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China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 311-320, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970467


Atherosclerosis(AS) is the common pathological basis of many ischemic cardiovascular diseases, and its formation process involves various aspects such as vascular endothelial injury and platelet activation. Vascular endothelial injury is the initiating factor of AS plaque. Monocytes are recruited to differentiate into macrophages at the damaged endothelial cells, which absorb oxidized low-density lipoprotein(ox-LDL) and slowly transform into foam cells. Smooth muscle cells(SMCs) proliferate and migrate continuously. As the only cell producing interstitial collagen fibers in the fibrous cap, SMCs largely determine whether the plaque ruptured or not. The amplifying inflammatory response during the formation of AS recruits platelets to adhere to the damaged area of vascular endothelium and stimulates excessive platelet aggregation. Autophagy activity is associated with vascular lesions and abnormal platelet activation, and excessive autophagy is considered to be a negative factor for plaque stability. Therefore, precise regulation of different types of vascular autophagy and platelet autophagy to treat AS may provide a new therapeutic perspective for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic ischemic cardiovascular disease. Currently, treatment strategies for AS still focus on lowering lipid levels with high-intensity statins, which often cause significant side effects. Therefore, the development of safer and more effective drugs and treatment modes is the focus of current research. Traditional Chinese medicine and natural compounds have the potential to treat AS by targeted autophagy, and have been playing an increasingly important role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in China. This paper summarizes the experimental studies on different vascular cell types and platelet autophagy in AS, and sums up the published research results on targeted autophagy of traditional Chinese medicine and natural plant compounds to regulate AS, providing new ideas for further research.

Humans , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Autophagy
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 663-670, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982335


OBJECTIVES@#Endothelium-dependent vasodilation dysfunction is the pathological basis of diabetic macroangiopathy. The utilization and adaptation of endothelial cells to high glucose determine the functional status of endothelial cells. Glycolysis pathway is the major energy source for endothelial cells. Abnormal glycolysis plays an important role in endothelium-dependent vasodilation dysfunction induced by high glucose. Pyruvate kinase isozyme type M2 (PKM2) is one of key enzymes in glycolysis pathway, phosphorylation of PKM2 can reduce the activity of pyruvate kinase and affect the glycolysis process of glucose. TEPP-46 can stabilize PKM2 in its tetramer form, reducing its dimer formation and phosphorylation. Using TEPP-46 as a tool drug to inhibit PKM2 phosphorylation, this study aims to explore the impact and potential mechanism of phosphorylated PKM2 (p-PKM2) on endothelial dependent vasodilation function in high glucose, and to provide a theoretical basis for finding new intervention targets for diabetic macroangiopathy.@*METHODS@#The mice were divided into 3 groups: a wild-type (WT) group (a control group, C57BL/6 mice) and a db/db group (a diabetic group, db/db mice), which were treated with the sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution (solvent) by gavage once a day, and a TEPP-46 group (a treatment group, db/db mice+TEPP-46), which was gavaged with TEPP-46 (30 mg/kg) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution once a day. After 12 weeks of treatment, the levels of p-PKM2 and PKM2 protein in thoracic aortas, plasma nitric oxide (NO) level and endothelium-dependent vasodilation function of thoracic aortas were detected. High glucose (30 mmol/L) with or without TEPP-46 (10 μmol/L), mannitol incubating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for 72 hours, respectively. The level of NO in supernatant, the content of NO in cells, and the levels of p-PKM2 and PKM2 protein were detected. Finally, the effect of TEPP-46 on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation was detected at the cellular and animal levels.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the levels of p-PKM2 in thoracic aortas of the diabetic group increased (P<0.05). The responsiveness of thoracic aortas in the diabetic group to acetylcholine (ACh) was 47% lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), and that in TEPP-46 treatment group was 28% higher than that in the diabetic group (P<0.05), while there was no statistically significant difference in the responsiveness of thoracic aortas to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Compared with the control group, the plasma NO level of mice decreased in the diabetic group, while compared with the diabetic group, the phosphorylation of PKM2 in thoracic aortas decreased and the plasma NO level increased in the TEPP-46 group (both P<0.05). High glucose instead of mannitol induced the increase of PKM2 phosphorylation in HUVECs and reduced the level of NO in supernatant (both P<0.05). HUVECs incubated with TEPP-46 and high glucose reversed the reduction of NO production and secretion induced by high glucose while inhibiting PKM2 phosphorylation (both P<0.05). At the cellular and animal levels, TEPP-46 reversed the decrease of eNOS (ser1177) phosphorylation induced by high glucose (both P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#p-PKM2 may be involved in the process of endothelium-dependent vasodilation dysfunction in Type 2 diabetes by inhibiting p-eNOS (ser1177)/NO pathway.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Pyruvate Kinase/metabolism , Vasodilation
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428763


