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Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(6): e10577, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285665


Endothelial dysfunction is a well-known component of the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), with proven prognostic value. Dietary supplementation with whey protein (WP) has been widely used to increase skeletal muscle mass, but it also has vascular effects, which are less understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of WP supplementation on the systemic microvascular function of HF patients. This was a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial that evaluated the effects of 12-week WP dietary supplementation on systemic microvascular function, in patients with HF New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes I/II. Cutaneous microvascular flow and reactivity were assessed using laser speckle contrast imaging, coupled with pharmacological local vasodilator stimuli. Fifteen patients (aged 64.5±6.2 years, 11 males) received WP supplementation and ten patients (aged 68.2±8.8 years, 8 males) received placebo (maltodextrin). The increase in endothelial-dependent microvascular vasodilation, induced by skin iontophoresis of acetylcholine, was improved after WP (P=0.03) but not placebo (P=0.37) supplementation. Moreover, endothelial-independent microvascular vasodilation induced by skin iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside, was also enhanced after WP (P=0.04) but not placebo (P=0.42) supplementation. The results suggested that dietary supplementation with WP improved systemic microvascular function in patients with HF.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Vasodilation , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Skin , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular , Pilot Projects , Dietary Supplements , Whey Proteins/pharmacology , Microcirculation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879024


The aim of this paper was to study the protective effect of total flavonoids from Rosa multiflora(TF-RM) on the injury of HUVEC induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein(ox-LDL). SPF male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group, simvastatin group(1.8 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) and TF-RM group(2.5 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), with 10 rats in each group. They were intragastrically administered with drugs for 7 days, and then blood was collected from the abdominal aorta to prepare drug-containing serum. The HUVEC injury model was established through ox-LDL induction, and added with 15% simvastatin, 5% TF-RM, 10% TF-RM, 15% TF-RM drug-containing serum and blank serum, respectively. Reactive oxygen species(ROS) was determined by flow cytometry. Nitric oxide(NO) content was determined by nitrate reductase method. The contents of ET-1, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were determined by ELISA. The expression of Lox-1 protein was determined by Western blot. Compared with the blank group, ROS level in HUVEC and the contents of ET-1, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and IL-1β in HUVEC were significantly increased(P<0.05), NO decreased significantly(P<0.01),Lox-1 protein expression increased significantly(P<0.05), and TNF-α and IL-6 showed an increasing trend. Compared with the model group, TF-RM significantly reduced ROS level in HUVEC and ET-1, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1, TNF-α, IL-1β content in supernatant(P<0.05), significantly increased NO content(P<0.01), and inhibited Lox-1 protein expression(P<0.05). VCAM-1, IL-6 contents showed a decreasing trend. Serum containing TF-RM acts on lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptors, and exerts a protective effect on vascular endothelial cells by reducing cell oxidative damage, regulating vasoactive substances, and reducing adhesion molecules and inflammatory cascades.

Animals , Cells, Cultured , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium, Vascular , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics , Lipoproteins, LDL , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rosa
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(4): 59-62, Oct.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1278143


Abstract Cocaine abuse is related to a greater risk of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and ischemic cerebrovascular accidents. The pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood, although the formation of intravascular thrombi and accelerated atherosclerosis are notable findings. We report the case of a 38-year-old man addicted to cocaine who presented ischemic events in the form of acute myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure. The pathophysiology of cocaine-induced vascular damage and the treatment of complications are discussed.

Resumen El abuso de cocaína se asocia con un mayor riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares, como infarto de miocardio y accidente cerebrovascular isquémico. Los mecanismos fisiopatológicos no se entienden completamente, aunque la formación de trombos intravasculares y la aterosclerosis acelerada son hallazgos destacados. Reportamos el caso de un hombre de 38 años adicto a la cocaína, que presentó eventos isquémicos caracterizados por infarto agudo de miocardio complicado por insuficiencia cardíaca. Se discute la fisiopatología del daño vascular inducido por la cocaína y el manejo de las complicaciones.

