneurography to obtain multiunit recordings of efferent postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). RESULTS: Prevalent psychological symptoms in IBS were maladjustment (60%), trait (40%) and state (17%) anxiety, obsessive compulsive-disorders (23%), and depressive symptoms (23%). IBS showed increased NPY (31.9 [43.7] vs 14.8 [18.1] pmol/L, P = 0.006), 5-HT (214.9 [182.6] vs 141.0 [45.5] pg/mL, P = 0.010), and endothelin [1.1 [1.4] vs 2.1 [8.1] pg/mL, P = 0.054], compared to healthy volunteers. Moreover, plasma NPY, endothelin, cortisol and 5-HT, and urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were associated with some psychological disorders (P ≤ 0.05). Despite a similar resting MSNA, after cold pressor test, IBS showed a blunted increase in MSNA burst frequency (+4.1 vs +7.8 bursts/min, P = 0.048; +30.1% vs +78.1%, P = 0.023). Baseline MSNA tended to be associated with urinary cortisol (ρ = 0.557, P = 0.059). Moreover, changes in heart rate after mental stress were associated with urinary cortisol (ρ = 0.682, P = 0.021) and changes in MSNA after mental stress were associated with plasma cortisol (ρ = 0.671, P = 0.024).” CONCLUSION: Higher concentrations of endothelin, NPY, and 5-HT were found to be associated with some psychological disorders in IBS patients together with an altered cardiovascular autonomic reactivity to acute stressors compared to healthy volunteers.

Humans , Anxiety , Autonomic Nervous System , Depression , Endothelin-1 , Endothelins , Healthy Volunteers , Heart Rate , Hydrocortisone , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Neuropeptide Y , Pilot Projects , Plasma , Serotonin