The objective of this review is to identify the acute effects of blood flow restriction (BFR) with vs without exercise on endothelial function in healthy individuals and the changes in endothelial function in young and older adults following different levels of exclusive BFR vs free flow. Systematic searches were performed in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library, from inception to July 17, 2021. The studies included healthy individuals who underwent assessments of endothelial function before and after experimental protocols through endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation. In total, 4890 studies were screened, and 6 studies of moderate-to-high methodological quality (Physiotherapy Evidence Database scores 6 ­ 10) including 82 subjects (aged 24 ­ 68 years) were eligible. Overall, flow-mediated dilatation increased in the non-cuffed arm immediately and 15 minutes after exercise, with no change in the cuffed arm (BFR of 60 ­ 80 mmHg). In protocols without exercise, cuff pressures of 25 ­ 30 mmHg applied for 30 minutes did not promote changes in the endothelial function, while those > 50 mmHg induced a dose-dependent attenuation of flow-mediated dilatation only in young individuals. A moderate level of BFR appears to have no effect on endothelial function after acute exercise. In non-exercise conditions, reductions in flow-mediated dilatation seem to result from increased retrograde shear provoked by cuff pressures ≥ 50 mmHg in young but not in older adults. An exercise-related increase in antegrade shear rate leads to a greater nitric oxide-mediated vasodilator response. However, BFR appears to attenuate this effect in young but not in older individuals. (AU)

O objetivo desta revisão foi identificar os efeitos agudos da restrição do fluxo sanguíneo (RFS) com vs. sem exercício na função endotelial de indivíduos saudáveis, bem como as alterações na função endotelial em jovens e idosos após diferentes níveis de RFS vs. fluxo livre. Pesquisas sistemáticas foram realizadas nas bases United States National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Web of Science, Scopus e Cochrane Library até 17 de julho de 2021. Os estudos incluíram indivíduos saudáveis que avaliaram a função endotelial antes e após protocolos experimentais, por meio da dilatação mediada por fluxo. Foi selecionado o total de 4.890 estudos, e foram elegíveis seis de moderada a alta qualidade metodológica (Physioterapy Evidence Database 6 ­ 10 pontos), incluindo 82 indivíduos (24 ­ 68 anos). No geral, a dilatação mediada por fluxo aumentou no braço sem manguito, imediatamente e 15 minutos após o exercício, sem alteração no braço com manguito (RFS de 60 ­ 80 mmHg). Em protocolos sem exercício, pressões do manguito de 25 ­ 30 mmHg aplicadas por 30 minutos não promoveram alterações na função endotelial, enquanto aquelas > 50 mmHg induziram uma atenuação dose-dependente da dilatação mediada por fluxo em indivíduos jovens. Um nível moderado de RFS parece não ter efeito na função endotelial após uma sessão de exercício. Em condições sem exercício, as reduções na dilatação mediada por fluxo parecem resultar do aumento do cisalhamento retrógrado provocado por pressões do manguito ≥ 50 mmHg em jovens, mas não em idosos. O aumento da taxa de cisalhamento anterógrado relacionada ao exercício leva a maior resposta vasodilatadora mediada pelo óxido nítrico. No entanto, a RFS parece atenuar esse efeito em jovens, mas não em . (AU)

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Blood Circulation/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Age Factors
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 11(2): 340, agos. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1416712


Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte a nivel mundial, manifestándose principalmente como enfermedad isquémica coronaria. El pronóstico y desenlace del Síndrome Coronario Agudo (SCA) depende en gran proporción de la disfunción endotelial asociado a este cuadro. Objetivo:Evaluar el efecto de los ácidos grasos omega­3, sobre la función endotelial en el Síndrome Coronario Agudo (SCA). Métodos: Se realizó estudio con 16 pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) tratados con Omega-3 a dosis de 3 gramos/día+Terapia Convencional (O3+Tc) durante 30 días. Se les realizó a las 12 horas del ingreso y los a 30 días, perfil lipídico, proteína C reactiva ultrasensible (PCRus), Endotelina 1 (ET-1), y Péptido Natriurético cerebral (NTproBNP). Resultados: Durante 4 semanas de seguimiento, el uso de 3 gramos/día de ácidos grasos omega-3, añadido a la terapia convencional en el Síndrome Coronario Agudo, mostró una reducción significativa de la concentración plasmática de NTproBNP (p = 0,000), PCRus (p =0,000) y triglicéridos (p = 0,004). Conclusión: Tres gramos al día de ácidos grasos omega-3 contribuye a la reducción de la concentración plasmática de Triglicéridos y NTproBNP en pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo(AU)

Mainly as coronary ischemic disease. the prognosis and outcome of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) depend largely on the endothelial dysfunction associated with this condition. Objective: To evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on endothelial function in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). Method: A study was conducted with 16 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated with Omega-3 at a dose of 3 grams/day+Conventional erapy (O3+Tc) for 30 days. Lipid profile, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (usCRP), Endothelin 1 (ET-1), and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NTproBNP) were performed 12 hours aer admission and 30 days later. Results: During 4 weeks of follow-up, the use of 3 grams/day of omega-3 fatty acids, added to conventional therapy in Acute Coronary Syndrome, showed a significant reduction in the plasma concentration of NTproBNP (p = 0.000), hsCRP (p =0.000) and Triglycerides (p = 0.004). Conclusion: three grams a day of omega-3 fatty acids contributes to the reduction of the plasmatic concentration of Triglycerides and NTproBNP in patients with acute coronary syndrome(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Endothelium, Vascular , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Myocardial Ischemia , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Triglycerides , Cardiovascular Diseases , Atherosclerosis
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 119-129, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935986