Humans , Male , Adult , Myocardial Infarction , Endothelium, Vascular , Cocaine , Stroke , Myocardium
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 669-677, out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131333


Resumo Fundamento: Diversos estudos têm mostrado que as classes de diterpenos exercem efeito significativo no sistema cardiovascular. Os diterpenos, em particular, estão entre os principais compostos associados às propriedades cardiovasculares, como a propriedade vasorrelaxante, inotrópica, diurética e a atividade hipotensora. Embora o mecanismo de vasorrelaxamento do manool seja visível, seu efeito sobre a pressão arterial (PA) ainda é desconhecido. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito hipotensor in vivo do manool e verificar o efeito de vasorrelaxamento ex vivo em anéis aórticos de ratos. Métodos: Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: normotensos e hipertensos. O grupo normotenso foi submetido à cirurgia sham e adotou-se o modelo 2R1C para o grupo hipertenso. Realizou-se monitoramento invasivo da PA para testes com manool em diferentes doses (10, 20 e 40 mg/kg). Foram obtidas curvas de concentração-resposta para o manool nos anéis aórticos, com endotélio pré-contraído com fenilefrina (Phe) após incubação com Nω-nitro-L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME) ou oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalina-1-ona (ODQ). Os níveis plasmáticos de óxido nítrico (NOx) foram medidos por ensaio de quimioluminescência. Resultados: Após a administração de manool, a PA se reduziu nos grupos normotenso e hipertenso, e esse efeito foi inibido pelo L-NAME em animais hipertensos apenas na dose de 10 mg/kg. O manool ex vivo promoveu vasorrelaxamento, inibido pela incubação de L-NAME e ODQ ou remoção do endotélio. Os níveis plasmáticos de NOx aumentaram no grupo hipertenso após a administração de manool. O manool induz o relaxamento vascular dependente do endotélio na aorta de ratos, mediado pela via de sinalização NO/cGMP e redução da PA, e também pelo aumento plasmático de NOx. Esses efeitos combinados podem estar envolvidos na modulação da resistência periférica, contribuindo para o efeito anti-hipertensivo do diterpeno. Conclusão: Esses efeitos em conjunto podem estar envolvidos na modulação da resistência periférica, contribuindo para o efeito anti-hipertensivo do diterpeno.

Abstract Background: Many studies have shown that the diterpenoid classes exert a significant effect on the cardiovascular system. Diterpenes, in particular, are among the main compound links to cardiovascular properties such as vasorelaxant, inotropic, diuretic and hypotensive activity. While the manool vasorelaxation mechanism is visible, its effect on blood pressure (BP) is still unknown. Objective: To evaluate the in vivo hypotensive effect of manool and check the ex vivo vasorelaxation effect in rat aortic rings. Methods: The animals were divided randomly into two groups: normotensive and hypertensive. The normotensive group was sham-operated, and the 2K1C model was adopted for the hypertensive group. Invasive BP monitoring was performed for manool tests at different doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg). Concentration-response curves for manool were obtained in the aorta rings, with endothelium, pre-contracted with phenylephrine (Phe) after incubation with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester(L-NAME) or oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Nitric oxide (NOx) plasma levels were measured by chemiluminescence assay. Results: After manool administration, BP was reduced in normotensive and hypertensive groups, and this effect was inhibited by L-NAME in hypertensive animals only in 10 mg/kg dose. Ex vivo manool promoted vasorelaxation, which was inhibited by L-NAME and ODQ incubation or endothelium removal. NOx plasma levels increased in the hypertensive group after manool administration. Manool elicits endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in rat aorta mediated by the NO/cGMP signaling pathway and BP reduction, also by NOx plasma increase. These combined effects could be involved in modulating peripheral resistance, contributing to the antihypertensive effect of diterpene. Conclusion: These effects together could be involved in modulating peripheral resistance, contributing to the antihypertensive effect of diterpene.

Animals , Rats , Arterial Pressure , Hypertension/drug therapy , Aorta, Thoracic , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Blood Pressure , Endothelium, Vascular , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 757-763, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137320


Abstract It has been reported that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection induces endothelial inflammation, therefore facilitating the progression of endothelial and vascular dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) involves mainly the use of the saphenous vein (SV) and internal mammary artery as graft material in the stenosed coronary arteries. Unfortunately, graft patency of the SV is low due to endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. We propose that SARS-CoV-2 might cause vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombosis in coronary artery bypass graft vessels by binding angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Therefore, in this Special Article, we consider the potential influence of COVID-19 on the patency rates of coronary artery bypass graft vessels, mainly with reference to the SV. Moreover, we discuss the technique of SV graft harvesting and the therapeutic potential of focusing on endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, and thrombosis for protecting coronary artery bypass grafts in COVID-19 infected CABG patients.

Humans , Vascular Patency , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Graft Occlusion, Vascular/virology , Saphenous Vein/surgery , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome , Betacoronavirus , Inflammation/physiopathology
Rev. cuba. med ; 59(2): e1363, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139048


Introducción: La hipertensión arterial tiene una asociación compleja con la disfunción endotelial, una alteración fenotípica del endotelio vascular que precede al desarrollo de eventos cardiovasculares adversos y presagia un riesgo cardiovascular futuro. Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de disfunción endotelial en pacientes hipertensos precozmente diagnosticados. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico de corte transversal entre marzo 2017 y marzo 2019, con los datos de los pacientes que acudieron al examen médico de control de Salud del Hospital Militar Central Dr. Luis Díaz Soto. El grupo A (GA) estuvo conformado por pacientes hipertensos de reciente diagnóstico (hasta un año) sin lesión en órganos diana; mientras el Grupo B (GB) fueron sujetos sin hipertensión arterial. Previo consentimiento informado, se recogieron variables demográficas, clínicas, y se realizaron determinaciones de laboratorio y prueba de vasodilatación por flujo. Resultados: La prevalencia de disfunción endotelial en el grupo A fue de 39,0 por ciento(p=0,021). Predominaron los hombres (55,0 por ciento) y la edad media 41,7 ± 8,6 años sin diferencias significativas. El 73,0 por ciento de los hipertensos eran sobrepeso u obesos. El colesterol total elevado (60,0 por ciento) y la microalbuminuria (69,0 por ciento) fueron las variables que aportaron mayor riesgo de disfunción endotelial en los pacientes hipertensos. Conclusiones: Se comprobó una elevada prevalencia de disfunción endotelial en los pacientes hipertensos de reciente diagnóstico, la cual se asoció a factores de riesgo ateroscleróticos: colesterol total elevado y microalbuminuria(AU)

Introduction: The arterial hypertension has a complex association with the endothelial dysfunction, and phenotypic alteration of the vascular endothelia that precedes the development of cardiovascular adverse events and it foreshadows future risk cardiovascular. Objective: To determine the presence of endothelial dysfunction in precociously diagnosed hypertensive patients. Methods: A transversal analytic study was conducted from March 2017 to March 2019, using data of the patients who attended to the military physical medical control at Dr. Luis Díaz Soto Military Hospital. Group A (GA) was formed by hypertensive patients recently diagnosed (up to a year) with no lesion in target organs; whereas Group B (GB) gathered the subjects with no hypertension. After establishing the informed consent, demographic, clinical variables were collected, and laboratory determinations and flow vasodilatation tests were performed. Results: Endothelial dysfunction prevalence in Group A was 39, 0 percent (p=0, 021). Men (55, 0 percent) and the mean age 41, 7 ± 8, 6 years prevailed with no significant differences. 73, 0 percent of the hypertensive subjects was overweight or obese. The total high cholesterol (60, 0 percent) and the micro albuminuria (69, 0 percent) were the variables that contributed to the higher risk of endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive patients. Conclusions: High prevalence of endothelial dysfunction was proven in recently diagnosed hypertensive patients. This endothelial dysfunction was associated to atherosclerosis risk factors as total high cholesterol and microalbuminuria(AU)

Humans , Male , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Hypertension/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Early Diagnosis
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(7): 992-997, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136298


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Our aim is to determine whether radiation affects the endothelial function of hospital staff working in the radiation unit for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We have evaluated endothelial function with vascular imaging parameters such as flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and aortic stiffness index (ASI). METHODS A total of 75 employees, 35 of whom are exposed to radiation due to their profession and 40 as the control group, were included in our single-centered study. Demographic data, FMD, aortic stiffness, and echocardiographic findings of the two groups were compared. RESULTS There were no significant differences in demographic data. Median FMD values tended to be lower in the radiation exposure group [7.89 (2.17-21.88) vs. 11.69 (5.13-27.27) p=0.09]. The FMD value was significantly lower in the catheter laboratory group than in the radiation-exposed (p=0.034) and control (p=0.012) groups. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the non-catheter lab radiation exposed group and the control group (p=0.804). In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the ASI value between the groups (p=0.201). CONCLUSION We have found that FMD is decreased among hospital staff working in radiation-associated areas. This may be an early marker for radiation-induced endothelial dysfunction.