Objective: To explore the effects of P311 on the angiogenesis ability of human microvascular endothelial cell 1 (HMEC-1) in vitro and the potential molecular mechanism. Methods: The experimental research method was used. HMEC-1 was collected and divided into P311 adenovirus group and empty adenovirus group according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), which were transfected correspondingly for 48 h. The cell proliferation activity was detected using the cell counting kit 8 on 1, 3, and 5 days of culture. The residual scratch area of cells at post scratch hour 6 and 11 was detected by scratch test, and the percentage of the residual scratch area was calculated. The blood vessel formation of cells at 8 h of culture was observed by angiogenesis experiment in vitro, and the number of nodes and total length of the tubular structure were measured. The protein expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), phosphorylated VEGFR2 (p-VEGFR2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in cells were detected by Western blotting. HMEC-1 was collected and divided into P311 adenovirus+small interfering RNA (siRNA) negative control group, empty adenovirus+siRNA negative control group, P311 adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFR2 group, and empty adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFG2 group, which were treated correspondingly. The protein expressions of VEGFR2, p-VEGFR2, ERK1/2, and p-ERK1/2 in cells were detected by Western blotting at 24 h of transfection. The blood vessel formation of cells at 24 h of transfection was observed by angiogenesis experiment in vitro, and the number of nodes and total length of the tubular structure were measured. HMEC-1 was collected and divided into P311 adenovirus+dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) group, empty adenovirus+DMSO group, P311 adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group, and empty adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group, which were treated correspondingly. The protein expressions of ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 in cells were detected by Western blotting at 2 h of treatment. The blood vessel formation of cells at 2 h of treatment was observed by angiogenesis experiment in vitro, and the number of nodes and total length of the tubular structure were measured. The sample number at each time point in each group was 6. Data were statistically analyzed with independent sample t test, analysis of variance for repeated measurement, one-way analysis of variance, and least significant difference test. Results: Compared with that of empty adenovirus group, the proliferation activity of cells in P311 adenovirus group did not show significant difference on 1, 3, and 5 days of culture (with t values of -0.23, -1.30, and -1.52, respectively, P>0.05). The residual scratch area percentages of cells in P311 adenovirus group were significantly reduced at post scratch hour 6 and 11 compared with those of empty adenovirus group (with t values of -2.47 and -2.62, respectively, P<0.05). At 8 h of culture, compared with those of empty adenovirus group, the number of nodes and total length of the tubular structure of cells in P311 adenovirus group were significantly increased (with t values of 4.49 and 4.78, respectively, P<0.01). At 48 h of transfection, compared with those of empty adenovirus group, the protein expressions of VEGFR2 and ERK1/2 of cells in P311 adenovirus group showed no obvious changes (P>0.05), and the protein expressions of p-VEGFR2 and p-ERK1/2 of cells in P311 adenovirus group were significantly increased (with t values of 17.27 and 16.08, P<0.01). At 24 h of transfection, the protein expressions of p-VEGFR2 and p-ERK1/2 of cells in P311 adenovirus+siRNA negative control group were significantly higher than those in empty adenovirus+siRNA negative control group (P<0.01). The protein expressions of VEGFR2, p-VEGFR2, and p-ERK1/2 of cells in P311 adenovirus+siRNA negative control group were significantly higher than those in P311 adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFR2 group (P<0.01). The protein expressions of VEGFR2 and p-ERK1/2 of cells in empty adenovirus+siRNA negative control group were significantly higher than those in empty adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFR2 group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). At 24 h of transfection, the number of nodes of the tubular structure in cells of P311 adenovirus+siRNA negative control group was 720±62, which was significantly more than 428±38 in empty adenovirus+siRNA negative control group and 364±57 in P311 adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFR2 group (with P values both <0.01). The total length of the tubular structure of cells in P311 adenovirus+siRNA negative control group was (21 241±1 139) μm, which was significantly longer than (17 005±1 156) μm in empty adenovirus+siRNA negative control group and (13 494±2 465) μm in P311 adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFR2 group (with P values both <0.01). The number of nodes of the tubular structure in cells of empty adenovirus+siRNA negative control group was significantly more than 310±75 in empty adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFR2 group (P<0.01), and the total length of the tubular structure of cells in empty adenovirus+siRNA negative control group was significantly longer than (11 600±2 776) μm in empty adenovirus+siRNA-VEGFR2 group (P<0.01). At 2 h of treatment, the protein expression of p-ERK1/2 of cells in P311 adenovirus+DMSO group was significantly higher than that in empty adenovirus+DMSO group and P311 adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group (with P values both <0.01), and the protein expression of p-ERK1/2 of cells in empty adenovirus+DMSO group was significantly higher than that in empty adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group (P<0.05). At 2 h of treatment, the number of nodes of the tubular structure in cells of P311 adenovirus+DMSO group was 726±72, which was significantly more than 421±39 in empty adenovirus+DMSO group and 365±41 in P311 adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group (with P values both <0.01). The total length of the tubular structure of cells in P311 adenovirus+DMSO group was (20 318±1 433) μm, which was significantly longer than (16 846±1 464) μm in empty adenovirus+DMSO group and (15 114±1 950) μm in P311 adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group (with P values both <0.01). The number of nodes of the tubular structure in cells of empty adenovirus+DMSO group was significantly more than 317±67 in empty adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group (P<0.01), and the total length of the tubular structure of cells in empty adenovirus+DMSO group was significantly longer than (13 188±2 306) μm in empty adenovirus+ERK1/2 inhibitor group (P<0.01). Conclusions: P311 can enhance the angiogenesis ability of HMEC-1 by activating the VEGFR2/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

Humans , Adenoviridae/genetics , Cell Line , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium, Vascular , Neovascularization, Physiologic , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Oncogene Proteins , Signal Transduction , Transfection , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 319-329, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928950


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of Kuanxiong Aerosol (KXA) on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury in rat models.@*METHODS@#Totally 24 rats were radomly divided into control, ISO, KXA low-dose and high-dose groups according to the randomized block design method, and were administered by intragastric administration for 10 consecutive days, and on the 9th and 10th days, rats were injected with ISO for 2 consecutive days to construct an acute myocardial ischemia model to evaluate the improvement of myocardial ischemia by KXA. In addition, the diastolic effect of KXA on rat thoracic aorta and its regulation of ion channels were tested by in vitro vascular tension test. The influence of KXA on the expression of calcium-CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II)/extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signaling pathway has also been tested.@*RESULTS@#KXA significantly reduced the ISO-induced increase in ST-segment, interventricular septal thickness, cardiac mass index and cardiac tissue pathological changes in rats. Moreover, the relaxation of isolated thoracic arterial rings that had been precontracted using norepinephrine (NE) or potassium chloride (KCl) was increased after KXA treatment in an endothelium-independent manner, and was attenuated by preincubation with verapamil, but not with tetraethylammonium chloride, 4-aminopyridine, glibenclamide, or barium chloride. KXA pretreatment attenuated vasoconstriction induced by CaCl2 in Ca2+-free solutions containing K+ or NE. In addition, KXA pretreatment inhibited accumulation of Ca2+ in A7r5 cells mediated by KCl and NE and significantly decreased p-CaMK II and p-ERK levels.@*CONCLUSION@#KXA may inhibit influx and release of calcium and activate the CaMK II/ERK signaling pathway to produce vasodilatory effects, thereby improving myocardial injury.