RESUMO OBJETIVO O nosso objetivo é determinar se a radiação afeta a função endotelial de funcionários do hospital que trabalham em unidades com exposição à radiação para fins diagnósticos e terapêuticos. Avaliamos a função endotelial com parâmetros de imagens vasculares, tais como dilatação fluxo-mediada (FMD) e o índice de rigidez aórtica (ASI). METODOLOGIA Um total de 75 funcionários, 35 expostos à radiação devido à sua ocupação e 40 como grupo de controle, foram incluídos em nosso estudo monocêntrico. Os dados demográficos, de FMD, rigidez aórtica e ecocardiográficos dos dois grupos foram comparados. RESULTADOS Não houve diferenças significativas nos dados demográficos. Os valores médios de FMD, em geral, foram mais baixos no grupo de exposição à radiação [7,89 (2,17-21,88) e 11,69 (5,13-27,27) p=0,09]. O valor de FMD foi significativamente menor no grupo laboratorial com cateter do que no exposto à radiação (p=0,034) e no de controle (p=0,012). No entanto, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o grupo laboratorial sem cateter e exposto à radiação e o grupo de controle (p=0,804). Além disso, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa quanto ao valor de ASI entre os grupos (p=0,201). CONCLUSÃO Observamos que a FMD é menor entre funcionários que trabalham em setores hospitalares associados à radiação. Isso pode ser um marcador inicial de disfunção endotelial induzida por radiação.

Humans , Radiation Injuries , Brachial Artery , Vascular Stiffness , Personnel, Hospital , Endothelium, Vascular , Echocardiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(2): e8616, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055497


Previous research has shown that suppression of miR-383 can prevent inflammation of the endothelium, as well as postpone the development of atherosclerosis. However, the role of miR-383 in endothelial cell apoptosis in diabetes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of miR-383 in high glucose-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in endothelial cells. A series of experiments involving qualitative polymerase chain reaction, cell transfection, luciferase assay, assessment of cell death, detection of catalase and superoxide dismutase concentrations, detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and western blot analysis were performed in this study. We found that miR-383 expression was promoted, while NAD+-dependent deacetylase and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expressions were suppressed in the endothelium of the aorta in db/db mice as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which were treated with high glucose (HG). Increased expression of miR-383 decreased expression of SIRT1, while suppression of miR-383 promoted expression of SIRT1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, suppression of miR-383 following transfection with miR-383 suppressor repressed cell death and generation of ROS in HUVECs. SIRT1 knockdown by siRNA-SIRT1 reversed the suppressive effect of miR-383 inhibition on ROS production and cell apoptosis induced by HG treatment. Overall, the findings of our research suggested that suppression of miR-383 repressed oxidative stress and reinforced the activity of endothelial cells by upregulation of SIRT1 in db/db mice, and targeting miR-383 might be promising for effective treatment of diabetes.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , MicroRNAs/antagonists & inhibitors , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Glucose/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/cytology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Signal Transduction , Cells, Cultured , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(2): e9304, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055489


Metabolic syndrome is a multifaceted condition associated with a greater risk of various disorders (e.g., diabetes and heart disease). In a rat model of metabolic syndrome, an acute in vitro application of rosuvastatin causes relaxation of aortic rings. Since the outcome of a subchronic rosuvastatin treatment is unknown, the present study explored its effect on acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of aortic rings from rats with metabolic syndrome. Animals were submitted to a 16-week treatment, including a standard diet, a cafeteria-style diet (CAF-diet), or a CAF-diet with daily rosuvastatin treatment (10 mg/kg). After confirming the development of metabolic syndrome in rats, aortic segments were extracted from these animals (those treated with rosuvastatin and untreated) and the acetylcholine-induced relaxant effect on the corresponding rings was evaluated. Concentration-response curves were constructed for this effect in the presence/absence of L-NAME, ODQ, KT 5823, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), apamin plus charybdotoxin, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, and cycloheximide pretreatment. Compared to rings from control rats, acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation decreased in rings from animals with metabolic syndrome, and was maintained at a normal level in animals with metabolic syndrome plus rosuvastatin treatment. The effect of rosuvastatin was inhibited by L-NAME, ODQ, KT 5823, TEA, apamin plus charybdotoxin, but unaffected by 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. In conclusion, the subchronic administration of rosuvastatin to rats with metabolic syndrome improved the acetylcholine-induced relaxant response, involving stimulation of the NO/cGMP/PKG/Ca2+-activated K+ channel pathway.

Animals , Male , Rats , Aorta/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Rosuvastatin Calcium/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828042


To explore whether paeonol can play an anti-atherosclerotic role by regulating the expression of aortic caveolin-1 and affecting NF-κB pathway, so as to inhibit the inflammatory response of vascular endothelium in atherosclerotic rats. The atherosclerotic model of rats was induced by high-fat diet and vitamin D_2. The primary culture of vascular endothelial cells(VECs) was carried out by tissue block pre-digestion and adherent method. The injury model of VECs was induced by lipopolysaccharide(LPS), and filipin, a small concave protein inhibitor, was added for control. HE staining was used to observe pathological changes of aorta. TNF-α, IL-6 and VCAM-1 were detected by ELISA. Western blot assay was used to detect the protein expression levels of caveolin-1 and p65 in aorta and VECs. The results showed that as compared with model group, paeonol significantly reduced aortic plaque area and lesion degree in rats, decreased the level of serum TNF-α, IL-6 and VCAM-1 in the rats and enhanced the relative expression level of caveolin-1, decreased p65 expression conversely(P<0.05 or P<0.01). In vitro, as compared to model group, paeonol obviously improved cell morphology, decreased the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6 and VCAM-1 in VECs, increased caveolin-1 expression, and decreased p65 protein expression(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Furthermore, filipin could reverse the effect of paeonol on expression of inflammatory factors and proteins(P<0.05 or P<0.01). According to the results, it was found that paeonol could play the role of anti-atherosclerosis by up-regulating the expression of caveolin-1 and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway to reduce vascular inflammation in atherosclerotic rats.

Acetophenones , Animals , Caveolin 1 , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium, Vascular , Inflammation , NF-kappa B , Rats , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Up-Regulation
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 441-448, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827043


The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of chemokine CCL2 in angiogenesis of primary adult rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMEC). The rat CMECs were isolated and identified through morphology examination and immunostaining with CD31 and factor VIII antibodies. The angiogenesis of CMEC on Matrigel was evaluated at different time points. The expression and secretion of CCL2 during the process of angiogenesis was detected by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The results showed that, the primary rat CMEC was isolated successfully, and the angiogenesis of CMEC was significantly induced after Matrigel treatment for 4 h. The expression of CCL2 and CCR2 were increased during angiogenesis, and the secretion of CCL2 was detected after 2 h of angiogenesis and reached the peak concentration of 1 588.1 pg/mL after 4 h. Either CCL2 blocking antibody or CCR2 antagonist significantly reduced the angiogenesis of CMEC. These results suggest that CCL2 is secreted during the process of angiogenesis of CMEC, and CCL2/CCR2 signaling pathway may play an important role in promoting angiogenesis.

Animals , Chemokine CCL2 , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium, Vascular , Heart , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Rats , Signal Transduction
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 48(3): e296, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126638