Animals , Rats , Aerosols , Aorta, Thoracic , Calcium/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Myocardial Ischemia/metabolism , Vasodilation
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 93-109, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927585


Diabetic nephropathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes. Its etiology involves metabolic disorder-induced endothelial dysfunction. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in a number of physiological processes, including glomerular filtration and endothelial protection. NO dysregulation is an important pathogenic basis of diabetic nephropathy. Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia can lead to oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, thus affecting NO homeostasis regulated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and a conglomerate of related proteins and factors. The reaction of NO and superoxide (O2.-) to form peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is the most important pathological NO pathway in diabetic nephropathy. ONOO- is a hyper-reactive oxidant and nitrating agent in vivo which can cause the uncoupling of eNOS. The uncoupled eNOS does not produce NO but produces superoxide. Thus, eNOS uncoupling is a critical contributor of NO dysregulation. Understanding the regulatory mechanism of NO and the effects of various pathological conditions on it could reveal the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy, potential drug targets and mechanisms of action. We believe that increasing the stability and activity of eNOS dimers, promoting NO synthesis and increasing NO/ONOO- ratio could guide the development of drugs to treat diabetic nephropathy. We will illustrate these actions with some clinically used drugs as examples in the present review.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Endothelium, Vascular , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress , Peroxynitrous Acid/therapeutic use
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 22-32, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929233


Iron overload injury is considered to be a part of blood stasis syndrome of arthralgia in traditional Chinese medicine. Its primary therapies include clearing heat and detoxification, activating blood circulation, and removing blood stasis. Lonicera japonica flos (LJF) has long been known as an excellent antipyretic and antidote. Luteoloside (Lut) is one of the main components of LJF and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective properties. However, the protection of Lut against iron overload injury and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, HUVECs were exposed to 50 μmol·L-1 iron dextran for 48 h to establish an iron overload damage model and the effects of Lut were assessed. Our results showed that 20 μmol·L-1 Lut not only increased cell viability and weakened LDH activity, but also significantly up-regulated DDAHⅡ expression and activity, increased p-eNOS/eNOS ratio and NO content, and reduced ADMA content in HUVECs exposed to iron overload. Furthermore, Lut significantly attenuated intracellular/mitochondrial ROS generation, improved SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities, reduced MDA content, maintained MMP, inhibited mPTP opening, prevented cyt c from mitochondria released into cytoplasm, reduced cleaved-caspase3 expression, and ultimately decreased cell apoptosis induced by iron overload. The effects of Lut were similar to those of L-arginine (an ADMA competitive substrate), cyclosporin A (a mPTP blocker agent), and edaravone (a free radical scavenger) as positive controls. However, addition of pAD/DDAH II-shRNA adenovirus reversed the above beneficial effects of Lut. In conclusion, Lut can protect HUVECs against iron overload injury via the ROS/ADMA/DDAH II/eNOS/NO pathway. The mitochondria are the target organelles of Lut's protective effects.

Humans , Endothelium, Vascular , Glucosides , Iron Overload , Luteolin , Reactive Oxygen Species
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(2): 365-375, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339149


Resumo Fundamento Pacientes com HIV têm maior probabilidade de apresentar doenças cardiovasculares quando comparados à população em geral. Objetivo Este foi um estudo de caso-controle que teve como objetivo avaliar quais fatores estavam associados a uma redução na espessura médio-intimal da carótida (IMT) da carótida e ao aumento na dilatação mediada por fluxo (DMF) da artéria braquial em pacientes com HIV que receberam atorvastatina + aspirina por um período de 6 meses. Métodos Foi realizada uma análise secundária de um ensaio clínico, que incluiu pessoas vivendo com HIV e baixo risco cardiovascular. Um total de 38 pacientes alocados para o braço de intervenção e tratados por 6 meses com uma combinação de atorvastatina + aspirina foram incluídos. Todos os participantes foram submetidos a ultrassonografia da carótida e da artéria braquial, tanto no início quanto no final do estudo. Os casos que responderam com aumento >10% da dilatação braquial (DMF) e redução da espessura médio-intimal da carótida (IMT) foram considerados casos, e aqueles que não responderam foram considerados controles. Avaliamos os fatores associados às respostas positivas obtidas através da IMT e DMF. Resultados A redução do IMT não se associou significativamente a nenhum dos fatores de risco avaliados: idade (p = 0,211), sexo (p = 0,260), tabagismo (p = 0,131) ou tempo de diagnóstico do HIV (p = 0,836). Um aumento na DMF foi significativamente associado com a idade entre aqueles na faixa etária de 40-59 anos, p = 0,015 (OR = 4,37; IC 95%: 1,07-17,79). Conclusões Os indivíduos mais velhos foram mais propensos a apresentar um aumento na DMF após 6 meses de tratamento com atorvastatina + aspirina.

Abstract Background Patients with HIV are more likely to present with cardiovascular disease when compared to the general population. Objective This was a case-control study that aimed to assess which factors were associated with a reduction in the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and an increase in the brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in HIV patients who received atorvastatin + aspirin during a period of 6 months. Methods A secondary analysis of a clinical trial was conducted, which included people living with HIV infection and low cardiovascular risk. A total of 38 patients allocated to the intervention arm and treated for 6 months with a combination of atorvastatin + aspirin were included. All participants underwent a carotid and brachial artery ultrasound, both at the beginning and the end of the study. Cases that responded with an increase of >10% of the brachial dilatation (FMD) and reduction of the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were considered cases, and those who did not respond were considered controls. We assessed the factors associated with the positive responses obtained through IMT and FMD. Results A reduction in the IMT was not significantly associated with any of the evaluated risk factors: age (p=0.211), gender (p=0.260), smoking (p=0.131) or time since HIV diagnosis (p=0.836). An increase in the FMD was significantly associated with age amongst those in the 40-59 age group, p = 0.015 (OR = 4.37; 95% CI: 1.07-17.79). Conclusions Older individuals were more likely to present with an increased FMD after 6 months of treatment with atorvastatin + aspirin.

Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Vasodilation , Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Endothelium, Vascular/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(2): 201-211, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251093


Abstract Introduction: Heart preservation benefits cardiac performance after operations decreasing morbidity but the contribution of the vascular reactivity has been neglected. Objective: We evaluated whether cardioprotective solutions, Krebs-Henseleit (KH), Bretschneider-HTK (BHTK), St. Thomas No. 1 (STH-1), and Celsior (CEL), affect vascular reactivity. Methods: Aortic rings from Wistar rats were used in two protocols. First, the rings were exposed to BHTK, STH-1 or CEL for 1 hour of hypoxia at 37 °C. Second, the rings were exposed to 10 °C or 20 °C for 1 hour under hypoxia. After treatment, the rings were immersed in KH at 37 °C, endothelial integrity was tested and concentration-response curves to phenylephrine were performed. Results: In the first protocol, the solutions did not damage the endothelium; CEL and BHTK reduced KCl-induced contractions but not STH-1; only CEL and BHTK reduced vascular reactivity; there was a positive correlation between Rmax and KCl concentration. At 20 °C, 1 hour under hypoxia, the solutions produced similar KCl-induced contractions without endothelial damage. CEL, BHTK and STH-1 decreased vascular reactivity. At 10 °C, STH-1 increased reactivity but CEL and BHTK decreased. After 1 hour under hypoxia in CEL or BHTK solutions, reactivity was similar at different temperatures. At 20 °C, endothelial damage after exposure to STH-1 produced more vasoconstriction than CEL and BHTK. However, at 10 °C, endothelial damage after CEL and BHTK exposure elicited more vasoconstriction while STH-1 showed a small vasoconstrictor response, suggesting endothelial damage. Conclusion: STH-1 decreased reactivity at 20 °C and increased at 10 °C. CEL promoted greater endothelial modulation at 10 °C than at 20 °C, while STH-1 promoted higher modulation at 20 °C than at 10 °C. Vascular tone was reduced by CEL and BHTK exposure, also depending on the KCl concentration.

Animals , Rats , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Hypoxia , Phenylephrine , Temperature , Endothelium, Vascular , Rats, Wistar
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 931-939, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921298


Endothelial tight junctions (TJs) serve as an important barrier in vascular endothelial structure and maintain vascular function homeostasis. Occludin, the most representative tight junction protein, is involved in sealing cell connections and maintaining the integrity and permeability of vascular endothelium. Recent studies have shown that alterations in the expression, distribution, and structure of endothelial TJs may lead to many related vascular diseases and pathologies (such as stroke, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary hypertension etc.). Here, we reviewed the research advances on the relationship between occludin and vascular endothelial injury, including the biological information of occludin, the signal pathways that occludin exerts the protective effect of vascular endothelium, and the relationship between occludin and vascular endothelial injury-related diseases.

Endothelium, Vascular , Occludin/genetics , Signal Transduction , Tight Junctions
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1211-1216, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879024


The aim of this paper was to study the protective effect of total flavonoids from Rosa multiflora(TF-RM) on the injury of HUVEC induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein(ox-LDL). SPF male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group, simvastatin group(1.8 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) and TF-RM group(2.5 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), with 10 rats in each group. They were intragastrically administered with drugs for 7 days, and then blood was collected from the abdominal aorta to prepare drug-containing serum. The HUVEC injury model was established through ox-LDL induction, and added with 15% simvastatin, 5% TF-RM, 10% TF-RM, 15% TF-RM drug-containing serum and blank serum, respectively. Reactive oxygen species(ROS) was determined by flow cytometry. Nitric oxide(NO) content was determined by nitrate reductase method. The contents of ET-1, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were determined by ELISA. The expression of Lox-1 protein was determined by Western blot. Compared with the blank group, ROS level in HUVEC and the contents of ET-1, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and IL-1β in HUVEC were significantly increased(P<0.05), NO decreased significantly(P<0.01),Lox-1 protein expression increased significantly(P<0.05), and TNF-α and IL-6 showed an increasing trend. Compared with the model group, TF-RM significantly reduced ROS level in HUVEC and ET-1, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1, TNF-α, IL-1β content in supernatant(P<0.05), significantly increased NO content(P<0.01), and inhibited Lox-1 protein expression(P<0.05). VCAM-1, IL-6 contents showed a decreasing trend. Serum containing TF-RM acts on lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptors, and exerts a protective effect on vascular endothelial cells by reducing cell oxidative damage, regulating vasoactive substances, and reducing adhesion molecules and inflammatory cascades.

Animals , Male , Rats , Cells, Cultured , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium, Vascular , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics , Lipoproteins, LDL , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rosa
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(6): e10577, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285665


Endothelial dysfunction is a well-known component of the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), with proven prognostic value. Dietary supplementation with whey protein (WP) has been widely used to increase skeletal muscle mass, but it also has vascular effects, which are less understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of WP supplementation on the systemic microvascular function of HF patients. This was a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial that evaluated the effects of 12-week WP dietary supplementation on systemic microvascular function, in patients with HF New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes I/II. Cutaneous microvascular flow and reactivity were assessed using laser speckle contrast imaging, coupled with pharmacological local vasodilator stimuli. Fifteen patients (aged 64.5±6.2 years, 11 males) received WP supplementation and ten patients (aged 68.2±8.8 years, 8 males) received placebo (maltodextrin). The increase in endothelial-dependent microvascular vasodilation, induced by skin iontophoresis of acetylcholine, was improved after WP (P=0.03) but not placebo (P=0.37) supplementation. Moreover, endothelial-independent microvascular vasodilation induced by skin iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside, was also enhanced after WP (P=0.04) but not placebo (P=0.42) supplementation. The results suggested that dietary supplementation with WP improved systemic microvascular function in patients with HF.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Vasodilation , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Skin , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular , Pilot Projects , Dietary Supplements , Whey Proteins/pharmacology , Microcirculation
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20210020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287076


Resumo O SARS-CoV-2 é o vírus responsável pela pandemia da COVID-19. Essa doença começou a ser melhor entendida devido a outras manifestações clínicas além das respiratórias. Ao longo dos meses de atendimento aos pacientes infectados pelo vírus, foram identificadas alterações clínicas e laboratoriais que incitaram os pesquisadores a discutir sobre o potencial do SARS-CoV-2 no desencadeamento de uma resposta imunológica exacerbada capaz de alterar a homeostase endotelial, através de mecanismos diretos e indiretos. Com esse intuito, foram revisados os possíveis mecanismos que desencadeiam este fenômeno em pacientes portadores de COVID-19. Dessa forma, torna-se importante o entendimento fisiopatológico dos mecanismos imunológicos relacionados à doença para a compreensão do potencial de dano endotelial que a COVID-19 pode promover.

Abstract SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. This disease is beginning to be better understood in terms of its other, non-respiratory, clinical manifestations. Over the course of months caring for patients infected by the virus, clinical and laboratory changes have been identified that have prompted researchers to debate the potential that SARS-CoV-2 has to trigger an exacerbated immune response that is capable of changing endothelial homeostasis through both direct and indirect mechanisms. With the intention of contributing to this debate, a review was conducted of the possible mechanisms that could trigger these phenomena in patients with COVID-19. It is important to understand the pathophysiology of the immunological mechanisms related to this disease in order to understand the potential endothelial damage that COVID-19 can provoke.

Humans , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Endothelium, Vascular/injuries , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/blood , Hemostasis , Immunity
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(6): 810-815, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142189


ABSTRACT Objective: We conducted a study to examine the association of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress with uric acid levels in patients of metabolic syndrome. Subjects and methods: One hundred and two patients of Metabolic Syndrome (International Diabetes Federation definition) were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements, serum uric acid levels, fasting blood sugar levels and lipid levels, as well as malondialdehyde and reactive nitrogen intermediates were measured after an 8-hour fasting period. Flow mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was measured and endothelial dysfunction was defined as an increase in diameter < 10% post compression. Results: A total of 102 patients were included in the study. Mean uric acid level was 5.49 ± 1.61 mg%. A total of 59 patients in the study had endothelial dysfunction, defined by an abnormal FMD. Patients with an abnormal FMD had higher levels of serum uric acid which was statistically significant (p value = 0.010). Serum RNI and MDA levels were negatively correlated with uric acid, but did not reach statistical significance. Patients with an abnormal FMD had a lower RNI level, but this did not reach statistical significance. Serum MDA levels were significantly higher in patients with an abnormal FMD (p value = 0.038). Conclusions: Uric acid was significantly associated with endothelial dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome in our study. It was inversely correlated with serum RNI and MDA levels, but this did not reach statistical significance.

Humans , Uric Acid , Metabolic Syndrome , Vasodilation , Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Endothelium, Vascular
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(4): 59-62, Oct.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1278143


Abstract Cocaine abuse is related to a greater risk of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and ischemic cerebrovascular accidents. The pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood, although the formation of intravascular thrombi and accelerated atherosclerosis are notable findings. We report the case of a 38-year-old man addicted to cocaine who presented ischemic events in the form of acute myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure. The pathophysiology of cocaine-induced vascular damage and the treatment of complications are discussed.

Resumen El abuso de cocaína se asocia con un mayor riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares, como infarto de miocardio y accidente cerebrovascular isquémico. Los mecanismos fisiopatológicos no se entienden completamente, aunque la formación de trombos intravasculares y la aterosclerosis acelerada son hallazgos destacados. Reportamos el caso de un hombre de 38 años adicto a la cocaína, que presentó eventos isquémicos caracterizados por infarto agudo de miocardio complicado por insuficiencia cardíaca. Se discute la fisiopatología del daño vascular inducido por la cocaína y el manejo de las complicaciones.

Humans , Male , Adult , Myocardial Infarction , Endothelium, Vascular , Cocaine , Stroke , Myocardium
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 757-763, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137320


Abstract It has been reported that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection induces endothelial inflammation, therefore facilitating the progression of endothelial and vascular dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) involves mainly the use of the saphenous vein (SV) and internal mammary artery as graft material in the stenosed coronary arteries. Unfortunately, graft patency of the SV is low due to endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. We propose that SARS-CoV-2 might cause vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombosis in coronary artery bypass graft vessels by binding angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Therefore, in this Special Article, we consider the potential influence of COVID-19 on the patency rates of coronary artery bypass graft vessels, mainly with reference to the SV. Moreover, we discuss the technique of SV graft harvesting and the therapeutic potential of focusing on endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, and thrombosis for protecting coronary artery bypass grafts in COVID-19 infected CABG patients.

Humans , Vascular Patency , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Graft Occlusion, Vascular/virology , Saphenous Vein/surgery , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome , Betacoronavirus , Inflammation/physiopathology