Introducción: Existen enfermedades que tienen en su sustento, la respuesta inflamatoria,¿es posible identificar la diana que enmarca el efecto deletéreo de la respuesta inflamatoria? Objetivo: Analizar las expresiones de la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica y sus consecuencias en la morbilidad y mortalidad. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda, fundamentalmente en SciELO, con las palabras clave: respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, daño múltiple de órganos, respuesta inflamatoria y sus combinaciones; en idioma español. Se presenta una revisión narrativa a partir del análisis de los documentos obtenidos. Desarrollo: Los mecanismos defensivos de manera no controlada, producen autoagresión del endotelio vascular. La respuesta se acompaña de fallo inmunológico sistémico y disreactividad en la respuesta inflamatoria. La lesión del endotelio vascular, el incremento del consumo de oxígeno, citocinas elevadas en la circulación, activación de la cascada de coagulación y mediadores vasoactivos tienen influencia en esta respuesta. La isquemia intestinal, secundaria al síndrome compartimental abdominal, es causante directa de la translocación bacteriana. La inflamación persistente, asociada a un intenso proceso catabólico conduce a la caquexia y la inmunosupresión. Conclusión: Son múltiples las dianas que se activan en la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, que explican su disbalance: la disfunción del endotelio vascular y la microcirculación, la disfunción mitocondrial y el estrés oxidativo, la citoprotección celular. Puede haber un punto de convergencia en la necesidad del diagnóstico temprano de esta respuesta disreactiva y en su intento de modulación oportuna(AU)

Introduction: There are diseases that have in their basics, the inflammatory response, is it possible to identify the target that frames the deleterious effect of the inflammatory response? Objective: To analyze the manifestations of the systemic inflammatory response and its consequences in morbidity and mortality. Methods: A search was performed, mainly in SciElo, with the key words: systemic inflammatory response, multiple organ damage, inflammatory response and their combinations; in Spanish language. A narrative review is presented based on the analysis of the documents obtained. Body: The defensive mechanisms in an uncontrolled way, produce self-aggression of the vascular endothelium. The response is accompanied by systemic immune failure and reactivity problems in the inflammatory response. Vascular endothelial injury, increased oxygen consumption, elevated cytokines in the circulation, activation of the coagulation cascade and vasoactive mediators have an influence on this response. Intestinal ischemia, secondary to abdominal compartment syndrome, is a direct cause of bacterial translocation. Persistent inflammation, associated with an intense catabolic process, leads to cachexia and immunosuppression. Conclusion: There are multiple targets that are activated in the systemic inflammatory response, which explain their imbalance: vascular endothelial dysfunction and microcirculation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, cell cytoprotection. There may be a point of convergence in the need for early diagnosis of this dis-reactive response and in its attempt at timely modulation(AU)

Humans , Endothelium, Vascular , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Aggression , Inflammation , Ischemia , Microcirculation
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(5): 531-537, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040366


Abstract Objectives: The prevalence of obesity is increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is endothelial dysfunction in children with normal or excess weight, and whether the metabolic profile, adipokines, and endothelial dysfunction would be more strongly associated with physical fitness or with physical activity levels. Method: Cross-sectional study involving children aged 5-12 years. The evaluation included venous occlusion plethysmography, serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and insulin, lipid profile, physical activity score (PAQ-C questionnaire), and physical fitness evaluation (Yo-Yo test). Results: A total of 62 children participated in this study. Based on the body mass index, 27 were eutrophic, 10 overweight and 25 obese. Triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HOMA-IR, and leptin were higher in the obese and excess-weight groups compared to the eutrophic group (p < 0.01). HDL cholesterol and adiponectin levels were higher in the eutrophic group compared to the obese and excess-weight groups (p < 0.01). Flow-mediated vasodilation after hyperemia was higher in the eutrophic group in comparison to obese and excess-weight subjects (p < 0.05). There was no difference in the physical activity levels among groups measured by PAQ-C. The Yo-Yo test was significantly associated with HDL cholesterol (rho = −0.41; p = 0.01), and this association remained after adjusting for body mass index z-score (rho = 0.28; p = 0.03). Conclusion: This study showed that endothelial dysfunction is already present in obese children, suggesting a predisposition to atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, HDL cholesterol levels were correlated with physical fitness, regardless of body mass index.

Resumo: Objetivos: A prevalência da obesidade está aumentando. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se há disfunção endotelial nas crianças com peso normal ou excesso de peso e se o perfil metabólico, as adipocinas e a disfunção endotelial seriam mais fortemente associados à aptidão física ou aos níveis de atividade física. Método: Estudo transversal que envolve crianças de 5-12 anos. A avaliação incluiu pletismografia de oclusão venosa, níveis séricos de adiponectina, leptina, insulina e lipidograma, escore de atividade física (questionário PAQ-C) e avaliação da aptidão física (teste Yo-yo). Resultados: Um total de 62 crianças participou deste estudo. Com base no índice de massa corporal, 27 eram eutróficos, 10 estavam acima do peso e 25 estavam obesos. Os níveis de triglicerídeos, colesterol LDL, HOMA-RI e leptina estavam mais elevados nas crianças obesas e com excesso de peso que o grupo de eutróficos (p < 0,01). Os níveis de colesterol HDL e adiponectina estavam mais elevados no grupo de eutróficos em comparação ao grupo de obesos e com excesso de peso (p < 0,01). A vasodilatação mediada pelo fluxo após hiperemia foi maior no grupo de eutróficos em comparação aos indivíduos obesos e com excesso de peso (p < 0,05). Não houve nenhuma diferença nos níveis de atividade física entre os grupos medidos pelo PAQ-C. O teste de ida e volta foi significativamente associado ao colesterol HDL (ró = −0,41; p = 0,01) e essa associação continuou após ajustar o escore z do índice de massa corporal (ró = 0,28; p = 0,03). Conclusão: Este estudo mostrou que a disfunção endotelial já está presente nas crianças obesas, sugeriu uma predisposição à doença aterosclerótica. Além disso, os níveis de colesterol HDL foram correlacionados à aptidão física, independentemente do índice de massa corporal.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Physical Fitness/physiology , Adipokines/blood , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Pediatric Obesity/metabolism , Plethysmography/methods , Reference Values , Brazil/epidemiology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Anthropometry , Cholesterol/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(3): 290-296, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013469


Abstract Objective: In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of amitriptyline, fluoxetine, tranylcypromine and venlafaxine on saphenous vein grafts in coronary artery bypass graft surgeries. Methods: 59 patients (40 males and 19 females; mean age 65.1 years, distribution: 45-84 years) who had coronary artery bypass graft surgery between February 2014 and May 2016 were included in the study. After the saphenous vein grafts with intact and denuded endothelium were precontracted with 3×10-6M phenylephrine, amitriptyline, fluoxetine and tranylcypromine were cumulatively added to isolated organ baths in the range of 10-11-3x10-5M, while venlafaxine was added in the range of 10-9-3×10-5M. Then, the antidepressant-induced relaxation responses were recorded isometrically. Results: While the relaxation response of amitriptyline at -6.42 (Log M) was 74.6%, the response at -6.32 (Log M) was 75.5%. While the relaxation response at -6.46 (Log M) of fluoxetine was 68.02%, the response at -6.02 (Log M) was 72.12%. While the relaxation response of tranylcypromine at -7.53 (Log M) was 61.13%, the response at -7.23 (Log M) was 65.53%. While the relaxation response of venlafaxine at -6.21 (Log M) was 29.98%, the response at -5.90 (Log M) was 32.96%. Conclusion: The maximum relaxation at minimum and maximum therapeutic concentrations was obtained with amitriptyline, fluoxetine and tranylcypromine, and the minimum relaxation was obtained with venlafaxine. The relaxation responses were independent of the endothelium.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Saphenous Vein/drug effects , Saphenous Vein/transplantation , Tranylcypromine/pharmacology , Fluoxetine/pharmacology , Amitriptyline/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Vasodilation/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Analysis of Variance , Transplants/drug effects , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(1): 3-9, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-981498


Background: Patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and traditional atherosclerotic risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, diabetes and hypertension. Endothelial function and vascular stiffness are surrogate markers of early atherosclerosis, able to predict cardiovascular events. Objective: To compare endothelial function and pulse wave reflection between women with PCOS and healthy controls. Methods: Observational and cross-sectional study that included women with PCOS, age between 18 and 40 years-old and body mass index between 25.0 and 35.0 kg/m2, and healthy controls. Rotterdan criteria was used to diagnose PCOS. Subjects underwent clinical and anthropometric evaluation, laboratory and hormonal assays and imaging tests to measure pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx) and brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed normal distribution of most parameters. Unpaired Student t-test was used with significance level established at p < 0.05.Results: A total of 52 patients were included, 29 (56%) in PCOS group and 23 (44%) in control group. Clinical and laboratory parameters were similar between the groups. Women with PCOS had lower FMD (8.8 ± 1.0 vs 12.8 ± 1.2%, p = 0.021); PWV and AIx were similar between the groups (7.5 ± 0.2 vs 7.5 ± 0.3 m/s, p = 0.671 and 21.0 ± 1 vs. 20 ± 2%, p = 0.716, respectively). In the PCOS group, women with higher testosterone levels had higher AIx (25 ± 2 vs. 17 ± 3%, p = 0.045). Conclusions: PCOS women had endothelial dysfunction and those with higher testosterone levels had higher pulse wave reflection as compared with controls

Humans , Female , Adult , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Women , Endothelium, Vascular , Testosterone , Brachial Artery , Body Mass Index , Statistical Analysis , Risk Factors , Metabolic Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus , Atherosclerosis , Dyslipidemias , Overweight , Hypertension , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
West Afr. j. radiol ; 26(2): 59-68, 2019.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1273551


Background: Iron is a pro-oxidant cofactor that may be linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression and reduction of body iron stores have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of CV disease. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess reduction in CVD risk susceptibility among regular blood donors compared with nondonors using ultrasound brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (BAFMD). Settings and Design: A prospective comparative study designed to establish the difference between mean flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in the patients who are regular blood donors compared with nondonors recruited from a Teaching Hospital donor clinic. Materials and Methods: Data were collected over 7 months from December 2014 to June 2015. 100 eligible regular male blood donors, aged 21­50 years, were selected from a Teaching Hospital blood donor records and their BAFMD assessed. 50 nondonors/ first time donors, of equivalent age group, consecutively were assessed for comparison. Serum markers of iron stores, markers of oxidative stress and other related cardiac risk factors were also assessed in all patients. Results: BAFMD was significantly greater in regular blood donors when compared with nondonors (13.95% ± 7.02% vs. 8.20% ± 4.19%, P = 0.000). Serum ferritin was significantly decreased in regular blood donors when compared with nondonors (mean value 41.92 ng/ml ± 23.12 ng/ml vs. 61.97 ± 30.19 ng/ml, P = 0.000), but Hb did not differ between the groups. High FMD was significantly associated with high C-high-density lipoprotein and low C-LDL (r = −0.215*, P = 0.032, r = 0.188, P = 0.031, r = 0.193, P = 0.027, r = 0.0279, P = 0.002, r = 0.139, P = 0.084). LDL was decreased in regular blood donors compared with nondonors. Conclusion: The study provides prognostic information for assessing ultrasound BAFMD as a cardiac risk marker. Regular blood donors have enhanced cardiovascular function with increased flow-mediated dilation, decreased body iron stores, and decreased oxidative stress compared with nondonors

Blood Donors , Brachial Artery , Cardiovascular System , Dilatation/methods , Endothelium, Vascular/diagnostic imaging , Nigeria
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777615


BACKGROUND@#Hypertension and atherosclerosis are bidirectionally related, while platelet count could serve as an indicator of endothelial repair. Therefore, high platelet counts could be associated with hypertension by indicating more intense endothelial repair activity. Furthermore, short stature has been shown to constitute a risk of atherosclerosis. Since inflammation-related single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (rs3782886)) is reportedly associated with myocardial infarction and short stature, rs3782886 could be associated with a high platelet count and thus more intense endothelial repair activity.@*METHODS@#We conducted a cross-sectional study of 988 elderly Japanese who participated in a general health check-up. Short stature was defined as a height of at or under the 25th percentile of the study population, and high platelet count as the highest tertiles of the platelet levels.@*RESULTS@#High platelet counts were found to be independently and positively associated with hypertension while rs3782886 was independently associated with high platelet levels and short stature. The classical cardiovascular risk factor-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of high platelet count for hypertension was 1.34 (1.02, 1.77). With non-minor homo of the rs3782886 as the reference group, the adjusted OR and 95% CI for high platelet count and short stature of minor home were 2.40 (1.30, 4.42) and 2.21 (1.16, 4.21), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#SNP (rs3782886) was shown to be associated with high platelet count and short stature. This result partly explains how a genetic factor can influence the impact of height on endothelial repair.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Platelets , Metabolism , Body Height , Genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endothelium, Vascular , Physiology , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Hypertension , Blood , Epidemiology , Genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Platelet Count , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide